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  • 1. Ekström, Andreas
    et al.
    Eng Larsson, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    Isaksson, Olov
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    Kurland, Lisa
    Nordberg, Martin
    The effect of a terrorist attack on emergency department inflow: an observation study using difference-in-differences methodology2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine, ISSN 1757-7241, E-ISSN 1757-7241, Vol. 27, article id 57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Study objectiveThe objective of this study was to investigate how the terrorist attack in Stockholm, Sweden affected patient inflow to the general emergency departments (EDs) in close proximity of the attack. The study analyzed if, and to what extent, the attack impacted ED inflow during the following days and weeks.MethodsIn a retrospective observational study, anonymized aggregated data on ED arrivals (inflow of patients) to all seven of the EDs in the Stockholm County was analyzed using the Difference-in-Differences (DiD) estimator. The control groups were the affected hospitals in the years prior to the terrorist attack. The number of ED visits was retrieved from the Stockholm County Council administrative database.ResultsThe study shows a statistically significant reduction in overall ED inflow of 7-9% following the attack. The effect was strongest initially after the attack, and ED inflow regained normal levels within approximately three weeks' time, without any significant rebound effect. The effect on ED inflow also decreased with distance from ground zero, and was not significant further away than 10km.ConclusionThe results showed that ED inflow was significantly decreased in the weeks immediately following the Stockholm terrorist attack. The reasons for this cannot be fully explained in this observational study. However, the results suggest that some patients actively choose when, where and if they should go to the ED.

  • 2.
    Eng Larsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    Isaksson, Olov
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    Tillgänglighet i handeln - avgörande på både kort och lång sikt2018In: Supply Chain Effect, ISSN 2000-8457, no 6, p. 12-14Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 3.
    Isaksson, Olov H. D.
    et al.
    College of Management of Technology, Switzerland.
    Seifert, Ralf W.
    Inventory Leanness and the Financial Performance of Firms2014In: Production planning & control (Print), ISSN 0953-7287, E-ISSN 1366-5871, Vol. 25, no 12, p. 999-1014Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the financial consequences that inventory leanness has on firm performance. We conduct an econometric analysis using 4324 publicly traded US manufacturing companies for the period 1980–2008. Using an instrumental variable fixed effects estimator we find a nonlinear relationship between inventory leanness and financial performance. However, we note that the maximum point of this inverted U-shaped relationship often lies at the extreme end of the investigated sample – suggesting a decreasing return from leanness rather than an optimal level. We show that the strength of this relationship is highly dependent on both the industry and inventory component (raw materials, work in process and finished goods) studied. The main novelty and direct implication of our findings is that most firms still have much potential to increase profitability by becoming leaner and they are unlikely to cross a threshold where profitability decreases with increased leanness. We display how much the average firm could gain by becoming leaner and show how this sensitivity changes by inventory component and industry. Finally, we highlight several new econometric aspects that we believe must be addressed when empirically investigating the inventory-performance link.

  • 4.
    Isaksson, Olov H. D.
    et al.
    College of Management of Technology, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Seifert, Ralf W.
    College of Management of Technology, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Quantifying the Bullwhip Effect using Two-Echelon Data: a Cross-Industry Empirical Investigation2016In: International Journal of Production Economics, ISSN 0925-5273, E-ISSN 1873-7579, Vol. 171, no 3, p. 311-320Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The bullwhip effect denotes the phenomenon whereby demand variability is amplified from a downstream site (buyer) to an upstream site (supplier) in the supply chain. This paper contributes to the literature that empirically investigates the bullwhip effect by providing new evidence regarding its prevalence and magnitude. In contrast to previous work, we use a two-echelon approach, which allows us to observe variations at both the upstream and the downstream sites. By drawing on a financial accounting standard regarding information disclosure about major customers, we are able to link 5494 buyers and suppliers in the U.S. between 1976 and 2009. We merge this information with quarterly financial accounting data to form a sample of 14,933 buyer–supplier dyad observations. We correct for sample selection bias using propensity score matching and estimate the average bullwhip effect in our sample to be 1.90 (i.e. 90% demand variability amplification between echelons). A significant bullwhip effect is observed across industries (mining, manufacturing, wholesale and retail) and is supported by several robustness checks. We investigate and discuss how these results can be generalized beyond our sample.

  • 5.
    Isaksson, Olov H. D.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School, Operations Management. College of Management, Switzerland.
    Simeth, Markus
    Seifert, Ralf W.
    Knowledge spillovers in the supply chain: evidence from the high tech sectors2016In: Research Policy, ISSN 0048-7333, E-ISSN 1873-7625, Vol. 45, no 3, p. 699-706Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In addition to internal R&D, external knowledge is widely considered as an essential lever for innovative performance. This paper analyzes knowledge spillovers in supply chain networks. Specifically, we investigate how supplier innovation is impacted by buyer innovation. Financial accounting data is combined with supply chain relationship data and patent data for U.S. firms in high tech industries. Our econometric analysis shows that buyer innovation has a positive and significant impact on supplier innovation. We find that the duration of the buyer-supplier relationship positively moderates this effect, but that the technological proximity between the two firms does not have a significant effect on spillovers.

  • 6. Moser, Philip
    et al.
    Isaksson, Olov
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    Seifert, Ralf
    How process industries can improve supply chain performance2017In: CSCMP's Supply Chain Quarterly, no 3Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Process industries such as steelmaking and chemicals are increasingly focused on customer service, but their supply chain practices are designed for low-cost, efficient operations. To align with today's corporate strategies, they need to match their supply chains to the markets they serve while improving their demand forecasting capabilities.

  • 7. Moser, Philipp
    et al.
    Isaksson, Olov H. D.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    Seifert, Ralf W.
    Inventory dynamics in process industries: An empirical investigation2017In: International Journal of Production Economics, ISSN 0925-5273, E-ISSN 1873-7579, Vol. 191, p. 253-266Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Process industry firms have thrived in recent decades, but changes in the markets are currently putting both growth and profitability at risk. In this context, inventory management is increasingly viewed as an essential lever for creating a sustainable competitive advantage. Despite this, many firms struggle to implement best practices because of industry-specific constraints. This research explores how seven fundamental characteristics of process industries drive inventory performance. We empirically investigate four process industries and four peer industries, using financial accounting, credit rating, stock market and trading data and implement a seemingly unrelated regression (SUR) equations model. Our results show that capital intensity, capital costs, transportation costs, delivery time, price volatility, demand uncertainty and gross margin directly affect a company's degree of freedom in terms of inventory management and illustrate that inventory management in process industries follows different dynamics. This study enhances the understanding of inventory drivers and gives practitioners a tool to guide future improvement efforts.

  • 8. Seifert, Daniel
    et al.
    Seifert, Ralf W.
    Isaksson, Olov H. D.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    A test of inventory models with permissible delay in payment2017In: International Journal of Production Research, ISSN 0020-7543, E-ISSN 1366-588X, Vol. 55, no 4, p. 1117-1128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contrary to the long-standing view in the finance literature that firms should maximise payment delays, research in operations management suggests that long payment delays can be suboptimal. In this study, we reconcile these two views by applying a secondary data approach to established operations management theory. Based on a sample of 3383 groups of public US firms from a novel database, we find that our data are consistent with the causal relations and theoretical predictions of the operations management literature. Firm profitability is positively associated with payment delay. Payment delay, in turn, is positively associated with the capital cost difference between buyer and supplier and negatively associated with the price elasticity of demand and the deterioration rate of inventory. However, we do not observe any significant interaction effects between these factors, which raise a number of questions for future research.

  • 9. Seifert, Ralf W.
    et al.
    Isaksson, Olov H. D.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    Does the Bullwhip Still Strike? Detecting Variability in the Supply Chain2015In: Tomorrow's ChallengesArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 10. Seifert, Ralf W.
    et al.
    Isaksson, Olov H. D.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    The Perks and Pitfalls of Knowledge Diffusion in the Supply Chain2013In: Tomorrow's ChallengesArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Do you collaborate with and learn from your suppliers, or are you serving them the knowledge to compete with you head-on on a silver platter? This question is increasingly relevant in today’s global competitive environment. Firms are routinely leveraging global sourcing to gain cost advantages but competition nowadays occurs between supply chains, rather than businesses. Thus keeping an eye on your supplier’s ambitions is vital. Case in point, just look at the ongoing patent infringement lawsuits between Apple Inc. and Samsung Electronics Co. Apple turned to Samsung as a supplier for its new iPod and iPhone products back in 20051. At first the two companies jointly developed the components, which gave Samsung an insight into Apple’s technology and operations. Being the only supplier for the processors, Samsung also gained critical knowledge on Apple’s prediction of the market size for the iPhone. In 2010, Samsung launched its own smart phone and has since become Apple’s largest competitor. Today, Apple still remains dependent on Samsung, but it is trying hard to diversify its supplier portfolio.

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