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  • 1.
    Gustafsson, Philip
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Jönsson, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Effort in Memory Retrieval Predicts Accuracy in Eyewitness Testimonies2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Do sincere eyewitness testimonies contain objective markers of accuracy? Despite the importance of evaluating the accuracy of verbal eyewitness testimonies, the evidence for objective measures are scarce, and current accuracy measures unsatisfactory. We demonstrate that expressed effort during memory retrieval can predict accuracy in honest eyewitnesses. Incorrect memories are recalled with greater effort (e.g. more delays and disfluencies) than correct memories.

  • 2.
    Gustafsson, Philip
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Jönsson, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    'He was...uhm...bald': Retrieval effort predicts eyewitness accuracy2019In: Book of Abstracts: 21st Conference of the European Society for Cognitive Psychology, 2019, p. 327-327, article id PS4.69Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Evaluating eyewitness testimonies has proven a difficult task. We investigated if incorrect memories are more effortful to retrieve than correct memories. Participants watched a simulated crime and were interviewed as eyewitnesses. We then analysed retrieval effort cues in witness responses. Results showed that incorrect memories included more “effort cues” than correct memories, and also partially mediated the relationship between confidence and accuracy.

  • 3.
    Gustafsson, Philip
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Effort in Memory Retrieval Predicts Accuracy in Eyewitness Testimonies2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Do sincere eyewitness testimonies contain objective markers of accuracy? We show that expressions of effort in memory retrieval predict eyewitness accuracy. Incorrect memories are recalled with greater effort than correct memories.

  • 4.
    Gustafsson, Philip U.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Predicting Accuracy in Eyewitness Testimonies With Memory Retrieval Effort and Confidence2019In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, article id 703Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evaluating eyewitness testimonies has proven a difficult task. Recent research, however, suggests that incorrect memories are more effortful to retrieve than correct memories, and confidence in a memory is based on retrieval effort. We aimed to replicate and extend these findings, adding retrieval latency as a predictor of memory accuracy. Participants watched a film sequence with a staged crime and were interviewed about its content. We then analyzed retrieval effort cues in witness responses. Results showed that incorrect memories included more “effort cues” than correct memories. While correct responses were produced faster than incorrect responses, delays in responses proved a better predictor of accuracy than response latency. Furthermore, participants were more confident in correct than incorrect responses, and the effort cues partially mediated this confidence-accuracy relation. In sum, the results support previous findings of a relationship between memory accuracy and objectively verifiable cues to retrieval effort.

1 - 4 of 4
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