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  • 1.
    Szebehely, Marta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Ulmanen, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Att ge omsorg till gamla föräldrar och andra anhöriga: påverkar det relationen till arbetsmarknaden?: Rapport till Socialdepartementet 4 december 20092009Report (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Szebehely, Marta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Ulmanen, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Vård av anhöriga – ett högt pris för kvinnor2008In: Välfärd: SCB:s tidskrift om arbetsliv, demografi och välfärd, ISSN 1651-6710, no 2, p. 12-14Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Szebehely, Marta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Ulmanen, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Åtstramningens pris: Hur påverkas de medelålders barnen av äldreomsorgens minskning?2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten undersöker hur den svenska äldreomsorgen har förändrats över tid. Hur har förändringarna påverkat de äldre, och hur har de påverkat deras anhörigas förvärvsarbete? Vi bygger på nya analyser av SCB:s stora intervjustudier av befolkningens levnadsförhållanden (ULF), samt tidigare svensk och internationell forskning. Vi jämför förändringarna under 1980- och 1990-talen med förändringarna under 2000-talet.

  • 4.
    Szebehely, Marta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Ulmanen, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Sand, Ann-Britt
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Att ge omsorg mitt i livet: hur påverkar det arbete och försörjning?2014Report (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Szebehely, Marta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Ulmanen, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Sand, Ann-Britt
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Ny studie: Högt pris för att ge anhörigomsorg2014In: Dagens samhälle, ISSN 1652-6511, no 7 januariArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 6.
    Ulmanen, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Anhörigomsorg i stad och land2018In: Äldreomsorger i Sverige: lokala variationer och generella trender / [ed] Håkan Jönson, Marta Szebehely, Malmö: Gleerups Utbildning AB, 2018, 1, p. 201-216Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Ulmanen, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Anhörigomsorgens pris för döttrar och söner till omsorgsbehövande äldre2017In: Genus i omsorgens vardag / [ed] Evy Gunnarsson, Marta Szebehely, Malmö: Gleerups Utbildning AB, 2017, 3, p. 111-126Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Ulmanen, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Anhörigomsorgens pris för döttrar och söner till omsorgsbehövande äldre2009In: Genus i omsorgens vardag / [ed] Evy Gunnarsson, Marta Szebehely, Stockholm: Gothia Förlag AB, 2009, 1, p. 117-133Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Ulmanen, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Anhörigvård skapar C-lag2008In: Socialqrage: en tidning från SKTF, ISSN 1404-997X, no 1, p. 1Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 10.
    Ulmanen, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Childcare and eldercare policies in Sweden2016In: The sandwich generation: caring for onself and others at home and at work / [ed] Ronald J. Burke, Lisa M. Calvano, Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2016, p. 242-261Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Having both children and aged parents with care needs while being in paid work is probably more frequent, but less problematic, in Sweden compared to most other welfare states. Although the average Swedish woman has almost two children during her lifetime and it is very common in mid-life to care for aged parents, women remain in paid work due to highly accessible publicly financed child- and eldercare services.

    The main focus in Scandinavian child- and eldercare policy is to make the individual’s welfare less dependent upon their possibilities to purchase care services at the market and to receive care from the family; ambitions described by the two concepts universalism and de-familization. This chapter examines the meaning of economic and social de-familization (economic and social autonomy) in two types of care relationships – parental childcare and filial care – as well as from two perspectives: the perspective of the person in need of care and the potential or actual caregiver.

    Care services, as well as payments for care and care leave, have increased for childcare and decreased for eldercare in Sweden during the last three decades. While the development of childcare services stands out as a success story resulting in nearly universal access, Sweden has transformed its formerly universalistic eldercare system into a more selective and familialistic one. The decline in eldercare services is contrary to law, national policy and the care preferences of older persons. Their right to autonomy and self-determination has been drastically curtailed.

  • 11.
    Ulmanen, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Family care in the Swedish welfare state: extent, content and consequences2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the extent, content and consequences of family caregiving among middle-aged women and men in Sweden today. The analysis focuses on gender and level of education, using data on persons aged 45-66 years from a nationally representative postal survey (n=3630) conducted in 2013.

  • 12.
    Ulmanen, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Fattiga pensionärer förlorare när privata tjänster tar över2007In: Göteborgs-Posten, ISSN 1103-5900, no 15 septemberArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 13.
    Ulmanen, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    From the state to the family and to the market? An equality perspective on eldercare services in Sweden2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Eldercare services are a crucial part of the Nordic welfare model. In Sweden, public eldercare services have decreased since the 1980s, at the same time as informal care and private services bought in the market have increased. The Swedish eldercare system has moved away from its de-familialising potential and the principle of universialism, towards a partially familialistic and selective system. Informal care, in particular care provided by daughters, has increased mainly among older people with fewer resources. Although few older people buy private care services in the market, such purchases have increased among well-off groups of older people since the 1980s.

    This paper analyses sources of care among older people in Sweden from 1988 to 2010, using data from the Living Conditions Survey (ULF) by Statistics Sweden. The focus of the analysis is on how different social groups of older people have been affected by the decrease in eldercare services as well as by the increase in informal care and privately purchased services. The analysis concerns social class, gender and country of origin. The paper discusses the consequences for older people and their children of these shifting boundaries of care from the perspective of the Nordic welfare model’s strive for equality.

  • 14.
    Ulmanen, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    From the state to the family or to the market? Consequences of reduced residential care in Sweden2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Starting with the ideals of universalism and de-familisation, this article analyses the role of the state, the family and the market as providers of care for older people in different social groups in Sweden in the 2000s. The analysis is based on data from the Swedish Living Conditions Surveys for the years 2002–2003 and 2009–2010, with a total of 1,805 individuals in need of practical help aged 65 years and older.

    In the 2000s the number of beds in residential care was reduced by one fourth, thus increasing family care considerably in all social groups. However, there was an interaction between class and gender. The help given by daughters increased primarily among older people with lower levels of education while the help given by sons increased primarily among those with higher education, making the help given by sons and daughters equally common in this latter group.

    Stimulated by the introduction of a tax deduction on household services and personal care in 2007, privately purchased services also increased. These services, however, still play a marginal role, in particular for older people with lower levels of education. A class-related pattern remains in that family care is more common among older people with less education whereas privately purchased services are more common among those with higher education. Thus, even if there is a trend of re-familisation in all social groups, the dualisation of care challenging universalism remains, and working class daughters are still the most affected by the cutbacks.

  • 15.
    Ulmanen, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Hemma med sjuk mamma?2007In: Civilekonomen: tidning för Civilekonomernas riksförbund, ISSN 1400-0997, no 9, p. 1Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 16.
    Ulmanen, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Jämställdhetens blinda fläck2009In: Äldreomsorg, ISSN 1403-7025, no 3, p. 3Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Äldreomsorgen och barnomsorgen har samma funktion: att göra det möjligt för framförallt kvinnor att försörja sig genom eget förvärvsarbete. Men tillgången och kvaliteten på omsorgstjänsterna behöver förbättras och rätten att "vaffa" borde införas.

  • 17.
    Ulmanen, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Kvinnors och mäns hjälp till sina gamla föräldrar – innehåll, omfattning och konsekvenser2015In: Socialvetenskaplig tidskrift, ISSN 1104-1420, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 111-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Women’s and men’s lial care: extent, content and consequences

    This paper analyses the extent, content and consequences of caregiving for elderly parents from a gender and welfare state perspective using a nationally representative postal survey conducted in Sweden in 2013 (response rate 60.5 per cent, 3630 individuals, age 45–66 years). Negative consequences of filial care on well-being, work situation and employment were examined. The analysis confirms earlier research showing that filial care is common in Sweden but is less intense and has fewer negative consequences than in less generous welfare states. A quarter of both women and men gave filial care at least once a month, on average around 3.4 hours a week.

    Although men and women gave the same extent of filial care, it was more common among women to give the more demanding personal care as well as to experience mental and physical strain, difficulties in finding time for leisure activities and reduced ability to focus on their job. Although women retired earlier than planned due to filial care more often than men, this was very rare. Men and women, however, suffered to the same extent from difficulties in managing to accomplish their tasks, to take part in meetings, courses and travels, as well as having to reduce their working hours and quit their jobs.

    The content of care was crucial for the occurrence of negative consequences of caregiving, even when the analysis controlled for hours of care given. The more demanding the care tasks performed, the more common it was among both men and women that their well-being and work situation were affected. The correlation between care tasks and negative impact, however, differed between genders. The impact of managerial care was much higher for women than for men, which is discussed in relation to the decline of eldercare services and the lack of coordination of health and eldercare services.

  • 18.
    Ulmanen, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Min sida – Petra Ulmanen2014In: Män och jämställdhet: betänkande av Utredningen om män och jämställdhet, Stockholm: Fritzes, 2014, p. 239-240Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 19.
    Ulmanen, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Next-of-kin in Swedish elder care policy – problem representations and outcomes2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The starting point of this paper is that widely available elder care services of good quality are seen as an essential support for family carers, which has made it possible especially for daughters of frail older people to combine family care and paid labour.

    The aim of the paper is to analyze problem representations and outcomes of Swedish elder care policy concerning the next-of-kin of older people. How are next-of-kin and their role in elder care described in policy documents? And what outcomes (in terms of policy proposals as well as coverage of care services and payments for family care) are associated with different descriptions? The materials analyzed are Government Bills on eldercare from 1957 to 2006.

    The analysis indicates that it has been uncommon in Swedish elder care policy to regard public elder care services as important for next-of-kin. During the expansion period (1950s to 1970s) of the public care services, their needs were hardly mentioned. The expansion was motivated only in relation to the needs of older people. From the 1980s onward, the Government has stressed the need of public support for family carers and has taken several measures to improve their situation. However, public elder care services as well as financial support to family carers have decreased during the same period, and it was still uncommon to regard public care as a form of support for family carers.  

  • 20.
    Ulmanen, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Omsorgens pris i åtstramningstid: Anhörigomsorg för äldre ur ett könsperspektiv2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines the extent of family care for older people, primarily filial care, and the costs of caring in the Swedish welfare state. Costs of caring are understood as the negative effects of caregiving, primarily on the caregivers’ working life. The analysis is inspired by feminist theories on the importance of welfare state provisions for care for women’s citizenship, including personal autonomy and economic independence.

    The main aims of this thesis are twofold. The first is to explore the extent and development of family care for older persons in Sweden, primarily filial care, and the consequences of caregiving for well-being and working life. The second is to explore how older persons’ family members have been represented and the possible consequences of these representations for the development of publicly financed eldercare services and other forms of support for family carers, as well as for family members’ living conditions.

    The thesis consists of four studies. The first reviews the literature concerning the extent and consequences of family caregiving for older persons and the welfare state’s policy responses to older people’s care needs. The second study analyses how older persons’ family members and their role in eldercare have been represented in Swedish eldercare policy since the 1950s. The third study analyses surveys to explore changes during the 2000s in the role of the family, the public sector and the market in providing care for older persons in Sweden. The fourth study is a survey analysis of the extent, content and consequences of filial care among middle-aged women and men in Sweden in 2013.

    The policy analysis found that the expansion of eldercare was motivated solely in relation to older persons’ needs; thus working daughters’ needs of eldercare have been a blind spot in Swedish eldercare policy.

    Since 2000, every fourth residential care bed has disappeared and the increase in homecare services did not fully compensate for the decline, resulting in a significant increase in filial care in all social groups, and among both sons and daughters. Daughters of older persons with shorter education, however, remained the primary providers of filial care.

    Both daughters and sons are affected by caregiving. They suffer to the same extent from difficulties in managing to accomplish their work tasks and taking part in meetings, courses and travels. They are also equally likely to reduce their working hours and to quit their job. It is however clearly more common that daughters experience mental and physical strain, difficulties in finding time for leisure and reduced ability to focus on their job. Although more daughters than sons retire earlier than planned due to filial care, this is very rare.

    Managerial care (handling contacts with health and eldercare services) has a more salient role in a welfare state such as Sweden, with generously provided care services, less intense filial care and high employment rates among both sexes. The high labour force participation however makes middle aged children more vulnerable when their parents’ care arrangement does not work. The decline in eldercare services since 1980 has reinforced co-ordination problems in health and eldercare services. The managerial care required to handle this development, while living up to the demands of work and family life, stands out as especially demanding for the well-being and working lives of daughters.

  • 21.
    Ulmanen, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Realization of ageing in place-policy in Swedish eldercare: consequences for family members as informal caregivers2019Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Ulmanen, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    The meaning of gender and country of birth for the extent and consequences of informal caregiving in Sweden2018In: Universalism at stake – Social inequalities in long-term care in the Nordic countries: Abstracts, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In Sweden since the 1980s, LTC services have declined, followed by an increase in informal care. Studies on the intensity and consequences of this kind of caregiving are sparse in Sweden. The paper analyzes the meaning of gender and country of birth for the extent and consequences of informal caregiving in Sweden. Methods: Analysis is based on a postal survey (n=3630, aged 45-66 years) from 2013. Results: Of the respondents, 28% are caregivers, defined as providing help at least once a week to a family member, relative or friend with a disability or longstanding illness. Immigrant women provide the most intensive care (14.1 hrs/week), compared to immigrant men (6.9 hrs/week) and both women and men. Conclusion: Informal care in Sweden has a gendered as well as an ethnic component.

  • 23.
    Ulmanen, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Utan äldreomsorg inget förlängt arbetsliv2012In: Ålder & arbete: ett temamagasin från Du & jobbet / [ed] Enikö Kock, Stockholm: Arbetsmiljöforum , 2012, , p. 1Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 24.
    Ulmanen, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Värna välfärden2007In: Ordfront magasin, ISSN 0284-981X, no 9, p. 5Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 25.
    Ulmanen, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Working Daughters: A Blind Spot in Swedish Eldercare Policy2013In: Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State and Society, ISSN 1072-4745, E-ISSN 1468-2893, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 65-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Care services help women who are mothers or daughters to combine caregiving and gainful employment. While Swedish childcare policy expanded services to meet the needs of children and working mothers, this discourse analysis of Swedish eldercare policy shows that the expansion of eldercare services from the 1950s to the end of 1970s was justified solely on the basis of older people's needs. The lack of connection in policy documents between the needs of working daughters and the provision of eldercare services made it easier to cut services beginning in the 1980s, without considering the consequences for family members.

  • 26.
    Ulmanen, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Äldreomsorgen är en klassfråga: Familj och ekonomi ökar i betydelse för att få rätt hjälp2015In: Aftonbladet, ISSN 1103-9000, no 29 oktober, p. 1Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 27.
    Ulmanen, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Äldres döttrar: — en stor och viktig grupp anhöriga i ljuset av anhörigstöd2008Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Sedan slutet av 1990-talet har det runt om i landet blivit allt vanligare med olika former av anhörigstöd. Målgruppen för kommunernas stödär framförallt äldre personer som vårdar sin make eller maka. I denna artikel beskriver Petra Ulmanen hur situationen kan te sig för de äldres döttrar i rollen som anhöriga. Hon diskuterar också – utifrån ett jämställdhetsperspektiv– hur denna grupp anhöriga skulle kunna stödjas. Petra Ulmanen har varit sekreterare i utredningen Makt att forma samhälletoch sitt eget liv – jämställdhetspolitiken mot nya mål, och är nu verksam som doktorand vid Socialhögskolan i Stockholm.

  • 28.
    Ulmanen, Petra
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Szebehely, Marta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    From the state to the family or to the market?: Consequences of reduced residential eldercare in Sweden2015In: International Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 1369-6866, E-ISSN 1468-2397, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 81-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyses the changing roles of the state, family and market in providing care for older people in Sweden, in relation to Scandinavian welfare ideals of universalism and de-familisation. Since 2000 every fourth residential care bed has disappeared and the increase in homecare services has not compensated for the decline. Instead family care (defined here as help from adult children and other non-cohabiting family or friends) has increased in all social groups: help by daughters mainly among older people with shorter education and help by sons among those highly educated. Use of privately purchased services has also increased but continues to play a marginal role. Family care remains more common among older people with less education whereas privately purchased services are more common among those with higher education. This dualisation of care challenges universalism, and working-class daughters continue to be most affected by eldercare cutbacks.

  • 29.
    Ulmanen, Petra
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Szebehely, Marta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Äldreomsorgen hotar gå tillbaka till fattigvård2007In: Expressen, ISSN 1103-923X, no 30 maj, p. 1Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Pressen att vårda sina gamla föräldrar har ökat bland döttrarna till lågutbildade äldre. Våra nya beräkningar visar att närmare 60 000 kvinnor i dag har gått ner till deltid eller lämnat sitt förvärvsarbete helt för att kunna vårda gamla eller sjuka anhöriga. Välbärgade medelålders kvinnor kan med det nya skatteavdraget köpa billig hushållshjälp till sina föräldrar. Det kan inte arbetarklassen. Nya avdragen för hushållsnäratjänster gynnar då jämställdheten bara för de rika. Det skriver i dag professor MARTA SZEBEHELY och doktorand PETRA ULMANEN vid Institutionen för socialt arbete, Stockholms universitet.

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