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  • 1.
    Dahl, Östen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    An exercise in a posteriori language sampling2008In: Sprachtypologie und Universalienforschung, ISSN 1867-8319, Vol. 61, no 3, p. 208-220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A central methodological issue in language typology is sampling – how to choose a representative set of languages for a typological investigation. Most proposed typological sampling methods are a priori in the sense that they are based on assumed, rather than observed, effects of biasing factors – such as genealogical and areal proximity.The advent of the World Atlas of Language Structures (WALS) creates for the first time a chance to attempt a posteriori sampling. The basic idea is to create a sample by

    removing from the set of available languages one member of each pair of languages whose typological distance – as defined in terms of the features in WALS – does not reach a predefined threshold. In

    this way, a sample of 101 languages was chosen from an initial set of the 222 languages that are best represented in WALS.The number of languages from different macroareas in this sample can be taken as an indication of the internal diversity of the area in question.Two issues are discussed in some detail: (i) the high diversity of the indigenous languages of the Americas and the tendency for these to be underrepresented by previous sampling methods; (ii) the extreme areal convergence of Mainland South East Asian languages. It is concluded that areal factors cannot be neglected in typological sampling, and that it must be questioned whether the creation of elaborate sampling algorithms makes sense.

  • 2.
    Dahl, Östen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Animacy and egophoricity: Grammar, ontology and phylogeny2008In: Lingua, ISSN 0024-3841, E-ISSN 1872-6135, Vol. 118, no 2, p. 141-150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Some results of earlier work on animacy by Kari Fraurud and the author are reviewed, demonstrating the close relationship between (i) the role of animacy as a determinant of grammatical rules and the choice between types of referential expressions, and (ii) statistical regularities in discourse. The idea that animacy is an ontological category is developed further. In the final section, the phylogenetic basis of the notions behind animacy and egophoricity is discussed. It is argued that the grammatical animacy hierarchy corresponds to a three-step cognitive scale: the self is the model for other animate individuals, which are in their turn models for inanimate objects when understood as individual ‘things’.

  • 3.
    Dahl, Östen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Frithiof Rundgren2007In: Kungl. Vitterhets Historie och Antikvitets Akademiens Årsbok, ISSN 0083-6796, p. 31-36Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 4.
    Dahl, Östen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    From questionnaires to parallel corpora in typology2007In: Sprachtypologie und Universalienforschung, ISSN 0942-2919, Vol. 60, no 2, p. 172-181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This rather programmatic paper discusses the use of parallel corpora in the typological study of grammatical categories. In the author’s earlier work, tense-aspect categories were studied by means of a translational questionnaire, and “cross-linguistic gram-types” were identified through their distribution in the questionnaire. It is proposed that a similar methodology could be applied to multilingual parallel corpora. The possibility of identifying grammatical markers by word-alignment methods is demonstrated with examples from Bible texts.

  • 5.
    Dahl, Östen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Grammatical resources and linguistic complexity: Sirionó as a language without NP coordination2008In: Language Complexity: Typology, contact, change, John Benjamins, Amsterdam/Philadelphia , 2008Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The paper discusses the relationship between cross-linguistic differences in grammatical resources and linguistic complexity. It is claimed that Sirionó (Tupí-Guaraní) lacks syntactic coordination as in English John and Mary are asleep. Instead, Sirionó employs a number of different strategies – the ‘with’ strategy, the list strategy, and the ‘also’ strategy – to make up for this. It is argued that one or more of these strategies may serve as a diachronic source of syntactic coordination. The development of syntactic coordination in a language exemplifies condensation processes in grammaticalization and increases complexity in the sense that a certain type of complex syntactic structure is introduced, and makes it possible to express in one syntactic unit what previously needed two or more.

  • 6.
    Dahl, Östen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Grammaticalization and Linguistic Complexity2011In: The Oxford handbook of grammaticalization / [ed] Narrog, Heiko and Heine, Bernd, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Dahl, Östen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Grammaticalization in the North: Noun Phrase Morphosyntax in Scandinavian Vernacaulars2010Book (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Dahl, Östen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Grammaticalization in the North: Noun phrase morphosyntax in Scandinavian vernaculars2015Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book looks at some phenomena within the grammar of the noun phrase in a group of traditional North Germanic varieties mainly spoken in Sweden and Finland, usually seen as Swedish dialects, although the differences between them and Standard Swedish are often larger than between the latter and the other standard Mainland Scandinavian languages. In addition to being conservative in many respects – e.g. in preserving nominal cases and subject-verb agreement – these varieties also display many innovative features. These include extended uses of definite articles, incorporation of attributive adjectives, and a variety of possessive constructions. Although considerable attention has been given to these phenomena in earlier literature, this book is the first to put them in the perspective of typology and grammaticalization processes. It also looks for a plausible account of the historical origin of the changes involved, arguing that many of them spread from central Sweden, where they were later reverted due to the influence from prestige varieties coming from southern Scandinavia.

  • 9.
    Dahl, Östen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Grammatikens grundfärg är som zebrans2008In: Språktidningen, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 44-47Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 10.
    Dahl, Östen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Gregory Stump & Raphael A. Finkel, Morphological Typology: From Word to Paradigm, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 20132014In: Nordic Journal of Linguistics, ISSN 0332-5865, E-ISSN 1502-4717, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 126-132Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Dahl, Östen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Gösta Bruce2011In: Kungl. Vitterhets historie och antikvitets akademiens årsbok, Kungl. Vitterhets Historie och Antikvitets Akademien , 2011, p. 85-93Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Dahl, Östen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    How telicity creates time2013In: Journal of Slavic Linguistics, ISSN 1068-2090, E-ISSN 1543-0391, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 45-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most treatments of temporal semantics start out from the conception of time as a line stretching from the past into the future, which is then populated with eventualities or situations. This paper explores how time can be seen as emerging from the construction of representations of reality in which the basic building blocks are static—i.e., timeless—representations, which are connected to each other by events that are transitions between them and that create an ordering which can be understood as temporal. This connects to von Wright’s “logic of change” and the “hybrid semantics” suggested by Herweg and Löbner. In this context, telicity is seen as the capacity of events, or of the predicates that express them, to “create time” in the sense of defining a before and an after. The basic elements of the model are global states, which are timeless taken in isolation but are connected by transition events, which transform one global state into another and thereby define the temporal relationships between them. Transition events, corresponding to Vendlerian achievements, represent simple changes which are then the basis for all other constructs in the model, most notably delimited states, Vendlerian activities (atelic dynamic eventualities), and accomplishments (telic non-punctual eventualities), but also time points and intervals. Transition events are further instrumental in constructing narrative structures and are responsible for narrative progression.

  • 13.
    Dahl, Östen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Hur exotiskt är finska?2008In: Verkko-Virittäjä, no 4/2008Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Dahl, Östen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Increases in complexity as a result of language contact2009In: Convergence and Divergence in Language Contact Situations / [ed] Kurt Braunmüller, Juliane House, Amsterdam: Benjamins , 2009, p. 41-52Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Dahl, Östen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Kuinka eksoottinen kieli suomi on?2008In: Virittäjä, Vol. 4/2008, p. 545-559Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Dahl, Östen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Kvantitativ språktypologi2015In: Kungl. Vetenskapssamhällets i Uppsala årsbok 40/2013-14 / [ed] Lars-Gunnar Larsson, Uppsala: Kungliga Vetenskapssamhället , 2015, p. 71-81Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 17.
    Dahl, Östen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Polysynthesis and Complexity2017In: The Oxford Handbook of Polysynthesis / [ed] Michael Fortescue, Marianne Mithun, Nicholas Evans, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017, p. 19-29Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The notion of polysynthesis has been linked up with that of complexity from the very start. A discussion of the relationship between these two concepts is thus highly motivated, also in view of the recent increased interest in questions relating to complexity among linguists. The chapter discusses different ways of understanding and measuring complexity and how these can be applied to polysynthetic languages. Other topics treated in the chapter are how complexity develops over time in polysynthetic languages, the question of to what extent the notions of maturation and non-linearity as defined in Dahl (2004) are relevant to the synchrony and diachrony of polysynthesis, and how the complexity of constructions in polysynthetic languages compares to functionally equivalent constructions elsewhere.

  • 18.
    Dahl, Östen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Remarks on rarity2011In: Expecting the unexpected: exceptions in grammar / [ed] Simon, Horst J. and Wiese, Heike, Berlin; New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 2011, p. 433-436Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Dahl, Östen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Review of Allen, Cynthia: Genitives in early English2010In: Diachronica, ISSN 0176-4225, E-ISSN 1569-9714, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 489-496Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Dahl, Östen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Review of John A. Hawkins, Efficiency and Complexity in Grammars2007In: Studies in Language, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 485-497Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Dahl, Östen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Review of Kurzon, Dennis and Adler, Silvia (eds.), Adpositions: Pragmatic, semantic and syntactic perspectives2010In: Language, ISSN 0097-8507, E-ISSN 1535-0665, Vol. 86, no 2, p. 448-450Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Dahl, Östen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Review of Peter Trudgill, Investigations in sociohistorical linguistics: Stories of colonisation and contact2012In: Language in Society, ISSN 0047-4045, Vol. 41, no 3, p. 393-396Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Dahl, Östen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Sirionó2014In: Lenguas de Bolivia: Oriente / [ed] Mily Crevels, Pieter Muysken, La Paz: Plural Editores, 2014, p. 99-133Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Dahl, Östen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Språket och människan2011 (ed. 1. uppl.)Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 25.
    Dahl, Östen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Språkets uppkomst2014In: En samtidig världshistoria / [ed] Maria Sjöberg, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2014, 1, p. 111-123Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 26.
    Dahl, Östen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Tense, aspect, mood, and evidentiality, linguistics of2015In: International encyclopedia of the social & behavioral sciences / [ed] James D. Wright, Oxford: Elsevier, 2015, 2 uppl., p. 210-213Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Dahl, Östen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Tense-aspect-mood-evidentiality (TAME) and the Organization of Human Memory2013In: Time and TAME in language / [ed] Karina Veronica Molsing; Ana Maria Tramunt Ibaños, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2013, p. 22-53Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Dahl, Östen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The degenerate dative in Southern Norrbothnian2008In: Case and grammatical relations: studies in honor of Bernard Comrie / [ed] Greville G. Corbett, Michael Noonan, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2008, p. 105-126Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 29.
    Dahl, Östen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The map and the terrain2008In: Theoretical Linguistics, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 53-57Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Dahl, Östen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The “minor language” perspective2015In: Major versus Minor? Languages and Literatures in a Globalized World / [ed] Theo D’haen, Iannis Goerlandt, Roger D. Sell, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2015, p. 15-24Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Dahl, Östen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The perfect map: Investigating the cross-linguistic distribution of TAME categories in a parallel corpus2014In: Aggregating Dialectology, Typology, and Register Analysis: Linguistic Variation in Text and Speech / [ed] Szmrecsanyi, B.; Walchli, B., Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2014, p. 268-289Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The work presented in this paper can be seen as a continuation of my earlier attempts at using quantitative methods to compare tense-aspect categories across languages using translation questionnaire data using a different kind of data - a parallel corpus of Bible translations. Here I report on a comparison of the distribution of grams labeled perfect in traditional descriptions. The results confirm earlier claims that these grams do share a core of prototypical uses and also an anti-prototype, that is, a set of uses that are left untouched until the final end of the grammaticalization process by which perfects expand into general pasts. In the grey zone between the prototype and the anti-prototype, versions in one and the same language tend to show great variation. But it is also possible to identify specific areas of cross-linguistic variation even among the more conservative perfect grams.

  • 32.
    Dahl, Östen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Thoughts on language-specific and crosslinguistic entities2016In: Linguistic typology, ISSN 1430-0532, E-ISSN 1613-415X, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 427-437Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses questions arising in connection with Martin Haspelmath’s proposal to distinguish between “descriptive categories” at the language-specific level and “comparative concepts” at the crosslinguistic level, where the latter cannot be seen as either crosslinguistic categories or category types (Haspelmath 2010). It is argued that comparative concepts may be better subsumed under the notion of “generalizing concept”, which is not tied to any specific level of analysis, and that the distinction between what is language-specific and what is crosslinguistic is not absolute. Further, it is shown that crosslinguistic pattern clusters as identified in what is here called “bottom-up typology” meshes well with the homeostatic property cluster approach to biological species.

  • 33.
    Dahl, Östen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Towards an ecological semantics of tense and aspect2007In: L'aspect dans les langues les théories: similitudes et différences / [ed] Daniele Monticelli, Anu Treikelder, Tartu: Université de Tartu, Centre d'études francophones Robert Schuman , 2007Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Dahl, Östen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Typology of negation2010In: The Expression of Negation / [ed] Laurence R. Horn, Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton , 2010Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Dahl, Östen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Älvdalska - eget språk eller värsting bland dialekter?2008In: Språktidningen, Vol. 1, no 6, p. 12-18Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 36.
    Dahl, Östen
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Edlund, Lars-ErikUmeå universitet, Institutionen för språkstudier.
    Språken i Sverige2010Collection (editor) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 37.
    Dahl, Östen
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Gillam, J. Christopher
    Savannah River Archaeological Research Program.
    Anderson, David G.
    University of Tennessee.
    Iriarte, José
    University of Exeter.
    Copé, Silvia M.
    Linguistic Diversity Zones and Cartographic Modeling: GIS as a Method for Understanding the Prehistory of Lowland South America2011In: Ethnicity in ancient Amazonia: Reconstructing past identities from archaeology, linguistics, and ethnohistory / [ed] Hornborg, Alf; Hill, Jonathan David, Boulder, Colo: University Press of Colorado , 2011, p. 211-224Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Dahl, Östen
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Koptjevskaja Tamm, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Alienability splits and the grammaticalization of possessive constructions1998In: XVIth Scandinavian Conference of Linguistics, University of Turku & Åbo Akademi, 1998Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Dahl, Östen
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Koptjevskaja Tamm, MariaStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The Circum-Baltic languages: typology and contact: Vol. 1 Past and present Vol. 2 Grammar and typology2001Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Dahl, Östen
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Kinship in grammar2001In: Dimensions of possession / [ed] Irène Baron, Michael Herslund, Finn Sørensen, Philadelphia, Pa.: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2001, p. 201-225Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Dahl, Östen
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Rich agreement, everything else being equal and large-scale cross-linguistic comparison2010In: Theoretical Linguistics, ISSN 0301-4428, E-ISSN 1613-4060, ISSN 0301-4428, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 49-56Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Dahl, Östen
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The resilient dative and other remarkable cases in Scandinavian vernaculars2006In: Sprachtypologie und Universalienforschung (STUF), a special issue on Swedish in typological perspective, Vol. 59, no 1, p. 19-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Dahl, Östen
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Parkvall, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Divan får se upp - nu kommer divalaterna!2010In: Språktidningen, ISSN 1654-5028, no aprilArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 44.
    Dahl, Östen
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. allmän språkvetenskap.
    Reinhammar, Maj
    Williams, Henrik
    Josephson, Olle
    Älvdalska - dialekt eller minoritetsspråk?2007In: Saga och sed: Kungl. Gustav Adolfs Akademiens Årsbok, p. 75-92Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 45.
    Dahl, Östen
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Perfects and iamitives: two gram types in one grammatical space2016In: Letras de Hoje, ISSN 0101-3335, E-ISSN 1984-7726, Vol. 51, no 3, p. 325-348Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the grammatical space of the two gram types – perfects and iamitives. Iamitives (from Latin iam ‘already’) overlap in their use with perfects but differ in that they can combine with stative predicates to express a state that holds at reference time. Iamitives differ from ‘already’ in having a higher frequency and showing a strong tendency to be grammaticalized with natural development predicates. We argue that iamitives can grammaticalize from expressions for ‘already’. In this study, we extract perfect grams and iamitive grams iteratively starting with two groups of seed grams from a parallel text corpus (the New Testament) in 1107 languages. We then construct a grammatical space of the union of 370 extracted grams by means of Multidimensional Scaling. This grammatical space of perfects and iamitives turns out to be a continuum without sharp boundaries anywhere.

  • 46.
    Dal' (Dahl), Esten (Östen)
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Vozniknovenie i soxranenie jazykovoj slozhnosti2009Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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