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  • 1. Cassibba, Rosalinda
    et al.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Costantini, Alessandro
    Mothers' attachment security predicts their children's sense of God's closeness2013In: Attachment & Human Development, ISSN 1461-6734, E-ISSN 1469-2988, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 51-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current research reports that mothers' security of attachment predicts their children's sense of God's closeness. A total of 71 mother–child dyads participated (children's M age = 7.5). Mothers' attachment organization was studied with the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI; Main, Goldwyn, & Hesse, 2003) and their religiosity and attachment to God were measured with questionnaires. Children were told stories about visually represented children in attachment-activating and attachment-neutral situations, and placed a God symbol on a felt board to represent God's closeness to the fictional children. Children of secure mothers placed the God symbol closer (d = .78) than children of insecure mothers across both types of situations, suggesting that children's experiences with secure-insecure mothers generalize to their sense of God's closeness. Also, girls (but not boys) placed the God symbol closer in attachment-activating than in attachment-neutral situations, giving partial support for an attachment normative God-as-safe-haven model. Finally, mothers' religiosity and attachment to God were unrelated to child outcomes.

  • 2.
    Cassibba, Rosalinda
    et al.
    University of Bari, Bari, Italy.
    Papagna, Sonia
    University of Bari, Bari, Italy.
    Calabrese, Maria T.
    University of Bari, Bari, Italy.
    Costantino, Elisabetta
    University of Bari, Bari, Italy.
    Paterno, Angelo
    Di Venere Hospital, Bari, Italy.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The role of attachment to God in secular and religious/spiritual ways of coping with a serious disease2014In: Mental Health, Religion & Culture, ISSN 1367-4676, E-ISSN 1469-9737, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 252-261Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the role of security in one's attachment to God in relation to both secular and religious/spiritual ways of coping with a serious illness. The main objective was to test whether attachment to God and type of disease were related to secular coping strategies, when controlling for the effects of religious/spiritual coping. Study participants (N = 105) had been diagnosed either with cancer (i.e., an acute disease) and were under chemotherapy/awaiting surgery or with renal impairment (i.e., a chronic disease) and were attending dialysis. Results showed that secure attachment to God was uniquely related to fighting spirit, whereas insecure attachment to God was uniquely linked to hopelessness, suggesting that security, unlike insecurity, in one's attachment to God may impact favourably on adjustment to the disease. The only coping strategy related to type of disease was cognitive avoidance, which was linked to chronic disease.

  • 3.
    Cortes, Diana S.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Skragge, Michael
    Döllinger, Lillian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Laukka, Petri
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Nilsson, Mats E.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Hovey, Daniel
    Westberg, Lars
    Larsson, Marcus
    Granqvist, Pehr
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Mixed support for a causal link between single dose intranasal oxytocin and spiritual experiences: opposing effects depending on individual proclivities for absorption2018In: Social Cognitive & Affective Neuroscience, ISSN 1749-5016, E-ISSN 1749-5024, Vol. 13, no 9, p. 921-932Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intranasal oxytocin (OT) has previously been found to increase spirituality, an effect moderated by OT-related genotypes. This pre-registered study sought to conceptually replicate and extend those findings. Using a single dose of intranasal OT vs placebo (PL), we investigated experimental treatment effects, and moderation by OT-related genotypes on spirituality, mystical experiences, and the sensed presence of a sentient being. A more exploratory aim was to test for interactions between treatment and the personality disposition absorption on these spirituality-related outcomes. A priming plus sensory deprivation procedure that has facilitated spiritual experiences in previous studies was used. The sample (N = 116) contained both sexes and was drawn from a relatively secular context. Results failed to conceptually replicate both the main effects of treatment and the treatment by genotype interactions on spirituality. Similarly, there were no such effects on mystical experiences or sensed presence. However, the data suggested an interaction between treatment and absorption. Relative to PL, OT seemed to enhance spiritual experiences in participants scoring low in absorption and dampen spirituality in participants scoring high in absorption.

  • 4. Forslund, Tommie
    et al.
    Brocki, Karin C.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Granqvist, Pehr
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Eninger, Lilianne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    The heterogeneity of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and conduct problems: Cognitive inhibition, emotion regulation, emotionality, and disorganized attachment2016In: British Journal of Developmental Psychology, ISSN 0261-510X, E-ISSN 2044-835X, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 371-387Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the contributions of several important domains of functioning to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and conduct problems. Specifically, we investigated whether cognitive inhibition, emotion regulation, emotionality, and disorganized attachment made independent and specific contributions to these externalizing behaviour problems from a multiple pathways perspective. The study included laboratory measures of cognitive inhibition and disorganized attachment in 184 typically developing children (M age = 6 years, 10 months, SD = 1.7). Parental ratings provided measures of emotion regulation, emotionality, and externalizing behaviour problems. Results revealed that cognitive inhibition, regulation of positive emotion, and positive emotionality were independently and specifically related to ADHD symptoms. Disorganized attachment and negative emotionality formed independent and specific relations to conduct problems. Our findings support the multiple pathways perspective on ADHD, with poor regulation of positive emotion and high positive emotionality making distinct contributions to ADHD symptoms. More specifically, our results support the proposal of a temperamentally based pathway to ADHD symptoms. The findings also indicate that disorganized attachment and negative emotionality constitute pathways specific to conduct problems rather than to ADHD symptoms.

  • 5. Forslund, Tommie
    et al.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Psychodynamic Foundations2016In: Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Psychological Science / [ed] Viviana Weekes-Shackelford, Todd K. Shackelford, Springer, 2016, p. 1-5Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Westen (1998) has defined psychodynamic theories with five postulates: (1) much of mental life is unconscious; (2) mental processes operate in parallel so that people can have conflicting feelings that motivate them in opposing ways; (3) stable personality patterns begin to form in childhood, and childhood experiences play an important role in the developing personality, particularly in shaping social relationships; (4) mental representations of the self, others, and relationships guide people’s interactions with others and influence psychological symptomatology; and (5) personality development involves learning to regulate sexual and aggressive feelings but also the move from an immature, socially dependent state to a mature, interdependent one. According to this definition, attachment theory is a psychodynamic theory. However, Bowlby explicitly demarcated his attachment theory from the drive principles.

  • 6. Forslund, Tommie
    et al.
    Kenward, Ben
    Granqvist, Pehr
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Gredeback, Gustaf
    Brocki, Karin C.
    Diminished ability to identify facial emotional expressions in children with disorganized attachment representations2017In: Developmental Science, ISSN 1363-755X, E-ISSN 1467-7687, Vol. 20, no 6, article id e12465Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of children's ability to identify facial emotional expressions has long been suggested to be experience dependent, with parental caregiving as an important influencing factor. This study attempts to further this knowledge by examining disorganization of the attachment system as a potential psychological mechanism behind aberrant caregiving experiences and deviations in the ability to identify facial emotional expressions. Typically developing children (N=105, 49.5% boys) aged 6-7years (M=6years 8months, SD=1.8months) completed an attachment representation task and an emotion identification task, and parents rated children's negative emotionality. The results showed a generally diminished ability in disorganized children to identify facial emotional expressions, but no response biases. Disorganized attachment was also related to higher levels of negative emotionality, but discrimination of emotional expressions did not moderate or mediate this relation. Our novel findings relate disorganized attachment to deviations in emotion identification, and therefore suggest that disorganization of the attachment system may constitute a psychological mechanism linking aberrant caregiving experiences to deviations in children's ability to identify facial emotional expressions. Our findings further suggest that deviations in emotion identification in disorganized children, in the absence of maltreatment, may manifest in a generally diminished ability to identify emotional expressions, rather than in specific response biases.

  • 7. Fransson, Mari
    et al.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Hagekull, Berit
    Interlinkages between attachment and the Five-Factor Model of personality in middle childhood and young adulthood: a longitudinal approach2013In: Attachment & Human Development, ISSN 1461-6734, E-ISSN 1469-2988, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 219-239Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we examine concurrent and prospective links between attachment and the Five-Factor Model (FFM) of personality from middle childhood to young adulthood (n=66). At age 8.5 years, attachment was measured with the Separation Anxiety Test and at 21 years with the Adult Attachment Interview, whereas the personality dimensions were assessed with questionnaires at both time points. The results showed that attachment and personality dimensions are meaningfully related, concurrently and longitudinally. Attachment security in middle childhood was positively related to extraversion and openness, both concurrently and prospectively. Unresolved/disorganized (U/d) attachment was negatively related to conscientiousness and positively related to openness in young adulthood. U/d attachment showed a unique contribution to openness above the observed temporal stability of openness. As attachment security was also associated with openness, the duality of this factor is discussed together with other theoretical considerations regarding attachment theory in relation to the FFM.

  • 8. Fransson, Mari
    et al.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Marciszko, Carin
    Hagekull, Berit
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Is middle childhood attachment related to social functioning in young adulthood?2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 57, no 2, p. 108-116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study (N = 69) was to examine whether middle childhood attachment, measured using the Separation Anxiety Test (Slough, Goyette & Greenberg, 1988), predicts aspects of social functioning (social initiative, prosocial orientation, social anxiety, loneliness) in young adulthood. Insecurity-avoidance at age 8.5 years was, as expected, negatively related to social initiative and prosocial orientation, and was also positively related to social anxiety and loneliness at age 21 years. In addition, insecurity-avoidance contributed to developmental change in social anxiety from middle childhood to young adulthood. Contrary to our expectations, the two security scales were generally unrelated to future social functioning. Taken together, these results extend previous research by showing that insecurity-avoidance is related to social functioning also beyond childhood and adolescence, and that it contributes to developmental change in social functioning over time. The scarcity of prospective links for the attachment security scales points to the need for future studies addressing when and why attachment does not contribute to future social functioning.

  • 9. Gordon, Amy R.
    et al.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Vestbrant, Karolina
    Döllinger, Lillian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Olsson, Mats J.
    Lundström, Johan N.
    Partner’s body odor lowers stress discomfort2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 10. Gordon, Amy R.
    et al.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Vestbrant, Karolina
    Döllinger, Lillian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Olsson, Mats J.
    Lundström, Johan N.
    Partner’s body odor lowers stress symptoms2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Attachment and religious development in adolescence: The implications of culture2012In: Values, religion, and culture in adolescent development / [ed] Gisela Trommsdorff & Xinyin Chen, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2012, 1, p. 315-340Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Book information: Cultural values and religious beliefs play a substantial role in adolescent development. Developmental scientists have shown increasing interest in how culture and religion are involved in the processes through which adolescents adapt to environments. This volume constitutes a timely and unique addition to the literature on human development from a cultural-contextual perspective. Editors Gisela Trommsdorff and Xinyin Chen present systematic and in-depth discussions of theoretical perspectives, landmark studies and strategies for further research in the field. The eminent contributors reflect diverse cultural perspectives, transcending the Western emphasis of many previous works. This volume will be of interest to scholars and professionals interested in basic developmental processes, adolescent social psychology and the sociological and psychological dimensions of religion.

  • 12.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Attachment, emotion, and religion2016In: Issues in Science and Theology: Do Emotions Shape the World? / [ed] M. Fuller, D. Evers, A. Runehov, & K.-W. Saether, Springer International Publishing AG , 2016, p. 9-26Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper highlights how the development of emotion is intertwined with the development of attachment. I argue, also, that there are certain central emotions and affects associated with particular forms of attachment, which come to define the self in relation to others. Further, this emotion-attachment configuration is expressed in religion, especially in the religious individual’s perceived relationship with God. I describe pertinent findings from the scientific literature on the attachment-religion connection indicating that experientially based internal working models of self and other are generalized and lawfully expressed in the context of religion. Thus, attachment-related interactions will affectively color the individual’s perceived relationship with God. Yet, God and religion may also provide a source of surrogate attachments, which may aid in repairing negative working models of self and others. Finally, words of caution are offered to prevent misunderstandings of the implications arising from a consideration of how the emotion-attachment configuration is expressed in the context of religion.

  • 13.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Introduction to the Special Issue: Advancements in the study of attachment and religion/spirituality2012In: The international journal for the psychology of religion, ISSN 1050-8619, E-ISSN 1532-7582, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 173-179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the recent past, psychologists of religion frequently complained that their discipline was not sufficiently respected in mainstream academic psychology while acknowledging—at least in some cases—that one reason for this lack of respect was that their discipline did not really deserve it (e.g., Batson, 1997; Batson, Schoenrade, & Ventis, 1993). Why this discipline would not deserve respect might at first seem puzzling. After all, in its many different manifestations, religion is on the verge of being a historical and anthropological universal (e.g., Brown, 1991). Also, whereas members of other animal species keep themselves busy with the world of their senses, “man is [perhaps] by constitution a religious animal” (Burke, 1790/1909, p. 239). Relatedly, religion typically, and curiously, centers around the existence of unobservable others (i.e., gods and spirits). Finally, as illustrated by the opening quote from a “Christian-era” Bob Dylan song, these unobservable others become especially important as people struggle with utter despair and turmoil; that's when their dyin' voices are especially prone to reach out, somewhere. The song continues, “Sometimes I turn, there's someone there, other times it's only me” (Dylan, 1981). Thus, why would mainstream psychologists not view the topic of religion as worthy of their scientific attention and interest, and why would some psychologists of religion themselves attest that their discipline doesn't really deserve respect?

  • 14.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    La religione dal punto di vista della teoria e della ricerca sull'attaccamento: una panoramica con enfasi sulle attuali tendenze2009In: Psicologia della religione e teoria dell’attaccamento / [ed] Germano Rossi & Mario Aletti, Roma: Aracne , 2009, p. 29-44Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Mental health and religion from an attachment viewpoint: overview with implications for future research2014In: Mental Health, Religion & Culture, ISSN 1367-4676, E-ISSN 1469-9737, Vol. 17, no 8, p. 777-793Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    I argue in this article that attachment theoretical considerations provide insights into why certain moderators underlie the links observed between religion and mental health. Three sets of moderators are discussed. First, contextual factors associated with heightened attachment activation (e.g., stress, unavailability of one's secular attachment figures, low social welfare) increase the strength of the links observed between religion and mental health. Second, aspects of mental health that are most notably affected by having a safe haven to turn to and a secure base to depart from are particularly reliably linked to religion. Other attachment-related aspects of mental health that religion may promote concerns attenuation of grief and reparation of internal working models following loss of and/or experiences of having been insensitively cared for by other attachment figures. Finally, aspects of religion that are most consistently linked to mental health are partially those that express attachment-components, including belief in a personal, loving God with whom one experiences a close and secure relationship.

  • 16.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Observations of disorganized behaviour yield no magic wand: Response to Shemmings2016In: Attachment & Human Development, ISSN 1461-6734, E-ISSN 1469-2988, Vol. 18, no 6, p. 529-533Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Religion and cognitive, emotional, and social development2014In: Religion, personality and social behavior / [ed] Vassilis Saroglou, New York: Psychology Press, 2014, p. 283-312Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Book description: Psychological interest in religion, in terms of both theory and empirical research, has been constant since the beginning of psychology. However, since the beginning of the 21st Century, partially due to important social and political events and developments, interest in religion within personality and social psychology has increased. This volume reviews the accumulated research and theory on the major aspects of personality and social psychology as applied to religion. It provides a high quality integrative, systematic, and rigorous review of that work, with a focus on topics that are both central in personality and social psychology and have allowed for the accumulation of solid and replicated and not impressionist knowledge on religion. The contributors are renowned researchers in the field who offer an international perspective that is both illuminating, yet neutral, with respect to religion. The volume's primary audience are academics, researchers, and advanced students in social psychology, it but will also interest those in sociology, political sciences, and anthropology.

  • 18.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Religion as Attachment: The Godin Award Lecture2010In: Archive for the Psychology of Religion, ISSN 0084-6724, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 5-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this presentation, I delineate five refinements that I and my associates have introduced during the last decade to the literature on religion and spirituality from an attachment-theory perspective. First, I describe the principle of social correspondence as an addition to the idea that religiousness reflects generalizing working models of attachment. Second, I focus on what we have learned from studying implicit processes and utilizing experimental designs in religion-as-attachment research. Third, I describe results from research projects that have used developmentally validated attachment assessments, such as the Adult Attachment Interview. Fourth, I emphasize the need for engaging a wider developmental range in religion-as-attachment research and sum up what we have found using non-adult samples. Finally, I argue for employing a wider research perspective on the attachment-religion/spirituality connection than the central parameters of an attachment framework would suggest, by considering possible mediators between attachment and religious or spiritual outcomes.

  • 19.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Broberg, Anders G.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Hagekull, Berit
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Attachment, religiousness, and distress among the religious and spiritual links between religious syncretism and compensation2014In: Mental Health, Religion & Culture, ISSN 1367-4676, E-ISSN 1469-9737, Vol. 17, no 7, p. 726-740Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using the Adult Attachment Interview, we explored differences in attachment, distress, and religiousness among groups of traditionally religious, New Age spiritual, and religiously syncretistic (high on both) participants (Ps) (N = 75). Religiously syncretistic Ps showed a preponderance of insecure attachment and were raised by non-religious parents, who were estimated as relatively insensitive. Moreover, religiously syncretistic Ps perceived a personal relationship with God and had experienced increased religiousness/spirituality during difficult life periods, but did not suffer elevated distress. New Agers often mirrored the religiously syncretistic, but had a more even secure–insecure attachment distribution, typically did not perceive a personal relationship with God, and did suffer elevated distress. Traditionally religious Ps were low on distress and raised by religious parents, estimated as relatively sensitive. We conclude that religious syncretism may often express religion/spirituality as compensation. Finally, we speculate that a perceived relationship with God may attenuate distress among those at risk.

  • 20.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Forslund, Tommie
    Fransson, Mari
    Springer, Lydia
    Lindberg, Lene
    Mothers with intellectual disability, their experiences of maltreatment and their children’s attachment representations: a small-group matched comparison study2014In: Attachment & Human Development, ISSN 1461-6734, E-ISSN 1469-2988, Vol. 16, no 5, p. 417-436Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Maternal intellectual disability (ID) is regarded a risk factor in child development, but there is no scientific evidence on maternal ID in relation to children’s attachment. Using a matched comparison design, a small group (= 23) of mothers diagnosed with ID was studied to help fill this gap. Besides maternal ID, we examined the role of abuse/trauma/maltreatment (ATM) in the mothers’ biographies, along with potential confounds. Comparison group mothers (= 25) had normal variations in intelligence and matched mothers with ID on residential area, income, child age, and sex. History of maternal ATM was assessed using a semi-structured interview and was found to be significantly more likely in the ID group mothers’ experience than the comparison group mothers. Children’s (M age = 77 months) attachment representations were assessed with the Separation Anxiety Test. Among children of mothers with ID, a substantial minority (35%) had a secure and the vast majority (>80%) an organized attachment representation. Mothers with ID who had suffered elevated ATM were significantly more likely to have children who were scored high on disorganization and insecurity. We discuss possible implications of our findings for societal considerations regarding parenting and child attachment in the context of parental ID status.

  • 21.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    et al.
    Department of Psychology , Uppsala University , Uppsala, Sweden.
    Fransson, Mari
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Hegekull, Berit
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Disorganized attachment, absorption, and new age spirituality: a mediational model2009In: Attachment & Human Development, ISSN 1461-6734, E-ISSN 1469-2988, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 385-403Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present a theoretical model and an empirical review linking disorganized attachment with New Age spiritual beliefs and activities via a proposed mediator; the propensity to enter altered states of consciousness (absorption/dissociation). Utilizing a prospective longitudinal design (N = 62), an empirical test of the mediational model is also provided for illustrational purposes. More specifically, we tested if unresolved/disorganized (U/d) attachment scores, as identified via the Adult Attachment Interview at the first assessment point, predicted New Age spirituality 3 years later, and whether this link was mediated by absorption. Results supported the mediational model, although the bivariate relation between U/d attachment and New Age spirituality was of modest strength. The discussion focuses on the general implications, clinical as well as non-clinical, of the proposed model. Finally, we argue that time is now ripe for attachment researchers to address additional non-pathological sequelae of disorganized attachment and the related propensity to experience altered states of consciousness.

  • 22.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hagekull, Berit
    Ivarsson, Tord
    Disorganized attachment promotes mystical experiences via a propensity for alterations in consciousness (absorption)2012In: The international journal for the psychology of religion, ISSN 1050-8619, E-ISSN 1532-7582, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 180-197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, the authors argue that mystical experiences are linked to disorganized attachment via a proposed mediator-the propensity to enter altered states of consciousness (absorption). Using a sample of predominantly religious/spiritual participants (N = 62), they report that disorganized attachment, as identified with the Adult Attachment Interview, predicted lifetime occurrence of mystical experiences and that this link was mediated by absorption. Alternative mediational models received less conclusive support. Also, more conventional aspects of religion (theistic beliefs and degree of general religiousness) were not related to disorganized attachment or absorption, supporting the discriminant validity of the mediational model. In the discussion, the authors argue that mystical experiences represent a nonpathological and potentially self-reparative outcome of disorganized attachment and the related propensity to experience alterations in consciousness. Experiences named mystical have played a conspicuous role at almost every level of culture; and yet, despite the vast literature devoted to them, the subject has remained.... as dark as it is fascinating.... Mysticism has suffered as much at the hands of its admirers as at the hands of its materialistic enemies. If the latter have been unable to see anything else than aberrations and abnormalities, the former have gone to the other and equally fatal extreme; no descriptive adjective short of sublime, infinite, divine has seemed to them at all sufficient.

  • 23.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Hesse, Erik
    Fransson, Mari
    Main, Mary
    Hagekull, Berit
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Prior participation in the strange situation and overstress jointly facilitate disorganized behaviours: implications for theory, research and practice2016In: Attachment & Human Development, ISSN 1461-6734, E-ISSN 1469-2988, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 235-249Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We seek to understand why a relatively high percentage (39%; vs the meta-analytic average, 15-18%) of disorganized/disoriented (D) classifications has accrued in the low-risk Uppsala Longitudinal Study (ULS) study, using experienced D coders. Prior research indicates that D behaviours do not always indicate attachment disorganization stemming from a history of frightening caregiving. We examined the role of two other presumed factors: participation in a previous strange situation and overstress. Our findings indicate that both factors were highly prevalent in the ULS sample and that they jointly predicted higher rates of D. First, participation in a previous strange situation was associated with significantly higher distress displays during the second visit than occurred among previously untested children, suggesting that prior participation in the strange situation had a sensitizing effect on child distress during the second visit. Second, unless separations were cut short in lieu of high distress during the second visit, re-tested children were disproportionately likely (ca 60%) to be classified D. We argue that these findings have important implications for theory, research, and practice. In particular, we conclude that practitioners must refrain from misattributing the appearance of any D behaviors observed to a history of maltreatment.

  • 24.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Kirkpatrick, Lee A.
    Attachment and religious representations and behavior2016In: Handbook of attachment: theory, research, and clinical applications / [ed] Jude Cassidy and Phillip R. Shaver, New York: Guilford Press, 2016, 3, p. 856-878Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter is divided into five major sections. In the first, we argue that people’s perceived relationships with God meet the defining criteria of attachment relationships reasonably well, and hence function psychologically much as other attachments do. We examine in the second section lifespan maturational issues involved in the development of attachment and religion. These first two sections deal with normative/typical aspects of the attachment–religion connection. In the third section, we review empirical connections between religion and individual differences in attachment. This section is subdivided into two subsections—the first focusing on a “compensation” pathway and the second describing a “correspondence” pathway to religion. We address in the fourth major section research findings and implications of the religion-as-attachment model with respect to psychological outcomes. In the final major section, which is new to this edition, we address the current state of theory and research on the attachment–religion connection.

  • 25.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kirkpatrick, Lee A.
    Religion, Spirituality, and Attachment2013In: APA Handbook of Psychology, Religion, and Spirituality: Volume 1: Context, Theory, and Research / [ed] Kenneth I. Pargament, Julie J. Exline, James W. Jones, Washington DC: American Psychological Association (APA), 2013, p. 129-155Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Handbook overview from publisher: 

    This two-volume handbook presents the most comprehensive coverage of the current state of the psychology of religion and spirituality. It introduces a new integrative paradigm for this rapidly growing and diverse field. This paradigm sheds light on the many purposes religion serves, the rich variety of religious and spiritual beliefs and practices, and the capacity of religion and spirituality to do both good and harm.

    The integrative paradigm encourages psychologists to attend to the ways religion and spirituality are expressed not only in individual lives, but also in the lives of couples, families, institutions, communities, and cultures. The handbook documents how the psychology of religion and spirituality is building on its theoretical and empirical foundation to encompass practice.

    The chapters in this handbook provide in-depth and varied perspectives of leading scholars and practitioners on the most vital questions in the field.

  • 26.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Mikulincer, Mario
    Gewirtz, Vered
    Shaver, Phillip R.
    Experimental findings on God as an attachment figure: normative processes and moderating effects of internal working models2012In: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, ISSN 0022-3514, E-ISSN 1939-1315, Vol. 103, no 5, p. 804-818Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Four studies examined implications of attachment theory for psychological aspects of religion among Israeli Jews. Study 1 replicated previous correlational findings indicating correspondence among interpersonal attachment orientations, attachment to God, and image of God. Studies 2-4 were subliminal priming experiments, which documented both normative and individual-difference effects. Regarding normative effects, findings indicated that threat priming heightened cognitive access to God-related concepts in a lexical decision task (Study 2); priming with God heightened cognitive access to positive, secure base-related concepts in the same task (Study 3); and priming with a religious symbol caused neutral material to be better liked (Study 4). Regarding individual differences, interpersonal attachment-related avoidance reduced the normative effects (i.e., avoidant participants had lower implicit access to God as a safe haven and secure base). Findings were mostly independent of level of religiousness. The present experiments considerably extend the psychological literature on connections between attachment constructs and aspects of religion.

  • 27.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Mikulincer, Mario
    Shaver, Phillip R.
    Religion as Attachment: Normative Processes and Individual Differences2010In: Personality and Social Psychology Review, ISSN 1088-8683, E-ISSN 1532-7957, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 49-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors review findings from the psychology of religion showing that believers' perceived relationships with God meet the definitional criteria for attachment relationships. They also review evidence for associations between aspects of religion and individual differences in interpersonal attachment security and insecurity. They focus on two developmental pathways to religion. The first is a "compensation" pathway involving distress regulation in the context of insecure attachment and past experiences of insensitive caregiving. Research suggests that religion as compensation might set in motion an "earned security" process for individuals who are insecure with respect to attachment. The second is a "correspondence" pathway based on secure attachment and past experiences with sensitive caregivers who were religious. The authors also discuss conceptual limitations of a narrow religion-as-attachment model and propose a more inclusive framework that accommodates concepts such as mindfulness and "nonattachment" from nontheistic religions such as Buddhism and New Age spirituality.

  • 28.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Moström, Jakob
    There Are Plenty of Atheists in Foxholes-in Sweden2014In: Archive for the Psychology of Religion/ Archiv für Religionspsychologie, ISSN 0084-6724, E-ISSN 1573-6121, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 199-213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We evaluated the veracity of a famous aphorism that is often cited in the scientific study of religion: There are no atheists in foxholes. To provide a critical evaluation, the sample was drawn from one of the world's most secular spots, Sweden. We explored the prevalence of various religious beliefs/non-beliefs and prayer in a sample of parents (n = 57) living with a major threat: having a child with a life-threatening heart condition. For comparison purposes, the prevalence of such beliefs and prayer were explored also in a sample (n = 72) of parents with healthy children. Results showed that a majority of parents endorsed atheist or agnostic beliefs, whereas only a minority endorsed religious beliefs. Roughly half of the sample engaged in prayer. The group of parents with sick children was statistically indistinguishable from the comparison group parents on all variables. Also, between-group differences were generally negligible in terms of effect size; thus, the null results were not due to statistical power problems. We conclude that there may be plenty of atheists in some foxholes.

  • 29.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Nkara, Frances
    Nature meets nurture in religious and spiritual development2017In: British Journal of Developmental Psychology, ISSN 0261-510X, E-ISSN 2044-835X, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 142-155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider nurture's (including culture's) sculpting influences on the evolved psychological predispositions that are expressed in religious and spiritual (R&S) development. An integrated understanding of R&S development requires a move away from the largely one-sided (nature-or-nurture) and additive (nature + nurture) accounts provided in the extant literature. R&S development has been understood as an expression of evolved cognitive modules (nature) on the one hand, and of socialization and social learning (nurture) on the other, or in similar albeit additive terms (e.g., nature produces the brain/mind, culture fills in the details). We argue that humans’ evolved psychological predispositions are substantially co-shaped by environmental/cultural input, such as relational experiences and modelling at the microlevel through belief and value systems at the macrolevel. Nurture's sculpting of nature is, then, expressed in R&S development. Finally, for heuristic purposes, we illustrate a fully integrated nature–nurture model with attachment theory and its application to R&S development.

  • 30.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Reijman, S.
    Cardeña, E.
    Alterations in consciousness and human development2011In: Altering consciousness: A multidisciplinary perspective Vol 2, Biological and psychological perspectives / [ed] E. Cardeña and M. Winkelman, Praeger , 2011, p. 211-234Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Book description: From prehistoric caves to current raves and virtual reality technology, humanity has always sought to alter its consciousness. Altered states of consciousness can be achieved through dreaming, drumming, dancing, meditation, hypnosis, fasting, sex, and a number of other human activities. These strategies affect consciousness by mimicking the natural responses of our nervous system.

  • 31.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Sroufe, L. Alan
    Dozier, Mary
    Hesse, Erik
    Steele, Miriam
    van Ijzendoorn, Marinus
    Solomon, Judith
    Schuengel, Carlo
    Fearon, Pasco
    Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian
    Steele, Howard
    Cassidy, Jude
    Carlson, Elizabeth
    Madigan, Sheri
    Jacobvitz, Deborah
    Foster, Sarah
    Behrens, Kazuko
    Rifkin-Graboi, Anne
    Gribneau, Naomi
    Spangler, Gottfried
    Ward, Mary J.
    True, Mary
    Spieker, Susan
    Reijman, Sophie
    Reisz, Samantha
    Tharner, Anne
    Nkara, Frances
    Goldwyn, Ruth
    Sroufe, June
    Pederson, David
    Pederson, Deanne
    Weigand, Robert
    Siegel, Daniel
    Dazzi, Nino
    Bernard, Kristin
    Fonagy, Peter
    Waters, Everett
    Toth, Sheree
    Cicchetti, Dante
    Zeanah, Charles H.
    Lyons-Ruth, Karlen
    Main, Mary
    Duschinsky, Robbie
    Disorganized attachment in infancy: a review of the phenomenon and its implications for clinicians and policy-makers2017In: Attachment & Human Development, ISSN 1461-6734, E-ISSN 1469-2988, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 534-558Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Disorganized/Disoriented (D) attachment has seen widespread interest from policy makers, practitioners, and clinicians in recent years. However, some of this interest seems to have been based on some false assumptions that (1) attachment measures can be used as definitive assessments of the individual in forensic/child protection settings and that disorganized attachment (2) reliably indicates child maltreatment, (3) is a strong predictor of pathology, and (4) represents a fixed or static trait of the child, impervious to development or help. This paper summarizes the evidence showing that these four assumptions are false and misleading. The paper reviews what is known about disorganized infant attachment and clarifies the implications of the classification for clinical and welfare practice with children. In particular, the difference between disorganized attachment and attachment disorder is examined, and a strong case is made for the value of attachment theory for supportive work with families and for the development and evaluation of evidence-based caregiving interventions.

  • 32.
    Gruneau Brulin, Joel
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hill, Peter C.
    Laurin, Kristin
    Mikulincer, Mario
    Granqvist, Pehr
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Religion vs. the Welfare State-The Importance of Cultural Context for Religious Schematicity and Priming2018In: Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, ISSN 1941-1022, E-ISSN 1943-1562, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 276-287Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prior research, using correlational and self-report methodologies, suggests that religion and public welfare function as alternate security/insurance systems. Consequently, in countries with more expansive public welfare systems people report less religiosity. The present studies expand this field by utilizing experimental methodology and by replicating and extending two previous experiments in both a secular/welfare state context (Sweden) and a religious/nonwelfare state context (the United States). In the first set of experiments, we tested if cognitive access to religious and welfare-related mental schemas differ depending on context. We also tested whether previous findings indicating that people cognitively turn to religion when exposed to threat replicate and extend to the welfare system. In the second set of experiments, we tested whether religious and welfare reminders lead to increased risk taking in these contexts. Our findings show that participants in the secular/welfare state context had lower cognitive access to religious schemas and were less willing to take risks after religious reminders. However, our findings did not replicate those from previous studies: our participants did not have increased cognitive access to religion, nor public welfare, after threat primes. Similarly, our participants were generally not more prone to risk taking after reminders of religion (or public welfare), although such an effect was obtained specifically on high-religious participants. We conclude that cultural context is important to consider when studying psychological functions of religion, and we suggest that the failed replications may be due to cultural, contextual factors. Finally, religious reminders may have contradictory influences on risk taking.

  • 33. Ivarsson, Tord
    et al.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gillberg, Christopher
    Broberg, Anders G.
    Attachment states of mind in adolescents with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and/or depressive disorders: a controlled study2010In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 19, no 11, p. 845-853Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Little is known about the contribution of attachment insecurity to Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD), though speculations have been extensive. We aimed to study how states of mind (SoM) with regard to attachment relate to OCD with and without depressive disorder (DD). We interviewed 100 adolescents, 25 each with OCD, DD, OCD plus DD and general population controls, using the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) to assess attachment SoM. In the AAI, interviewees are asked about both generalized/semantic and biographical/episodic descriptions of childhood experience. Discourse styles are coded and classified by a blinded coder. While about half of the adolescents from the general population had secure SoM (52%), most adolescents in the clinical groups did not: OCD 12%; DD 8%; and DD + OCD 4% (Fisher's exact test, p = 0.0001). SoM with regard to attachment profiles differed significantly across the groups with 60% of participants with OCD classified as dismissing (Ds), 40% of the DD group as unresolved with regard to loss or abuse (U) and 28% as cannot classify, while 44 and 36%, respectively, of those with OCD + DD group were classified as either Ds or U (Fisher's exact test, p = 0.0001). Different kinds of SoM reflecting insecure attachment differentiated the clinical groups studied, with OCD predominantly showing dismissing traits and depression attachment SoM commonly associated with severe adverse events. Such differences might play distinct roles in the pathogenic processes of the psychiatric disorders, or be the result of the cognitive states associated with OCD and DD.

  • 34. Ivarsson, Tord
    et al.
    Saavedra, Fanny
    Granqvist, Pehr
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Broberg, Anders G.
    Traumatic and adverse attachment childhood experiences are not characteristic of OCD but of depression in adolescents2016In: Child Psychiatry and Human Development, ISSN 0009-398X, E-ISSN 1573-3327, Vol. 47, no 2, p. 270-280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated whether adverse attachment experience might contribute to the development of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). We interviewed 100 adolescents, 25 each with primary OCD, depressive disorder (DD), OCD plus DD and general population controls (CTRs) using the adult attachment interview to assess attachment experiences (AEs), including traumatic and adverse AE (TAE). Adolescents with OCD, OCD+DD and DD had little evidence of secure base/safe haven parental behaviour and their childhood attachment needs judged to be rejected as compared to the controls. Overprotection was not characteristic of OCD, and parents using the child for their own needs (elevated levels of involving/role reversal) occurred only in DD, with low levels in OCD, OCD+DD and CTR. Traumatic experiences, often multiple, and/or attachment related were reported significantly more often in the DD group, and was less common in OCD+DD, CTR and particularly in the OCD group. In OCD, little TAE was reported and adverse AE were less serious and seem unlikely to contribute directly to OCD aetiology. In DD and to some degree in OCD+DD serious AE/TAE may have some etiological significance for the depressive states.

  • 35. Lindberg, Lene
    et al.
    Fransson, Mari
    Forslund, Tommie
    Springer, Lydia
    Granqvist, Pehr
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Maternal Sensitivity in Mothers with Mild Intellectual Disabilities is Related to Experiences of Maltreatment and Predictive of Child Attachment: A Matched-Comparison Study2017In: JARID: Journal of applied research in intellectual disabilities, ISSN 1360-2322, E-ISSN 1468-3148, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 445-455Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Scientific knowledge on the quality of caregiving/maternal sensitivity among mothers with mild intellectual disabilities (ID) is limited and subject to many methodological shortcomings, but seems to suggest that these mothers are less sensitive than mothers without intellectual disabilities.

    Methods: In this matched-comparison study (= 48), the present authors observed maternal sensitivity for 20 min in four different laboratory play situations. The study also included semi-structured interviews to assess maternal experiences of maltreatment and child attachment.

    Results: The present authors found significantly lower sensitivity among mothers with intellectual disabilities than among a comparison group of mothers without intellectual disabilities. Among mothers with intellectual disabilities, low sensitivity was related to maternal experiences of maltreatment and predictive of disorganized child attachment. In the comparison group, high maternal sensitivity was related to partner presence and social support, and predictive of child intelligence.

    Conclusions: The present authors highlight the importance of attending to intellectual disabilities mothers' history of receiving care to understand their capacity for giving adequate care.

  • 36. Richert, Rebekah A.
    et al.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Religious and spiritual development in childhood2013In: Handbook of the Psychology of Religion and Spirituality / [ed] Raymond F. Paloutzian, Crystal L. Park, New York, NY: Guilford Press, 2013, 2, p. 165-182Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Widely regarded as the definitive reference, this volume comprehensively examines the psychological processes associated with religion and spirituality. Leading scholars from multiple psychological subdisciplines present developmental, cognitive, social psychological, cultural, and clinical perspectives on this core aspect of human experience. The forms and functions of religious practices and rituals, conversion experiences, and spiritual struggles are explored. Other key topics include religion as a meaning system, religious influences on prosocial and antisocial behavior, and connections to health, coping, and psychotherapy.

    New to This Edition

    * Two chapters on cross-cultural issues.

    * Chapters on spiritual goals, emotional values, and mindfulness.

    * Reflects significant theoretical and empirical developments in the field.

    * Many new authors and extensively revised chapters.

    * Robust index amplifies the volume's usefulness as a reference tool.

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