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  • 1.
    Aasi, Parisa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Rusu, Lazar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Leidner, Dorothy
    Perjons, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Corrales Estrada, Martha
    How Does the Organizational Culture of Collaborative Networks Influence IT Governance Performance in a Large Organization?2018In: Hawaii International Conference on Systems Sciences 2018 (HICSS-51), 2018, p. 4941-4951Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In today's complex organizations, IT governance is an important managerial challenge. IT governance deals with decisions and responsibilities concerning IT. There are many factors influencing IT governance. One factor that has remained relatively unexplored by academic research is that of organizational culture. This research explores the influence of the organizational culture of collaborative networks on IT governance performance. A case study was conducted in a large complex company with several networks. The findings indicated that the networks desire different organizational culture types based on their priorities for IT governance outcomes. A clan organizational culture is desired when aiming for effective use of IT for asset utilization and cost effective use of IT. An adhocracy culture is desired when prioritizing the effective use of IT for business growth. Finally a combination of market and hierarchy organizational culture is desired when seeking effective use of IT for business flexibility and cost cutting.

  • 2.
    Aasi, Parisa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Rusu, Lazar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Leidner, Dorothy
    Perjons, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Corrales Estrada, Martha
    What is the role of organizational culture in IT governance performance of collaborative virtual networks?2018In: International Journal of IT - Business Alignment and Governance, ISSN 1947-9611, E-ISSN 1947-962X, Vol. 9, no 1, article id 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In today's complex organizations, IT governance is an important managerial challenge. IT governance deals with decisions and responsibilities concerning IT. There are many factors influencing IT governance. One factor that has remained relatively unexplored by academic research is that of organizational culture. This research explores the influence of the organizational culture of collaborative networks on IT governance performance. A case study was conducted in a large complex company with several networks. The findings indicated that the networks fit better with different organizational culture types based on their priorities for IT governance outcomes to maximize performance. A clan organizational culture is desired when aiming for effective use of IT for asset utilization and cost-effective use of IT. An adhocracy culture fits better when prioritizing the effective use of IT for business growth. Finally, a combination of market and hierarchy organizational culture is desired and fits better when seeking effective use of IT for business flexibility and cost cutting.

  • 3.
    Alwazae, Meshari
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Kjellin, Harald
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Perjons, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    A synthesized classification system for best practices2014In: Vine: The Journal of Information and Knowledge Management Systems, ISSN 0305-5728, E-ISSN 1474-1032, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 249-266Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The aim of the study is to propose a classification system for best practices (BPs). The system is intended for organizations that are interested in indexing, storing and retrieving large quantities of BPs. Design/methodology/approach – An extensive literature survey to identify relevant articles by searching e-resource databases, including international journals and conferences related to the use of BP was conducted. A content analysis was conducted on selected articles to identify how BPs can be indexed. Findings – The authors are concerned with identifying what BP frameworks exist in literature and how BPs can be classified based on the features of these BP frameworks. Subsequently, they reviewed the identified frameworks within the literature and built a BP classification system. This classification system consists of a number of features, referred to as variables, where each variable is associated with a set of possible values. Originality/value – The proposed BP classification system is intended to provide a guideline for recognizing general characteristics for all BPs in any domain or organization to aid stakeholders in classifying BPs.

  • 4.
    Alwazae, Meshari M. S.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Johannesson, Paul
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Perjons, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Evaluation of a Classification System for Best Practices2015In: Proceedings of the 48th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences: 5–8 January 2015 Kauai, Hawaii / [ed] Tung X. Bui, Ralph H. Sprague, Jr., IEEE Computer Society, 2015, p. 3702-3711Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The practical problem addressed in this paper is that it can be problematic to find appropriate best practices (BPs) in a large collection of BPs, covering many different domains, within an organizational database. Our goal was to propose a classification system of BP documentation to facilitate effective use and retrieval of BPs documents in such a large collection of BPs, independent of any domains. We have designed such a domain independent classification system and evaluated it with practitioners and academic experts. We found that all the BP characteristics and labeled values in the proposed classification system were recognized and applied by practitioners as well as academic experts. However, it turned out that some of the characteristics were particularly useful. These characteristics were: implementation area, level of formalization, completeness of description, Balanced Scorecard perspectives, and management process.

  • 5.
    Alwazae, Meshari M. S.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Perjons, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Kjellin, Harald
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Quality Measures for Documentation of Best Practices2014In: 2014 47th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS) / [ed] Sprague, R. H., IEEE Computer Society, 2014, p. 3410-3419Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has identified a set of factors that may impact the success of implementing a best practice (BP). One such factor is to properly document the BP. Without a high quality documentation of BPs it might be difficult to understand and implement BPs within an organization. Therefore, we propose a set of quality measures (QMs) for BPs categorized in the form of a template, aimed at supporting the quality enhancement of documented BPs. The proposed template can be applied during the design of BPs in order to support the construction of high quality documentation of BPs, but can also be applied during the evaluation of already designed BPs. A tentative template was designed based on both a literature review and our own experiences in the area of Knowledge Management. We evaluated the tentative template by presenting it to practitioners and academic experts in the area of BP. Based on their evaluation we refined the model in an iterative approach, adjusting the QMs after each practitioners’ and academic experts’ input until we reached a final template. In this paper, we present the final template of QMs, and demonstrate its feasibility by applying it to existing BPs from a real- life organization. The research methodology applied was design science research.

  • 6.
    Alwazae, Meshari
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Perjons, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Johannesson, Paul
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Applying a Template for Best Practice Documentation2015In: Procedia Computer Science, ISSN 1877-0509, E-ISSN 1877-0509, Vol. 72, p. 252-260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge Management has become a key instrument for creating, identifying and sharing knowledge assets in organizations. Best Practice (BP) is a useful means for organizations to improve knowledge sharing. However, low quality of BP documentations can hinder a successful implementation of BPs, since practitioners may not be able to correctly and efficiently use them, or even trust them. In this paper, a BP Document Template (BPDT) for high quality documentation is presented. The final BPDT is a result of the combination of two templates, the first one created based on interviews with knowledge management experts and the second one based on a literature review using grounded theory. The final BPDT has been applied in three real-life organizations for demonstrating its benefits, drawbacks, completeness, ease of use, and whether it also supports both the design of BPs and the evaluation of already designed BPs. The demonstration showed promising results but also some drawbacks. The identified drawbacks can be used as input for future research.

  • 7.
    Alwazae, Meshari
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Perjons, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Johannesson, Paul
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Template-driven Best Practice DocumentationIn: Journal of Information & Knowledge Management, ISSN 0219-6492, E-ISSN 1793-6926Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge Management has become a key instrument for identifying, creating and sharing organizational knowledge assets. An attractive means for sharing knowledge is Best Practices (BPs), which are proven as well as efficient and effective solutions to recurring problems. BPs can offer significant benefits, including improved performance, reduced re-work and cost savings. However, the implementation of BPs raises several challenges, one of which is that the low quality of BP documentation can impede the use of BPs. One way to address this challenge is by supporting designers in structuring BP documents so that they become complete, uniform and easy-to-use. This support can take the form of a BP Document Template that prescribes the structure of BP documents by defining relevant attributes for describing BPs. This paper proposes a comprehensive and practical BP Document Template for supporting the creation, use and evaluation of BP documents. The design of this template is an example of design science research including requirements elicitation, artifact development, demonstration, and evaluation. The development is based on a combination of expert interviews and a literature study using Grounded Theory, while the demonstration applies the proposed template in three real-life cases, and the evaluation is based on expert interviews. The proposed BP Document Template consolidates, integrates and extends previous work on BP documentation. It thereby offers an effective tool for BP designers, managers, and users that can support them in the design, evaluation and application of BPs.

  • 8.
    Alwazae, Meshari
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Perjons, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Kjellin, Harald
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Verifying the Usefulness of a Classification System of Best Practices2013In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Information Retrieval and the International Conference on Knowledge Management and Information Sharing / [ed] Ana Fred ; Kecheng Liu ; Joaquim Filipe, SciTePress, 2013, p. 405-412Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transfer of best practices (BPs) within an organization can significantly enhance knowledge transfer. However, in order to manage a large number of BPs within an organization, there need to be some structure for how to classify the BPs. In this paper, we present a best practice (BP) system for classifying BPs and evaluate how easy the system is to use for classifying best practices. The research approach applied was design science, which is characterized by designing an artifact in this case a BP classification system, and evaluating it. The evaluation was carried out by asking Master’s students to collect two BPs from organizations and subsequently having them classify the BPs according to the BP classification system. They were also asked to motivate their choices during their act of classification. The results of the evaluation are promising: the BP system could be used for classifying BPs since students utilized all possible values of the BP system during the act of classification. Also, it was easy for the students to justify their classifications, which might be interpreted as an ease of using the BP classification system.

  • 9.
    Andersson, Birger
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Bider, Ilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Johannesson, Paul
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Perjons, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Towards a formal definition of goal-oriented business process patterns2005In: Business Process Management Journal, ISSN 1463-7154, E-ISSN 1758-4116, Vol. 11, no 6, p. 650-662Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – Organizations of today are becoming ever more focused on their business processes. This has resulted in an increasing interest in using best practices for business process re-engineering. Two problems arise in connection to using best practices: how to find a best practice that suits particular purposes, and how to ensure that the process from the best practice has the same nature as the process under re-engineering. The purpose of this paper is to address these issues.

    Design/methodology/approach – The paper suggests using business process patterns, i.e. relatively high level business process models, for making near formal comparison of business processes. The paper analyzes widespread modeling techniques to find out which of them suits the task of building patterns for comparison. Based on this analysis, the state-flow modeling technique is chosen and first steps towards formal definition of business process patterns based on this technique are suggested.

    Findings – A pattern is defined based on the notions of state space, goal, as a surface in the state space, and valid movements towards the goal. A thinkable procedure of constructing patterns is demonstrated on two real-life examples. A hypothetical procedure for comparing process is suggested but it still needs to be verified in practice.

    Originality/value – The originality of the paper is the way the patterns are formulated and the underlying model, the state-flow view of processes, upon which the patterns are founded.

  • 10.
    Andersson, Birger
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Bider, Ilia
    Johannesson, Paul
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Perjons, Erik A
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Towards a Formal Definition of Goal-Oriented Business Patterns2005In: Business Process Management Journal, ISSN 1463-7154, E-ISSN 1758-4116, Vol. 11, no 6, p. 650-662Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Organizations of today are becoming ever more focused on their business processes. This has resulted in an increasing interest in using best practices for business process reengineering. Two problems arise in connection to using best practices: how to find a best practice that suits particular purposes, and how to ensure that the process from the best practice has the same nature as the process under reengineering. The paper suggests using business process patterns, i.e. relatively high level business process models, for making near formal comparison of business processes. The paper analyzes widespread modeling techniques to find out which of them suits the task of building patterns for comparison. Based on this analysis, the state-flow modeling technique is chosen and first steps towards formal definition of business process patterns based on this technique are suggested. A pattern is defined based on the notions of state space, goal, as a surface in the state space, and valid movements towards the goal. A thinkable procedure of constructing patterns is demonstrated on two real-life examples. A hypothetical procedure for comparing process is suggested but it still needs to be verified in practice.

  • 11.
    Bider, Ilia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Bellinger, Gene
    Perjons, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Balancing Agility with Stability: Systemic View on Business Processes2013In: Beyond Alignment: Applying Systems Thinking in Architecting Enterprises / [ed] John Gotze, Anders Jensen-Waud, College Publications, 2013, p. 413-438Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    On the first glance, the concept of enterprise/business agility and business process management (BPM) seems to be in conflict. Enterprise/business agility means the an enterprise’s ability to react on changes in the surrounding business world as well as discover new opportunities constantly appearing in the market for launching new products and services. BPM is, normally, considered as a tool for achieving high efficiency through standardization, specialization, and automation. By taking a systemic view on business processes this paper shows that BPM can serve as a way of achieving agility rather than being a barrier to it. The presented systemic view on business processes is based on an enterprise model consisting of three layerstypes of components: an assets, a sensors and a business process instances layer. These components of this model can be recursively decomposed, which allows for different levels of details when modeling an enterprise. The paper shows how the Assets-Sensors-Processes three-layered model can be used for finding new ways of achieving enterprise/business agility, e.g., through cross-manning of business processes. It also discusses changes that need to be introduced in the contemporary theory and practice of BPM in order to make BPM a tool for achieving agility as well as the role that Systems Thinking should play in achieving this goal.

  • 12.
    Bider, Ilia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Henkel, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Kowalski, Stewart
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Perjons, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Reuse of Simulated Cases in Teaching Enterprise Modelling2015In: Advances in Conceptual Modeling: ER 2015 Workshops AHA, CMS, EMoV, MoBID, MORE-BI, MReBA, QMMQ, and SCME, Stockholm, Sweden, October 19-22, 2015, Proceedings / [ed] Manfred A.Jeusfeld, Kamalakar Karlapalem, Springer, 2015, p. 337-346Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Case-based teaching/learning is widely used in Information Systems (IS) education in general, and in teaching/learning modeling, in particular. A case presents to the students a real or imaginary business situation asking them to build a model of it, or showing how such model can be built. In situations where a business case is presented in a text form, reusing it as is, or with modification in the same or a different course does not constitute much of a problem. However, using textual description for presenting cases has drawbacks on its own, as it does not help the students to acquire the skills of dissecting analyzing and analyzing the reality when building a model. The latter can be better achieved when a case is presented in a multimedia form, e.g. recorded interviews, website of a company, etc. As the previous works of the same authors show, such case presentations gives the students better understanding of the essence of modeling, which is appreciated by the students. The dark side of the multimedia presentation is that such a case presentation requires more time to build compared to using a textual form, and it is not easy to change it. This paper is a preliminary inquiry into the problem of reusing of cases presented with the help of multimedia. It presents a conceptual model of the domain aimed at discussing the potential of reuse of the whole case or its parts, and concludes with considerations on reusability that need to be covered when building multimedia presentations of cases.

  • 13.
    Bider, Ilia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Henkel, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Kowalski, Stewart
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Perjons, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Simulating apprenticeship using multimedia in higher education: A case from the information systems field2015In: Interactive Technology and Smart Education, ISSN 1741-5659, E-ISSN 1758-8510, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 137-154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – This paper aims to report on a project aimed at using simulation for improving the quality of teaching and learning modeling skills. More specifically, the project goal was to facilitate the students to acquire skills of building models of organizational structure and behavior through analysis of internal and external documents, and interviews with employees and management. An important skill that practitioners in the information systems field need to possess is the skill of modeling information systems. The main problem with acquiring modeling skills is to learn how to extract knowledge from the unstructured reality of business life. Design/methodology/approach – To achieve the goal, a solution was introduced in the form of a computerized environment utilizing multimedia to simulate a case of an apprenticeship situation. The paper gives an overview of the problem that the solution addresses, presents the solution and reports on the trial completed in a first-year undergraduate course at Stockholm University. Findings – The results of the trial indicate that using rich multimedia along with a case-based learning approach did improve the overall performance of the students. It was also shown that both students’ and the teachers’ attitudes toward the solution were positive. Originality/value – The solution presented in this paper, using computer simulation in teaching/learning by focusing on an apprenticeship situation, can be reused by other university teachers, especially in the Information Systems discipline. This solution can thus be used in teaching, system design, requirements engineering, business analysis and other courses typical for information systems.

  • 14.
    Bider, Ilia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Henkel, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Kowalski, Stewart
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences. Gjøvik University College, Norway.
    Perjons, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Teaching Enterprise Modeling Based on Multi-media Simulation: A Pragmatic Approach2015In: E-Technologies: 6th International Conference, MCETECH 2015, Montréal, QC, Canada, May 12-15, 2015, Proceedings / [ed] Morad Benyoucef, Michael Weiss, Hafedh Mili, Springer, 2015, p. 239-254Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper addresses the problem of how university students can acquire enterprise modeling skills so that they can build high quality models of organizational structure and behavior in practical settings after their graduation. The best way of learning such skills is apprenticeship where the students follow a modeling master in a real business case. However, in a university classroom setting this is difficult to arrange, if even possible. Therefore, the paper suggests the use of a computer-based simulation as a good approximation to apprenticeship. Moreover, it suggests a pragmatic, low-cost approach making the idea accessible even for courses with a low budget. A business case is simulated by providing the students with multi-media information sources that are usually used by system or business analysts when building models. The sources consist of recorded interviews with the stakeholders, a web-site of the enterprise under investigation, internal protocols from management meetings, results of twitter search on the company name, etc. The paper presents practical guidelines on how to build such simulation based on a trial successfully completed at the Department of Computer and System Sciences at Stockholm University.

  • 15.
    Bider, Ilia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Henkel, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Kowalski, Stewart
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Perjons, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Technology Enhanced Learning of Modeling Skills in the Field of Information Systems2015In: IADIS international conference on information systems, 2015 / [ed] Miguel Baptista Nunes, Pedro Isaías and Philip Powell, IADIS Press, 2015, p. 121-128Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on a project aimed at using simulation for improving the quality of teaching and learning in the field of Information Systems. More specifically, the project goal was facilitating the students to acquire skills of building models of organizational structure and behavior through analysis of internal and external documents, and interviewing employees and management. The solution tested in the project was a computerized environment utilizing multi-media to simulate a business case. The paper gives an overview of the problem that the solution addresses, presents the solution, and reports on a trial completed in a first year undergraduate course at Stockholm University. The results of the trial indicate that using rich multi-media along with a case based learning approach did improve the overall performance of the students. It was also shown that both students’ and the teachers’ attitude toward the solution was positive.

  • 16.
    Bider, Ilia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Johannesson, Paul
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Perjons, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Design science research as movement between individual and generic situation-problem-solution spaces2012In: Lecture Notes in Information Systems and Organisation, Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer , 2012, p. 35-61Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Design science is an emerging research paradigm in the Information Systems area. A design science project typically includes the activities of problem analysis, requirements definition, artifact development, and evaluation. These activities are not to be seen as sequential but can be carried out in any order. The purpose of this paper is to propose a conceptualization and formalization of design science research that show the possible ways in which a design science project can be carried out. The proposal is based on the state oriented view on business processes and suggests that design science research can be viewed as movements in a space of situations, problems and solutions.

  • 17.
    Bider, Ilia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Johannesson, Paul
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Perjons, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Do workflow-based systems satisfy the demands of the agile enterprise of the future?2013In: Business Process Management Workshops: BPM 2012 International Workshops. Revised Papers / [ed] Marcello La Rosa, Pnina Soffer, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2013, p. 59-64Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Workflow-based systems dominate the theory and practice of Business Process Management (BPM) leaving little space to other directions, including Adaptive Case Management. While there are reasons for such dominance in today's enterprise environment, it is time the BPM community studied this dominance in the light of the requirements of the enterprises of the future. This paper analyzes whether workflow-based systems will be able to satisfy business needs in the future based on the assumption that the essential property of the enterprise of the future is agility. The paper identifies properties that a business process should possess in order to be suitable for employing a workflow-based system to support it. Then, it analyzes whether these properties are compatible with the needs of the enterprise of the future and shows why workflow-based systems may become obsolete in the future.

  • 18.
    Bider, Ilia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Johannesson, Paul
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Perjons, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Justifying ACM: why we need a paradigm shift in BPM2014In: Empowering knowledge workers: new ways to leverage case management / [ed] Layna Fischer, Lighthouse Point: Future Strategies Incorporated , 2014Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Bider, Ilia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Johannesson, Paul
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Perjons, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Structured Shared Spaces as a Basis for Building Business Process Support Systems: A Generic Model and Analysis of Examples2018In: Complex Systems Informatics and Modeling Quarterly, E-ISSN 2255-9922, no 16, p. 36-60, article id 94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Though the concept of shared spaces had been known in Groupware and Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) for quite a while, it did not become popular until the arrival of the Internet and social software. Implicitly, the concept of shared spaces has penetrated many IT-areas, including the area of Business Process Management. Though shared spaces are used in many systems and tools, like Google Drive and Projectplace, there is a lack of research investigating this usage in a generic way. The article aims to fill this gap by introducing a generic model of a Business Process Support (BPS) system based on shared space that supports the comparison, analysis and design of BPS systems. In addition, the article goes in more details on one design issue – the structuring of shared spaces. This is done by analyzing and comparing two different BPS systems that exploit the concept of shared spaces, though implicitly. These systems use different approaches to shared space structuring. The first one organizes the information by grouping similar types of items without regard to the flow of activities in a business process, while the other organizes the information around groups of activities that are usually completed as a block. Which model to choose in a particular situation depends on the characteristics of the business process and its participants. In order to facilitate this choice, the article offers a number of guidelines derived from the experience of using the two BPS systems in practice. The article also discusses in what circumstances BPS systems with shared spaces are preferable to traditional workflow BPS systems.

  • 20.
    Bider, Ilia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Johannesson, Paul
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Perjons, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Using Empirical Knowledge and Studies in the Frame of Design Science Research2013In: Design Science at the Intersection of Physical and Virtual Design: The 8th International Conference, DESRIST 2013. Proceedings / [ed] Jan vom Brocke, Riitta Hekkala, Sudha Ram, Matti Rossi, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2013, p. 463-470Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this research in progress is relationships between Design Science Research (DSR) on one hand, and Empirical Research (ER) on the other. More specifically, it is devoted to investigating which tasks included in a DSR project should/could require conducting ER studies or using already existing ER knowledge. The paper presents a methodology for enumerating DSR tasks and gives examples of logical analysis of some of them to determine requirements or usability of ER studies or ER-related knowledge for completing these tasks. The enumeration of DSR tasks is done by considering possible trajectories of DSR projects in a specially constructed state space. The latter consists of two subspaces; one is the space of specific situations, problems and solutions, the other – of generic situations, problems and solutions. The first subspace represents test cases used for validating DSR hypotheses that the second subspace represents. In the terms of this space, DSR is considered to be a way of generating and testing hypotheses for future adoption. The project trajectory is identified via movements within and between subspaces. Examples of such movements are: generalization of a specific situation/problem, designing a generic solution, evaluating the results of implementing a solution in a specific situation.

  • 21.
    Bider, Ilia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Johannesson, Paul
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Perjons, Erik A
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    In Search of the Holy Grail: Integrating social software with BPM Experience report2010In: Enterprise, Business-Process and Information Systems Modeling: / [ed] Ilia Bider, Berlin: Springer Verlag , 2010, p. 1-13Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper is devoted to finding a view on business processes that helps to introduce into business process support systems a notion of shared spaces widely used in social software. The paper presents and analyses the experience of the authors from a number of development projects aimed at building business process support systems. The authors define a role that shared spaces can play in business process support and set some requirements on the shared space structure based on this role. They then analyze their projects in order to show how these requirements can be met and describe what practical results have been achieved in each project.

  • 22.
    Bider, Ilia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Johannesson, Paul
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Perjons, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Johansson, Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Design Science in Action: Developing a Framework for Introducing IT Systems into Operational Practice2012In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Systems, ICIS 2012 / [ed] Joey, F. George, Association for Information Systems, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents an example of using design science research for solving a problem arising from local practice. The problem concerns adoption of new technology. The paper aims to integrate existing approaches and theories of technology acceptance and change management in a framework useful for practical purposes. It is based on the idea that the successful introduction of an IT system requires a number of conditions to be satisfied as well as means for bringing about the satisfaction of these conditions. The level of satisfaction of the conditions can be measured by a set of parameters, such as the level of strategic, tactical and operational understanding of the system by the users. Means include various types of actions, tools and strategies. The introduction process is steered via periodically measuring the parameters, and applying means that help to change the level of satisfaction of the conditions.

  • 23.
    Bider, Ilia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Olsson, Sofia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Perjons, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Stray lamb - misalignment in a socio-technical structure of an enterprise when transitioning to intelligent products2016In: STPIS 2016: Socio-Technical Perspective in IS Development: Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop on Socio-Technical Perspective in IS Development co-located with 28th International Conference on Advanced Information Systems Engineering (CAiSE 2016) / [ed] Stewart Kowalski, Peter M. Bednar, Ilia Bider, 2016, p. 25-38Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Products from traditional engineering companies, such as cars and refrigerators, are evolving to become intelligent via combining hardware, software, sensors, and connectivity/networks. In such products, the importance of software increases exponential. Therefore, new software development units are emerging. This may cause misalignment between the traditional parts of the engineering companies and the new emerging software development units. The misalignment concerns both the technical part of the socio-technical structure of the companies, i.e. a conflict between different project management methodologies in the units, and the social part, i.e. the power roles of different unis and coordination between them. Viable System Model (VSM) has been applied to study the nature of misalignment in one such company, a large car manufacturer. This paper reports on the experience obtained during this study. With the help of VSM, misalignment was identified and diagnosed as a “stray lamb” – a pathological archetype related to a new and important unit of the company not being properly incorporated into the rest of the system.

  • 24.
    Bider, Ilia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Perjons, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Challenges in Assessing Parameters of a Socio-Technical System2017In: Proceedings of STPIS 2017: Socio-Technical Perspective in IS development / [ed] Stewart Kowalski, Peter Bednar, Ilia Bider, CEUR-WS.org , 2017, p. 98-105Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper is an investigation of challenges in assessing parameters of a socio-technical system. The investigation is carried out using an augmented socio-technical matrix the quadrants of which represent culture, type of structure, methods/technique and type of technology. Investigation concerns a specific kind of matrixes developed for the purpose of achieving the right level of flexibility for a business process. The paper lists the challenges that need to be addressed when assessing parameters of a socio-technical system and suggests ways of dealing with them. Conclusion includes some generalization and plans for the future.

  • 25.
    Bider, Ilia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Perjons, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Defining Transformational Patterns for Business Model Innovation2018In: Perspectives in Business Informatics Research: Proceedings / [ed] Jelena Zdravkovic, Jānis Grabis, Selmin Nurcan, Janis Stirna, Springer, 2018, p. 81-95Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The pace of changes in the business environment in which a modern enterprise operates requires the enterprise to constantly review its business models in order to survive and prosper in the dynamic world. This exploratory study investigates how to help the enterprise to innovate their business models based on the concepts of fractal enterprise model and transformational patterns. The paper suggests an approach to Business Model Innovation (BMI) where the focus is on transformational patterns. It discusses the structure of such patterns, and based on examples, it presents an approach on how such patterns can be derived from cases of completed business transformations.

  • 26.
    Bider, Ilia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences. IbisSoft AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Perjons, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Design science in action: developing a modeling technique for eliciting requirements on business process management (BPM) tools2015In: Software and Systems Modeling, ISSN 1619-1366, E-ISSN 1619-1374, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 1159-1188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Selecting a suitable business process management (BPM) tool to build a business process support system for a particular business process is difficult. There are a number of BPM tools on the market that are available as systems to install locally and as services in the cloud. These tools are based on different BPM paradigms (e.g., workflow or case management) and provide different capabilities (e.g., enforcement of the control flow, shared spaces, or a collaborative environment). This makes it difficult for an organization to select a tool that would fit the business processes at hand. The paper suggests a solution for this problem. The core of the solution is a modeling technique for business processes for eliciting their requirements for a suitable BPM tool. It produces a high-level, business process model, called a “step-relationship” model that depicts the essential characteristics of a process in a paradigm-independent way. The solution presented in this paper has been developed based on the paradigm of design science research, and the paper discusses the research project from the design science perspective. The solution has been applied in two case studies in order to demonstrate its feasibility.

  • 27.
    Bider, Ilia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Perjons, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Preparing for the era of cloud computing: Towards a framework for selecting business process support services2012In: Enterprise, Business-Process and Information Systems Modeling: 13th International Conference, BPMDS 2012, 17th International Conference, EMMSAD 2012, and 5th EuroSymposium, held at CAiSE 2012, Gdańsk, Poland, June 25-26, 2012. Proceedings, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2012, p. 16-30Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The shift to the cloud computing creates new opportunities for the IT usage in business. New standard and customizable services that do not require high initial investment allow business people to choose services to support their business activities without involving technicians. Business process solutions providers are already moving their products to the cloud offering them as services. The question arises of how a business person, e.g. a department manager, can decide on which service suits best his/her needs. The paper investigates this issue in respect to the services that provide fully customizable operational support to business processes. The paper suggests a practical framework for defining requirements based on characteristics of the process to be supported by the service. The framework determines the needs of such capabilities as process flow support, shared spaces, team collaboration, etc., based on the high-level analysis of a process in question. The framework is aimed at serving as a basis for designing a practical methodology for selecting business process support services.

  • 28.
    Bider, Ilia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Perjons, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Reviving Language/Action Perspective in the Era of Social Software: Research in Progress2012In: Emerging Topics in the Practice of Enterprise Modeling: 5th IFIP WG 8.1Working Conference, PoEM 2012 / [ed] Kurt Sandkuhl, Ulf Seigerroth, Janis Stirna, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Language/Action perspective (LAP) was introduced by Flores and Winograd and their associates in the 1980th. This perspective, which is based on the speech act theory, has been originally suggested as guidelines for designing information systems. Though LAP had some success in designing commercial systems, it had never become widespread as a basis for systems design. This paper suggests reviving LAP, however, not as a tool for system design, but as a tool for analysis of communication models of systems designed on some other principles than LAP. The paper is focused on modern systems of social software type in which communication is based on the usage of shared spaces. The paper is a research in progress report that presents the main ideas, a research plan, and preliminary results achieved in its first two steps: (1) testing LAP for analysis of one system with shared spaces architecture, and (2) classification of atomic communication acts typical for business processes. The long term goal of the research is to create practical recommendations for choosing an appropriate communication model for particular business needs.

  • 29.
    Bider, Ilia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Perjons, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Towards a Business Process Modeling Technique for Agile Development of Case Management Systems2017In: Complex Systems Informatics and Modeling Quarterly, E-ISSN 2255-9922, no 13, p. 73-113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A modern organization needs to adapt its behavior to changes in the business environment by changing its Business Processes (BP) and corresponding Business Process Support (BPS) systems. One way of achieving such adaptability is via separation of the system code from the process description/model by applying the concept of executable process models. Furthermore, to ease introduction of changes, such process model should separate different perspectives, for example, control-flow, human resources, and data perspectives, from each other. In addition, for developing a completely new process, it should be possible to start with a reduced process model to get a BPS system quickly running, and then continue to develop it in an agile manner. This article consists of two parts, the first sets requirements on modeling techniques that could be used in the tools that supports agile development of BPs and BPS systems. The second part suggests a business process modeling technique that allows to start modeling with the data/information perspective which would be appropriate for processes supported by Case or Adaptive Case Management (CM/ACM) systems. In a model produced by this technique, called data-centric business process model, a process instance/case is defined as sequence of states in a specially designed instance database, while the process model is defined as a set of rules that set restrictions on allowed states and transitions between them. The article details the background for the project of developing the data-centric process modeling technique, presents the outline of the structure of the model, and gives formal definitions for a substantial part of the model

  • 30.
    Bider, Ilia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Perjons, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Using a Fractal Enterprise Model for Business Model Innovation2017In: RADAR+EMISA 2017 BPMDS 2017 RADAR, EMMSAD 2017 RADAR, and EMISA 2017 Workshop: Joint Proceedings / [ed] Jens Gulden, Selmin Nurcan, Iris Reinhartz-Berger, Wided Guédria, Palash Bera, Sérgio Guerreiro, Michael Fellmann, Matthias Weidlich, CEUR-WS.org , 2017, p. 20-29Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In their previous work, the authors have developed a new kind of enterprise model, called fractal enterprise model, that connects enterprise processes via assets used for running these processes. One of the possible usages of this model is facilitating innovation, more exactly, changing or extending a business model used in the enterprise. This research-in-progress paper presents the idea of how such facilitation could be arranged, and lists the problems that need to be solved in order to convert the idea into a practical methodology. The discussionis based on a hypothetical example.

  • 31.
    Bider, Ilia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Perjons, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Using Fractal Enterprise Model to Assist Complexity Management2018In: BIR-WS 2018: BIR Short Papers, Workshops and Doctoral Consortium / [ed] Jelena Zdravkovic, Jānis Grabis, Selmin Nurcan, Janis Stirna, CEUR-WS.org , 2018, p. 233-238Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with the problems of a complex organizational system in which not each of its parts is directly connected to all other parts. For such a system, it is important to identify which parts/sub-systems need to be directly connected to each other, and which could be left without such connections. The paper puts forward a hypothesis that a suitable enterprise model could be used for this end, and investigates the suitability for this end of one particular enterprise modeling technique called Fractal Enterprise Model.

  • 32.
    Bider, Ilia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Perjons, Erik A
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Evaluating adequacy of business process modelling approaches2009In: Handbook of research on complex dynamic process management: techniques for adaptability in turbulent environments / [ed] Minhong Wang and Zhaohao Sun, Hershey, PA: IGI Global, 2009Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Bider, Ilia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Perjons, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Elias, Mturi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Untangling the Dynamic Structure of an Enterprise by Applying a Fractal Approach to Business Processes2012In: The Practice of Enterprise Modeling: Proceedings / [ed] Kurt Sandkuhl, Ulf Seigerroth, Janis Stirna, Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2012, p. 61-75Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A promising approach for analyzing and designing an enterprise is to consider it as a complex adaptive system (CAS) able to self-adjust to the changes in the environment. An important part of designing a CAS model is to untangle the dynamic structure of an enterprise. This paper presents a procedure for identifying all processes that exist in an enterprise as well as their interconnections. The procedure makes use of a number of process-assets and asset-processes archetypes. The first ones help to find out what assets are needed for a particular process, the second ones help to find out supporting processes that are needed to have each type of assets ready available for deployment. The procedure is based on the ideas of fractal organization where the same pattern is repeated on different levels. The uncovered dynamic structure of an enterprise can support strategic planning, change management, as well as discovering and preventing misbalances between its business processes. The paper also presents an example of applying the procedure to research activities of a university.

  • 34.
    Bider, Ilia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Perjons, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Elias, Mturi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Johannesson, Paul
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    A fractal enterprise model and its application for business development2017In: Software and Systems Modeling, ISSN 1619-1366, E-ISSN 1619-1374, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 663-689Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper suggests a new type of enterprise models called fractal enterprise models (FEM), with accompanying methodological support for their design. FEM shows interconnections between the business processes in an enterprise by connecting them to the assets they use and manage. Assets considered in the model could be tangible (buildings, heavy machinery, etc.) and intangible (employees, business process definitions, etc.). A FEM model is built by using two types of patterns called archetypes: a process-assets archetype that connects a process with assets used in it, and an asset-processes archetype that connects an asset with processes aimed to manage this asset (e.g., hiring people, or servicing machinery). Alternating these patterns creates a fractal structure that makes relationships between various parts of the enterprise explicit. FEM can be used for different purposes, including finding a majority of the processes in an enterprise and planning business change or radical transformation. Besides discussing FEM and areas of its usage, the paper presents results from a completed project in order to test the practical usefulness of FEM and its related methodological support.

  • 35.
    Bider, Ilia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Perjons, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Riaz Dar, Zakria
    Using Data-Centric Business Process Modeling for Discovering Requirements for Business Process Support Systems: Experience Report2013In: Enterprise, Business-Process and Information Systems Modeling BPMDS 2013: Proceedings / [ed] Selmin Nurcan et al., Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2013, p. 63-77Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Building a process model is a natural part of the requirements engineering (RE) when creating requirements for a computerized system/service to support a business process. When the process in question is workflowable (i.e. a process in which the order and the flow of tasks/ operations/activities can be predefined), there are plenty of modeling techniques, notations and tools that can help in this undertaking. These techniques, however, are of little use for discovering requirements for support of non-workflowable processes in which the information artifacts created in the process (e.g. reports, lecture slides, budget documents) are of more importance than the flow of tasks/operations/activities. Other types of techniques, notations and tools are required in this case. This paper reports on a project of using a data-centric modeling approach supported by a computerized tool in RE. The goal of the project was to test whether the approach could be useful for the task of discovering requirements on a computerized system/service supporting the process, and which and how much of requirements could be captured using it. The process used in the test is a process of course preparation in the authors’ own department. The paper reports on the environment in which the project has been conducted, results achieved, and lessons learned.

  • 36.
    El-Mekawy, Mohamed
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Perjons, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Rusu, Lazar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    A Framework to Support Practitioners in Evaluating Business-IT Alignment Models2013In: Proceedings of the Nineteenth Americas Conference on Information Systems, Association for Information Systems, 2013, p. 1-12Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many business-IT alignment (BITA) models have been designed to support organizations in achieving, assessing and maintaining alignment between business and IT. These models focus on different components and emphasize different perspectives. This makes it difficult for practitioners to choose appropriate BITA models given organization at-hand. In this paper, an evaluation framework supporting practitioners to choose appropriate BITA models is presented. The framework was designed following design science as main research approach. The design process was based on literature and empirical studies. The literature study contributed in constructing a tentative version of the framework which was refined through an empirical study in 6 organizations. The final framework consists of 25 criteria categorized into four groups, and was demonstrated on six major BITA models showing its feasibility. Finally, the framework was evaluated by interviewing two business consultants and three CIOs from large-sized Swedish companies. The evaluation shows the framework having a complete set of criteria, but its usability and efficiency could be increased.

  • 37.
    El-Mekawy, Mohamed
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Rusu, Lazar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Perjons, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    An evaluation framework for comparing business-IT alignment models: A tool for supporting collaborative learning in organizations2015In: Computers in human behavior, ISSN 0747-5632, E-ISSN 1873-7692, Vol. 51, no Part B, p. 1229-1247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Researchers and practitioners have argued on the importance of business-IT alignment (BITA) for organizations to maximize the business value of IT. As a result, a vast number of BITA models have been designed to support organizations in achieving, assessing and maintaining BITA. These models focus on different components (i.e. concepts/aspects of alignment) and emphasize different perspectives of the alignment (i.e. how alignment is perceived by practitioners). This makes it difficult for practitioners to choose an appropriate BITA model for a specific organization. In this paper, an evaluation framework to support practitioners in choosing appropriate BITA models is proposed. The framework was constructed following design science as a research approach. The design science activities were carried out in an iterative manner until reaching a final artefact. The process started with an extensive literature survey that led to designing a tentative model. Following that, different empirical iterations contributed to the framework development. The final framework consists of 25 criteria categorized into four groups. It was tested on six major BITA models, demonstrating its feasibility. Finally, the framework was evaluated by interviewing five business consultants and seven IT managers from large Swedish organizations. The evaluation shows that the framework has a complete set of criteria with a sufficient level of coherence, but its usability and efficiency is argued differently. The framework, additionally, is argued to potentially be used as a collaborative learning tool on requirement of BITA between practitioners from both business and IT domain or serve in the academic world.

  • 38.
    El-Mekawy, Mohamed
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Rusu, Lazar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Perjons, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    BUSINESS-IT ALIGNMENT AND ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE RELATIONSHIPS: TOWARDS AN INTEGRATED VIEW2016In: Proceedings of the European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS 2016), Association for Information Systems, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The analyses of literature on business-IT alignment (BITA) and Organisational Culture (OC) domains of prac-tice revealed needs for combined studies as the impact of each domain on the other is not well studied in re-search. The purpose of this study is to develop and validate a set of relationships between components of BITA and OC towards development of a BITA-Culture integrated view. For achieving this purpose, we adopted a multi-stage (based on mixed-method) approach starting by an extensive literature review on both BITA and OC for constructing hypotheses on correlations between their components. Following that, an empirical research was conducted in three case organisations for empirical investigation of relationships and for refining the hy-potheses. To test the research hypotheses an extended quantitative test was performed by a survey on 117 busi-ness and IT practitioners. The results were the bases for developing the BITA-Culture integrated view. This integrated view is aimed to support both practitioners in order to understand the insights of the relationships between BITA and OC components and provide a road-map for improvements or desired changes in OC with highlighted target business areas.

  • 39.
    El-Mekawy, Mohamed
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Rusu, Lazar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Perjons, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    The Impact Of Business-It Alignment On Organizational Culture2014In: Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems (PACIS 2014), Proceedings, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organizational culture continues to be cited as one of the most important factors for organizations’ success in an increasingly competitive and IT-driven global environment. Given the fact that organizational culture has an influence all over the organization, the complexity of its nature is increased when considering the relationship between business and IT. As a result, different factors that have influence on changing organizational culture were highlighted in literature. These factors are found in the research literature distributed in three main group; micro-environment factors, macro-environment factors and leader’s impact. One of the factors that have not been yet well investigated in researches is concerning business-IT alignment (BITA. Therefore the purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of BITA maturity on organizational culture. The research process that we have followed is a literature survey followed by an in-depth case study. The result of this research shows a clear interrelation in theories of both BITA and organizational culture, and clear indications of BITA impact on organizational culture and its change. The findings may support both practitioners and researchers in order to understand the insights of the relationships between BITA and organizational culture components and provide a roadmap for improvements or desired changes in organizational culture with highlighted target business area.

  • 40.
    El-Mekawy, Mohamed
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Rusu, Lazar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Perjons, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Sedvall, Karl-Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Ekici, Murat
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    From Theory to Practice: Barriers to Business-IT Alignment in Organizations Acting in Sweden2015In: Proceedings of the 48th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS-48), IEEE Computer Society, 2015, p. 4523-4533Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In research, many barriers to BITA are presented based on different theoretical frameworks. However, these barriers are studied either from a pure theoretical perspective or with limited empirical scope. This consequently hinders the achievement of BITA in organizations. In this paper the practitioners view of barriers to BITA are investigated aiming at producing a list of barriers which practitioners can use as a ground for better achievement of BITA. The list of barriers was identified by conducting two in-depth case studies on multinational organizations acting in Sweden along with two focused group discussions of researchers, and followed by a survey on 74 large and medium sized organizations on the Swedish market. The result of this study is a list of 45 barriers to BITA from the perspectives of business and IT practitioners.

  • 41.
    El-Mekawy, Mohamed
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Rusu, Lazar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Perjons, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Sedvall, Karl-Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Ekici, Murat
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Strategic and Tactical Business-IT Alignment Barriers in Organizations Acting in Sweden2015In: International Journal of IT - Business Alignment and Governance, ISSN 1947-9611, E-ISSN 1947-962X, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 31-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In research, many barriers to BITA are presented based on different theoretical frameworks. However, these barriers are studied either from a pure theoretical perspective or with limited empirical scope. This consequently hinders the achievement of BITA in organizations. In this article the practitioners view of barriers to BITA are investigated aiming at producing a list of barriers which practitioners can use as a ground for better achievement of BITA. The list of barriers was identified by conducting three in-depth case studies on multinational organizations acting in Sweden along with two focused group discussions of researchers, and followed by a survey on 74 large and medium sized organizations on the Swedish market. The result of this study is a list of 45 barriers to BITA from the perspectives of business and IT practitioners.

  • 42. Goldkuhl, Göran
    et al.
    Perjons, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Focus, Goal and Roles in E-Service Design: five Ideal Types of the Design Process2014In: e-Service Journal, ISSN 1528-8234, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 24-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New technology means new opportunities for both the private and public sectors. Serviceoriented solutions based on e-services are no exception. Such solutions can support efficient and flexible collaboration between actors, as well as enable opportunities for the design of new and highly innovative services. However, service-oriented solutions also mean a number of challenges. In order to successfully design e-services, a number of strategic choices have to be made by the service provider organization, such as deciding on the roles to be played by the provider and customers in the design process, and deciding which focus should govern the design. For example, should the e-service design focus on fit into the provider's IT architecture; should the e-service design focus on fit into the provider's internal processes; or should the e-service design focus on the interactions with the customers? In this paper, we present five different ideal types of e-service design that can support such choices. The five types differ in their views on the main goals of the e-service design; their views on the service providers' and customers' roles and responsibilities in the design process; and their views on the focus of the e-service design process. We also present the benefits and drawbacks of the different ideal types, and describe how real cases of e-service design can be categorized according to these types.

  • 43.
    Henkel, Martin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Bider, Ilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Perjons, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Capability-based Business Model Transformation2014In: Advanced Information Systems Engineering Workshops: CAiSE 2014 International Workshops, Thessaloniki, Greece, June 16-20, 2014. Proceedings, Heidelberg: Springer , 2014, p. 88-99Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Any organization in subject of changes in the environment, or having the desire to improve, needs to change their processes, personnel and their use of resources. Changes, may they be called for by external threats or opportunities or internal strengths or weaknesses, take their departure in an organizations existing capabilities. To support change, there is thus a fundamental need to understand and analyse an organizations capabilities in order to perform changes. In this paper we present an approach to support organizational change by the use of a capability based recursive analysis, and a set of improvement patterns. The recursive analysis is based on resource types, and capability sub-types. We illustrate the approach by using several examples taken from the industry

  • 44.
    Henkel, Martin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Bider, Ilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Perjons, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Mårtensson, Filip
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Zainali, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Reusing Cases for Teaching Enterprise Modelling – Feasibility Study and Reality Check2017In: SCME-iStarT 2017: Symposium on Conceptual Modeling Education and the iStarT Workshop: Proceedings / [ed] Xavier Franch, Monique Snoeck, Renata Guizzardi, Ivan Jureta, CEUR-WS.org , 2017, p. 4-14Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using case–based learning when teaching enterprise modeling could provide the realism needed for students to understand the complexity of a real modeling situation. This realism could be enhanced further by having case material presented in the form similar to what is found in modeling practice, such as recorded interviews and internal and external documents. However, creating this kind of material may be costly, thus there is an interest in reusing case material in several courses. In this paper, the issue of reusing case material is examined from two angles. Firstly, a feasibility study has been completed based on an example where existing multi-media material created for one course, potentially, could be reused in other courses. In the feasibility study interviews with teachers has been carried out, resulting in a set of identified opportunities and challenges for reusing case material. Secondly, these challenges and opportunities were compared and discussed in the light of actual experience where case material has been reused in three different courses.

  • 45.
    Henkel, Martin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Johannesson, Paul
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Perjons, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    An Approach for E-Service Design using Enterprise Models2013In: Frameworks for Developing Efficient Information Systems: Models, Theory, and Practice / [ed] John Krogstie, Hershey: IGI Global, 2013, p. 245-268Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Henkel, Martin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Johannesson, Paul
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Perjons, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Value and goal modelling in healthcare2007In: Proceedings of 12th International Symposium on Health Information Management Research, Sheffield, UK July 2007 / [ed] Bath, P.A., Albright, K., and Norris, T., Sheffield: University of Sheffield , 2007, p. 43-50Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the healthcare sector, different healthcare providers, such as home care, primary care, and hospital clinics, collaborate in order to increase values for patients, such as better health state, increased knowledge on health conditions, and increased feeling of safety. To govern and evaluate such collaboration, we need a tool to understand how different patient values are related to each other, how values are related to goals, and how values and goals are related to actions planned and carried out among healthcare providers. Thereby, we can measure, analyse and redesign existing actions in order to better achieve desirable values. Furthermore, we also need a tool for finding new innovative goals and actions that better create desirable values. In this paper, we propose such a tool, in the form of a method based on value, goal and action models. Value models depict actors and the valuable resources they exchange as well as the purpose of the resources exchanged. Using these value models as a base, we are able to systematically identify high level goals and more detailed goals, as well as actions supporting these goals. Thereby, we will attain traceability from actions, via goals and values, which the actions realise. A case study from the Swedish healthcare sector is used to ground and apply our proposed method

  • 47.
    Henkel, Martin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Perjons, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    E-Service Requirements from a Consumer-ProcessPerspective2011In: Requirements Engineering: Foundation for Software Quality: 17th International Working Conference, REFSQ 2011, Essen, Germany, March 2011, Proceeding / [ed] Berry, D., Franch X., Springer , 2011, p. 121-135Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    [Context and motivation] When designing e-services it is important that they fit smoothly into the service consumers’ business processes. If the e-services do not fit there is a risk that they will not be used by the consumers; the investment and effort to use the e-services might be too high.

    [Question/ problem] In this paper, we aim at describing an approach for analysing requirements on e-services from the service consumers’ perspective.

    [Principal ideas/result] The approach supports the identification and analysis of problems that e-services can cause in consumers’ business processes. The presented approach is also supporting identification of tentative solutions such as changes in the e-services, business processes, IT systems or legal regulations

    [Contribution] The approach contributes to the area of e-service requirements analysis by taking a consumer and process centric perspective. The approach is grounded in and illustrated by a case at the Swedish Tax Agency.

  • 48.
    Henkel, Martin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Perjons, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Drougge, Ulrika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    An Approach for Examining the Value of Open Data Solutions2017In: Recent Advances in Information Systems and Technologies / [ed] Álvaro Rocha, Ana Maria Correia, Hojjat Adeli, Luís Paulo Reis, Sandra Costanzo, Springer, 2017, Vol. 1, p. 470-480Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is currently a high interest in the potential of open data - data that is publicly available. However, the use of open data is a complex system where the providers of the data, such as public organizations, are not always formally connected to the organization that aggregates the data and the end users. Since it is a complex system, it is difficult to describe the values of using open data. In this paper, we report on the use of a framework that enables a structured analysis of the functions and values that open data can provide. The framework is based on a set of technical functions in open data and a set of perceived values. The framework has been used in a project that aimed at describing the values of providing open data to immigrants in a Swedish municipality.

  • 49.
    Henkel, Martin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Perjons, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Drougge, Ulrika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Using Open Data to Support Case Management2016In: 2016 IEEE 20th International Enterprise Distributed Object Computing Workshop (EDOCW) / [ed] Remco Dijkman, Luís Ferreira Pires, Stefanie Rinderle-Ma, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2016, p. 50-53Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Public organizations handle many request from citizens, some are routine requests, while others are more complex. To handle requests it is assumed that the case handler and the client share some common grounds, for example that the client and handler have a basic shared understanding of the roles and requirement on them. In this paper we examine how the concept of open data can be used to help the interaction between the client and the case handler. Open data builds upon that public data sources, such as legislations and explanations thereof, is made public. Third parties can then make use of this data and provide tailor-made services for clients. The paper is based on a case study performed at a Swedish municipality, and focus on the potential of open data application for improving the municipalities case handling.

  • 50.
    Henkel, Martin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Perjons, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Sneiders, Eriks
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    A Business and IT Architecture Model Supporting Public Organizations Introducing Language Technologies2016In: New Advances in Information Systems and Technologies: Volume 1 / [ed] Álvaro Rocha, Ana Maria Correia, Hojjat Adeli, Luis Paulo Reis, Marcelo Mendonça Teixeira, Springer, 2016, p. 389-399Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Language technologies and tools, such as text mining, information extraction, and question and answering systems, are becoming mature and should be ready for deployment in public organizations. However, it is not obvious how these technologies can be applied for improving customer service and case handling processes as well as supporting an organization’s pro-activeness and strategic decisions. In this paper, we present a business and IT architecture model. The model introduces an overview of the roles, information and IT systems commonly used in public organizations for citizens’ interaction. We furthermore extend the model to show how language technologies can be used for supporting operational and strategic processes in public organizations. The model and its extension are based on and exemplified by cases from Swedish public organizations.

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