Change search
Refine search result
12345 1 - 50 of 237
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the 'Create feeds' function.
  • 1. Abdollahi, Abbas
    et al.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Coping Style as a Moderator of Perfectionism and Suicidal Ideation Among Undergraduate Students2017In: Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, ISSN 0894-9085, E-ISSN 1573-6563, Vol. 35, no 3, 223-239 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Suicide is a serious and growing public health problem and remains an unnecessary cause of death globally. In Iran, the highest prevalence of acute and chronic suicidal ideation is among young people aged 16-24. This study investigates the relationship between coping style, two types of perfectionism, and suicidal ideation among undergraduates, and examines coping style as a moderator of the relationship between perfectionism and suicidal ideation. Multi-stage cluster random sampling was employed to recruit 547 undergraduate students aged 19-24 years from the Islamic Azad University of Karaj. Structural Equation Modelling indicated that suicidal ideation was negatively associated with adaptive perfectionism and task-focused coping but positively associated with emotion-focused coping, avoidance coping, and maladaptive perfectionism. Coping style (including the three styles of task-focused, emotion-focused, and avoidance coping) was found to moderate the relationship between perfectionism and suicidal ideation. The study advances understanding of the importance of coping style in this context and explains how perfectionism affects suicidal ideation.

  • 2. Abdollahi, Abbas
    et al.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Khanbani, Mehdi
    Abdollahi Ghahfarokhi, Shahyar
    Emotional intelligence moderates perceived stress and suicidal ideation among depressed adolescent inpatients2016In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 102, 223-228 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Because it remains one of the third leading causes of death among adolescents around the world, suicide is a major public health concern. This study was designed in response to this concern by examining the relationships among perceived stress, emotional intelligence, and suicidal ideation and to test the moderating role of emotional intelligence in the relationship between perceived stress and suicidal ideation. A sample of depressed adolescents (n = 202) was recruited from five hospitals in Tehran, Iran, and then asked to complete measures of patient health, suicidal ideation, perceived stress, and emotional intelligence. Structural Equation Modeling showed that depressed adolescent in-patients with high levels of perceived stress and low levels of emotional intelligence were more likely to report suicidal ideation. Multi-group analysis indicated that depressed in-patients high in both perceived stress and emotional intelligence had less suicidal ideation than others. The findings support the notion that perceived stress acts as a vulnerability factor that increase suicidal ideation among depressed inpatients. Suicidal history moderated the relationship between emotional intelligence and suicidal ideation. These findings also highlight the importance of emotional intelligence as a buffer in the relationship between perceived stress and suicidal ideation.

  • 3. Abdollahi, Abbas
    et al.
    Hosseinian, Simin
    Beh-Pajooh, Ahmad
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Self-Concealment Mediates the Relationship Between Perfectionism and Attitudes Toward Seeking Psychological Help Among Adolescents2017In: Psychological Reports, ISSN 0033-2941, E-ISSN 1558-691X, Vol. 120, no 6, 1019-1036 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the biggest barriers in treating adolescents with mental health problems is their refusing to seek psychological help. This study was designed to examine the relationships between two forms of perfectionism, self-concealment and attitudes toward seeking psychological help and to test the mediating role of self-concealment in the relationship between perfectionism and attitudes toward seeking psychological help among Malaysian high school students. The participants were 475 Malaysian high school students from four high schools in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Structural equation modelling results indicated that high school students with high levels of socially prescribed perfectionism, high levels of self-concealment, and low levels of self-oriented perfectionism reported negative attitudes toward seeking psychological help. Bootstrapping analysis showed that self-concealment emerged as a significant, full mediator in the link between socially prescribed perfectionism and attitudes toward seeking psychological help. Moderated mediation analysis also examined whether the results generalized across men and women. The results revealed that male students with socially prescribed perfectionism are more likely to engage in self-concealment, which in turn, leads to negative attitudes toward seeking psychological help more than their female counterparts. The results suggested that students high in socially prescribed perfectionism were more likely to engage in self-concealment and be less inclined to seek psychological help.

  • 4. Abdollahi, Abbas
    et al.
    LeBouthillier, Daniel M.
    Najafi, Mahmoud
    Asmundson, Gordon J. G.
    Hosseinian, Simin
    Shahidi, Shahriar
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Kalhori, Atefeh
    Sadeghi, Hassan
    Jalili, Marzieh
    Effect of exercise augmentation of cognitive behavioural therapy for the treatment of suicidal ideation and depression2017In: Journal of Affective Disorders, ISSN 0165-0327, E-ISSN 1573-2517, Vol. 219, 58-63 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Suicidal ideation and depression are prevalent and costly conditions that reduce quality of life. This study was designed to determine the efficacy of exercise as an adjunct to cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for suicidal ideation and depression among depressed individuals.

    Methods: In a randomized clinical trial, 54 mildly to moderately depressed patients (54% female, mean age=48.25) were assigned to a combined CBT and exercise group or to a CBT only group. Both groups received one weekly session of therapy for 12 weeks, while the combined group also completed exercise three times weekly over the same period. Self-reported suicidal ideation, depression, and activities of daily living were measured at the beginning and the end of treatment.

    Results: Multilevel modelling revealed greater improvements in suicidal ideation, depression, and activities of daily living in the combined CBT and exercise group, compared to the CBT only group.

    Limitations: No follow-up data were collected, so the long-term effects (i.e., maintenance of gains) is unclear.

    Conclusions: The findings revealed that exercise adjunct to CBT effectively decreases both depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation in mildly to moderately depressed individuals.

  • 5. Andersson, Evelyn
    et al.
    Rück, Christian
    Lavebratt, Catharina
    Hedman, Erik
    Schalling, Martin
    Lindefors, Nils
    Eriksson, Elias
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Furmark, Tomas
    Genetic Polymorphisms in Monoamine Systems and Outcome of Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 11, e79015Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    The role of genetics for predicting the response to cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for social anxiety disorder (SAD) has only been studied in one previous investigation. The serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR), the catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT) val158met, and the tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TPH2) G-703Tpolymorphisms are implicated in the regulation of amygdala reactivity and fear extinction and therefore might be of relevance for CBT outcome. The aim of the present study was to investigate if these three gene variants predicted response to CBT in a large sample of SAD patients.

    Method

    Participants were recruited from two separate randomized controlled CBT trials (trial 1: n = 112, trial 2: n = 202). Genotyping were performed on DNA extracted from blood or saliva samples. Effects were analyzed at follow-up (6 or 12 months after treatment) for both groups and for each group separately at post-treatment. The main outcome measure was the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale Self-Report.

    Results

    At long-term follow-up, there was no effect of any genotype, or gene × gene interactions, on treatment response. In the subsamples, there was time by genotype interaction effects indicating an influence of the TPH2 G-703T-polymorphism on CBT short-term response, however the direction of the effect was not consistent across trials.

    Conclusions

    None of the three gene variants, 5-HTTLPR, COMTval158met and TPH2 G-703T, was associated with long-term response to CBT for SAD.

  • 6. Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Bergström, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindefors, Nils
    The use of the Internet in the treatment of anxiety disorders2005In: Current Opinion in Psychiatry, ISSN 0951-7367, E-ISSN 1473-6578, Vol. 18, no 1, 73-73 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7. Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Bergström, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Holländare, Fredrik
    Carlbring, Per
    Kaldo, Viktor
    Ekselius, Lisa
    Internet-based self-help for depression: randomised controlled trial2005In: British Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0007-1250, E-ISSN 1472-1465, Vol. 187, no 5, 456-461 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet och Karolinska Instutet.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Behandling via internet2016In: Socialt arbete och internet: att förstå och hantera sociala problem på nya arenor / [ed] Kristian Daneback, Emma Sorbring, Stockholm: Liber, 2016, 215-225 p.Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Inom det sociala arbetets praktik ser vi en ökad närvaro av internetrelaterade problem. Samtidigt föredrar allt fler människor webbaserad hjälp, samt råd och stöd i relation till mer traditionella behandlings- och preventionsprogram, vilket öppnar för nya möjligheter för det sociala arbetet.

  • 9. Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Enduring effects of ICBT2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Numerous randomized controlled trials have been conducted on internet interventions. In addition to the effects observed in these trials immediately after treatment there are several long-term follow-ups. The aim of this talk is to review the long-term effects of internet-delivered CBT (ICBT) with a focus on results at 1-year or later following treatment termination.

    Methods: We were able to locate examples of enduring effects for a range of conditions including mood and anxiety disorders and somatic disorders. The longest follow-up period has been five years.

    Results: Large within-group effects have been documented in most trials, with effects sizes being moderate to large for anxiety and depression studies.

    Discussion: Studies have failed to document how much the treatment is used during the follow-up period and in the case of depression it is unclear if episodes of depression have occured during the period covered. We conclude that the effects of ICBT appear to be enduring but that more research is needed.

  • 10. Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Förord2013In: Internetbehandling med KBT: en praktisk handbok / [ed] Kristofer Vernmark, Jonas Bjärehed, Stockholm: Natur och kultur, 2013Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Internetbaserad KBT ger tillgång till fungerande behandling för psykisk ohälsa på patientens villkor. Metoden har utvecklats i snabb takt genom utbredda forskningsinsatser, där Sverige kan betraktas som världsledande inom området.

    Internetbehandling med KBT ger en grundlig genomgång av behandlingsarbetet med betoning på praktiska aspekter och tillämpningen i olika verksamheter. Särskilt fokus ligger på att skapa ett fungerande behandlingsupplägg, praktiska förberedelser, behandlarens roll och viktiga terapeutfärdigheter samt hur vanliga svårigheter hanteras. Läsaren får också en teoretisk orientering, kunskap om befintligt forskningsstöd och vilka fördelar metoden har för patienter, behandlare och verksamheter. Fallexempel, checklistor och annat praktiskt material gör boken till ett mycket användbart hjälpmedel.

  • 11. Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Internet-Assisted Cognitive Behavioral Therapy2017In: Psychiatric Clinics of North America, ISSN 0193-953X, E-ISSN 1558-3147, Vol. 40, no 4, 689-700 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet, including modern information technology, has had a dramatic impact on many areas of life, including health care and psychological treatment. In particular, cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) has been found to be a form of psychological treatment that has been possible to transfer to other modes of delivery than regular face-to-face and group formats. The Internet is not only useful for providing CBT, but has a significant role in providing information about CBT and conditions that are treated using CBT. In addition, modern information technology also has a major role in assessment procedures, such as online administration of self-report mea- sures. In this article, we focus mainly on Internet-supported treatments, although another emerging format is to use video conferencing systems and conduct real- time face-to-face CBT, CBT training, or supervision.

  • 12. Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Internet-based brief therapies2018In: The art and science of brief psychotherapies: A Practioner's Guide / [ed] M. J. Dewan, B. N. Steenbarger, & R. P. Greenberg, Arlington: American Psychiatric Association , 2018, 3, 315-325 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With all of the expert-authored content that made previous editions indispensable references for students and practitioners alike, this third edition of The Art and Science of Brief Psychotherapies: A Practitioner’s Guide has been updated to reflect this rapidly changing field.

    Most chapters include new material that documents recent developments within existing models, and new chapters tackle topics that include the following:

    • Multicultural practice
    • Mentalizing
    • Motivational interviewing
    • Dialectical behavior therapy
    • Telepsychiatry
    • Internet-based interventions

    All chapters summarize the ideas underlying each modality, the evidence for effectiveness, and the techniques and interventions central to each.

    In this edition, the DVD of videos has been replaced with 40 updated streaming videos—available on desktop and mobile devices—that show experienced practitioners engaged in a range of brief therapies, allowing for a deeper and richer learning experience for readers.

    In a national and global environment of limited economic resources and multiple demands on patients’ time, short-term treatment modalities are increasingly important. Integrating theory, research, and step-by-step procedures, The Art and Science of Brief Psychotherapies is an ideal introduction to the range of short-term therapies for psychiatry residents, psychology interns, social work students, and experienced practitioners looking to broaden their practice.

  • 13. Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Internetbaserad behandling inom allt fler diagnosområden2013In: Psykologtidningen, ISSN 0280-9702, Vol. 59, no 9, 30-33 p.Article, review/survey (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under de senaste 15 åren har en intensiv forskning bedrivits kring internetbaserad psykologisk behandling och svenska forskare har i hög grad deltagit i utvecklingen. Här ger Gerhard Andersson och Per Carlbring, båda professorer i klinisk psykologi, en introduktion till internetbaserad psykologisk behandling och en bild av kunskapsläget just nu.

  • 14. Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Furmark, Tomas
    Internet-Delivered Treatments for Social Anxiety Disorder2014In: The Wiley Blackwell Handbook of Social Anxiety Disorder / [ed] Justin W. Weeks, Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, 2014, 579-587 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter we review the literature on internet-delivered treatment for social anxiety disorder (SAD). There are several different treatment programs that have been tested in randomized controlled trials and evidence now suggests that guided internet-based cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) can be as effective as face-to-face therapy, that therapists may need less training than in face-to-face treatment, and that ICBT works in representative clinical settings, thereby supporting effectiveness. Moreover, there are studies to suggest that ICBT has enduring effects up to five years after treatment and that it is cost-effective. Since there are advantages with internet treatments, this treatment option should be considered as a complement or alternative to face-to-face treatments for SAD. Treatment mechanisms, including moderators and mediators of outcome, remain to be investigated.

  • 15. Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Hadjistavropoulos, Heather D.
    Internet-Based Cognitive Behavior Therapy2017In: The Science of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy / [ed] Stefan G. Hofmann , Gordon J. G. Asmundson, London: Elsevier, 2017, 531-549 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) is an evidence-based form of CBT. Most programs include text, video, and audio files and are similar to face-to-face CBT in terms of content and duration of treatment. Most often ICBT includes some guidance from a therapist, although automated self-guided ICBT programs also exist. Studies suggest that guided ICBT can be as effective as face-to-face CBT for anxiety and mood disorders as well as for distress associated with certain somatic disorders. Transdiagnostic programs, either relying on presentation of common strategies for, or tailoring of treatment to, disorders have generated strong outcomes in controlled trials. Interventions for problems like procrastination also show promise. Studies on predictors and mediators of outcome are emerging, but there is a need to develop intervention-specific theories in order to better understand change mechanisms. In the future, blending of face-to-face CBT and modern information technology are expected to be more common and attractive to therapists.

  • 16. Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Holmes, Emily A.
    Special Issue in Honour of Lars-Göran Öst: Editorial2013In: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, ISSN 1650-6073, E-ISSN 1651-2316, Vol. 42, no 4, 259-259 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 17. Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Lindefors, Nils
    History and current status of ICBT2016In: Guided internet-based treatments in psychiatry / [ed] Nils Lindefors, Gerhard Andersson, Springer, 2016, 1-16 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We begin this chapter with a discussion of the history of ICBT and its roots in bibliotherapy and computerised CBT. We then provide a brief description of one way of administering guided ICBT, including the role of the therapist and data security issues. This description is followed by examples of conditions that are not covered later in the book, such as specific phobias and addictions. We end this chapter with a discussion of technical developments, cost-effectiveness and implementation.

  • 18. Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ljótsson, Brjánn
    Hedman, Erik
    Guided Internet-Based CBT for Common Mental Disorders2013In: Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, ISSN 0022-0116, E-ISSN 1573-3564, Vol. 43, no 4, 223-233 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet has become a part of most people’s lives in many parts of the world. Since the late 1990s there has been an intensive research activity in which psychological treatments, such as cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), have been found to be effective when delivered via the Internet. Most research studies indicate that the effects are larger when some form of guidance is provided from a therapist, and unguided treatments tend to lead to more dropout and smaller effects. Guided Internet treatments often consists of book length text materials, but can also include other components such as audio files and video clips. Homework assignment is often included and feedback is given for completed homework. Guided Internet-based CBT (iCBT) has been found to work for problems such as depression, panic-, social anxiety-, and generalized anxiety disorders. There are many research trials in which participants have been recruited via media, and there has been less research conducted in representative clinical settings. Most research has been conducted on adults and in university settings with nationwide recruitment. There is a need for treatments and studies on older adults, children and adolescents. In conclusion, dissemination of the research findings on guided iCBT to regular clinical settings is warranted.

  • 19. Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Cuijpers, P.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Riper, H.
    Hedman, E.
    Internet-Based Vs. Face-To-Face Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Psychiatric and Somatic Disorders: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis2014In: Abstracts from the 44th Congress of the European Association for Behavioural & Cognitive Therapies, Utrecht: EABCT , 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet-delivered cognitive behaviour therapy (ICBT) has been tested in many research trials but to a lesser extent been directly compared against face-to-face delivered cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis on trials in which guided ICBT was directly compared against face-to-face CBT within the same trial. Studies on psychiatric and somatic conditions were included. Systematic searches resulted in 13 studies (total N=1053) that met all review criteria and were included in the review. There were 3 studies on social anxiety disorder, 3 on panic disorder, 2 on depressive symptoms, 2 on body dissatisfaction, 1 on tinnitus, 1 on male sexual dysfunction, and 1 on spider phobia. Face-to-face CBT was either in the individual format (n=6 ) or in the group format (n=7). We also assessed quality and risk of bias. Results showed a pooled effect size at post-treatment across of Hedges g = -0.01 (95% CI, -0.13 to 0.12), indicating that ICBT and face-to-face treatment produce equivalent overall effects. Study quality did not affect outcomes. While the overall results indicate equivalence, there are still few studies for each psychiatric and somatic condition and many for which guided ICBT has not been compared against face-to-face treatment. Thus, more research is needed to establish equivalence of the two treatment formats.

  • 20. Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Cuijpers, Pim
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Riper, Heleen
    Hedman, Erik
    Guided Internet-based vs. face-to-face cognitive behavior therapy for psychiatric and somatic disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis2014In: World Psychiatry, ISSN 1723-8617, E-ISSN 2051-5545, Vol. 13, no 3, 288-295 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) has been tested in many research trials, but to a lesser extent directly compared to face-to-face delivered cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of trials in which guided ICBT was directly compared to face-to-face CBT. Studies on psychiatric and somatic conditions were included. Systematic searches resulted in 13 studies (total N=1053) that met all criteria and were included in the review. There were three studies on social anxiety disorder, three on panic disorder, two on depressive symptoms, two on body dissatisfaction, one on tinnitus, one on male sexual dysfunction, and one on spider phobia. Face-to-face CBT was either in the individual format (n=6) or in the group format (n=7). We also assessed quality and risk of bias. Results showed a pooled effect size (Hedges' g) at post-treatment of −0.01 (95% CI: −0.13 to 0.12), indicating that guided ICBT and face-to-face treatment produce equivalent overall effects. Study quality did not affect outcomes. While the overall results indicate equivalence, there are still few studies for each psychiatric and somatic condition and many conditions for which guided ICBT has not been compared to face-to-face treatment. Thus, more research is needed to establish equivalence of the two treatment formats.

  • 21. Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Hesser, Hugo
    Veilord, Andrea
    Svedling, Linn
    Andersson, Fredrik
    Sleman, Owe
    Mauritzson, Lena
    Sarkohi, Ali
    Claesson, Elisabet
    Zetterqvist, Vendela
    Lamminen, Mailen
    Eriksson, Thomas
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Randomised controlled non-inferiority trial with 3-year follow-up of internet-delivered versus face-to-face group cognitive behavioural therapy for depression2013In: Journal of Affective Disorders, ISSN 0165-0327, E-ISSN 1573-2517, affectiv, Vol. 151, no 3, 986-994 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Guided internet-delivered cognitive behaviour therapy (ICBT) has been found to be effective in the treatment of mild to moderate depression, but there have been no direct comparisons with the more established group-based CBT with a long-term follow-up.

    Method

    Participants with mild to moderate depression were recruited from the general population and randomized to either guided ICBT (n=33) or to live group treatment (n=36). Measures were completed before and after the intervention to assess depression, anxiety, and quality of life. Follow-ups were conducted at one-year and three-year after the treatment had ended.

    Results

    Data were analysed on an intention-to-treat basis using linear mixed-effects regression analysis. Results on the self-rated version of the Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Scale showed significant improvements in both groups across time indicating non-inferiority of guided ICBT, and there was even a tendency for the guided ICBT group to be superior to group-based CBT at three year follow-up. Within-group effect sizes for the ICBT condition at post-treatment showed a Cohen′s d=1.46, with a similar large effect at 3-year follow-up,d=1.78. For the group CBT the corresponding within-group effects were d=0.99 and d=1.34, respectively.

    Limitations

    The study was small with two active treatments and there was no placebo or credible control condition.

    Conclusions

    Guided ICBT is at least as effective as group-based CBT and long-term effects can be sustained up to 3 years after treatment.

  • 22. Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Holmes, Emily A.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lars-Göran Öst2013In: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, ISSN 1650-6073, E-ISSN 1651-2316, Vol. 42, no 4, 260-264 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lars-Göran Öst is one of the most eminent clinical researchers in the field of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) and a founder of CBT in Sweden. He has recently retired from his position as professor in clinical psychology at Stockholm University, Sweden. In this paper, we sketch a brief description of the body of work by Öst. Examples of his innovative and pioneering new treatment methods include the one-session treatment for specific phobias, as well as applied relaxation for a range of anxiety disorders and health conditions. While Öst remains active in the field, he has contributed significantly to the development and dissemination of CBT in Sweden as well as in the world.

  • 23. Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Nordgren, Lise B.
    Buhrman, Monica
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Psychological treatments for depression delivered via the Internet and supported by a clinician: an update2014In: Spanish Journal of Clinical Psychology, ISSN 1136-5420, Vol. 19, no 3, 217-225 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Guided internet-delivered cognitive behaviour therapy (ICBT) has been tested in many trials since the early studies dating back to the late 1990’s. The aim of this review was to investigate the most recent literature on guided ICBT for depression. We identified 11 controlled studies published between January 2013 and September 2014. Overall, large treatment effects were observed with a few exceptions. A majority (7 studies) provided some information regarding unwanted effects such as deterioration. Three studies directly compared guided ICBT against face-to-face CBT. We added an earlier study and calculated meta-analytic summary statistics for the four studies involving a total of 336 participants. The average effect size difference was Hedges = 0.12 (95% CI: -0.08~0.32) in the direction of favouring guided ICBT, but with no practical importance. We conclude that guided ICBT is a promising treatment for depression and mood disorders and that the research is rapidly expanding.

  • 24. Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Riper, Heleen
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Editorial: introducing Internet Interventions — A new Open Access Journal2014In: Internet Interventions, ISSN 2214-7829, Vol. 1, no 1, 1-2 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 25. Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Rozental, Alexander
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rück, Christian
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Guided Internet-delivered CBT: Can it really be as good as seeing a therapist?2015In: The Behavior Therapist, ISSN 0278-8403, Vol. 38, no 5, 123-126 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26. Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Rozental, Alexander
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology. UCL Institute of Child Health, University College London, London, England.
    Shafran, Roz
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology. UCL Institute of Child Health, University College London, London, England.
    Long-term effects of internet-supported cognitive behaviour therapy2018In: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, ISSN 1473-7175, E-ISSN 1744-8360, Vol. 18, no 1, 21-28 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Internet-supported and therapist-guided cognitive behaviour therapy (ICBT) is effective for a range of problems in the short run, but less is known about the long-term effects with follow-ups of two years or longer.

    Areas covered: This paper reviews studies in which the long-term effects of guided ICBT were investigated. Following literature searches in PubMed and other sources meta-analytic statistics were calculated for 14 studies involving a total of 902 participants, and an average follow-up period of three years. Studies were from Sweden (n = 11) or the Netherlands (n = 3). Long-term outcome studies were found for panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, depression, mixed anxiety and depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, pathological gambling, stress and chronic fatigue. The duration of the treatments was usually short (8–15 weeks). The pre-to follow-up effect size was Hedge’s g = 1.52, but with a significant heterogeneity. The average symptom improvement across studies was 50%. Treatment seeking in the follow-up period was not documented and few studies mentioned negative effects.

    Expert commentary: While effects may be overestimated, it is likely that therapist-supported ICBT can have enduring effects. Long-term follow-up data should be collected for more conditions and new technologies like smartphone-delivered treatments.

  • 27. Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Waara, Johan
    Jonsson, Ulf
    Malmaeus, Fredrik
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Öst, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Internet-Based Exposure Treatment Versus One-Session Exposure Treatment of Snake Phobia: A Randomized Controlled Trial2013In: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, ISSN 1650-6073, E-ISSN 1651-2316, Vol. 42, no 4, 284-291 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the authors compared guided Internet-delivered self-help with one-session exposure treatment (OST) in a sample of snake phobic patients. A total of 30 patients were included following a screening on the Internet and a structured clinical interview. The Internet treatment consisted of four weekly text modules which were presented on a web page, a video in which exposure was modelled, and support provided via Internet. The OST was delivered in a three-hour session following a brief orientation session. The main outcome was the behavioural approach test (BAT), and as secondary measures questionnaires measuring anxiety symptoms and depression were used. Results showed that the groups did not differ at post-treatment or follow-up, with the exception of a significant interaction for the BAT in favour of the OST. At post-treatment, 61.5% of the Internet group and 84.6% of the OST group achieved a clinically significant improvement on the BAT. At follow-up, the corresponding figures were 90% for the Internet group and 100% for the OST group (completer sample). Within-group effect sizes for the Snake Phobia Questionnaire were large (d = 1.63 and d = 2.31 for the Internet and OST groups, respectively, at post-treatment). It is concluded that guided Internet-delivered exposure treatment is a potential treatment option in the treatment of snake phobia, but that OST probably is better.

  • 28. Bas-Hoogendam, Janna Marie
    et al.
    van Steenbergen, Henk
    Pannekoek, J. Nienke
    Fouche, Jean-Paul
    Lochner, Christine
    Hattingh, Coenraad J.
    Cremers, Henk R.
    Furmark, Tomas
    Månsson, Kristoffer N.T.
    Frick, Andreas
    Engman, Jonas
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Sample Size Matters: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Multi-Center Mega-Analysis of Gray Matter Volume in Social Anxiety Disorder2017In: Biological Psychiatry, ISSN 0006-3223, E-ISSN 1873-2402, Vol. 81, no 10, S7-S8 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is a disabling psychiatric disorder, associated with high co-morbidity. Previous research on structural brain alterations associated with SAD has yielded inconsistent results concerning changes in gray matter (GM) in various brain regions, as well as on the relationship between GM and SAD-symptomatology. These heterogeneous findings are possibly due to limited sample sizes. Multi-site imaging offers new possibilities to investigate SAD-related GM changes in larger samples.

    Methods: An international multi-center mega-analysis on the largest database of SAD brain scans to date was performed to compare GM volumes of SAD-patients (n=174) and healthy participants (n=213) using voxel-based morphometry. A hypothesis-driven region of interest (ROI) approach was used, focusing on the basal ganglia, amygdala-hippocampal complex, prefrontal cortex and parietal cortex.

    Results: SAD-patients had larger GM volume in the dorsal striatum when compared to healthy participants. This increase correlated positively with the level of social anxiety symptoms. No SAD-related differences in GM volume were present in the other ROIs.

    Conclusions: The results suggest a role for the dorsal striatum in SAD, but previously reported SAD-related changes in GM in the amygdala, hippocampus, precuneus, prefrontal cortex and parietal regions were not replicated. Thereby, our findings indicate that sample size matters and stress the need for meta-analyses like those performed by the Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium and its working groups. Actually, the collaborative effort for this work has resulted in the start of the ENIGMA-Anxiety workgroup.

  • 29. Bas-Hoogendam, Janna Marie
    et al.
    van Steenbergen, Henk
    Pannekoek, J. Nienke
    Fouche, Jean-Paul
    Lochner, Christine
    Hattingh, Coenraad J.
    Cremers, Henk R.
    Furmark, Tomas
    Månsson, Kristoffer N.T.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology. Uppsala University, Sweden; Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Frick, Andreas
    Engman, Jonas
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Straube, Thomas
    Peterburs, Jutta
    Klumpp, Heide
    Phan, K. Luan
    Roelofs, Karin
    Veltman, Dick J.
    van Tol, Marie-José
    Stein, Dan J.
    van der Wee, Nic J. A.
    Voxel-based morphometry multi-center mega-analysis of brain structure in social anxiety disorder2017In: NeuroImage: Clinical, ISSN 0353-8842, E-ISSN 2213-1582, Vol. 16, 678-688 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a prevalent and disabling mental disorder, associated with significant psychiatric co-morbidity. Previous research on structural brain alterations associated with SAD has yielded inconsistent results concerning the direction of the changes in gray matter (GM) in various brain regions, as well as on the relationship between brain structure and SAD-symptomatology. These heterogeneous findings are possibly due to limited sample sizes. Multi-site imaging offers new opportunities to investigate SAD-related alterations in brain structure in larger samples.

    An international multi-center mega-analysis on the largest database of SAD structural T1-weighted 3T MRI scans to date was performed to compare GM volume of SAD-patients (n = 174) and healthy control (HC)-participants (n = 213) using voxel-based morphometry. A hypothesis-driven region of interest (ROI) approach was used, focusing on the basal ganglia, the amygdala-hippocampal complex, the prefrontal cortex, and the parietal cortex. SAD-patients had larger GM volume in the dorsal striatum when compared to HC-participants. This increase correlated positively with the severity of self-reported social anxiety symptoms. No SAD-related differences in GM volume were present in the other ROIs. Thereby, the results of this mega-analysis suggest a role for the dorsal striatum in SAD, but previously reported SAD-related changes in GM in the amygdala, hippocampus, precuneus, prefrontal cortex and parietal regions were not replicated. Our findings emphasize the importance of large sample imaging studies and the need for meta-analyses like those performed by the Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium.

  • 30. Bengtsson, Jonas
    et al.
    Nordin, S.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Therapists’ experiences of conducting cognitive behavioural therapy online vis-à-vis face-to-face2015In: Abstracts from the 7th Swedish Congress on internet interventions (SWEsrii), Linköping: Linköping University Press , 2015, 18-18 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study has explored therapists' experiences of conducting cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) online and face-to-face. Eleven therapists partook in semi-structured interviews, which were thematically analysed using an abductive approach. The results indicate that the therapists viewed face-to-face therapy as a stronger experience than Internet-based CBT (ICBT), and the latter as being more manualised, but providing more work-time control. Several participants also thought that working alliance may be achieved faster and more easily in face-to-face therapy, and might worsen with fewer modalities of communication. Clinical implications in need of investigation are whether working with ICBT might buffer therapist exhaustion, and whether this therapy form can be improved by becoming less manual dependant in order to be easier to individualise.

  • 31. Bengtsson, Jonas
    et al.
    Nordin, Steven
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Therapists' Experiences of Conducting Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Online vis-à-vis Face-to-Face2015In: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, ISSN 1650-6073, E-ISSN 1651-2316, Vol. 44, no 6, 470-479 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study has explored therapists' experiences of conducting cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) online and face-to-face. Eleven therapists partook in semi-structured interviews, which were thematically analysed using an abductive approach. The results indicate that the therapists viewed face-to-face therapy as a stronger experience than Internet-based CBT (ICBT), and the latter as being more manualised, but providing more work-time control. Several participants also thought that working alliance may be achieved faster and more easily in face-to-face therapy, and might worsen with fewer modalities of communication. Clinical implications in need of investigation are whether working with ICBT might buffer therapist exhaustion, and whether this therapy form can be improved by becoming less manual dependant in order to be easier to individualise.

  • 32. Bergman Nordgren, Lise
    et al.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Tailoring CBT-treatments delivered via the internet: Some examples from a Swedish context2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: In mental health comorbidity is common, both physical and psychiatric. Normally studies on cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) protocols do not exclude comorbid patients but leave the comorbidity to improve without being addressed, or remain unchanged without being identified. since most cognitive behavior treatment protocols are diagnosis-specific. Based on the idea that several problems can be targeted at once, individually tailored CBT protocols have developed. Including patients’ specific symptom profile and preferences, and the knowledge from established disorder-specific programs these protocols opens for individualization both before and during treatment based on individual progress. Tailoring can also be done to target different age groups and include for example the interface of the treatment program and the clinical examples used.

    Methods: Most programs have been tested in randomized controlled trials against active waitlist conditions. Specific symptom measures served as primary outcome measures and measures of life quality as secondary. Some studies also included economic evaluations of cost- effectiveness and ratings of therapeutic alliance. Our samples have been both self-recruited and referred by health care professionals. Most of the studies have measure-points not only directly at post treatment, but also at one- and two-year follow-up.

    Results: Taken together the tailored programs show, on average, a medium to large effect size (Cohen’s d) on primary outcome measures regarding both anxiety and depressive symptoms, and small effect sizes on life quality measures. Effects were sustained at follow-up. The tailored treatment proved to be cost-effective administered in regular care. We also found patient ratings of therapeutic alliance to correlate with outcome.

    Discussion: Individually tailored internet-administered CBT show promising results. Based on the available data, it might be a feasible approach in treating anxiety and depression. Acceptability, for whom it is most beneficial, and if some components are more powerful than others, are questions left to be answered.

  • 33. Bergman Nordgren, Lise
    et al.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Linna, Emma
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Role of the Working Alliance on Treatment Outcome in Tailored Internet-Based Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Anxiety Disorders: Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial2013In: JMIR Research Protocols, ISSN 1929-0748, Vol. 2, no 1, e4- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (ICBT) is a form of guided self-help that has been found to be effective for addressing several problems. The target for this type of therapy is usually restricted to one specific disorder. Tailoring the treatment widens the scope of ICBT in that it can address comorbid conditions directly. Objectives: The working, or therapeutic, alliance has been found to predict outcome in studies of face-to-face therapy. The extent to which these findings apply to ICBT is largely unknown. We therefore decided to find out whether the working alliance could predict outcome in tailored ICBT for anxiety disorders. Methods: Data were obtained from the treatment group (n=27) in a randomized controlled trial aiming to test the effects of tailored ICBT for anxiety disorders. The forthcoming study was designed to test the hypothesis that the working alliance measured both pre-treatment and early in treatment (week 3) can predict treatment outcome as measured by the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation–Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) in a heterogeneous group of patients with anxiety disorders (n=27). Results: Working alliance measured at week 3 into the treatment correlated significantly with the residual gain scores on the primary outcome measure (r=-.47, P=.019, n=25), while expected working alliance pre-treatment did not (r=-.17, P=.42, n=27). Conclusions: These results raise questions about the importance of working alliance in ICBT treatments, and suggest that the working alliance could be important in ICBT.

  • 34.
    Boettcher, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Combining attention training with cognitive-behavior therapy in Internet-based self-help for social anxiety: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial2013In: Trials, ISSN 1745-6215, E-ISSN 1745-6215, Vol. 14, no 68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Guided Internet-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (ICBT) has been found to be effective for social anxiety disorder (SAD) by several independent research groups. However, since the extent of clinically significant change demonstrated leaves room for improvement, new treatments should be developed and investigated. A novel treatment, which has generally been found to be effective, is cognitive bias modification (CBM). This study aims to evaluate the combination of CBM and ICBT. It is intended that two groups will be compared; one group randomized to receiving ICBT and CBM towards threat cues and one group receiving ICBT and control training. We hypothesize that the group receiving ICBT plus CBM will show superior treatment outcomes.

    Methods/design: Participants with SAD (N = 128), will be recruited from the general population. A composite score combining the scores obtained from three social anxiety questionnaires will serve as the primary outcome measure. Secondary measures include self-reported depression and quality of life. All treatments and assessments will be conducted via the Internet and measurement points will be baseline, Week 2, post-treatment, and 4 months post-treatment.

    Discussion: There is no direct evidence of the effects of combining CBM and ICBT in SAD. Adding attention-training sessions to ICBT protocols could increase the proportion of participants who improve and recover through Internet-based self-help.

  • 35.
    Boettcher, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Free University of Berlin .
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Renneberg, Babette
    Berger, Thomas
    Internet-Based Interventions for Social Anxiety Disorder - an Overview2013In: Verhaltenstherapie (Basel), ISSN 1016-6262, E-ISSN 1423-0402, Vol. 23, no 3, 160-168 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet-based interventions hold specific advantages and disadvantages in the treatment of social anxiety disorder (SAD). The present review examines different approaches in the internet-based treatment of SAD and reviews their efficacy and effectiveness. 21 studies investigated the potential of guided and unguided internet-based cognitive-behavioral treatments (ICBT) for SAD, comprising a total of N = 1,801 socially anxious individuals. The large majority of these trials reported substantial reductions of social anxiety symptoms through ICBT programs. Within effect sizes were mostly large and comparisons to waitlist and more active control groups were positive. Treatment gains were stable from 3 months to 5 years after treatment termination. In conclusion, ICBT is effective in the reduction of social anxiety symptoms. At the same time, not all participants benefit from these treatments to a sufficient degree. Future research should focus on what makes these interventions work in which patient populations, and at the same time, examine ways to implement internet-based treatment in the routine care for socially anxious patients.

  • 36. Boettcher, Johanna
    et al.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Warnock-Parkes, Emma
    Willutzki, Ulrike
    Innovations in the Treatment of Social Anxiety Disorder2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a very common and disabling mental disorder. Cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT) is first-line treatment and has a strong empirical basis. However, not all patients benefit from CBT. About one third of the treated patients do not respond to a sufficient degree (Rodebaugh, Holaway, & Heimberg, 2004). Additionally, access to CBT is often limited. Only a small minority of patients with SAD receives adequate, evidence-based treatment (e.g. Issakidis & Andrews, 2002). Hence, there is a pressing need to optimize existing treatment approaches and to lower treatment barriers. The planned symposium will present different approaches on how to make CBT more efficient and more available for patients with SAD. Treatments that are facilitated via the Internet have the potential to reach patients who are otherwise unlikely to receive adequate treatment (e.g. patients in remote areas, patients fearing stigmatization, patients too shy to initiate face-to-face contact). At the same time, technology-based interventions also help to bring important therapeutic techniques into practice. The first two talks will therefore focus on innovations in the field of Internet-based CBT for SAD and will present strategies to facilitate exposure exercises. Johanna Boettcher will present two studies on a newly developed app for SAD. In a gamified approach, the app guides and motivates patients to conduct exposure exercises in their natural environment. The second presentation will introduce virtual reality (VR) exposure therapy for social fears. Per Carlbring will present data on a RCT, evaluating the impact of a three-hour VR exposure session on public speaking anxiety.  The third talk will present a different angle on how to improve treatment outcomes. Emma Warnock- Parks will outline how video-feedback can be optimized in the treatment of socially anxious patients  in order to increase its impact on patients’ symptomatology. She will present data on the beneficial effect of video feedback on patients’ distorted self-images and will show ways how to make this technique even more powerful. Optimizing intervention techniques and contexts is one way to improve treatment of SAD. It is also important to consider external factors that may influence treatment adherence or outcome. In the last talk, Ulrike Willutzki will present data on a long-time neglected topic in SAD. She will demonstrate how the well-meant support of patients’ spouses can contribute to the maintenance of the disorder. She will discuss how partners can be educated and become involved in treatment helping the patient to overcome anxiety in difficult social situations.  The planned symposium will offer four different strategies that can be implemented to improve cognitive-behavioural treatment techniques and to further the access to CBT. The symposium therefore contributes to a better understanding on how CBT for SAD can become more efficient in alleviating patients’ suffering.

  • 37.
    Boettcher, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Freie Universitaet Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Hasselrot, Jonas
    Umeå University.
    Sund, Erik
    Umeå University.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University & Karolinska Institutet.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Combining attention training with Internet-based cognitive-behavioural self-help for social anxiety: a randomised controlled trial2014In: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, ISSN 1650-6073, E-ISSN 1651-2316, Vol. 43, no 1, 34-48 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Guided Internet-based cognitive-behavioural self-help (ICBT) has been proven to be effective for social anxiety disorder (SAD) by several independent research groups. However, as the proportion of clinical significant change has room for improvement, new treatments should be developed and investigated. A novel treatment is attention bias modification (ABM). This study aimed at evaluating the combination of ABM and ICBT. We compared two groups, one group receiving ICBT and ABM targeting attentional avoidance and the other group receiving ICBT and control training. ABM and control training tasks were both based on the dot-probe paradigm. A total of 133 participants, diagnosed with SAD, were randomised to these two groups. The attention training group (N = 66) received 2 weeks of daily attention training followed by 9 weeks of ICBT. The control group (N = 67) received 2 weeks of daily control training, also followed by 9 weeks of ICBT. Social anxiety measures as well as the attention bias were assessed at pre-assessment, at week 2, and at post-treatment. Results showed no significant differences between the attention training group and the control group. Both groups improved substantially on social anxiety symptoms from pre- to post-assessment (dwithin = 1.39–1.41), but showed no change in attention processes (dwithin = 0.10–0.17). In this trial, the attention modification training failed to induce differential change in attention bias. Results demonstrate that the applied ABM procedure with its focus on the reduction of attentional avoidance was ineffective in the Internet-based setting. The results do not suggest that adding ABM targeting attentional avoidance to ICBT results in better outcomes than ICBT alone.

  • 38.
    Boettcher, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Leek, Linda
    Matson, Lisa
    Holmes, Emily A.
    Browning, Michael
    MacLeod, Colin
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Internet-Based Attention Bias Modification for Social Anxiety: A Randomised Controlled Comparison of Training towards Negative and Training Towards Positive Cues2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 9, e71760- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biases in attention processes are thought to play a crucial role in the aetiology and maintenance of Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD). The goal of the present study was to examine the efficacy of a programme intended to train attention towards positive cues and a programme intended to train attention towards negative cues. In a randomised, controlled, double-blind design, the impact of these two training conditions on both selective attention and social anxiety were compared to that of a control training condition. A modified dot probe task was used, and delivered via the internet. A total of 129 individuals, diagnosed with SAD, were randomly assigned to one of these three conditions and took part in a 14-day programme with daily training/control sessions. Participants in all three groups did not on average display an attentional bias prior to the training. Critically, results on change in attention bias implied that significantly differential change in selective attention to threat was not detected in the three conditions. However, symptoms of social anxiety reduced significantly from pre- to follow-up-assessment in all three conditions (d(within) = 0.63-1.24), with the procedure intended to train attention towards threat cues producing, relative to the control condition, a significantly greater reduction of social fears. There were no significant differences in social anxiety outcome between the training condition intended to induce attentional bias towards positive cues and the control condition. To our knowledge, this is the first RCT where a condition intended to induce attention bias to negative cues yielded greater emotional benefits than a control condition. Intriguingly, changes in symptoms are unlikely to be by the mechanism of change in attention processes since there was no change detected in bias per se. Implications of this finding for future research on attention bias modification in social anxiety are discussed.

  • 39.
    Boettcher, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Freie Universitaet Berlin, Germany.
    Rozental, Alexander
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Side effects in Internet-based interventions for Social Anxiety Disorder2014In: Internet Interventions, ISSN 2214-7829, Vol. 1, no 1, 3-11 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet-based interventions are effective in the treatment of various mental disorders and have already been integrated in routine health care in some countries. Empirical data on potential negative effects of these interventions is lacking. This study investigated side effects in an Internet-based treatment for Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD).

    A total of 133 individuals diagnosed with SAD took part in an 11-week guided treatment. Side effects were assessed as open formatted questions after week 2 and at post-treatment after week 11. Answers were independently rated by two coders. In addition, rates of deterioration and non-response were calculated for primary social anxiety and secondary outcome measures (depression and quality of life).

    In total, 19 participants (14%) described unwanted negative events that they related to treatment. The emergence of new symptoms was the most commonly experienced side effect, followed by the deterioration of social anxiety symptoms and negative well-being. The large majority of the described side effects had a temporary but no enduring negative effect on participants' well-being. At post-treatment, none of the participants reported deterioration on social anxiety measures and 0–7% deteriorated on secondary outcome measures. Non-response was frequent with 32–50% for social anxiety measures and 57–90% for secondary outcomes at post-assessment.

    Results suggest that a small proportion of participants in Internet-based interventions experiences negative effects during treatment. Information about potential side effects should be integrated in patient education in the practice of Internet-based treatments.

  • 40.
    Boettcher, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Free University of Berlin, Germany.
    Åstrom, Viktor
    Påhlsson, Daniel
    Schenström, Ola
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Internet-Based Mindfulness Treatment for Anxiety Disorders: A Randomized Controlled Trial2014In: Behavior Therapy, ISSN 0005-7894, E-ISSN 1878-1888, Vol. 45, no 2, 241-253 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mindfulness-based interventions have proven effective for the trans diagnostic treatment of heterogeneous anxiety disorders. So far, no study has investigated the potential of mindfulness-based treatments when delivered remotely via the Internet. The current trial aims at evaluating the efficacy of a stand-alone, unguided, Internet-based mindfulness treatment program for anxiety. Ninety-one participants diagnosed with social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, or anxiety disorder not otherwise specified were randomly assigned to a mindfulness treatment group (MTG) or to an online discussion forum control group (CG). Mindfulness treatment consisted of 96 audio files with instructions for various mindfulness meditation exercises. Primary and secondary outcome measures were assessed at pre-, post-treatment, and at 6-months follow-up. Participants of the MTG showed a larger decrease of symptoms of anxiety, depression, and insomnia from pre- to postassessment than participants of the CG (Cohen's d(between) = 0.36-0.99). Within effect sizes were large in the MTG (d = 0.82-1.58) and small to moderate in the CG (d = 0.45-0.76). In contrast to participants of the CG, participants of the MTG also achieved a moderate improvement in their quality of life. The study provided encouraging results for an Internet-based mindfulness protocol in the treatment of primary anxiety disorders. Future replications of these results will show whether Web-based mindfulness meditation can constitute a valid alternative to existing, evidence-based cognitive-behavioural Internet treatments.

  • 41. Bouchard, Stéphane
    et al.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Loranger, Claudie
    Botella, Cristina
    Mechanisms underlying the efficacy of exposure in virtual reality for anxiety disorders2016In: EABCT 2016 Abstract Book: Total Awareness, 2016, 139-139 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many studies have documented the efficacy and effectiveness of using virtual reality to conduct exposure in the treatment of anxiety disorders (Wiederhold & Bouchard, 2014). However, the factors related to treatment outcome remain unclear. In this symposium, four studies will be presented in order to document: (a) the role of presence in the potential of virtual reality (VR) to induce anxiety reactions in people suffering from an anxiety disorder (PTSD); (b) mechanisms of change, including treatment expectations, in the cognitive behavior treatment (CBT) of panic disorder where VR and in vivo techniques were used to conduct exposure; (c) the role of cognitive changes and self-efficacy compared to other predictors of change, such as presence and treatment alliance, in the CBT of social anxiety using VR and in vivo exposure; and (d) expanding these findings on predictors of change to augmented reality exposure for specific phobia. The first study is based on an experimental anxiety induction protocol while the other three use randomized control trials. The findings highlight to contribution of a few factors specific to technology-based exposure and those common to CBT of anxiety disorders. Attendees to the symposium will benefit from a clear understanding of what are the few key factors they need to take into account when conducting exposure with VR and augmented reality.

  • 42. Braun, Ulrike
    et al.
    Borg, Elisabet
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Predictive factors of successful self treatment for social anxiety - with or without elements of Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy2015In: Abstracts from the 7th Swedish Congress on internet interventions (SWEsrii), Linköping: Linköping University Press , 2015, 12-12 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) and self-help books have proven to be effective treatments for social anxiety. These treatments can increase the opportunity for more people to access evidence-based psychological treatment. More knowledge of the factors that predict treatment outcomes is needed for individuals to get the right type of treatment. The purpose of this study was to investigate if education level, recruitment mechanism, or previous psychological or psychopharmacological treatment predicts successful treatment outcomes in conjunction with self-help treatment for social anxiety disorder (with or without elements of ICBT). Two treatment groups (n = 138) underwent a six-week self-help treatment. Treatment for one of the groups included a mobile application. Measurements using the Liebowitz So-cial Anxiety Scale Self-Report as the main outcome measure were taken before, during, and in connection with the completion of treatment. Recruitment via DN was associated with higher odds of a successful treatment outcome (OR = 4.1) compared to recruitment via Facebook. Similarly, absence of previous psychological treatment was associated with higher odds of a successful treatment outcome (OR = 4.4).

  • 43.
    Bystedt, Samuel
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rozental, Alexander
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Boettcher, Johanna
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Clinicians' Perspectives on Negative Effects of Psychological Treatments2014In: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, ISSN 1650-6073, E-ISSN 1651-2316, Vol. 43, no 4, 319-331 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Negative effects of psychological treatments is a fairly unexplored area of clinical research. Previous investigations have indicated that a portion of all patients experience negative effects in terms of deterioration and various adverse events. Meanwhile, evidence suggests that many clinicians are untrained in identifying negative effects and unaware of the current research findings. The objective of the current study is thus to investigate clinicians' own perspectives and experiences of possible negative effects of psychological treatments. An invitation to participate in an anonymous online survey consisting of 14 open-ended questions was distributed via three mailing lists used by clinicians that primarily identify themselves as cognitive behavior therapists. The responses were analyzed using a qualitative method based on thematic analysis. In total, 74 participants completed the survey. A majority agreed that negative effects of psychological treatments exist and pose a problem, and many reported having experienced both deterioration and adverse events among patients in their own practice. The thematic analysis resulted in three core themes: characteristics of negative effects, causal factors, as well as methods and criteria for evaluating negative effects. The clinicians recognize that negative effects exist, but many are unaware of the current research findings and are unfamiliar with methods and criteria for identifying and preventing deterioration and adverse events. The results provide evidence for further dissemination of the present knowledge regarding negative effects, particularly during basic clinical training, as well as the need for raising awareness of the available methods for identifying and preventing negative effects.

  • 44.
    Bystedt, Samuel
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rozental, Alexander
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Practicing clinicians' understanding and experiences of negative effects in psychotherapy2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Research of psychotherapy has primarily focused on examining its efficacy and effectiveness for different psychiatric disorders. Hence, little is known about its potential for generating negative effects among patients undergoing treatment, even though some evidence suggest that 5-10% of all patients experience negative effects in terms of deterioration alone. Meanwhile, other types of adverse events might exist as well, e.g., social stigma, lower self-esteem, and less self-reliance. However, the knowledge of negative effects is currently scarce, and research has found that many practicing clinicians do not acknowledge that some patients might fare worse during treatment. Investigating practicing clinicians’ understanding and experiences of negative effects is therefore important in order to raise awareness of its occurrence and characteristics. Method: Participants were recruited through the Swedish Society for Behavior Therapy, the Section for Cognitive Behavior Therapy within the Swedish Psychological Association, and students attending the psychotherapist program at Stockholm University. Seventy four participants completed an online survey regarding negative effects of psychotherapy. The responses were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results: A majority of the participants believed that negative effects of psychotherapy exist, and some had personal experiences of patients encountering adverse events during treatment. Few received information about negative effects during their basic training in psychotherapy. Common negative effects were described as discomfort, lack of treatment effect, deterioration, dependency, and invasiveness. Possible causal factors were incompetence or inadequately applied methods, harmful treatment interventions, insufficient working alliance, among others. Only one participant was able to mention methods for monitoring negative effects during treatment. Conclusion: Practicing clinicians recognize that negative effects could pose a problem, but few were informed of its existence during their basic training in psychotherapy or know who to monitor it during treatment, warranting an increased awareness of negative effects among future clinicians.

  • 45. Böttcher, Johanna
    et al.
    Magnusson, Kristoffer
    Marklund, Arvid
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Challenger: eine, 'smarte' Erweiterung der internet-basierten Behandlung sozialer Ängste2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [de]

    Hintergrund: Online-Behandlungen für soziale Angststörungen (SAS) sind bereits gut untersucht. Ein nächster Schritt ist die Erprobung von Smartphone Anwendungen. Diese bieten zahlreiche Möglichkeiten, die Umsetzung einzelner Behandlungselemente im Alltag zu vereinfachen. „Challenger“ ist eine jüngst entwickelte App, die die Durchführung von Expositionsübungen unterstützt. Spielerisch bietet sie den Nutzer*innen Übungen an, die auf die individuellen Bedürfnisse der Betroffenen, sowie auf aktuelle räumliche und situationale Merkmale abgestimmt sind. Die vorliegende Studie untersucht, welchen zusätzlichen Nutzen Challenger zur internet-basierten Behandlung sozialer Ängste beiträgt.Methode: 209 Patient*innen mit SAS wurden zufällig drei Gruppen zugeteilt. Die erste Gruppe erhielt ein unbegleitetes Selbsthilfeprogramm mit zusätzlichem Zugang zur App, die zweite Gruppe erhielt ausschließlich das Selbsthilfeprogramm und die dritte Gruppe war eine Warteliste-Kontrollgruppe. Die Teilnehmer*innen füllten vor, nach und 12 Monate nach Ende der Behandlung Fragebögen zu sozialen Ängsten und sekundären Maßen aus.Ergebnisse: Beide aktive Gruppen zeigten bedeutsame Verbesserungen der sozialen Ängste. Patient*innen, die zusätzlich mit der App trainierten, waren der aktiven Vergleichsgruppe leicht überlegen (kontrolliertes d=0,25). Die Therapieerfolge waren über 12 Monate stabil. Diskussion: Die untersuchte Kombination der Challenger App mit internet-basierter Selbsthilfe war für Patient*innen mit SAS wirksam. Da die ungeleitete App keine personellen Ressourcen fordert und gleichzeitig einen neuartigen, spielerischen Zugang zu Expositionsübungen bietet, empfiehlt sich ihre weitere Erforschung in anderen Behandlungskontexten.

  • 46.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    15 Years of Internet Interventions Research: ANXIETY2014In: Oral Abstracts from the 7th Scientific Meeting of the International Society for Research on Internet Interventions, International Society for Research on Internet Interventions (ISRII) , 2014, 128-128 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden conduced its first randomized controlled trial on an anxiety disorder in the year 1999. Since then numerous trials and programs have been developed including problems such as panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, severe health anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, specific phobia, and mixed anxiety-depression. Moreover, there are studies on specific problems such as procrastination. With the exception of cognitive bias modification training most studies show effects in line with face-to-face cognitive behavior therapy. In addition to cognitive behavior therapy there are Swedish trials on mindfulness-based internet treatment, interpersonal psychotherapy, and psychodynamic internet treatment. This presentation will take the listener on a journey from the past, via the present and a place where the bright future can be seen.

  • 47.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Förord2013In: Kort om ångest / [ed] Daniel Freeman och Jason Freeman, Stockholm: Fri tanke , 2013, 1, 7-8 p.Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Ur förordet: "I boken beskrivs fobier, social fobi, paniksyndrom, generaliserat ångestsyndrom, tvångssyndrom och posttraumatiskt stressyndrom. Du får ta del av modern forskning och medryckande redogörelser för hur olika teoretiska skolbildningar ser på uppkomst och vidmakthållande. […] Jag hoppas att denna bok hjälper till att skapa en medvetenhet om ångestproblemen och därmed gör dem mindre tabubelagda."

  • 48.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Internet and Smartphone Based Treatments Including a New PTSD-Study2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our research group has - during the past 15 years - developed and tested internet interventions for more than 20 separate conditions totaling in close to 50 published randomized controlled trials. The studies cover a wide range of diagnoses including depression, social anxiety, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and pathological gambling. The treatments have mostly been based on cognitive behavior therapy. However, acceptance and commitment therapy, interpersonal psychotherapy and motivational interviewing have also been tested. In addition to the more traditional online therapies psychodynamic internet-based psychotherapy has also been evaluated. In general the effect sizes are large when active treatment is compared to a control group. In fact, in our recent systematic review and meta-analysis that has been accepted for publication, Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy was directly compared against face-to-face CBT within the same trial. The results showed a pooled effect size at post-treatment across of Hedges g = -0.01 (95% CI, -0.13 to 0.12), indicating that Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy and face-to-face treatment produce equivalent overall effects. In addition to giving an overview of internet-based treatments a new randomized controlled trial will be presented. The aim of this trial was to investigate the effects of guided internet-based cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Sixty-two participants with chronic PTSD, as assessed by the Clinician-administered PTSD Scale, were recruited via nationwide advertising and randomized to either treatment (n = 31) or delayed treatment attention control (n = 31). The ICBT treatment consisted of 8 weekly text-based modules containing psychoeducation, breathing retraining, imaginal and in vivo exposure, cognitive restructuring, and relapse prevention. Therapist support and feedback on homework assignment were given weekly via an online contact handling system. Assessments were made at baseline, post-treatment, and at 1-year follow-up. Main outcome measures were the Impact of Events Scale-Revised (IES-R) and the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PDS). Results showed significant reductions of PTSD symptoms (between group effect on the IES-R Cohen’s d = 1.25, and d = 1.24 for the PDS) compared to the control group. There were also effects on depression symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and quality of life. The results at one-year follow-up showed that treatment gains were maintained. In sum, these results suggest that ICBT with therapist support can reduce PTSD symptoms significantly.

  • 49.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Internet-based CBT Interventions2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) has a relatively short history, with the first trials being conducted in the late 1990s. Since then well above 150 randomized controlled trials suggest that ICBT can be effective. Effect sizes for ICBT have been well within the range of face-to-face CBT with the exception of unguided programs (e.g., not even minimal therapist contact), which usually, but not always, result in smaller effects.

    So, the evidence is there but how is it done? In this workshop two pioneers in the field will present some recent research findings, but primarily share their experiences of how to become a true expert internet therapist. It is clear that therapist guidance generally is important for good outcome – but how much, how often and when should you do it? And most importantly, what should you write in your feedback? Based on their own research from analyzing the written content of email messages, sent from both the client and the therapist, clear suggestions will be shared and also practiced during the workshop.

    In the workshop clinical case examples will be provided together with screenshots and demonstration of treatment systems including the Swedish web platform as well as a gamified virtual reality exposure therapy intervention. Furthermore, a recently tested smartphone application will also be briefly presented.

    Finally, you will learn about the risk of negative effects of Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy and how to measure the occurrence of symptom deterioration, adverse and unwanted events, and their relationship with long term treatment outcome.

  • 50.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Internet-Delivered CBT: State of the Art and Future Directions2016In: EABCT 2016 Abstract Book: Total Awareness, 2016, 18-18 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) has a relatively short history, with the first trials being conducted in the late 1990s. Since then well above 120 randomized controlled trials suggest that ICBT can be effective. Effect sizes for ICBT have been well within the range of face-to-face CBT with the exception of unguided programs (e.g., not even minimal therapist contact), which usually, but not always, result in smaller effects. So, the evidence is there but how is it done? In this keynote Carlbring will present recent research findings from efficacy and effectiveness studies, but also share experiences of how to become a true expert internet therapist. It is clear that therapist guidance generally is important for good outcome – but how much, how often and when should you do it? And most importantly, what should you write in your feedback? Based on the Swedish research from analyzing the written content of email messages, sent from both the client and the therapist, suggestions will be shared.

    In the keynote short clinical case examples will be provided together with screenshots and demonstration of treatment systems including the Swedish web platform as well as a gamified virtual reality exposure therapy intervention. Furthermore, a recently tested smartphone application will also be briefly presented.

    Finally, you will learn about the risk of negative effects of Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy and how to measure the occurrence of symptom deterioration, adverse and unwanted events, and their relationship with long term treatment outcome.

12345 1 - 50 of 237
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf