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  • 1. Aaltonen, Mikko
    et al.
    Skardhamar, Torbjørn
    Nilsson, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Højsgaard Andersen, Lars
    Bäckman, Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Estrada, Felipe
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Danielsson, Petri
    Comparing Employment Trajectories before and after First Imprisonment in Four Nordic Countries2017In: British Journal of Criminology, ISSN 0007-0955, E-ISSN 1464-3529, Vol. 57, no 4, p. 828-847Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Employment plays a crucial role in the re-entry process and in reducing recidivism among offenders released from prison. But at the same time, imprisonment is generally regarded as harmful to post-release employment prospects. Little is known, however, about whether or not offenders’ employment trajectories before and after imprisonment are similar across countries. As a first step towards filling this gap in research, this paper provides evidence on employment trajectories before and after imprisonment in four Nordic welfare states: Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. Using data gathered from administrative records on incarcerated offenders, the analysis focuses on individuals imprisoned for the first time and who served a prison sentence less than one year in length. Results show that although employment trajectories develop in mostly similar ways before and after imprisonment across these countries, important differences exist.

  • 2.
    Alm, Susanne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Bäckman, Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Openness to Gender Atypical Occupations in Youth: Do Peer Groups and School Classes Matter?2015In: Journal of Early Adolescence, ISSN 0272-4316, E-ISSN 1552-5449, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 97-119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article analyses aspects of gender composition and social dominance in peer groups and school classes and their effects on the degree of openness to gender-atypical occupations in young adolescents. The data set used contains information for some 13,000 girls and boys living in Stockholm in the early 1960s. Results from multi-level regressions show that gender composition is significantly related to openness to gender-atypical occupations at peer-group level only. As the causal direction of this relationship can be questioned, the result should be interpreted with caution. Concerning aspects of dominance, quite substantive effects on individual openness to gender-atypical occupations are found for girls, albeit not for boys. Thus, for girls, the degree of openness to gender-atypical occupations of the most central girl in the school class significantly affects the degree of openness to gender-atypical occupations of individual girls in that school class.

  • 3.
    Alm, Susanne
    et al.
    Institutet för framtidsstudier.
    Bäckman, Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Gavanas, Anna
    Institutet för framtidsstudier.
    Nilsson, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Perspektiv på utanförskap2011In: Utanförskap / [ed] Susanne Alm, Olof Bäckman, Anna Gavanas och Anders Nilsson, Stockholm: Dialogos Förlag, 2011, 1, p. 7-23Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Alm, Susanne
    et al.
    Institutet för framtidsstudier.
    Bäckman, OlofStockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).Gavanas, AnnaInstitutet för framtidsstudier.Nilsson, AndersStockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Utanförskap2011Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 5. Angelin, Anna
    et al.
    Kauppinen, Timo
    Lorentzen, Thomas
    Bäckman, Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Moisio, Pasi
    Dahl, Espen
    Salonen, Tapio
    Have Nordic welfare regimes adapted to changes in transitions to adulthood? Unemployment insurance and social assistance among young people in the Nordic welfare states2014In: Young people and social policy in Europe: dealing with risk, inequality and precarity in times of crises / [ed] Lorenza Antonucci, Myra Hamilton, Steve Roberts, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2014, p. 169-188Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Bergmark, Åke
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Bäckman, Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Från socialbidrag till självförsörjning? Dynamiska analyser av avslutat socialbidragstagande: Forskningssupplement nr. 272010In: Socionomens forskningssupplement, ISSN 0283-1929, no 4, p. 78-87Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Bergmark, Åke
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Bäckman, Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    När det tillfälliga blir permanent – om långvarigt socialbidragstagande2012In: Fattigdom utan gränser / [ed] Hans Swärd & Lena Engelmark, Stockholm: Carlsson Bokförlag, 2012Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Bergmark, Åke
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Bäckman, Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Vad händer med socialbidragstagarna?: Om flöden in och ut från socialbidrag2011In: Utsatthetens olika ansikten, Stockholm: Dialogos , 2011Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Bergmark, Åke
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Bäckman, Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Minas, Renate
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Organizing local social service measures tocounteract long-term social assistance receipt. What works? Experiences from Sweden2017In: European Journal of Social Work, ISSN 1369-1457, E-ISSN 1468-2664, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 548-559Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Active labour market policies and programs (ALMPs) have over the lastdecades been established as main instruments to promote the transitionfrom welfare to work. In this article we study strategies employed bySwedish municipalities to help recipients ending spells of socialassistance take-up. By using a combination of quantitative andqualitative data we try to identify which approaches stand out as moresuccessful than others with respect to social assistance duration. Wehave formed pairs of municipalities similar in important respects, butwith different social assistance exit rates as predicted by a statisticalmodel. Then we conducted case studies in the selected municipalities’social assistance units, gathering information on how work is carried outand organized. Information was collected by semi-structured interviewswith department managers and front-line social workers. In theinterviews we identified various elements of practice that emerged asrelevant, suggesting that shorter spells follow from activation with afocus on human resource development, programmes targeted at youngadults, well-functioning collaboration, and use of sanctions or an overallapproach characterized by systemized efforts.

  • 10.
    Bergmark, Åke
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Bäckman, Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Minas, Renate
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Vägar ur socialbidrag? Om socialtjänstens insatser och det ekonomiska biståndets varaktighet2013Report (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Bäckman, Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Anknytning till arbetsmarknaden och ungas etablering2010In: Social rapport 2010, Stockholm: Socialstyrelsen , 2010, p. 54-87Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Bäckman, Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Att få fotfäste på arbetsmarknaden2011In: Utanförskap / [ed] Susanne Alm, Olof Bäckman, Anna Gavanas, Anders Nilsson, Stockholm: Dialogos Förlag, 2011Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Bäckman, Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Gymnasieavhopp ökar risken att stå utan jobb2010In: Välfärd (SCB-statistik), no 3, p. 6-7Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Bäckman, Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    High School Dropout, Resource Attainment, and Criminal Convictions2017In: Journal of research in crime and delinquency, ISSN 0022-4278, E-ISSN 1552-731X, Vol. 54, no 5, p. 715-749Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives:

    To examine the effect of high school dropout on subsequent criminal convictions and how postdropout resource attainment in terms of education and employment may modify such an effect.

    Methods:

    Propensity score matching (PSM) using administrative register data covering two full Swedish birth cohorts is employed to assess the effect of dropout on convictions. Event history analysis is used to examine the modifying effect of subsequent resource attainment.

    Results:

    The PSM analysis reveals an effect of dropout on convictions for men, whereas no evidence of such an effect is found for women. Returning to school after dropout significantly reduces the crime-inducing effect of dropout among men. Finding occupation after dropout also reduces the risk for criminal conviction but does so independently of the effect of dropout.

    Conclusion:

    Since resource attainment after the dropout event modifies the effect on criminal convictions, it is concluded that policies such as lifelong learning strategies promoting opportunities for a “second chance” may, besides their intended consequences, also have crime preventive side effects.

  • 15.
    Bäckman, Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Longitudinal Studies on Sickness Absence in Sweden1998Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The research object of this thesis is sickness absence taking behavior in Sweden. In four empirical studies, using longitudinal data, the thesis investigates sickness absence taking behavior as a result of the impact of specific structural factors.

    The first empirical study (Chapter II) examines the relationship between the annual national sickness absence and unemployment rates for the period 1935-1990. The effects of changes of the replacement level are also studied. The analyses show that the widespread notion of an inverse relationship between the unemployment rate and the sickness absence rate cannot be verified by a closer analysis of available data.

    The remaining three empirical studies use micro-data to study sickness absence behavior. Chapter III closely examines the effect of the reduction in sickness cash benefits of March 1 1991 on the short-term absence rate. The theoretical perspective is derived from rational choice theory. Intensity regressions on duration data show that the objectives that were linked to the reduction of benefits-lower sickness absence rates and an equal distribution of the burdens brought about by the reduction-are incompatible. The weaker groups that are likely to have the greatest need for sickness absence reduce their absence taking more than stronger groups in the labor market.

    Chapter IV, co-authored with Joakim Palme, addresses the question of how conditions in childhood affect absence taking in adulthood. Analyses of data of a Stockholm cohort reveal how conditions in childhood and early adolescence structure the absence taking behavior of individuals. The chapter shows the endurance of these effects, a finding that is most clearly manifested in what has been labeled "the social imprint effect".

    The fourth of the empirical studies (Chapter V) treats the issue of gender differences in short-term absence rates. The study focuses on the impact of the gender composition of work places, but hierarchical positioning and integration among workers are also investigated. The results indicate that numerical representation conditions the short-term absence rate of women in the sense that women at workplaces where they constitute a small minority have a lower short-term absence rate than other women. For men, the hierarchical position in which they work is a more important determinant for the short-term absence rate.

    The results provide new insights for the study of sickness absence from a sociological perspective by specifying the mechanisms through which the social structure, in terms of institutional constraints, incentives, social stratification, and organizational traits of job sites, influences the behavior of individuals.

  • 16.
    Bäckman, Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Ungdomar utanför – ett nordiskt perspektiv: vad innebär avhopp från gymnasiet?2014In: På väg in: ungdomars liv och försörjning: rapport från forskarseminarium i Umeå 15-16 januari 2014, Stockholm: Försäkringskassan , 2014Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Bäckman, Olof
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Bergmark, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Escaping Welfare? Social Assistance Dynamics in Sweden2011In: Journal of European Social Policy, ISSN 0958-9287, E-ISSN 1461-7269, Vol. 21, no 5, p. 486-500Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article analyses temporal patterns in social assistance receipt in Sweden in the 2000s by looking at which circumstances facilitate versus reduce the possibilities of a person ceasing to be a recipient of social assistance. The analysis is guided by the following questions: What conditions lead people to terminate periods of social assistance receipt? Which factors are central to exits with different subsequent income patterns? How do these explain the different situations of recipients prior to termination? We focus particularly on income maintenance prior to spells of social assistance. We use event history data on monthly social assistance take-up covering the total adult Swedish population for the years 2002–2004. We adopt a gamma mixture model to control for unobserved heterogeneity. The results suggest that previous experience of both employment and social assistance receipt are important determinants for all types of exits from social assistance recipiency. A negative duration dependence is found also when unobserved heterogeneity is controlled for.

  • 18.
    Bäckman, Olof
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Esser, Ingrid
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Ferrarini, Tommy
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Korpi, Tomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Nelson, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Rojas, Yerko
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Sjöberg, Ola
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Comparative Indicators on Job Quality and Social Protection2009In: Quality of Work in the European Union: Concept, Data and Debates from a Transnational Perspective / [ed] Ana M. Guillén, Svenn-Åge Dahl, Brussels: Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2009Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Bäckman, Olof
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Estrada, Felipe
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Nilsson, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Locked Up and Locked Out? The Impact of Imprisonment on Labour Market Attachment2018In: British Journal of Criminology, ISSN 0007-0955, E-ISSN 1464-3529, Vol. 58, no 5, p. 1044-1065Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates what effects a first prison sentence has on labour market inclusion, both by comparing those sentenced to prison to the population as a whole, and by comparing groups of convicted offenders. We utilize longitudinal data on criminal sanctions and earnings available for two complete birth cohorts of Swedish men (N = 107,337). These data enable us to compare the labour market attachment of prison inmates both before and after imprisonment. Results from propensity score matching show small negative effects of imprisonment on post-release labour market attachment. Moreover, we find no effect for those without pre-sentence labour market attachment. Thus, the negative effects are restricted to those with some labour market attachment before imprisonment.

  • 20.
    Bäckman, Olof
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Estrada, Felipe
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Nilsson, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Substance Abuse, Crime and the Life Course2017In: The Routledge International Handbook of Life-Course Criminology / [ed] Arjan Blokland, Victor van der Geest, Routledge, 2017Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Bäckman, Olof
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Estrada, Felipe
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Nilsson, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Shannon, David
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology. The Swedish National Council for Crime Prevention, Sweden.
    The life course of young male and female offenders: Stability or change between different birth cohorts?2014In: British Journal of Criminology, ISSN 0007-0955, E-ISSN 1464-3529, Vol. 54, no 3, p. 393-410Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Individuals’ life chances are shaped by the times and events that they experience. This emphasizes the need for studies that focus on staggered birth cohorts. The article presents a new longitudi-nal data set that includes three complete Swedish birth cohorts, born in 1965, 1975 and 1985. Comparisons between the different birth cohorts show how offending distributions among young offenders, as well as their socio-demographic backgrounds and life chances, have developed over time. The analyses of stability and change presented in the study may serve as a point of departure for more informed discussions of the significance of societal changes for the criminality and life chances of male and female offenders.

  • 22.
    Bäckman, Olof
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Estrada, Felipe
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Nilsson, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Shannon, David
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Unga och brott i Sverige: underlagsrapport till Barns och ungas hälsa, vård och omsorg 20132013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I rapporten beskrivs barns och ungas utsatthet för brott samt ungdomsbrottslighetens omfattning och utveckling. Dessutom analyseras de demografiska och sociala bakgrundsfaktorerna bakom ungdomsbrottslighet.

  • 23.
    Bäckman, Olof
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Ferrarini, Tommy
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Att bekämpa barnfattigdom2011In: Utanförskap / [ed] Susanne Alm, Olof Bäckman, Anna Gavanas, Anders Nilsson, Stockholm: Dialogos Förlag, 2011Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Bäckman, Olof
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Ferrarini, Tommy
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Combating Child Poverty? A Multilevel Assessment of Links Between Family Policy Institutions in 20 Countries2010In: Journal of Social Policy, ISSN 0047-2794, E-ISSN 1469-7823, Vol. 39, no 2, p. 275-296Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyses the links between family policy institutions and poverty in households with pre-school children in 21 old and new welfare democracies. New institutional information which enables a separation of different family policy dimensions is combined with micro data from the Luxembourg Income Study. Through statistical multilevel modelling, individual- and country-level data are combined in a simultaneous analysis of their relationships to child poverty risks. The results show that family policy transfers are related to lower child poverty risks at the micro level. However, the mechanisms by which such transfers reduce poverty vary by type of family support. Support to dual-earner families operates by enabling both parents to work and raise market income, while support to more traditional family structures in some instances has a more direct effect on poverty risks. The analysis also renders support to the hypothesis that dual-earner transfers also alleviate poverty most effectively among single-mother households.

  • 25.
    Bäckman, Olof
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Ferrarini, Tommy
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Men de äro rysligt dyra - barn, fattigdom och familjepolitik2012In: Framtider, ISSN 0281-0492, no 1/2012, p. 9-11Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 26.
    Bäckman, Olof
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Hjalmarsson, Randi
    Lindquist, Matthew J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Pettersson, Tove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Könsskillnader i brottslighet - hur kan de förklaras?2018In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 46, no 4, p. 67-78Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi dokumenterar könsskillnader i lagföringar och presenterar de i litteraturen vanligast förekommande förklaringsansatserna. Män begår fler och grövre tillgreppsbrott samt våldsbrott, medan kvinnor begår färre och lindrigare tillgreppsbrott, företrädesvis utan våld. För att förklara dessa viktiga könsskillnader menar vi att man, utöver de vanligaste ekonomiska incitamenten, även måste ta hänsyn till könsskillnader i icke-kognitiva förmågor, kamrateffekter samt könsroller och den ”manliga” identitet som tillåter och ibland uppmuntrar till våld.

  • 27.
    Bäckman, Olof
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Jacobsen, Vibeke
    Lorentzen, Thomas
    Österbacka, Eva
    Dahl, Espen
    Avhopp från gymnasieskolan i Norden: omfattning och konsekvenser2014In: Yrkesutbildning för morgondagens arbetsliv / [ed] Alexandru Panican, Stockholm: Dialogos Förlag, 2014Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Bäckman, Olof
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Jakobsen, Vibeke
    Lorentzen, Thomas
    Österbacka, Eva
    Early School Leaving and Labour Market Inclusion in the Nordic Countries2018In: Youth, Diversity and Employment: Comparative Perspectives on Labour Market Policies / [ed] Rune Halvorsen, Bjørn Hvinden, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2018, p. 84-105Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Bäckman, Olof
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Jakobsen, Vibeke
    Lorentzen, Thomas
    Österbacka, Eva
    Dahl, Espen
    Early school leaving in Scandinavia: extent and labour market effects2015In: Journal of European Social Policy, ISSN 0958-9287, E-ISSN 1461-7269, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 253-269Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article explores the extent to which the organization of vocational tracks in upper secondary school affects the labour market risks associated with early school exit. The Nordic countries share many features, but the upper secondary school systems differ significantly in how their vocational tracks are organized. Denmark and Norway have dual vocational tracks, that is, they combine school-based education and workplace apprenticeships, whereas in Finland and Sweden they are primarily school based. We analyse administrative longitudinal data from the mid-1990s to the mid-2000s in the four countries and find the highest vocational track dropout rates in Norway and the lowest in Finland. The results indicate that the relative labour market effect of dropping out from a vocational track is most detrimental in Norway. It is also in Norway that we find the greatest gender differences in this respect.

  • 30.
    Bäckman, Olof
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Nelson, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    The Egalitarian Paradise?2017In: The Routledge Handbook of Scandinavian Politics / [ed] Peter Nedergaard, Anders Wivel, Routledge, 2017Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 31. Bäckman, Olof
    et al.
    Nilsson, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Det andra utanförskapet? Om social exkludering på landsbygden2008Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 32.
    Bäckman, Olof
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI). Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Nilsson, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Long-term consequences of being not in employment, education or training as a young adult. Stability and change in three Swedish birth cohorts2016In: European Societies: The Official Journal of the European Sociological Association, ISSN 1461-6696, E-ISSN 1469-8307, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 136-157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we analyse the development of young adults not in education, employment or training (NEET) in three complete Swedish birth cohorts born in 1975, 1980 and 1985. We analyse the risk for future labour-market exclusion among NEETs, and how this risk varies between three birth cohorts who made the transition from school to work during periods characterised by different opportunity structures for young adults. Analyses using propensity score matching with repeated outcomes show that belonging to the NEET-group in early adulthood has an independent effect on the development of subsequent labour-market risk for both men and women. Moreover, this effect increases across the cohorts. The fact that the degree of labour-market attachment has clear and long-lasting implications indicates that the problems associated with being NEET cannot be reduced to a transient phase. Rather, it seems as though being NEET may be both a step on an already unfavourable life career and a triggering factor for social exclusion.

  • 33.
    Bäckman, Olof
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Nilsson, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Pathways to Social Exclusion— A Life-Course Study2011In: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 107-123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article analyses how living conditions during childhood and adolescence structure socio-economic circumstances in midlife. The data are drawn from a new longitudinal Swedish data set—the Stockholm Birth Cohort Study—in which we can follow 14,294 individuals from birth (1953) to the age of 48 (2001). The analysis proceeds in three steps. The first step establishes the link between precarious living conditions in childhood and midlife social exclusion. In the second step, structural equation modelling is used to depict the pathways by which this association is mediated. The analysis produces tentative evidence that the long-term effect of financial poverty primarily runs via educational failure, whereas the effect of other social problems in the family of origin runs via deviant behaviour. In the third step, we analyse whether or not children who were raised in poor families or in families with other social problems are more sensitive to new risk exposures as adults. This is tested by examining the effect of long-term unemployment during the economic crisis of the 1990s on social exclusion risks 7–9 years later.

  • 34.
    Bäckman, Olof
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Nilsson, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Social exkludering i ett livsförloppsperspektiv2011In: Utanförskap / [ed] Susanne Alm, Olof Bäckman, Anna Gavanas och Anders Nilsson, Stockholm: Dialogos Förlag, 2011, 1, p. 143-161Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Bäckman, Olof
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Nilsson, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Ung och utanför2011In: Utanförskap / [ed] Susanne Alm, Olof Bäckman, Anna Gavanas och Anders Nilsson, Stockholm: Dialogos Förlag, 2011, 1, p. 163-183Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Bäckman, Olof
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Nilsson, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Unga som varken arbetar eller studerar - olika definitioners betydelse för omfattning, sammansättning och konsekvenser2013In: Unga som varken arbetar eller studerar: statistik, stöd och samverkan : slutbetänkande, Stockholm: Fritzes, 2013, , p. 15p. 331-346Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Bäckman, Olof
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Nilsson, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Fritzell, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Marginalisering och uppväxtvillkor2008In: Framtider, ISSN 0281-0492, no 4, p. 21-23Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 38.
    Estrada, Felipe
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Bäckman, Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Nilsson, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    The Darker Side of Equality? The Declining Gender Gap in Crime: Long Term Historical Trends and an Enhanced Analysis of Staggered Birth Cohorts2016In: British Journal of Criminology, ISSN 0007-0955, E-ISSN 1464-3529, Vol. 56, no 6, p. 1272-1290Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we elucidate the way the gender gap in crime has changed in Sweden since the mid-19th century. The analysis is directed at theft offences and violent crime. The long historical perspective provides a background to our analysis that focuses on the period since the 1980s. Our principal data are comprised of the registered offending of different birth cohorts. Most of the findings from our study refute the hypothesis that the declining gender gap in crime is due to an increasing number of women committing offences. Instead, the most important driving forces in recent times have been a powerful decline in the number of men convicted of theft crime and a net-widening effect causing a rise in womens’ convictions for violence.

  • 39.
    Estrada, Felipe
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Nilsson, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Bäckman, Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    The gender gap in crime is decreasing, but who’s growing equal to whom?2017In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 54, no 4, p. 359-363Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The declining gender gap in crime, observed in many Western countries, including Sweden, is often interpreted as showing an alarming shift in the offending of young women. Explanations to the observed pattern are often based on an assumption that women are increasingly coming to mimic the criminal behaviour of men, while we in this essay argue that to the extent behavioural change is at play, it is rather the other way around: men mimic women’s behaviour.

  • 40.
    Fritzell, Johan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Bacchus Hertzman, Jennie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Bäckman, Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Borg, Ida
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Ferrarini, Tommy
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Nelson, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Sweden: Increasing income inequalities and changing social relations2014In: Changing Inequalities and Societal Impacts in Rich Countries. Thirty Countries' Experiences / [ed] Brian Nolan, Wiemer Salverda, Daniele Checchi, Ive Marx, Abigail McKnight, István György Tóth, Herman G. van de Werfhorst, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    From an all-time low around 1980, income inequality substantially increased, reflecting a strong rise in top incomes and income from capital, more recently also a widening gap between bottom and middle incomes. Behind this are the dual income tax system, established in the early 1990s, the introduction of earned income tax credits, and a diminished coverage of social insurance programmes, which widened the income gap between employed and non-employed during the 2000s. The benefit and tax systems became less redistributive and thereby contributed to increased income inequalities. Another important element is the deep recession in the early 1990s with skyrocketing unemployment and subsequent cutbacks in welfare provision. Income inequalities, however, increased first and foremost in the aftermath of the recession. The chapter finds no unambiguous trend in social, cultural, and political conditions corresponding to the increased inequalities. There is increased polarization for many indicators between different socio-economic groups.

  • 41.
    Fritzell, Johan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). Institute for Futures Studies, Sweden.
    Bäckman, Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI). Institute for Futures Studies, Sweden.
    Ritakallio, Veli-Matti
    Income inequality and poverty: do the Nordic countries still constitute a family of their own?2011In: Changing Social Equality: The Nordic welfare model in the 21st century / [ed] Jon Kvist, Johan Fritzell, Bjørn Hvinden, Olli Kangas, Bristol: Policy Press, 2011, p. 165-185Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Kahlmeter, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Bäckman, Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Brännström, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Housing Evictions and Economic Hardship. A Prospective Study2018In: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 106-119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has demonstrated that evictions primarily affect vulnerable populations. However, relatively little is known about the consequences eviction has, particularly regarding economic outcomes. Using comprehensive Swedish national register data on evictions in 2009, this study tests two competing hypotheses regarding to what extent an eviction affects subsequent economic hardship for an already disadvantaged group. The degree to which individuals rely on means-tested social assistance is used as an indicator of economic hardship. The cumulative disadvantage perspective predicts that additional strain will compound the economic hardship experienced by the group. In contrast, the disadvantage saturation perspective suggests that additional adversities may not add to economic hardship for disadvantaged individuals. Results from propensity score matching analyses show that, the year immediately after eviction, the degree of social assistance receipt was around 8 percentage points higher for the evicted group than for the matched comparison group. In the following 3 years, the degree of social assistance receipt continued to be significantly higher for those evicted compared to peers. The results lend support to the cumulative disadvantage perspective and suggest that—in the context of preventing evictions—policy measures such as assistance to repay rent arrears would be adequate to prevent further economic hardship.

  • 43. Kauppinen, Timo M.
    et al.
    Angelin, Anna
    Lorentzen, Thomas
    Bäckman, Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI). Institute for Future Studies.
    Salonen, Tapio
    Moisio, Pasi
    Dahl, Espen
    Social background and life-course risks as determinants of social assistance receipt among young adults in Sweden, Norway and Finland2014In: Journal of European Social Policy, ISSN 0958-9287, E-ISSN 1461-7269, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 273-288Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyse the determinants of social assistance receipt among young adults in three Nordic countries, focusing on social-background and life-course events during early adulthood. We ask whether they are related differently to short-term and long-term receipt. Short-term poverty could be more individualized than long-term poverty which can be expected to be more strongly related to social background. We applied generalized ordinal logit modelling to longitudinal register-based data. Both social-background and life-course factors were found to be important, but our results did not confirm the hypothesis of social background predicting mostly long-term receipt and life-course factors predicting mostly short-term receipt. Leaving the parental home early and parental social assistance receipt were important determinants of social assistance receipt, and both factors predicted longer  duration of receipt as well. We found some differences between the countries, which may be related to differences in youth unemployment and social welfare systems.

  • 44.
    Korpi, Tomas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Bäckman, Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Minas, Renate
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Att möta globaliseringen: Utbildning, aktivering och social exkludering i Norden2015Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    De nordiska ländernas ekonomiska utbyte med omvärlden har ökat dramatiskt. I debatten har globaliseringens förespråkare sett internationellt utbyte som en förutsättning för fortsatt välstånd, medan kritikerna varnat för arbetslöshet och ojämlikhet. Utvecklingen av inkomstfluktuationer och -skillnader kan emellertid inte förklaras av globaliseringen. Internationell handel, kapitalrörlighet och migration har således inte lett till ökad osäkerhet och ojämlikhet så som befarats – alternativt så har länderna varit framgångsrika i försöken att möta globaliseringen. De nordiska länderna har alla sökt bemöta utmaningarna genom reformer av utbildnings- och aktiveringspolitiken. Medan reformerna av yrkesutbildningen och arbetsmarknadspolitiken generellt inte har motverkat risken för social exkludering har däremot expansionen av utbildningssystemen tenderat att minska inkomstskillnaderna i Norden.

  • 45. Lorentzen, Thomas
    et al.
    Bäckman, Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Ilmakunnas, Ilari
    Kauppinen, Timo
    Pathways to Adulthood: Sequences in the School-to-Work Transition in Finland, Norway and Sweden2019In: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 141, no 3, p. 1285-1305Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on youth transitions often follows the lines of classic welfare state typologies. Thus, given the institutional similarities, the transition from youth to adulthood in the Nordic countries has often been considered a specific type of trajectory. However, little research exists on how country differences within the Nordic cluster shape young people’s pathways from education to work. Thus, little is known about intra-Nordic variations caused by national labour market regulations and social safety nets (e.g. parental insurance, public day care and unemployment security). In this article, we use sequence analysis to examine the transition process from school to work in Finland, Norway and Sweden and to find how these processes are linked to family formation patterns. The results indicate that Finland, Norway and Sweden to a great extent share the same general types of school-to-work trajectories. The role of family establishment in workforce entry trajectories, on the other hand, differs in some respects. There is a very strong link between early parenthood among Finnish women and trajectories leading to labour market exclusion. This is interpreted in light of the Finnish labour market and family policy.

  • 46.
    Minas, Renate
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Bäckman, Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Jakobsen, Vibeke
    Korpi, Tomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Lorentzen, Thomas
    Kauppinen, Timo
    Rescaling inequality? Welfare reform and local variation in social assistance payments2014In: Social policy review 26: Analysis and debate in social policy, 2014 / [ed] Kevin Farnsworth, Zoe Irving and Menno Fenger, Bristol: Policy Press, 2014, p. 239-258Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social assistance and other means tested benefits are the last resort in national social protection systems and variation in benefit receipt are in part a direct consequence of differences in means and needs. Variation may however also be related to local discretion over implementation of national legislation, implying inequality unintended by legislators. Such discretion is generally believed to have increased following decentralizing reforms in the 1990s, an international trend frequently referred to as devolution. More recent reforms have instead often implied recentralization and/or involved institutional cooperation of welfare agencies located at different vertical levels. Little is however known regarding the extent to which shifting divisions of power influences benefit receipt. Using individual level register data, multi-level modelling and a difference-in-difference approach we attempt to link changes in legislation to changes in inter-municipal differences in social assistance payments in the Nordic countries during the period 1990 to 2010. Somewhat simplified, the assumption is that the more detailed the regulation the less variation is possible and vice versa. The results show the changes in inequality in the wake of the reforms to be heterogeneous, both in accordance with and contradictory to the starting hypothesis. Although some of the unexpected results are difficult to account for, others may be explained by the character or implementation of the reforms.

  • 47.
    Minas, Renate
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Bäckman, Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Jakobsen, Vibeke
    Korpi, Tomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Lorentzen, Thomas
    Kauppinen, Timo
    Rescaling inequality? Welfare reform and local variation insocial assistance payments2014Report (Other academic)
  • 48. Moisio, Pasi
    et al.
    Lorentzen, Thomas
    Bäckman, Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Angelin, Anna
    Salonen, Tapio
    Kauppinen, Timo
    Trends in the Intergenerational Transmission of Social Assistance in the Nordic Countries in the 2000s2015In: European Societies: The Official Journal of the European Sociological Association, ISSN 1461-6696, E-ISSN 1469-8307, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 73-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study considered trends in the intergenerational transmission of social assistance (SA) among young adults in Finland, Norway and Sweden during the 2000s. Comparable administrative register data-sets enabled us to compare year by year the social assistance recipiency of 20-year-old adults in the period 1999–2008, together with information on their parents' social assistance recipiency at the time when those young adults were aged 16 years. The intergenerational odds-ratio for SA was stronger in Sweden than in Finland or Norway. The probabilities of transitioning into SA when having an SA family background have declined in all three countries, but less than the transition probabilities into SA when from a non-SA family. This has strengthened the intergenerational odds-ratio in all three countries, though only slightly in Norway. The upwards trend in intergenerational odds-ratios for SA follows almost perfectly the declining trend in the number of 20-year-old recipients in these three countries. When the number of SA recipients decrease, it decreases the transition probabilities into SA more among those with a non-SA family background compared to the those with an SA family background. This difference in the decrease of transition probabilities turns into an increase in the intergenerational odds-ratio.

  • 49.
    Nilsson, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Bäckman, Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Unga vuxna som varken arbetar eller studerar: riskfaktorer och konsekvenser i fyra födelsekohorter2014In: Den långa vägen till arbetsmarknaden: om unga utanför / [ed] Jonas Olofsson, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2014, p. 57-77Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Nilsson, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Bäckman, Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Estrada, Felipe
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Criminality and life-chances: The importance of individual resources and structural constraint.2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is currently a lack of research that is able to describe the longer term consequences of involvement in crime for broader welfare outcomes in adult life. And it exists even less analyses of how involvement in crime interacts with conditions connected both to individual-level resources and socio-historical constraints, in producing negative life outcomes in the longer term. The aim of this paper is therefore to present a study that focuses on the long term consequences of criminal involvement, and when doing this take in to consideration both individual resource deficiencies and structural constraints.

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