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  • 1.
    Berntsson, Annika
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Kaislahti Tillman, Päivi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Ling, Johan
    Risberg, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Shore displacement in the world heritage area Tanum on the Swedish west coast2007Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 2. Cunningham, Laura
    et al.
    Bigler, Christian
    Rydberg, Cecilia
    Rosqvist, Gunhild
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Berntsson, Annika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Kaislahti Tillman, Päivi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Jonsson, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Leng, Melanie
    Wastegård, Stefan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Goslar, Tomasz
    Preliminary Sampling Report from Stuor Guossásjavri, Northern Sweden2008In: European Climate of the Last Millennium, Millennium Milestone meeting 2, Cala Millor, Mallorca, 13th-15th March 2008, 2008, p. 80-81Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Holzkämper, Steffen
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Tillman, Päivi Kaislahti
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Kuhry, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Esper, Jan
    Comparison of stable carbon and oxygen isotopes in Picea glauca tree rings and Sphagnum fuscum moss remains from subarctic Canada2012In: Quaternary Research, ISSN 0033-5894, E-ISSN 1096-0287, Vol. 78, no 2, p. 295-302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stable isotope ratios from tree rings and peatland mosses have become important proxies of past climate variations. We here compare recent stable carbon and oxygen isotope ratios in cellulose of tree rings from white spruce (Picea glauca), growing near the arctic tree line; and cellulose of Sphagnum fuscum stems, growing in a hummock of a subarctic peatland, in west-central Canada. Results show that carbon isotopes in S. fuscum correlate significantly with July temperatures over the past similar to 20 yr. The oxygen isotopes correlate with both summer temperature and precipitation. Analyses of the tree-ring isotopes revealed summer temperatures to be the main controlling factor for carbon isotope variations, whereas tree-ring oxygen isotope ratios are controlled by a combination of spring temperatures and precipitation totals. We also explore the potential of combining high-frequency (annual) climate signals derived from long tree-ring series with low-frequency (decadal to centennial) climate signals derived from the moss remains in peat deposits. This cross-archive comparison revealed no association between the oxygen isotopes, which likely results from the varying sensitivity of the archives to different seasons. For the carbon isotopes, common variance could be achieved through adjustments of the Sphagnum age model within dating error.

  • 4.
    Jonsson, C. E.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Rosqvist, G. C.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Leng, M. J.
    NERC Isotope Geosciences Laboratory, BGS, UK.
    Bigler, C.
    Umeå universitet.
    Bergman, J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Kaislahti Tillman, P.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Sloane, H.
    NERC Isotope Geosciences Laboratory, BGS, UK.
    High-resolution diatom d18O records from two sub-Arctic high-altitude lakes in the Swedish ScandesIn: Journal of Quaternary Science, ISSN 0267-8179, E-ISSN 1099-1417Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Waters from high altitude alpine lakes are mainly recharged by meteoric water. Because of seasonal variations in precipitation and temperature, and relatively short hydraulic residence times, most high altitude lakes have lake water isotopic compositions (δ18Olake) that fluctuate due to seasonality in water balance processes. Input from snowmelt, in particular, has a significant role in determining lake water d18O. Here we compare two high resolution δ18Odiatom records from lake sediments in the Swedish Scandes with instrumental data from the last century obtained from nearby meteorological stations. The time period AD 1900 to AD 1990 is characterized by an increase in winter precipitation and high winter/summer precipitation ratios and this is recorded in δ18Odiatom as decreasing trends. Lowest δ18Odiatom values and highest amount of winter precipitation are found around AD 1990 when the winter North Atlantic Oscillation index was above +2. We conclude that for the last 150 years the main factor affecting the δ18Odiatom signal in these sub-Arctic high altitude lakes with short residence times has been changes in amount of winter precipitation and that δ18Odiatom derived from high altitude lakes in the Swedish Scandes can be used as a winter precipitation proxy.

  • 5.
    Jonsson, Christina E.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology (INK).
    Rosqvist, Gunhild C.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology (INK).
    Leng, Melanie J.
    Bigler, Christian
    Bergman, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology (INK).
    Tillman, Päivi Kaislahti
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology (INK).
    Sloane, Hilary J.
    High-resolution diatom delta O-18 records, from the last 150 years, reflecting changes in amount of winter precipitation in two sub-Arctic high-altitude lakes in the Swedish Scandes2010In: Journal of Quaternary Science, ISSN 0267-8179, E-ISSN 1099-1417, Vol. 25, no 6, p. 918-930Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Waters from high-altitude alpine lakes are mainly recharged by meteoric water. Because of seasonal variations in precipitation and temperature and relatively short hydraulic residence times, most high-altitude lakes have lake water isotopic compositions (delta O-18(lake)) that fluctuate due to seasonality in water balance processes. Input from snowmelt, in particular, has a significant role in determining lake water delta O-18. Here we compare two high-resolution delta O-18(diatom) records from lake sediments in the Swedish Scandes with instrumental data from the last century obtained from nearby meteorological stations. The time period AD 1900-1990 is characterised by an increase in winter precipitation and high winter/summer precipitation ratios and this is recorded in delta O-18(diatom) as decreasing trends. Lowest delta O-18(diatom) values and highest amount of winter precipitation are found around AD 1990 when the winter North Atlantic Oscillation index was above +2. We conclude that for the last 150 a the main factor affecting the delta O-18(diatom) signal in these sub-Arctic high-altitude lakes with short residence times has been changes in amount of winter precipitation and that delta O-18(diatom) derived from high-altitude lakes in the Swedish Scandes can be used as a winter precipitation proxy.

  • 6.
    Kaislahti Tillman, Päivi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Holocene climate and environmental change in high latitudes as recorded by stable isotopes in peat deposits2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, stable carbon and oxygen isotopes in α-cellulose isolated from Sphagnum fuscum moss remains were used as climate proxies. The main focus was to implement the methods in records from high latitude peatlands in the Northern Hemisphere (west-central Canada and north-eastern European Russia), reconstruct palaeoclimate of the studied regions during the Holocene, and evaluate the compatibility of results with other proxy records, especially tree-ring isotope time-series. The variation of stable carbon and oxygen isotope ratios (δ13C, δ18O) in different moss plant components was investigated and differences between untreated plants and α-cellulose extracts were evaluated. The impact of peat decay on the stable isotope proxies was studied by colorimetric and chemical (C/N) methods. Temperature reconstructions were developed based on the statistically significant relationship between δ13C and modern summer temperature records. Wet/dry periods were derived from a combination of δ18O records, macrofossil analysis, and a peat humification record in west-central Canada. A tentative reconstruction of snow depth in north-eastern European Russian tundra and northern taiga was based on δ18O records. The most promising result of the thesis is that stable carbon isotope variability in α-cellulose isolated from Sphagnum fuscum stems can be used to reconstruct and quantify palaeotemperatures several millennia back in time and to reveal both long-term and rapid climate shifts from peat archives.

  • 7.
    Kaislahti Tillman, Päivi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Holocene climate change in high latitudes recorded by stable isotopes in peat2010Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A key to the understanding of natural and human induced climate variations is to reconstruct past changes from different environments. No outstanding method for general use has been pinpointed, instead, a need of multi-proxy studies is often stressed and the reconstructions are under constant improvement by new techniques. The aim of my PhD project is to test a relatively new method, stable carbon and oxygen isotopes isolated from single moss species, and develop climate reconstructions based on them. The main interest is to implement the method in records from northern peatlands where permafrost conditions prevail, and contribute to the discussion about the warming Arctic.

    The first part of the Licentiate thesis is a method study about the variation of stable carbon and oxygen isotope ratios in different moss plant components. Modern isotopic values were calibrated against instrumental climate records from the study region in west-central Canada. The impact of peat decay on proxies was investigated by colorimetric and chemical (C/N) methods. The results indicate that the isotope signal is well preserved in peat that started to accumulate c. 6000 years ago. Furthermore, statistical analyses imply that the variation of stable carbon isotope ratios in Sphagnum fuscum is significantly correlated to the variation of summer temperatures.

    A temperature reconstruction was developed in the second part of the thesis, based on stable carbon isotope ratios. Wet/dry periods were derived from the stable oxygen isotope record, macrofossil analysis, and the peat humification record. The results were compared with other proxy records from the vicinity of the study area. The main climate periods, such as The Mediaeval Warm Period and The Little Ice Age were registered in the temperature record. The amplitude of the temperature change was similar to especially those in chironomid based reconstructions, showing c. 6.5±1°C variation in July temperatures during the past 6.2 ka.

  • 8.
    Kaislahti Tillman, Päivi
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Berntsson, Annika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Risberg, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Jansson, Krister
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Helmens, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Diatom stratigraphy of the MIS 3 deposits at Sokli, Northern Finland2007In: Nordic Diatomists´ Meeting, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Kaislahti Tillman, Päivi
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Holzkämper, Steffen
    Andersen, Thorbjoern Joest
    Hugelius, Gustaf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Kuhry, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Oksanen, Pirita
    Stable isotope records of Sphagnum fuscum peat as late Holocene climate proxies in north-eastern European RussiaManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Kaislahti Tillman, Päivi
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Holzkämper, Steffen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Joest Andersen, Thorbjörn
    Hugelius, Gustaf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Kuhry, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Oksanen, Pirita
    Stable isotopes in Sphagnum fuscum peat as late-Holocene climate proxies in northeastern European Russia2013In: The Holocene, ISSN 0959-6836, E-ISSN 1477-0911, Vol. 23, no 10, p. 1381-1390Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The environment of the northern taiga to tundra transition is highly sensitive to climate fluctuations. In this study from northeastern European Russia, stable carbon and oxygen isotope ratios (δ13C, δ18O) in α-cellulose of Sphagnum fuscum stems subsampled from hummocks and peat plateau profiles have been used as climate proxies. The entire isotope time series, dated by lead (210Pb), caesium (137Cs) and AMS-radiocarbon (14C) dating, spans the past 2500 years. Plant macrofossil analyses were used as an aid in single species selection, but are also helpful in identifying past surface moisture conditions. The most significant relationships were found between the recent δ13C record and summer (July–August) temperatures (R 2 = 0.58, p < 0.01), and the recent δ18O record and winter (October–May) precipitation anomalies in the tundra region (R 2 = 0.36, p < 0.01). The study demonstrates that stable isotopes preserved in northern peat deposits are useful indicators for summer temperature and winter precipitation at decadal to millennial timescales.

  • 11.
    Kaislahti Tillman, Päivi
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Holzkämper, Steffen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Kuhry, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Sannel, A. Britta K.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Loader, Neil J.
    Robertson, Iain
    Stable carbon and oxygen isotopes in Sphagnum fuscum peat from subarctic Canada: implications for palaeoclimate studies2010In: Chemical Geology, ISSN 0009-2541, E-ISSN 1872-6836, Vol. 270, no 1-4, p. 216-226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stable carbon and oxygen isotope ratios in single plant components in Sphagnum peat have a good potential to reveal environmental changes in peat archives. Two peat profiles, covering the past ~6000 years, and a Sphagnum hummock from a discontinuous permafrost area in west central Canada were studied in order to evaluate the effect of decomposition rate on isotope records and to assess which plant components are most suitable for climate reconstructions. The stable isotope values from the most recently forming Sphagnum tissues were compared with observational climate data to study the impact of variations in temperature and precipitation on the peat isotopes. Our results show that there is high correlation between δ13C values in α-cellulose isolated from Sphagnum fuscum stems and summer temperatures, whereas δ18O in the plant tissues is controlled by several factors, such as summer precipitation, summer temperature and evaporation. According to our results, decomposition as derived from C/N values and colorimetry does not seem to affect the oxygen and carbon isotope values of α-cellulose from Sphagnum fuscum peat significantly. There is, however, a (quasi-) constant offset between the isotope values of branches and stems and between whole plant material and  α-cellulose, which makes it crucial to select single moss-fractions when past climate and environmental changes are to be derived from the isotope record.

  • 12.
    Kaislahti Tillman, Päivi
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Holzkämper, Steffen
    Kuhry, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Sannel, A. Britta K.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Loader, Neil J.
    Robinson, Iain
    Long-term climate variability in continental subarctic Canada: A 6200-year record derived from stable isotopes in peat2010In: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, ISSN 0031-0182, E-ISSN 1872-616X, Vol. 298, no 3, p. 235-246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid warming of arctic regions during recent decades has been recorded by instrumental monitoring, but the natural climate variability in the past is still sparsely reconstructed across many areas. We have reconstructed past climate changes in subarctic west-central Canada. Stable carbon and oxygen isotope ratios (δ13C, δ18O) were derived from a single Sphagnum fuscum plant component; α-cellulose isolated from stems. Periods of warmer and cooler conditions identified in this region, described in terms of a “Mediaeval Climatic Anomaly” and “Little Ice Age” were registered in the temperature reconstruction based on the δ13C record. Some conclusions could be drawn about wet/dry shifts during the same time interval from the δ18O record, humification indices and the macrofossil analysis. The results were compared with other proxy data from the vicinity of the study area. The amplitude of the temperature change was similar to that in chironomid based reconstructions, showing c. 6.5±2.3°C variability in July temperatures during the past 6.2 ka.

  • 13.
    Risberg, Jan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Berntsson, Annika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Kaislahti Tillman, Päivi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Strandförskjutning under mesolitikum på centrala Södertörn, östra Mellansverige: Kvartärgeologiska undersökningar längs väg 73, Överfors - Västnora2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    The aim with this study was to reconstruct the shore displacement on central Södertörn, eastern middle Sweden. The achieved curve is supposed to serve as a base for archaeological discussions regarding dating and settlement location.

    By determining the isolation ages of local bogs and fens at different altitudes, a new shore displacement curve was compiled. The thresholds of five ancient lakes (Borgbergetmossen 50.1 m a.s.l., Långmossen 45.3 m a.s.l., Millingsmossen 44.8 m a.s.l., Vimossen 43.0 m a.s.l., and Malmbergamossen 38.7 m a.s.l.) were levelled and their isolations were determined on the basis of lithology, diatom analysis, organic carbon analysis and AMS radiocarbon dating of terrestrial macrofossils.

    At about 6800 BC, the Litorina Sea shore laid at a level that is now uplifted to c. 50 m above sea level. The shore displacement was regressive during the early Litorina Sea, e.g. the isostatic uplift was greater than the eustatic sea level rise, but a transgressive Litorina stage (L1) stopped the process of land gaining between 6800–5950 BC. Analyses of cores from Borgbergetmossen indicate that the basin had begun to isolate from sea due to regression and that this process disrupted by an increase in water depth. The transgression is also observed as a layer of clay at Vimossen, indicating greater water depth. During the following regressive period, c. 5950–5600 BC, with a relative uplift of c. 13 mm/yr, Borgbergetmossen, Långmossen and Millingsmossen became isolated lakes. A second transgression (L2) is recorded in the following century, when gyttja clay and clay was accumulated in Vimossen and Malmbergamossen, respectively. After c. 5500 BC, the shore displacement shows a regressive trend at a rate of c. 6mm/yr. Malmbergamossen became isolated from the sea at c. 4500 BC. This basin is now uplifted to c. 39 m a.s.l.

    Comparison with archaeological data indicates that the nearby Mesolithic sites were established along the former shore lines. Even though the general trend of the shore displacement was regressive, the inhabitants continued to live at the sites long after direct contact with the shore had ceased. This is explained by the topographically pronounced fissure-valley landscape; long vertical distance does not result in long horizontal distance.

    We have used the chronological timing of L1 and L2 for correlation with periods of increased summer temperatures in western Fennoscandia. Melting of glaciers resulted in a eustatic sea level rise that neutralized the isostatic uplift.

  • 14. Routh, Joyanto
    et al.
    Hugelius, Gustaf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Kuhry, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Filley, Timothy
    Tillman, Päivi Kaislahti
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology. Umea University.
    Becher, Marina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Crill, Patrick
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Multi-proxy study of soil organic matter dynamics in permafrost peat deposits reveal vulnerability to climate change in the European Russian Arctic2014In: Chemical Geology, ISSN 0009-2541, E-ISSN 1872-6836, Vol. 368, p. 104-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) in permafrost terrain is vulnerable to climate change. Perennially frozen peat deposits store large amounts of SOC, but we know little about its chemical composition and lability. We used plant macrofossil and biomarker analyses to reconstruct the Holocene paleovegetation and paleoenvironmental changes in two peat plateau profiles from the European Russian Arctic. Peat plateaus are the main stores of permafrost soil C in the region, but during most of the Holocene peats developed as permafrost-free rich fens with woody vegetation, sedges and mosses. Around 2200 cal BP, permafrost aggraded at the site resulting in frost heave and a drastic reduction in peat accumulation under the drier uplifted surface conditions. The permafrost dynamics (aggradation, frost-heave and thaw) ushered changes in plant assemblages and carbon accumulation, and consequently in the biomarker trends too. Detailed biomarker analyses indicate abundant neutral lipids, which follow the general pattern: n-alkanols > sterols >= n-alkanes >= triterpenols. The lignin monomers are not as abundant as the lipids and increase with depth. The selected aliphatic and phenolic compounds are source specific, and they have different degrees of lability, which is useful for tracing the impact of permafrost dynamics (peat accumulation and/or decay associated with thawing). However, common interpretation of biomarker patterns, and perceived hydrological and climate changes, must be applied carefully in permafrost regions. The increased proportion (selective preservation) of n-alkanes and lignin is a robust indicator of cumulative decomposition trajectories, which is mirrored by functional compounds (e. g. n-alkanol, triterpenol, and sterol concentrations) showing opposite trends. The distribution of these compounds follows first order decay kinetics, and concurs with the down core diagenetic changes. In particular, some of the biomarker ratios (e. g. stanol/sterol and higher plant alkane index) seem promising for tracing SOC decomposition despite changes in botanical imprint, and sites spanning across different soil types and locations. Carbon accumulation rate calculated at these sites varies from 18.1 to 31.1 gC m(-2) yr(-1), and it's evident selective preservation, molecular complexity of organic compounds, and freezing conditions enhance the long-term stability of SOC. Further, our results suggest that permafrost dynamics strongly impact the more undecomposed SOC that could be rapidly remobilized through ongoing thermokarst expansion.

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