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  • 1. Andersen, Signe Hald
    et al.
    Fallesen, Peter
    Rockwool Foundation Research Unit, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Family matters? The effect of kinship care on foster care disruption rates2015In: Child Abuse & Neglect, ISSN 0145-2134, Vol. 48, p. 68-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Compared with other types of out-of-home care, kinship care is cheap, and offers the child a more familiar environment. However, little is known about the causal effect of kinship care on important outcomes. This study is the first to estimate causal effects of kinship care on placement stability, using full-sample administrative data (N = 13,157) and instrumental variables methods. Results show that, in a sample of children of age 0–17 years, kinship care is as stable as other types of care, and only when the kin caregiver is particularly empathic and dutiful does this type of care prove more stable. Thus, in terms of stability, most children do not benefit additionally from being placed with kin.

  • 2. Comolli, Chiara Ludovica
    et al.
    Neyer, Gerda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Dommermuth, Lars
    Fallesen, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI). ROCKWOOL Foundation, Denmark .
    Jalovaara, Marika
    Jónsson, Ari
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Kolk, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Lappegård, Trude
    Beyond the Economic Gaze: Childbearing during and after recessions in the Nordic countries2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates fertility responses to the business cycle in the Nordic countries by comparing period variation in women’s childbearing propensity. We harmonize register data from Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden to compare childbearing in the aftermath of the two most recent crises that hit those economies: the 1990s and 2010s. We use event-history techniques to present parity-specific fertility, by calendar year, relative to a defined pre-recession year. We further examine any possible impact of the two recessions by women’s age and education. Results show a large heterogeneity across the five Nordic countries in the childbearing developments after 1990. This variation largely disappears after 2008 when period trends in birth hazards become more similar across countries. Likewise, the educational differences that characterized the variation in childbearing relative risk after 1990 considerably diminish in the years after 2010, especially for first and second births. Economic theories do not suffice to explain this reversal from the heterogeneity of the 1990s to the homogeneity of the 2010s in the childbearing response to recession episodes across countries and socioeconomic groups. Our findings suggest the need to expand the theoretical framework explaining the cyclicality of fertility towards the perception of economic and welfare uncertainty.

  • 3.
    Fallesen, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI). Rockwool Foundation Research Unit, Denmark.
    Downward spiral: The impact of out-of-home placement on paternal welfare dependency2016In: Children and youth services review, ISSN 0190-7409, E-ISSN 1873-7765, Vol. 66, p. 45-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we test how out-of-home placement affects men's labor market attachment, and in so doing we provide a novel parallel to existing research on how fatherhood affects men, which focuses almost exclusively on a child's arrival. Using population panel data from Denmark that include all first time fathers whose children were placed in out-of-home care from 1995 to 2005, we find that having a child placed in care is associated with up to a 4 percentage point increase in welfare dependency. Having a child placed in out-of-home care appear to aggravate conditions that likely necessitated the out-of-home placement to begin with, thereby likely necessitating longer duration of out-of-home placements. Thus, out-of-home placements have substantial secondary costs for parents and society.

  • 4.
    Fallesen, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI). ROCKWOOL Foundation, Denmark.
    Who Reacts to Less Restrictive Divorce Laws?2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To study how divorce behavior in Denmark changed following a July 2013 reform that repealed mandatory separation periods for uncontested divorces, instead allowing for immediate administrative divorce.

    Background: Most countries have mandatory separation periods that couples undergo before they can divorce. Separation allows couples a grace-period, during which they may reconcile and stay together. Yet, the impact of separation periods on divorce risk remains understudied. 

    Methods: Using monthly time series data on divorce rates from 2007-2018 (T=144), the research brief estimates the size and shape of the policy impact of the July 2013 reform. Using monthly administrative population data on all ever-married couples (N*T=40,431,848) the study further calculates the average characteristics of married couples in Denmark who would have remained together absent the reform.

    Results: After an initial spike in the divorce rate driven by couples divorcing earlier, the divorce rate settled at a 9.7 percent higher level compared to pre-reform. Couples who divorced because of the reform had been married for fewer years, were ethnic Danish, and had high school degree as highest educational level.

    Conclusion: Mandatory separation periods keep a minor, but substantial, share of potential divorcees together.

  • 5.
    Fallesen, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Andersen, Lars H.
    Explaining the Consequences of Imprisonment for Union Formation and Dissolution in Denmark2017In: Journal of policy analysis and management (Print), ISSN 0276-8739, E-ISSN 1520-6688, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 154-177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Crime and subsequent imprisonment reduces men's chances on the marriage market and increases their divorce risk, but existing research, with a few notable exceptions, is silent about the underlying mechanisms driving these effects. This article studies the effect of home confinement under electronic monitoring as a noncustodial alternative to imprisonment on the risk of relationship dissolution and being single, thereby distinguishing between effects of incarceration and of committing crime. We study a policy that expanded the use of electronic monitoring to address nonrandom selection into electronic monitoring instead of in prison. Results from a sample of 4,522 men show that home confinement under electronic monitoring significantly and persistently lowers the risk both of being single and of becoming single during the first five years following conviction. The results show that one of the tools that could promote decarceration trends also secures better relationship outcomes of convicted men.

  • 6.
    Fallesen, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Andersen, Lars H.
    Explaining the consequences of imprisonment for union formation and dissolution in Denmark2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Imprisonment reduces men’s chances on the marriage market and increases their divorce risk, but existing research is, with a few notable exceptions, silent about the underlying mechanisms driving these effects. Serving a prison sentence at home under electronic monitoring could mitigate the negative effects of imprisonment on union formation and dissolution, as serving a sentence at home does not separate spouses and does not impair human capital to the same degree as imprisonment. This article studies the effect of electronic monitoring as a noncustodial alternative to imprisonment on the risk of relationship dissolution and being single, and analyzes the mechanisms through which imprisonment could affect these outcomes. We exploit a penal reform that expanded the use of electronic monitoring to address nonrandom selection into electronic monitoring instead of in prison. Results from a sample of 2,664 men show that electronic monitoring significantly and persistently lowers the risk both of being single and of becoming single during the first four years following conviction. We further show that electronic monitoring lowers these risks because offenders who serve their prison sentence at home under electronic monitoring do not experience the same degree of human capital depletion and the strain of spousal separation as imprisoned offenders do. We find no evidence of a social stigma effect of imprisonment on union formation and dissolution once we control for the stigma of a criminal conviction. The results show that a tool used to promote decarceration trends also secure better relationship outcomes of convicted men.

  • 7.
    Fallesen, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Andersen, Signe Hald
    Evaluering af projekt Families Hus' indvirkning på unge mødres beskæftigelse, uddannelsesaktivitet og selvoplevede kompetencer2015Report (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Fallesen, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI). The Rockwool Foundation, Denmark.
    Bernardi, Fabrizio
    Parental Welfare Dependency and Children's Educational Attainment in Denmark2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Children of welfare recipients attain less education than do children whose parents do not receive welfare. In this study, we build on Boudon’s (1974) distinction between primary and secondary effects of social background on educational attainment to develop a theoretical argument concerning how parental welfare dependency may affect children’s educational performance and attainment, and test the argument empirically using Danish administrative data. We consider four educational outcomes: mandatory school leaving GPA, enrolling in an upper secondary program before turning 21, and having obtained an upper secondary education at age 21, and starting a tertiary education before turning 22. To control for selection into family contexts and other family-level confounders, we rely on sibling fixed effects models and control for endowments at births using birthweight. Duration of parental welfare dependency negatively affects likelihood of enrolling in, and completing, upper secondary education at age 21 for children whose parents had education above primary level. Parental welfare dependency does not substantially affect GPA, and only paternal welfare dependency affects the likelihood of enrolling in tertiary programs. Results indicate that duration of parental welfare dependency does not lower educational performance, and mainly lowers attainment of upper secondary degrees for individuals who never would progress beyond upper secondary level.

  • 9.
    Fallesen, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI). Rockwool Foundation Research Unit, Denmark.
    Breen, Richard
    Temporary Life Changes and the Timing of Divorce2016In: Demography, ISSN 0070-3370, E-ISSN 1533-7790, Vol. 53, no 5, p. 1377-1398Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Marriage is a risky undertaking that people enter with incomplete information about their partner and their future life circumstances. A large literature has shown how new information gained from unforeseen but long-lasting or permanent changes in life circumstances may trigger a divorce. We extend this literature by considering how information gained from a temporary change in life circumstances-in our case, a couple having a child with infantile colic-may affect divorce behavior. Although persistent life changes are known to induce divorce, we argue that a temporary stressful situation allows couples more quickly to discern the quality of their relationship, in some cases leading them to divorce sooner than they otherwise would have. We formalize this argument in a model of Bayesian updating and test it using data from Denmark. We find that the incidence of infantile colic shortens the time to divorce or disruption among couples who would have split up anyway.

  • 10.
    Fallesen, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI). ROCKWOOL Foundation, Denmark.
    Geerdsen, Lars Pico
    Imai, Susumu
    Tranæs, Torben
    The effect of active labor market policies on crime: Incapacitation and program effects2018In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 52, p. 263-286Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We estimate the effects of active labor market policies on men’s crime. To do this, we exploit a local policy change in Denmark that targeted unemployed people without unemployment insurance. Our results show that crime rates decreased among treated men relative to both untreated unemployment insured and uninsured men. Lower property crime accounted for the decrease in overall crime. Increased earnings from higher employment rates cannot explain the decrease in crime. Instead, participation in the active labor market program reduced young men’s propensity to commit crime. The results suggest that active labor market programs have substantial secondary effects on criminality.

  • 11.
    Fallesen, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI). ROCKWOOL Foundation, Denmark.
    Gähler, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Family type and parents’ time with children: Longitudinal evidence for Denmark2019In: Acta Sociologica, ISSN 0001-6993, E-ISSN 1502-3869Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Parental time with children is important for children’s developmental outcomes. Family type may affect the amount of time parents can and will invest in children. Using time-use panel data obtained from two waves of the Danish Time Use Survey, linked with administrative records, the study shows that parental family type had a substantial impact on the time parents spent with children. When controlling for constant unobserved individual traits, likely to affect both time-use and family type, differences in time-use increase, indicating positive selection into nonintact family types. Single parents and parents in reconstituted families spent less time on developmental activities, such as talking, reading and playing with the child, whereas parents living in reconstituted families also spent less time on non-developmental activities, such as transporting the child or performing basic childcare. Based on our findings, there are indications that cross-sectional results showing little difference in parents’ involvement in children across family types partly emanate from differential selection in family types.

  • 12.
    Fallesen, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI). University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Wildeman, Christopher
    The Effect of Medical Treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) on Foster Care Caseloads: Evidence from Danish Registry Data2015In: Journal of health and social behavior, ISSN 0022-1465, E-ISSN 2150-6000, Vol. 56, no 3, p. 398-414Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the early 2000s, foster care caseloads have decreased in many wealthy democracies, yet the causes of these declines remain, for the most part, a mystery. This article uses administrative data on all Danish municipalities (N = 277) and a 10% randomly drawn sample of all Danish children (N = 157,938) in the period from 1998 to 2010 to show that increasing medical treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) accounts for a substantial share of the decrease in foster care caseloads. According to our estimates, the decline in foster care caseloads during this period would have been 45% smaller absent increases in medical treatment of ADHD. These findings are especially provocative in light of recent research showing ambiguous effects of medical treatment of ADHD. Future research should be attentive to how medical treatment aimed at addressing children's acute behavioral problems could also have a powerful effect on foster care caseloads.

  • 13. Jalovaara, Marika
    et al.
    Neyer, Gerda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Dahlberg, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Dommermuth, Lars
    Fallesen, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI). ROCKWOOL Foundation, Denmark.
    Lappegård, Trude
    Education, Gender, and Cohort Fertility in the Nordic Countries2019In: European Journal of Population, ISSN 0168-6577, E-ISSN 1572-9885, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 563-586Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Systematic comparisons of fertility developments based on education, gender and country context are rare. Using harmonized register data, we compare cohort total fertility and ultimate childlessness by gender and educational attainment for cohorts born beginning in 1940 in four Nordic countries. Cohort fertility (CTF) initially declined in all four countries, although for cohorts born in the 1950s and later, the CTF remained stable or declined only modestly. Childlessness, which had been increasing, has plateaued in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. Women’s negative educational gradient in relation to total fertility has vanished, except in Finland, while men’s positive gradient has persisted. The highest level of men’s childlessness appears among the least educated. In the oldest female cohorts, childlessness was highest among the highly educated, but these patterns have changed over the cohorts as childlessness has increased among the low educated and remained relatively stable among higher educated women. In Denmark, Norway and Sweden, childlessness is now highest among the least educated women. We witness both a new gender similarity and persistent (among men) and new (among women) educational disparities in childbearing outcomes in the Nordic region. Overall, the number of low educated has decreased remarkably over time. These population segments face increasing social and economic disadvantages that are reflected as well in their patterns of family formation.

  • 14. Keilow, Maria
    et al.
    Holm, Anders
    Fallesen, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI). The ROCKWOOL Foundation, Denmark.
    Medical treatment of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and children’s academic performance2018In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 11, article id e0207905Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is negatively associated with a range of academic achievement measures. We use Danish administrative register data to study the impact of medical treatment of ADHD on children's academic performance assessed by student grade point average (GPA). Using administrative register data on children, who begin medical treatment, we conduct a natural experiment and exploit plausible exogenous variation in medical nonresponse to estimate the effect of medical treatment on school-leaving GPA. We find significant effects of treatment on both exam and teacher evaluated GPAs: Compared to consistent treatment, part or full discontinuation of treatment has large significant negative effects reducing teacher evaluation and exam GPA with .18 and .22 standard deviations, respectively. The results demonstrate that medical treatment may mitigate the negative social consequences of ADHD. Placebo regressions indicate that a causal interpretation of our findings is plausible.

  • 15. Landerso, R
    et al.
    Fallesen, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI). Rockwool Foundation Research Unit.
    Psychiatric Hospital Admission and Later Mental Health, Crime, and Labor Market Outcomes.2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the effects of an admission to a psychiatric hospital on subsequent psychiatric treatments, self-inflicted harm, crime, and labor market outcomes. To circumvent non-random selection into hospital admission we use a measure of hospital occupancy rates the weeks prior to a patient’s first contact with a psychiatric hospital as an instrument. Admission reduces criminal and self-harming behavior substantially in the short run, but leads to higher re-admission rates and lower labor market attachment in the long run. Effects are heterogeneous across observable and unobservable patient characteristics. We also identify positive externalities of admissions on spouses’ employment rates.

  • 16. Thielemans, Gert
    et al.
    Fallesen, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI). ROCKWOOL Foundation, Denmark.
    Mortelmans, Dimitri
    Division of Household Labor and Relationship Dissolution in Denmark 2001-20092019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies how the gender division in time spent on housework is associated with relationship dissolution among Danish couples. The use of time diary information on the actual time spent on housework for both partners, leads to more precise measures than in previous studies. With Denmark being one of the most gender egalitarian societies to date, the results provide a reference point to contrast other societies against in terms of division of household labor and relationship stability. Two waves of the Danish Time Use Survey (DTUS; http://cssr.surveybanken.aau.dk/webview/) provided data on 3,434 respondents. This data was linked to information from the Danish administrative population registries to observe union dissolution. Semi-parametric Cox proportional hazard models were estimated to analyze how men’s contributions predicted dissolution risk after controlling for couple specific time-constant and time-varying covariates. The results show that unions are the most stable when men perform roughly 40% of the routine household tasks. Couples with the most unequal division of housework were the least stable. The conclusion is that even in a gender egalitarian society, women still perform most of the housework in order for relationships to be stable. Whether this is due to men being reluctant to contribute equally or women compensating for breaking traditional gender roles by performing more paid labor should be tackled by future research.

  • 17. Wildeman, Christopher
    et al.
    Fallesen, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI). Rockwool Foundation Research Unit, Denmark.
    The effect of lowering welfare payment ceilings on children's risk of out-of-home placement2017In: Children and youth services review, ISSN 0190-7409, E-ISSN 1873-7765, Vol. 72, no SI, p. 82-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although much research considers the relationship between family income and child maltreatment, contact with child protective services (CPS), and out-of-home placement, little research provides a strong causal test of these different relationships. And, as such, it remains unclear how increasing or decreasing the generosity of social welfare programs could affect children's risk of experiencing maltreatment, CPS contact, and out-of-home placement. In this article, we use Danish registry data and a 2004 policy shock to estimate the effect of a substantial decrease in welfare generosity—a monthly reduction in disposable income of 30% for those who were on a specific form of welfare for six consecutive months or more—on children's risk of out-of-home placement. Our results indicate that this decrease in welfare generosity increased children's risk of out-of-home placement by about 1.5 percentage points in any given year, representing an increase of about 25% in the annual risk of out-of-home placement. The results also indicate that in a similar group of welfare-dependent individuals who were not affected by the policy shock, there is only a negligible increase in the risk of out-of-home placement, further buttressing the case for causal effects. Taken together, this article shows that substantial changes in the economic conditions of the poorest families can have a substantial effect on the probability that their children will be placed in out-of-home care.

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