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  • 1.
    Breitholtz,
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Ricklund,
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Bengtsson, Bengt-Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Persson, N.J.
    Silica gel as a particulate carrier of poorly water-soluble substances in aquatic toxicity testing.2007In: Aquat. Toxicol., Vol. 82 (4), p. 251-264Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Ricklund, N.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Kierkegaard, A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    McLachlan, M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    An international survey of decabromodiphenyl ethane (deBDethane) and decabromodiphenyl ether (decaBDE) in sewage sludge samples2008In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 73, no 11, p. 1799-1804Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Ricklund, N
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Kierkegaard, A
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    McLachlan, M
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Decabromodiphenyl ethane in sewage sludge – A global survey.2008In: 29th Annual Meeting of SETAC North America: Tampa, 16-20 November, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Ricklund, N
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Kierkegaard, A
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    McLachlan, M
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Decabromodiphenyl ethane in sewage sludge – A global survey2008In: Svenskt-norskt miljökemiskt möte: Sigtuna, Sverige, 22-24 September, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Ricklund, N.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Kierkegaard, A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    McLachlan, M. S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Leonards, P. E. G.
    Bioaccumulation of decabromodiphenyl ethane (dbdpe) in the Western Scheldt estuaryManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Decabromodiphenyl ethane (dbdpe) is a brominated flame retardant (BFR) with both a similar chemical structure and similar technical applications to a chemical of recognized environmental concern, decabromodiphenyl ether (decaBDE). Bioaccumulation has been one of the most controversial issues in the risk assessment of decaBDE, but it has not been measured for dbdpe. During the last several years, dbdpe has been detected in a variety of biota, which suggests that it is bioavailable. In this work, dbdpe was analyzed together with decaBDE in a benthic and pelagic food web in the Western Scheldt estuary, an environment known to be contaminated with the two BFRs. The biota-sediment accumulation factors for benthic invertebrates were low (0.0008-0.005) for both chemicals. This weak bioaccumulation into the lowest trophic levels of the food web may have been due to a poor bioavailability of the BFRs into the estuary. Both chemicals were transferred up through the food web, but biodilution was observed, not biomagnification (BMFs 0.2-0.8). The bioaccumulation behavior of dbdpe was similar to that of decaBDE.

  • 6.
    Ricklund, N.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Kierkegaard, A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    McLachlan, M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Wahlberg, C.
    Mass balance of decabromodiphenyl ethane and decabromodiphenyl ether in a WWTP2008In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 74, no 3, p. 389-394Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Ricklund, Niklas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Emissions of decabromodiphenyl ethane (deBDethane) to the environment via waste water and sludge2008Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Ricklund, Niklas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Environmental occurrence and behaviour of the flame retardant decabromodiphenyl ethane2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The environmental occurrence and behaviour of the brominated flame retardant (BFR) decabromodiphenyl ethane (dbdpe) has only been studied to a limited extent. It is structurally similar to decabromodiphenyl ether (decaBDE), which makes it conceivable that dbdpe may also become an environmental contaminant of concern.

    A method for environmental analysis and comparative assessments of dbdpe and decaBDE was developed. Both BFRs were studied in: a mass balance of the Henriksdal WWTP in Stockholm (Paper I); an international survey of sewage sludge (Paper II); sediment along a transect from Henriksdal WWTP to the outer archipelago of Stockholm and from isolated Swedish lakes (Paper III); and a benthic food web from the Scheldt estuary (Paper IV).

    Dbdpe was found in sludge from every country surveyed, indicating that it may be a worldwide concern. The WWTP mass balance showed that virtually all of the BFRs were transferred from wastewater to sludge. A small fraction was emitted via the effluent, confirming emissions to the aquatic environment. In the marine sediment, the BFR levels close to the WWTP outfall were high. They decreased along the transect to low levels in the outer archipelago. The study of lake sediment showed a widespread presence of dbdpe in the Swedish environment and provided evidence that it originates from long range atmospheric transport. In the food web, dbdpe did bioaccumulate to a small extent which was similar to decaBDE. The transfer of the BFRs from sediment to benthic invertebrates was low, while transfer from prey to predator was higher. Biodilution was observed rather than biomagnification.

    This work suggests that the persistence, the susceptibility to long range atmospheric transport, and the potential for bioaccumulation are similar for dbdpe and the regulated decaBDE that it is replacing. Thus, there is a risk that a problematic environmental pollutant is being replaced with a chemical that is equally problematic.

  • 9.
    Ricklund, Niklas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Kierkegaard, Amelie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    McLachlan, Michael S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Levels and potential sources of decabromodiphenyl ethane (dbdpe) and decabromodiphenyl ether (decaBDE) in lake sediment and marine sediment in Sweden2010In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 44, no 6, p. 1987-1991Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Decabromodiphenyl ethane (dbdpe) is a brominated flame retardant (BFR) used as a replacement for the structurally similar decabromodiphenyl ether (decaBDE), which is a regulated environmental contaminant of concern. Dbdpe has been found in indoor dust, sewage sludge, sediment and biota, but little is known about its occurrence and distribution in the environment. In this paper, sediment was analyzed from 11 isolated Swedish lakes and along a transect running from central Stockholm through the Stockholm archipelago to the open Baltic Sea. Dbdpe was present in all samples. In lake sediment, the levels ranged from 0.23 to 11 ng/g d.wt. and were very similar to the levels of decaBDE (0.48-11 ng/g d.wt.). Since the lakes have no known point sources of BFRs, their presence in the sediments provides evidence for long range atmospheric transport and deposition. In the marine sediment, the dbdpe and decaBDE levels decreased by a factor of 20-50 over 40 km from the inner harbor to the outer archipelago. There the dbdpe and decaBDE levels were similar to the levels in nearby isolated lakes. The results indicate that contamination of the Swedish environment with dbdpe has already approached that of decaBDE, and that this contamination is primarily occurring via the atmosphere.

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