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  • 1.
    Avagyan, Rozanna
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Luongo, Giovanna
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Thorsén, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Östman, Conny
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Benzothiazole, benzotriazole, and their derivates in clothing textiles - a potential source of environmental pollutants and human exposure2015Inngår i: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 22, nr 8, s. 5842-5849Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Textiles play an important role in our daily life, and textile production is one of the oldest industries. In the manufacturing chain from natural and/or synthetic fibers to the final clothing products, the use of many different chemicals is ubiquitous. A lot of research has focused on chemicals in textile wastewater, but the knowledge of the actual content of harmful chemicals in clothes sold on the retail market is limited. In this paper, we have focused on eight benzothiazole and benzotriazole derivatives, compounds rated as high production volume chemicals. Twenty-six clothing samples of various textile materials and colors manufactured in 14 different countries were analyzed in textile clothing using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Among the investigated textile products, 11 clothes were for babies, toddlers, and children. Eight of the 11 compounds included in the investigation were detected in the textiles. Benzothiazole was present in 23 of 26 investigated garments in concentrations ranging from 0.45 to 51 μg/g textile. The garment with the highest concentration of benzothiazole contained a total amount of 8.3 mg of the chemical. The third highest concentration of benzothiazole (22 μg/g) was detected in a baby body made from “organic cotton” equipped with the “Nordic Ecolabel” (“Svanenmärkt”). It was also found that concentrations of benzothiazoles in general were much higher than those for benzotriazoles. This study implicates that clothing textiles can be a possible route for human exposure to harmful chemicals by skin contact, as well as being a potential source of environmental pollutants via laundering and release to household wastewater.

  • 2.
    Avagyan, Rozanna
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för analytisk kemi.
    Sadiktsis, Ioannis
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för analytisk kemi.
    Thorsen, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för analytisk kemi.
    Östman, Conny
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för analytisk kemi.
    Westerholm, Roger
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för analytisk kemi.
    Determination of benzothiazole and benzotriazole derivates in tire and clothing textile samples by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry2013Inngår i: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1307, s. 119-125Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A high performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry method utilizing electrospray ionization in positive and negative mode has been developed for the separation and detection of benzothiazole and benzotriazole derivates. Ultra-sonication assisted solvent extraction of these compounds has also been developed and the overall method demonstrated on a selected clothing textile and an automobile tire sample. Matrix effects and extraction recoveries, as well as linearity and limits of detection have been evaluated. The calibration curves spanned over more than two orders of magnitude with coefficients of correlation R2 > 0.99 and the limits of detection and the limits of quantification were in the range 1.7–58 pg injected and 18–140 pg/g, respectively. The extraction recoveries ranged between 69% and 102% and the matrix effects between 75% and 101%. Benzothiazole and benzotriazole derivates were determined in the textile sample and benzothiazole derivatives determined in the tire sample with good analytical performance.

  • 3.
    Bergh, Caroline
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för analytisk kemi.
    Luongo, Giovanna
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för analytisk kemi.
    Wise, Stephen
    Östman, Conny
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för analytisk kemi.
    Organophosphate and phthalate esters in standard reference material 2585 organic contaminants in house dust2012Inngår i: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, ISSN 1618-2642, E-ISSN 1618-2650, Vol. 402, nr 1, s. 51-59Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The levels of 22 phthalate diesters (phthalates) and organophosphate triesters (organophosphates) have been investigated in standard reference material 2585 (SRM 2585) "organic contaminants in house dust." Ultrasonic-assisted solvent extraction and solid-phase extraction on a Florisil adsorbent were used as the extraction and cleanup steps combined with analysis using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in positive ion chemical ionization mode. Seven phthalates were detected in the concentration range 1-570 mu g/g. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate was the major phthalate present at 570 mu g/g. Ten organophosphates were detected in SRM 2585. Tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate was the predominant organophosphate at 82 mu g/g, and nine organophosphates were determined at concentrations ranging from 0.19 to 2.3 mu g/g. Five organophosphates were below the method detection limit, of which two were in level with the procedural blank. The applied extraction and cleanup method was evaluated for the analysis of SRM 2585. The extraction yield was a parts per thousand yen99%, except for tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (97%) and diethyl phthalate (98.5%). The problem of calibration curvature is addressed, and it is shown that the use of deuterated standards improves the analysis. The concentrations of ten organophosphate esters were determined in SRM 2585, and seven of these were compared with existing data. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the levels of the seven phthalates esters in SRM 2585 "organic contaminants in house dust.

  • 4.
    Bergh, Caroline
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för analytisk kemi.
    Torgrip, Ralf
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för analytisk kemi.
    Emenius, G.
    Östman, Conny
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för analytisk kemi.
    Organophosphate and phthalate esters in air and settled dust – a multi-location indoor study2011Inngår i: Indoor Air, ISSN 0905-6947, E-ISSN 1600-0668, Vol. 21, nr 1, s. 67-76Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports the abundance in indoor air and dust of eleven organophosphate esters and six phthalate esters. Both groups of these semi-volatile compounds are widely incorporated as additives into plastic materials used in the indoor environment, thus contributing to indoor exposure to industrial chemicals. Thirty sampling sites representing three different indoor environments (private homes, day care centers, and workplaces) in the Stockholm area, Sweden, were selected to obtain representative concentration profiles in both ambient air and settled dust. Eight of the target organophosphate esters and all six phthalate esters were found in both air and dust samples at all locations. The phthalate esters were more abundant than the organophosphate esters, typically ten times higher total concentrations. Especially interesting were the high levels of tributoxyethyl phosphate in the day care centers, the relatively high levels of chlorinated organophosphate esters in the air of workplaces and the overall high levels of diethylhexyl phthalate in dust. The air concentration profiles of the phosphate esters differed significantly between the three indoor environments, whereas the concentration profiles of the phthalate esters as well as their total concentrations were similar. The correlation between concentrations found in air and in dust was found to be weak.

  • 5.
    Bergh, Caroline
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för analytisk kemi.
    Torgrip, Ralf
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för analytisk kemi.
    Östman, Conny
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för analytisk kemi.
    Simultaneous selective detection of organophosphate and phthalate esters using gas chromatography with positive ion chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry and its application to indoor air and dust2010Inngår i: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, ISSN 0951-4198, E-ISSN 1097-0231, Vol. 24, nr 19, s. 2859-2867Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A selective and sensitive method for the simultaneous determination of 14 organophosphate and six phthalate esters using gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectrometry (MS) is presented. Both of these compound classes are frequently found in the indoor environment due to their use as bulk additives in numerous polymers, consumer products and building materials. GC/MS utilizing positive ion chemical ionisation (PICI) in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode with isobutane as the reagent gas was found to be the best of the tested methods; it proved superior to electron ionisation (EI) in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode and to PICI using methane as the reagent gas. The method was applied to indoor air samples collected by active air sampling using solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges. Organophosphates and phthalates were simultaneously determined with method detection limits (MDLs) in the range of 0.1-47 ng m(-3). For most compounds the MDLs were <= 0.2 ng m(-3), but due to the presence of some of these ubiquitous indoor air pollutants in the blanks, significantly higher MDLs were observed for a few compounds. Finally, the method was also applied in the screening of a much more complex sample matrix, indoor dust.

  • 6.
    Bergh, Caroline
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för analytisk kemi.
    Åberg, K. Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för analytisk kemi.
    Svartengren, Magnus
    Emenius, Gunnel
    Östman, Conny
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för analytisk kemi.
    Organophosphate and phthalate esters in indoor air: a comparison between multi-storey buildings with high and low prevalence of sick building symptoms2011Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Monitoring, ISSN 1464-0325, E-ISSN 1464-0333, Vol. 13, nr 7, s. 2001-2009Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An extensive study has been conducted of the prevalence of organophosphorous flame retardants/plasticizers and phthalate ester plasticizers in indoor air. The targeted substances were measured in 45 multi-storey apartment buildings in Stockholm, Sweden. The apartment buildings were classified as high or low risk with regard to the reporting of sick building symptoms (SBS) within the project Healthy Sustainable Houses in Stockholm (3H). Air samples were taken from two to four apartments per building (in total 169 apartments) to facilitate comparison within and between buildings. Association with building characteristics have been examined as well as association with specific sources by combining chemical analysis and exploratory uni- and multivariate data analysis. The study contributes to the overall perspective of levels of organophosphate and phthalate ester in indoor air enabling comparison with other studies. The results indicated little or no difference in the concentrations of the target substances between the two risk classifications of the buildings. The differences between the apartments sampled within (inter) buildings were greater than the differences between (intra) buildings. The concentrations measured in air ranged up to 1,200 ng/m3 for organophosphate esters and up to 11,000 ng/m3 for phthalate esters. Results in terms of sources were discerned e.g. PVC flooring is a major source of benzylbutyl phthalate in indoor air.    

  • 7. Bjurshammar, N
    et al.
    Buhlin, K
    Tranæus, S
    Johannsen, A
    Östman, Conny
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för analytisk kemi.
    On the Red Fluorescence Emission of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans2012Inngår i: Open Journal of Stomatology, ISSN 2160-8709, nr 2, s. 299-306Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A number of studies have indicated that bacteria able to emit red fluorescence can be detected by light in-duced fluorescence technique and killed by photody-namic therapy. The objective of this study was to in-vestigate the red fluorescence properties of the single gram negative capnophilic bacterium Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, ATCC 33384, and to investi-gate if these properties were related to the growth, morphology and size of the bacterial colonies. Time trend assessment was made with red fluorescence by QLF (Quantitative Light-induced Fluorescence), as well as with white light digital imaging. It was dem-onstrated that A. actinomycetemcomitans, a single cap-nophilic bacterium, is able to produce red fluores-cence on its own, i.e. in the absence of other bacteria strains, and that blood agar is necessary to obtain red fluorescence from this bacterium on culture plates. This bacterium formed smooth circular, bell/dome like colonies increasing in size with time exhibiting various red fluorescence behaviors. A large variation in the fluorescence behavior points out an inhomoge-neous distribution of red fluorescence within and be-tween the colonies, i.e. the size of the investigated colonies did not correlate with the red fluorescence area, suggesting a dependence on the colony mor-phology such as the colony growth in height. To our knowledge this is the first study that have shown that A. actinomycetemcomitans on its own is able to pro-duce fluorescence in the red spectral region.

  • 8. Bjurshammar, N.
    et al.
    Malmqvist, S.
    Johannsen, G.
    Boström, E. A.
    Fyrestam, Jonas
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Östman, Conny
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Johannsen, A.
    The Effect of Local Phototherapy on Gingival Inflammation - A Randomized Controlled StudyManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To investigate if a toothbrush with incorporated 450 nm LEDs used in daily oral care can reduce dental plaque and gingival inflammation.

    Materials and methods: An 8-week single blinded randomized clinical trial comparing toothbrushes with and without 450 nm blue LED light emission including 48 subjects. Clinical parameters of interest were plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI) and bleeding on probing (BOP). Analyzes were also made on Interleukin-1β (IL), IL-6, IL -8, and Tumor necrosis factor alpha.

    Results: A significant reduction in PI, GI and BOP was detected within the groups from baseline to follow-up visit, but no statistical differences between subjects using a toothbrush with 450 nm blue light and a toothbrush without light. Significant decreases in the levels of both MMP-8 and TIMP-1 in saliva, and IL-1b and IL-8 in GCF for the blue light toothbrush groups.

    Conclusion: A toothbrush with 450 nm LEDs did not yield any statistical significant adjunctive effect to tooth brushing with regard to reduction in gingival inflammation. A larger decrease in PI for the blue light toothbrush compared to control was found at a significance level of p=0.058. To get an optimal phototherapeutic effect we suggest that a wavelength of 405 nm should be used in future studies.

  • 9.
    Fyrestam, Jonas
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Bjurshammar, Nadja
    Paulsson, Elin
    Johannsen, Annsofi
    Östman, Conny
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Determination of porphyrins in oral bacteria by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry2015Inngår i: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, ISSN 1618-2642, E-ISSN 1618-2650, Vol. 407, nr 23, s. 7013-7023Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Biofilms in the oral cavity can be visualized by fluorescence and a common assumption is that the endogenously produced porphyrins in certain bacteria give rise to this fluorescence. Porphyrin content in oral bacteria has been sparingly investigated, and non-selective detection techniques such as utilizing the Soret fluorescence band of porphyrins are often used. In the present study, a quantitative and selective method for the determination of porphyrins in oral bacteria has been developed and validated using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Lysis of bacteria using Tris-EDTA buffer together with ultrasonication showed high microbial killing efficiency ≥99.98 %, and sample clean-up using C18-solid phase extraction resulted in low matrix effects ≤14 % for all analytes. Using this method, the porphyrin content was determined in the two oral pathogens Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis, as well as for baker’s yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Uroporphyrin, 7-carboxylporphyrin, 6-carboxylporphyrin, coproporphyrin, and protoporphyrin IX were identified in the investigated microorganisms, and it was shown that the porphyrin profile differs between the two bacteria, as well as for S. cerevisiae. To our knowledge, this is the first time the porphyrin profile has been determined for the bacterium A. actinomycetemcomitans.

  • 10.
    Fyrestam, Jonas
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Bjurshammar, Nadja
    Paulsson, Elin
    Mansouri, Nesrine
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Johannsen, Annsofi
    Östman, Conny
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Influence of culture conditions on porphyrin production in Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis2017Inngår i: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy, ISSN 1572-1000, E-ISSN 1873-1597, Vol. 17, s. 115-123Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Increasing antibiotic resistance among pathogens has raised the demands for new treatment methods such as antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) and phototherapy (PT). Experiments for investigating the effects of these methods are often performed in vitro, but the procedures for cultivation of microbes vary between different studies. The aim of this study has been to elucidate how the profile of endogenously produced porphyrins differs by changing the variables of bacteria culturing conditions.

    Methods: Two oral pathogens, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonasgingivalis, were selected as model organisms. The contents of porphyrins and heme in the bacteria were analysed with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry when bacteria was cultivated for different lengths of time (3-9 days), upon passaging as well as when growth medium were supplemented with or without horse blood.

    Results: Both porphyrin and heme content in A. actinomycetemcomitans are highly affected by the age of the culture, and that the porphyrin profiles changes during cultivation. When cultivated colonies of A. actinomycetemcomitans were passaged onto a new, fresh growth medium a large change in porphyrin content occurred. Additional porphyrins were detected; uroporphyrin and 7-carboxylporphyrin, and the total porphyrin content increased up to 28 times, When P. gingivalis was grown on blood containing medium higher concentrations of protoporphyrin IX (2.5 times) and heme (5.4 times) were quantified compared to bacteria grown without blood.

    Conclusions: This study demonstrate that there is a need for more standardized culturing protocols when performing aPDT and PT experiments in vitro to avoid large variations in porphyrin profiles and concentrations, the aPDT/PT target compounds, depending on the culturing conditions.

  • 11.
    Fyrestam, Jonas
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Östman, Conny
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Determination of heme in microorganisms using HPLC-MS/MS and cobalt(III) protoporphyrin IX inhibition of heme acquisition in Escherichia coli2017Inngår i: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, ISSN 1618-2642, E-ISSN 1618-2650, Vol. 409, nr 30, s. 6999-7010Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the main threats to the achievements in modern medicine is antimicrobial resistance. Molecular targeting of bacterial acquisition mechanisms of heme has been suggested to be an alternative to antibiotics. In the present study, HPLC-MS/MS combined with a simple clean-up based on liquid-liquid extraction has been developed and evaluated for simultaneous determination of heme and porphyrin heme precursors in microorganisms. Experimental design was used to optimize the extraction parameters, to obtain a method with high recovery, low matrix effects, and high precision. The effects of additives in the culture medium on the biosynthesis of heme were studied using Escherichia coli as a model microorganism. 5-Aminolaevulinic acid and hemin increased the heme concentration in E. coli by a factor of 1.5 and 4.5, respectively. Addition of 5-aminolaevulinic acid bypassed the E. coli negative feedback control of heme biosynthesis, which led to high amounts of intracellular porphyrins. The high heme concentration obtained when hemin was used as a culture additive shows that E. coli has an uptake of heme from its surroundings. In contrast, addition of cobalt protoporphyrin IX to the growth medium reduced the amount of heme in E. coli, demonstrating this compound’s ability to mimic real heme and inhibit the heme acquisition mechanisms.

  • 12. Gustafsson, P
    et al.
    Östman, C
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för analytisk kemi.
    Sällsten, G
    Indoor levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in homes with or without wood burning for heating2008Inngår i: Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 42, s. 5074-5080Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 13. Harrad, Stuart
    et al.
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Abdallah, Mohamed Abou-Elwafa
    Bergh, Caroline
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för analytisk kemi.
    Björklund, Justina A.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Covaci, Adrian
    Darnerud, Per Ola
    de Boer, Jacob
    Diamond, Miriam
    Huber, Sandra
    Leonards, Pim
    Mandalakis, Manolis
    Östman, Conny
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för analytisk kemi.
    Haug, Line Smastuen
    Thomsen, Cathrine
    Webster, Thomas F.
    Indoor Contamination with Hexabromocyclododecanes, Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers, and Perfluoroalkyl Compounds: An Important Exposure Pathway for People?2010Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 44, nr 9, s. 3221-3231Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This review underlines the importance of indoor contamination as a pathway of human exposure to hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs). There is ample evidence of substantial contamination of indoor dust with these chemicals and that their concentrations in indoor air exceed substantially those outdoors. Studies examining the relationship between body burden and exposure via indoor dust are inconsistent while some indicate a link between body burdens and PBDE and HBCD exposure via dust ingestion, others find no correlation. Likewise, while concentrations in indoor dust and human tissues are both highly skewed, this does not necessarily imply causality. Evidence suggests exposure via dust ingestion is higher for toddlers than adults. Research priorities include identifying means of reducing indoor concentrations and indoor monitoring methods that provide the most ""biologically-relevant"" measures of exposure as well as monitoring a wider range of microenvironment categories. Other gaps include studies to improve understanding of the following: emission rates and mechanisms via which these contaminants migrate from products into indoor air and dust; relationships between indoor exposures and human body burdens; relevant physicochemical properties; the gastrointestinal uptake by humans of these chemicals from indoor dust; and human dust ingestion rates.

  • 14.
    Iadaresta, Francesco
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Avagyan, Rozanna
    Strzałka, Emilia
    Crescenzi, Carlo
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Östman, Conny
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Determination of Textile Related Compounds (Benzothiazole, Benzotriazole, Nitroaniline, Quinoline and some Derivatives) in WastewaterManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Manufacturing of textile consumer goods involve a multitude of chemicals during the entire production chain. In order to investigate the release of harmful compounds from the end products, a sensitive and robust multicomponent procedure for the analysis of three classes of textile related chemicals in aqueous matrices has been developed. The method involves solid phase extraction (SPE) using a graphitized carbon black (GCB) sorbent, followed by GC-MS or LC-MS/MS analysis. The described method can be used to monitor thirty-two selected compounds in waste water. Several of these analytes are regulated by the European Union (REACH) due to their carcinogenic and/or mutagenic properties. After sampling on SPE, three different compound classes are desorbed and analyzed using different chromatographic conditions. The use of GCB provided quantitative and reproducible recoveries of the selected compounds and a cleanup of the wastewater sample. The procedure was evaluated using wastewater sample matrices. Finally, the method was applied in a pilot study to investigate the occurrence of these classes of analytes in the effluent of three different wastewater treatment plants in the Stockholm area. 

  • 15.
    Iadaresta, Francesco
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Carlsson, Josefine
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Eklund, Jonas
    Avagyan, Rozanna
    Östman, Conny
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Strategies Towards Suspect and Non-target Screening of Chemicals in Clothing Textiles by Reverse Phase Liquid Chromatography–hybrid Linear Ion Trap Orbitrap Mass SpectrometryManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Textile industry uses a large number of various chemicals in the multi-step production chain. Some of these chemicals are intentionally used to give specific features to textile materials (softness, color, improve fastness, flame resistant etc.). Some other are unintentionally added, such us transformation products (e.g. dye degradation production), impurities of other used compounds and/or biocides. Due to the large number of cloths manufacturing steps, starting from fabric production to clothes trade, information regarding the chemicals used are not always available. Clothes are in close and prolonged contact with the skin, making possible a human exposure to chemicals present in textile material. Furthermore, chemicals, if not removed from wastewater treatment plants, can be released in the environment through the laundry of textile materials. In the present study, reverse phase liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry was used for screening of suspect and unknown compounds in twenty-four textile samples. Strategies towards suspect and non-target screening are discussed considering the experimental conditions and the subsequent data treatment. Suspect compounds belonging to benzotriazoles, benzothiazoles, nitroanilines, quinolines and phthalates were confirmed in the analyzed samples. The method was able also to successfully identify compounds not included in the suspect list, such as nitrophenols, acridine, and phosphates.

  • 16.
    Iadaresta, Francesco
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Manniello, Michele Dario
    Östman, Conny
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Crescenzi, Carlo
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi. University of Salerno, Italy.
    Holmbäck, Jan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Russo, Paola
    Chemicals from textiles to skin: an in vitro permeation study of benzothiazole2018Inngår i: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 25, nr 25, s. 24629-24638Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the possible impact on human health, few studies have been conducted to assess the penetration and accumulation of contaminants in the skin after a prolonged contact with textile materials. In previous studies, we have shown that benzothiazole and its derivatives, as well as other potentially hazardous chemicals, often are present as textile contaminants in clothes available on the retail market. Since benzothiazole is a common contaminant in clothes, these can be a possible route for human chemical exposure, both systemic and onto the skin. To investigate this potential exposure, Franz-type and flow-through cells were used for the permeation studies together with a Strat-MA (R) artificial membranes. Experiments were performed using solutions of benzothiazole, as well as contaminated textile samples in the donor chamber. Benzothiazole was demonstrated to penetrate through, as well as being accumulated in the membrane mimicking the skin. After 24 h, up to 62% of benzothiazole was found in the acceptor cell, while up to 37% was found absorbed in the skin mimicking membrane. It also was shown that there was release and permeation from contaminated fabrics. The results indicate that benzothiazole can be released from textile materials, penetrate through the skin, and further enter the human body. This will possibly also apply to other chemical contaminants in textiles, and the results of this study indicate that the presence of these textile contaminants entails potential health risks. A rough risk assessment was made for clothing textiles according to Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and European regulations for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic compounds, using literature data for benzothiazole.

  • 17.
    Larson, Tuula
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för analytisk kemi.
    Östman, Conny
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för analytisk kemi.
    Colmsjö, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för analytisk kemi.
    An automated multidimensional preparative gas chromatographic system for isolation and enrichment of trace amounts of xenon from ambient air2011Inngår i: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, ISSN 1618-2642, E-ISSN 1618-2650, Vol. 400, nr 2, s. 449-458Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The monitoring of radioactive xenon isotopes is one of the principal methods for the detection of nuclear explosions in order to identify clandestine nuclear testing. In this work, a miniaturized, multiple-oven, six-column, preparative gas chromatograph was constructed in order to isolate trace quantities of radioactive xenon isotopes from ambient air, utilizing nitrogen as the carrier gas. The multidimensional chromatograph comprised preparative stainless steel columns packed with molecular sieves, activated carbon, and synthetic carbon adsorbents (e.g., AnasorbA (R)-747 and CarbosphereA (R)). A combination of purification techniques-ambient adsorption, thermal desorption, back-flushing, thermal focusing, and heart cutting-was selectively optimized to produce a well-defined xenon peak that facilitated reproducible heart cutting and accurate quantification. The chromatographic purification of a sample requires approximately 4 h and provides complete separation of xenon from potentially interfering components (such as water vapor, methane, carbon dioxide, and radon) with recovery and accuracy close to 100%. The preparative enrichment process isolates and concentrates a highly purified xenon gas fraction that is suitable for subsequent ultra-low-level gamma-, /gamma-spectroscopic or high-resolution mass spectrometric measurement (e.g., to monitor the gaseous fission products of nuclear explosions at remote locations). The Xenon Processing Unit is a free-standing, relatively lightweight, and transportable system that can be interfaced to a variety of sampling and detection systems. It has a relatively inexpensive, rugged, and compact modular (19-inch rack) design that provides easy access to all parts for maintenance and has a low power requirement.

  • 18.
    Luongo, Giovanna
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Avagyan, Rozanna
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Hongyu, Ren
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Östman, Conny
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    The washout effect during laundry on benzothiazole, benzotriazole, quinoline, and their derivatives in clothing textiles2016Inngår i: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 23, nr 3, s. 2537-2548Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In two previous papers, the authors have shown that benzothiazole, benzotriazole, quinoline, and several of their derivatives are widespread in clothing textile articles. A number of these compounds exhibit allergenic and irritating properties and, due to their octanol-water partition coefficient, are prone to be absorbed by the skin. Moreover, they are slightly soluble in water, which could make washing of clothes a route of emission into the environment. In the present study, the washout effect of benzothiazole, benzotriazole, quinoline, and some of their derivatives has been investigated. Twenty-seven textile samples were analyzed before, as well as after five and ten times of washing. The most abundant analyte was found to be benzothiazole, which was detected in 85 % of the samples with an average concentration of 0.53 mu g/g (median 0.44 mu g/g), followed by quinoline, detected in 81 % of the samples with an average concentration of 2.42 mu g/g (median 0.21 mu g/g). The average decrease in concentration for benzothiazoles was 50 % after ten times washing, while it was around 20 % for quinolines. The average emission to household wastewater of benzothiazoles and quinolines during one washing (5 kg of clothes made from polyester materials) was calculated to 0.5 and 0.24 g, respectively. These results strongly indicate that laundering of clothing textiles can be an important source of release of these compounds to household wastewater and in the end to aquatic environments. It also demonstrates a potential source of human exposure to these chemicals since considerable amounts of the compounds remain in the clothes even after ten times of washing.

  • 19.
    Luongo, Giovanna
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Iadaresta, Francesco
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Moccia, Emanuele
    Crescenzi, Carlo
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Östman, Conny
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Aromatic amines in textilesManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 20.
    Luongo, Giovanna
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Iadaresta, Francesco
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Moccia, Emanuele
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Östman, Conny
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Crescenzi, Carlo
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi. University of Salerno, Italy.
    Determination of aniline and quinoline compounds in textiles2016Inngår i: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1471, s. 11-18Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A simple method for simultaneous determination of twenty-one analytes, belonging to two classes of compounds, aromatic amines and quinolines, is presented. Several of the analytes considered in this study frequently occur in textiles goods on the open market and have been related to allergic contact dermatitis and/or are proven or suspected carcinogens. The method includes an efficient clean-up step using graphitized carbon black (GCB) that simplifies and improves the robustness of the subsequent GC-MS analysis. Briefly, after solvent extraction of the textile sample, the extract is passed through a GCB SPE cartridge that selectively retain dyes and other interfering compounds present in the matrix, producing a clean extract, suitable for GC-MS analysis, is obtained. The method was evaluated by spiking blank textiles with the selected analytes. Method quantification limits (MQL) ranged from 5 to 720 ng/g depending on the analyte. The linear range of the calibration curves ranged over two order magnitude with coefficients of determination (R-2) higher than 0.99. Recoveries ranged from 70 to 92% with RSDs 1.7-14%. The effectiveness of the method was tested on a variety of textile materials samples from different origin. In a pilot explorative survey, 2,6-dichloro-4-nitroaniline was detected in all the analysed clothing samples in concentrations ranging from 1.0 to 576 mu g/g 2,4-dinitroaniline was detected in four of the seven samples with a highest concentration of 305 mu g/g Quinoline was detected in all samples in concentrations ranging from 0.06 to 6.2 mu g/g. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 21.
    Luongo, Giovanna
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för analytisk kemi.
    Thorsén, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för analytisk kemi.
    Östman, Conny
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för analytisk kemi.
    Quinolines in clothing textiles-a source of human exposure and wastewater pollution?2014Inngår i: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, ISSN 1618-2642, E-ISSN 1618-2650, Vol. 406, nr 12, s. 2747-2756Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A production process in which the use of various types of chemicals seems to be ubiquitous makes the textile industry a growing problem regarding both public health as well as the environment. Among several substances used at each stage, the present study focuses on the quinolines, a class of compounds involved in the manufacture of dyes, some of which are skin irritants and/or classified as probable human carcinogens. A method was developed for the determination of quinoline derivatives in textile materials comprising ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction, solid phase extraction cleanup, and final analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Quinoline and ten quinoline derivatives were determined in 31 textile samples. The clothing samples, diverse in color, material, brand, country of manufacture, and price, and intended for a broad market, were purchased from different shops in Stockholm, Sweden. Quinoline, a possible human carcinogen, was found to be the most abundant compound present in almost all of the samples investigated, reaching a level of 1.9 mg in a single garment, and it was found that quinoline and its derivatives were mainly correlated to polyester material. This study points out the importance of screening textiles with nontarget analysis to investigate the presence of chemicals in an unbiased manner. Focus should be primarily on clothing worn close to the body.

  • 22.
    Luongo, Giovanna
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Östman, Conny
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Non-target screening and confirmation of chemicals in clothing textilesManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 23.
    Luongo, Giovanna
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Östman, Conny
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Organophosphate and phthalate esters in settled dust from apartment buildings in Stockholm2016Inngår i: Indoor Air, ISSN 0905-6947, E-ISSN 1600-0668, Vol. 26, nr 3, s. 414-425Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the occurrence of nine phthalate diesters (phthalates) and 14 organophosphorus flame retardants (PFRs) was investigated in 62 house dust samples collected from 19 buildings in Stockholm area during the year 2008. Eight phthalates were detected in almost all samples, with median concentrations ranging from 0.47 mu g/g to 449 mu g/g with di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate being the most abundant compound. Twelve PFRs were detected with median concentrations ranging from 0.19 mu g/g to 11 mu g/g. Within this class of compounds, the most abundant were tris(2-chloroisopropyl) and tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate. Both classes of compounds were also measured in the air of the apartments, but no correlation between air and dust concentrations could be found. Based on these measurements, exposure, via house dust ingestion and air inhalation, was calculated for adults and toddlers, and compared to published limit values in order to estimate potential health risks. In an extreme exposure scenario for toddlers, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, tris (2-chloroethyl) phosphate, tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate, and tributyl phosphate were close to the reference dose for chronic oral exposure or the tolerable daily intake. Standard Reference Material SRM 2585 was used as a quality control sample, and the levels of diisononyl and diisodecyl phthalates were determined in this material.

  • 24.
    Östman, C
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för analytisk kemi.
    Bergh, C
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för analytisk kemi.
    Ftalater och organofosfater i inomhusluft och bilar: Rapport till Miljöförvaltningen Stockholms Stad2008Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 25.
    Östman, C
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för analytisk kemi.
    Bergh, C
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för analytisk kemi.
    Åberg, M
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för analytisk kemi.
    Identifiering av ”sjuka hus” med kemisk analys kombinerat med multivariat statistisk dataanalys: Rapport till Miljöförvaltningen, Stockholms Stad2008Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
1 - 25 of 25
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