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  • 1.
    Annell, Stefan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Rekryteringsmyndigheten, Swedish Defence Recruitment Agency.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Radboud University, The Netherlands.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. North-West University, South Africa.
    Means of Sustainable Recruitment: The Importance of Selection Factors and Psychosocial Working Conditions in Predicting Work and Health OutcomesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on selection factors often focuses on how to identify suitable candidates, while fewer studies have investigated the long-term effects of such selection factors once the suitable candidates have started working and faced the work situation. The overall aim of the present study was to examine the relative importance of selection factors (general intelligence, personality, and physical fitness), measured during recruitment, and psychosocial working conditions (e.g., workload, job control, and job challenge)for four different outcomes (job satisfaction, organizational citizenship behavior, occupational retention, and health). Data came from a longitudinal study of newly hired police officers in Sweden (N = 508), including information from both the recruitment process and a three-and-a-half year follow-up. Results of hierarchical multiple regression analyses show that psychosocial working conditions were far more important than the selection factors in predicting the four outcomes. The strong effects of psychosocial working conditions for new officers’ work-related attitudes and health suggest that employers, to ensure sustainability, need to focus on activities facilitating the organizational and professional entrance of newcomers by providing a sound work climate.

  • 2.
    Annell, Stefan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. North-West University, South Africa.
    Police selection – implications during training and early career2015In: Policing: an international Journal of Police Strategies and Managment, ISSN 1363-951X, Vol. 38, no 2, 221-238 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The cost of selecting and training new police officers is high. However, previous researchhas provided limited guidance on how to select the best applicants. The purpose of this paper is toenhance the understanding of the possibilities to select suitable applicants by using combinations offour common categories of selection methods, namely cognitive tests, personality inventories, physicaltests, and rater-based methods (i.e. interviews).

    Design/methodology/approach – Using a sample of Swedish police recruits (n¼750) the authorsperformed hierarchical multiple regression analyses, predicting four criteria – performance, satisfaction,retention, and health – at three consecutive time points (after two years of academy training, after sixmonths of field training, and after the first work year).

    Findings – No group of selection methods consistently predicted all four criteria at the three timepoints. In most analyses more than one class of selection methods were statistically significant, but thefindings did not support the use of rater-based methods.

    Practical implications – Instead of the common praxis of using interviews, the findings suggest analternative praxis. This involves using the remaining information from cognitive tests, personalityinventories, and general fitness tests that had been used in earlier hurdles to screen out unsuitable applicants.

    Originality/value – The study extends previous research by including several follow-ups, showingthe value of combining different selection methods, and using alternative criteria of successful policerecruitment (i.e. satisfaction, retention, and health).

  • 3.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ishäll, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. (numera verksam vid Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, Jönköping.
    Göransson, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nylén, Eva Charlotta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Arbetsuppdrag och återhämtning i välfärdstjänstearbete2015In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, Vol. 21, no 2, 7-25 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Artikeln beskriver ett uppdragsperspektiv på arbete, det vill säga en fokusering på hur ett arbetsuppdrag formas och är sammansatt med avseende på resurser och krav med betydelse för att kunna genomföra uppdraget på ett bra sätt. I studien undersöks hur förutsättningarna för att utföra arbetet, i termer av arbetskrav och resurser i arbetet, hänger samman med återhämtning inom välfärdstjänstearbete i två kommuner. Uppdragsförutsättningarna har ett relativt högt förklaringsvärde gentemot återhämtning men de ingående variablerna bidrar i olika grad.

  • 4.
    Blom, Victoria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; The Swedish School of Sport and Health Science, Sweden.
    Svedberg, Pia
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Mather, Lisa
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Stress in paid and unpaid work as related to cortisol and subjective health complaints in women working in the public health care sector2017In: International Journal of Workplace Health Management, ISSN 1753-8351, E-ISSN 1753-836X, Vol. 10, no 4, 286-299 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Focusing on 420 women employed within the woman-dominated health care sector, the purpose of this paper is to investigate how any variation in their total workload (TWL) in terms of paid and unpaid work relate to various subjective health complaints (SHC) (n=420) and the neuroendocrine stress marker cortisol (n=68).

    Design/methodology/approach: The authors explored how any variation in their TWL in terms of paid and unpaid work related cross-sectionally to SHC (n=420), and the neuroendocrine stress marker cortisol (n=68).

    Findings: Hierarchical regression analyses showed that stress of unpaid work was most strongly related to diurnal variations in cortisol. Both stress of paid and unpaid work as well as TWL stress, but not hours spent on TWL, were related to SHC.

    Practical implications: Taken together, objective measures of hours spent on various TWL domains were unrelated to outcome measures while perceptions of having too much TWL and TWL stress were linked to both cortisol and SHC, i.e. how individuals perceive a situation seem to be more important for health than the actual situation, which has implications for research and efforts to reduce individual TWL.

    Originality/value: This study is unique in showing that unpaid work and perceptions having too much TWL relate to stress markers in women working in the public health care sector.

  • 5. Blom, Victoria
    et al.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bodin, Lennart
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Svedberg, Pia
    Work-Home Interference and Burnout A Study Based on Swedish Twins2014In: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1076-2752, E-ISSN 1536-5948, Vol. 56, no 4, 361-366 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: This study sets out to investigate the impact of work-home interference on burnout in women and men, while taking genetic and family environmental factors into account. Methods: A total of 4446 Swedish twins were included in the study. The effects of work-home conflict (WHC) and home-work conflict (HWC) on burnout between and within pairs were analyzed with co-twin control analyses. Results: Both WHC and HWC were significantly associated with burnout. Genetic factors may be involved in the association between HWC and burnout in women. Familial factors were not involved for WHC and burnout, neither for women nor for men. Conclusions: This study shows the importance to encounter WHC per se to prevent burnout. Because of genetic confounding in HWC and burnout in women, preventive efforts may also take into account individual characteristics.

  • 6. Blom, Victoria
    et al.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bodin, M.
    Bergström, G.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Svedberg, P.
    Work–home interference and burnout in Swedish women and men: The importance of genetics and family environment2013In: Forum för arbetslivsforskning (FALF) - Changes in Working Life: Individual, Organizational, and Methodological Perspectives, Stockholm, Sweden, June 17-19, 2013, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Genetic influences on perceived demands and burnout are shown in previous studies, suggesting genetic and shared environmental influences may underlie the associations between work–home interference and burnout. The present study sets out to increase the currently limited understanding of the biological and social correlates of work–home interference (WHI) by investigating whether WHI is related to burnout while taking sex, age, children, and genetic and shared environmental factors into account. A total of 13 730 individuals, including 2223 complete twin pairs, from the Swedish Twin Registry were included in the study. The effects of work–home conflict (WHC) and home–work conflict (HWC) on burnout between- and within-pairs were analyzed with Linear Mixed Models with and without stratification by sex. The results showed significant main effects of WHC and HWC on burnout and co-twin control analyses suggested that shared environmental factors may be involved in the association between HWC and burnout in women. As regards WHC and burnout, genetic or shared environmental factors did not seem to be involved. Adjustment for age and children did not change the results. The present study contributes with new knowledge of the mechanisms involved in the associations between work–home interference and burnout.

  • 7.
    Falkenberg, Helena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Chandola, Tarani
    Head, Jenny
    Do socioeconomic status and gender matter when combining work and family and could control at work and at home help?: Results from the Whitehall II study 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Work and family are two domains that are of major importance for many individuals. These domains could put high demands on the individual and when these demands are in conflict there is a risk for negative health consequences (Amstad et al., 2011). However, research has also shown that the multiple roles of work and family could be a source of satisfaction and well-being (McNall, Nicklin, & Masuda, 2010). A major challenge is thus to identify factors that contribute to lessen the potential conflicts between work and family. Control at work has been shown to enable employees to combine work and family (DiRenzo et al., 2011; Grzywacz & Butler, 2005), but it is not clear if control at work relates to the possibility to combine work and family in the same way for women and men on different levels of the occupational hierarchy. In a similar vein, control at home could be beneficial for the work-family balance (Lapierre & Allen, 2012). However, studies about control at home are few and it is not known if control at home relates to the possibility to combine work and family differently depending on such as gender and socioeconomic status.

    The objectives of this study thus are:

    • to investigate how gender and socioeconomic status are associated with work-family interference (WFI) and family-work interference (FWI)
    • to investigate how control at work and control at home relate to WFI and FWI for women and men with different socioeconomic status.

    Data from the Whitehall II study of British civil servants 1991-1993 (phase 3) and 1997-1999 (phase 5)  were analyzed (Marmot & Brunner, 2005). This included 3484 (827 women and 2657 men) in three non-industrial employment grades (senior administrative, executive/professional and clerical/support) with mean age 46.65 (SD: 4.79; range 39-62) who had complete data for all variables in the present study.

    Results: Women reported more WFI and more FWI than men. There was a gradient in WFI (employees with higher SES reported more WFI). The two-way interactions between gender and SES were significant for both WFI and FWI (see Figures).

    Low control at work was associated with more WFI. Lower levels of control at home was associated with more WFI and more FWI. Non of the three-way interaction effects between gender, SES and control at work or control at home were significant.

    Conclusions: Women, at least in the British Civil service, experienced more interference between work and family (in both directions) than men. Employees in high positions seem to have more difficulty combining work and family. This is especially true for women which might influence their career choices and health. The importance of control at home indicates that the home sphere has to be considered in further research and in the development of policies on work-family balance. Control at work and at home seem to relate to WFI or FWI in similar ways independently of gender and SES.

  • 8.
    Falkenberg, Helena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. University College London.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Head, Jenny
    Handling interference between work and family: do gender and socioeconomic status matter and could control at work and at home help?2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This study investigated how gender and social position were associated with work-family interference (WFI) and family-work interference (FWI) and how control at work and at home related to WFI and FWI for women and men with different social positions. Method: Data from the Whitehall II study collected 1991-1993 and 1997-1999 among 3484 (827 women and 2657 men) British Civil servants in three employment grades were analyzed. Results: Women reported a higher risk of WFI and FWI. There was a gradient in WFI, showing that employees with higher grades reported more WFI. Interactions indicated a stronger gradient in WFI and FWI among women. Low control at work related to more WFI and low control at home related to more WFI and FWI among all groups of employees. Limitations: The data were collected some years ago among British Civil servants, which limit generalizability. There were few women in the high and middle grades and few men in the low grade which reduced the power to analyze gender and grade differences. Implications: Employees in high positions, especially women, could have more difficulties in combining work and family, which might influence their career choices and health. The importance of control at home indicates that the home sphere has to be considered in further research and practical work. Originality: Only few studies investigate gender and status differences in relation to WFI and FWI. Studies that include both control at work and at home in relation to WFI and FWI are scarce.

  • 9.
    Falkenberg, Helena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Att arbeta i samma sektor, organisation och yrke: Likheter och skillnader i arbetsklimat och hälsobesvär bland kvinnor och män som arbetar som läkare2016In: Inkluderande och hållbart arbetsliv: Book of Abstracts - FALF 2016, Mittuniversitetet , 2016, 23-23 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Arbetsmarknaden i Sverige är könssegregerad. Det innebär att kvinnor och män i hög grad arbetar i olika sektorer och har olika yrken. Det gör att sektor och yrke behöver tas med när hälsoskillnader mellan kvinnor och män ska undersökas. Den här studien undersöker likheter och skillnader i arbetsklimat och hälsobesvär bland kvinnor och män som arbetar i samma sektor, i samma organisation och har samma yrke. Först jämförs arbetsklimat och hälsobesvär mellan kvinnor och män. Sedan undersöks sambanden mellan arbetsklimatet och hälsobesvär för kvinnor och män. Resultaten baseras på självrapporter i enkäter från 95 kvinnor och 105 män som arbetade som läkare på ett och samma akutsjukhus i Stockholm. Resultaten visade inga statistiskt säkerställda skillnader mellan kvinnor och män när det gällde upplevelser av arbetet, arbetsrollen, ledarskapet eller organisationen. Dock rapporterade kvinnorna att de upplevde sammanhållningen och samarbetet i arbetsgruppen som lägre än männen. Kvinnorna rapporterade också mer av både psykiska och fysiska hälsobesvär jämfört med männen. Både sammanhållning och samarbete i arbetsgruppen var relaterade till färre hälsobesvär, men bara för männen. Den här explorativa studien visar att det kan finnas likheter i arbetsklimatet bland kvinnor och män när arbetssituationen är likartad, men tyder också på att en del av de skillnader som finns i den segregerade arbetsmarknaden också tycks vara närvarande för kvinnor och män som arbetar i samma sektor, organisation och yrke.

  • 10.
    Falkenberg, Helena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. University of Canterbury, New Zealand.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Working in the Same Sector, in the Same Organization and in the Same Occupation: Similarities and Differences Between Women and Men Physicians’ Work Climate and Health Complaints2015In: Nordic Journal of Working Life Studies, ISSN 2245-0157, E-ISSN 2245-0157, Vol. 5, no 4, 67-84 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the segregated labor market, gender differences in health are often confounded by factors such as sector or occupation.This study explored similarities and differences in work climate and health complaints among women and men working in the same sector, in the same organization, and in the same occupation. First, work climate and health complaints were compared between women and men. Second, relations between the work climate and health complaints were investigated in both genders. Questionnaire data were collected from 95 women and 105 men physicians who worked in the same acute care hospital in Sweden.The results showed no gender differences in the job, role, leadership, or organizational characteristics. However, women physicians reported less workgroup cohesiveness and cooperation and more mental and physical health complaints than men physicians.Workgroup cohesiveness and cooperation were related to less health complaints only for men physicians.This explorative study indicates similarities between women and men when the work situation is similar, but suggests that some of the differences that appear in the large structures of the gender-segregated labor market also seem to be present for women and men who work in the same sector, in the same organization, and in the same occupation.

  • 11.
    Falkenberg, Helena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Working in the Same Sector, in the Same Organization and in the Same Occupation: Women and Men Physicians’ Work Climate and Health Complaints2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This study explores similarities and differences between women and men with similar working conditions (working within the same sector, in the same organization, and in the same occupation). Women and men were compared regarding 1) levels of psychological work climate and health complaints and 2) how the work climate related to health complaints.

    Design/Methodology: Questionnaire data were collected from 95 women and 105 men physicians who worked in the same acute care hospital in Sweden in 2001.

    Results: Results showed no gender differences in the job, role, leadership, or organizational characteristics. Women reported less workgroup cohesiveness and cooperation and more mental and physical health complaints than men. Role characteristics (overload/conflict/ambiguity) were related to more health complaints for both women and men. Workgroup cohesiveness and cooperation were related to less health complaints only for men.

    Limitations: The study did not account for women and men often working as physicians in different specialties and/or may perform different work tasks. The non-work domain was not investigated.

    Research/practical implications: This study indicates similarities between women and men when the work situation is similar, but suggests that some of the differences that appear in the larger structures of the gender-segregated labor market also seem to be present for women and men who work in the same sector, the same organization, and in the same occupation.

    Originality: Previous research has underscored the problem of finding samples that are large enough to allow comparing women and men working under similar working conditions.

  • 12.
    Falkenberg, Helena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Working in the same sector, organization and occupation: Similarities and differences in work climate and health complaints among women and men physicans2016In: Posters from the 2016 workshop, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish labor market is gender segregated. This means that gender differences in health can be confounded by factors associated with sector and occupation. Thus, sector and occupation need to be considered when comparing work environment and health between women and men. This study uses the theoretical model of psychological work climate that specifies the work environment in terms of five dimensions. These five dimensions are characteristics of the job, role, workgroup, leadership and organization. The aim of the present study was to explore similarities and differences between women and men who have similar working conditions (working in the same sector, in the same organization, and in the same occupation). Women and men were compared regarding 1) levels of work climate and health complaints and 2) how the work climate related to health complaints.

  • 13.
    Falkenberg, Helena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Working in the same sector, organization and occupation: Similarities and differences in work climate and health complaints among women and men physicians2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish labor market is gender segregated. This means that gender differences in health can be confounded by factors associated with sector and occupation. Thus, sector and occupation need to be considered when comparing work environment and health between women and men.  This study uses the theoretical model of psychological work climate that specifies the work environment in terms of five dimensions. These five dimensions are characteristics of the job, role, workgroup, leadership and organization. The aim of the present study was to explore similarities and differences between women and men who have similar working conditions (working in the same sector, in the same organization, and in the same occupation). Women and men were compared regarding 1) levels of work climate and health complaints and 2) how the work climate related to health complaints.

  • 14.
    Folkesson Hellstadius, Lisa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Viveca, Östberg
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    How do self-reported stress and self-esteem relate to diurnal profiles of salivary alpha-amylase and cortisol in mid-adolescent girls and boysManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase (sAA), that reflect hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-axis) activity and sympathetic activity within the autonomic nervous system (ANS) respectively, are biomarkers with pronounced diurnal rhythms. While research on salivary cortisol is increasing, less is known about the diurnal rhythm of sAA, particularly in adolescents. Also, the linkages between individual factors, such as self-esteem, stress and the biomarkers cortisol and sAA and their combinations remain to be investigated. Besides detailing the diurnal rhythms of salivary cortisol and sAA in 14-16 year-old girls and boys, this study investigated how self-reported stress and self-esteem relate to aggregate measures of salivary cortisol and sAA and their combinations. In addition to self-reports in questionnaires, self-administered salivary samples were collected from 47 girls and 23 boys during a school day. Results showed that girls had higher levels of morning cortisol than did boys, while there were no differences in sAA. Moreover, self-esteem and stress were associated with cortisol and sAA measures, but for girls only. Taken together, the findings suggest that both stress and self-esteem are linked to both separate and combined measures of ANS and HPA-axis activity, particularly among mid-adolescent girls.

  • 15.
    Folkesson, Lisa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Economic vulnerability and adolescent health: Fragile family finances and health functioning among Swedish adolescents2010In: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine: The Offical Journal of the International Society of Behavioral Medcine / [ed] Joost Dekker, Springer , 2010, S275-S275 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: While adult health is known to vary by socioeconomic status (SES) and gender, less is known about the linkages between socioeconomic circumstances and various aspects of health in adolescents.

    Aim: This study set out to investigate how household financial insecurity relates to different aspects of health in adolescent girls and boys aged 10-18.

    Method: Data came from the Swedish Child LNU and Child-Ulf studies of 2000-2003 that include approximately 5400 children aged 10-18 who answered questions relating to health. Parents were also asked to report "cash-margin" a frequently used single-item measure asking whether parents can access 12,000 SEK in a week's time if they have to.

    Results: A majority, 85% of the parents were able to access 12,000 SEK in a week if necessary while 15% were unable to do so. Analyses performed separately for girls and boys showed significant main effects of cash margin on somatic health, negative functioning and positive functioning for both groups. There was no significant age x cash margin interactions. Cash margin was significantly related to stomach ache, insomnia, difficulties concentrating, irritability, short temperedness, sadness, tension/nervousness, belief in the future, endurance and happy mood in both girls and boys. Girls with no cash margin reported more headache while boys with no cash margin reported higher levels of self-assurance. No other significant relationships emerged.

    Discussion: While most previous studies use symptom and problem indices, this study covers multiple aspects of health functioning. To conclude, fragile family finances during adolescence as reflected in poor positive functioning and high levels of negative functioning suggest stressful living conditions that may influence academic achievement, life-choices and future health.

  • 16.
    Folkesson, Lisa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Riva, Roberto
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Single and aggregate salivary cortisol measures during two schooldays in midadolescent girls and boys2014In: PsyCh Journal, ISSN 2046-0252, E-ISSN 2046-0260, Vol. 3, no 2, 121-131 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, including its regulation of cortisol, is central to bodily functioning and salivary cortisol is a commonly used biomarker that reflects the functioning of the HPA axis. However, knowledge of diurnal cortisol rhythms in healthy adolescents is limited and few studies have examined patterns in midadolescent girls and boys across single and aggregate cortisol measures. To fill this gap, the present study investigated single and aggregate cortisol measures reflecting diurnal rhythms in 14 to 16-year-old girls and boys. Self-administered salivary samples from 79 girls and 42 boys were collected during two schooldays at four timepoints: (a) immediately at awakening, (b) 30 min after waking up, (c) 60 min after waking up, and (d) at 8:00 p.m. Additionally, diary data including time of awakening, sampling times, and other potential confounders were analyzed. As for single measures, both girls and boys exhibited a typical diurnal cortisol profile with high levels in the morning that decreased throughout the day. However, girls had higher morning cortisol than did boys with significant differences at time of awakening, and at 30 and 60 min postawakening. For the aggregate measures, girls had a larger total level of cortisol in terms of cortisol awakening response (CARG), area under the curve (AUCG), and rise over run (slopeawake to last), while no differences emerged for reactivity measures. Taken together, these findings suggest differences in single and aggregate cortisol measures between midadolescent girls and boys. Such differences in diurnal cortisol between pubertal girls and boys may play a role for the differential health trajectories typically found among adult women and men.

  • 17.
    Folkesson, Lisa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Östberg, V.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Self-esteem and stress as associated with diurnal profiles of salivary alpha-amylase and cortisol in mid-adolescents2014In: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, ISSN 1070-5503, E-ISSN 1532-7558, Vol. 21, no 1 (Suppl.), S116- p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase (sAA) that reflect hypothalamopituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-axis) activity and sympathetic activity within the autonomic nervous system (ANS) respectively, are biomarkers with pronounced diurnal rhythms. While research on salivary cortisol is increasing, little is known about the diurnal rhythm of salivary alphaamylase, particularly in adolescents. Also, the linkages between individual factors and self-reports of stress as related to HPA-axis activity and autonomic/sympathetic functioning remain to be investigated. This study set out to investigate diurnal rhythms of salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase in 14-16 year-old girls and boys. Moreover, the study investigated whether stress and self-esteem are related to aggregate salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase measures. Besides self-reports in questionnaires, self-administered salivary samples were collected from 47 girls and 23 boys during a school day. Results showed girls had higher levels of morning cortisol than did boys, while there were no differences in morning or diurnal sAA. Additionally, self-esteem and self-reported stress were associated with different measures of cortisol and sAA but for girls only. Taken together, the findings suggest that both self-reported stress and self-esteem are linked to various aspects of sympathetic ANS activity and HPA-axis activity, particularly among mid-adolescent girls.

  • 18.
    Fransson, Emma
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Folkesson, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Bergström, Malin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Exploring salivary cortisol and recurrent pain in mid-adolescents living in two homes2014In: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, ISSN 1070-5503, E-ISSN 1532-7558, Vol. 21, no Suppl. 1, S23-S23 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Every year, around 50.000 children in Sweden experience a separation between their parents. Joint physical custody (JPC), where the child alternates homes between the parents for about equal amount of time, has become a common living arrangement after parental separation. Children living in two homes can benefit from everyday contact with both parents and access to both parents’ financial resources. However, children can also experience stress from constantly moving and from exposure to any parental conflict. Yet, research on JPC and stress-related biological functioning is limited. The aimof this study was to investigate how living arrangements (intact family/JPC) relate toHPA-axis activity and recurrent pain in mid-adolescents. Methods: Mid-adolescents (106 girls and 51 boys) provided demographic details, self-reports of recurrent pain (headache, stomachache, neck/shoulder and back pain) and salivary samples. Salivary cortisol samples were collected: 1) immediately at awakening, 2) +30 minutes, 3) +60 minutes, and 4) at 8 p.m. Results: Hierarchical regressions showed that living arrangements did not predict morning cortisol levels, the diurnal cortisol rhythm nor recurrent pain. However, sex was significantly associated with both morning cortisol and recurrent pain. Conclusion: Living arrangements were not linked to HPA-axis activity or recurrent pain in this group of well-functioning mid-adolescents. Although this is the first study investigating how living arrangements relate to HPA-axis functioning, which means that additional research is needed, the findings suggest that these mid-adolescents have adapted to their living arrangements and that other factors seem more pertinent for HPA-functioning and subjective health complaints.

  • 19. Glaser, Jürgen
    et al.
    Müller, Andreas
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Health-oriented work design interventions2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background/Aim: Current crisis of Western economies (e.g., growth, acceleration, work intensification) is reflected at an individual level in increasing health problems of work-forces (e.g., musculoskeletal problems, depression). In order to protect and improve work ability and health in organizations intervention strategies should reach beyond individual improvement of health behaviors and resilience and need to take into account more sustainable approaches of work design. We aim to advance knowledge and good practice of healthoriented work design interventions in different organizational contexts. All presented intervention studies are grounded in work psychological theories and concepts. Moreover, the evaluation designs are longitudinal and include intervention as well as control groups. All evaluations are based on well-established measures to assess psychosocial work characteristics as well as employee health.

    Content/Context: This symposium brings together applied interdisciplinary research of five institutions concerned with occupational health issues (I/O psychology, occupational and psychosomatic medicine) from three countries (Austria, Germany, Sweden). The research groups each have a long tradition in intervention research in different occupational settings. Six papers are proposed for presentations. Implications for research and practice: All presentations in this symposium will

    - provide evidence for changes in psychosocial work characteristics and employee health due to work design interventions

    - offer insights into intervention topics and processes in practice

    - discuss challenges, benefits and obstacles of health-oriented work design interventions.

  • 20. Gustafsson, Klas
    et al.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lundberg, Ulf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Validation of self-rated recovery items against morning salivary cortisol2009In: Validation and test of central concepts in positive work and organizational psychology: the second report from the Nordic project Positive factors at work / [ed] Marit Christensen, Köpenhamn: Nordic Council of Ministers , 2009, 1, , 6 p.54-59 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To describe the associations between physiology and recovery, reliable methods to measure rest and recovery are needed. One of the most common methods to gain information on rest and recovery is to ask people to provide self-ratings in questionnaires. To determine whether the answers to such questions are associated with health, self-ratings can be evaluated with respect to established biomarkers of physiological functioning, such as cortisol. The findings show that self-ratings of rest and recovery are related to cortisol, particularly to morning cortisol, and that self-ratings provide important information on physiological recovery in terms of cortisol output.

  • 21.
    Gustafsson, Klas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Lundberg, Ulf
    Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Biologisk psykologi.
    Relationship between Self-Ratings of Recovery and Morning Salivary Cortisol2007In: The XIII th European Congress of Work and Organizational Psychology, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The understanding of how self-ratings of work-related rest and recovery relate to cortisol output is poor. This study aimed to investigate the associations between self-ratings of 15 items of rest and recovery and salivary cortisol measured every second hour during two work days. Data came from 12 female and 13male white-collar workers and were analyzed by linear regression analyses and repeated measures ANOVA. The results showed that poor rest and recovery was associated with high levels of morning cortisol. The strongest relationships between single items and salivary cortisol emerged for ”rested in the morning”,

    ”rested after a weekend”, ”feel energetic during the working day”, ”tired during the working day”, ”sufficient sleep” and ”worry about something”. Furthermore, significant interaction effects were found between sex and “rested after a weekend” and “worry about something”. To conclude, the findings show linkages between self-ratings of rest and recovery and cortisol levels, particularly morning cortisol. This suggests that self-ratings of rest and recovery provide important information on physiological recovery in terms of cortisol output.

  • 22.
    Gustafsson, Klas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lundberg, Ulf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Relationships between self-rating of recovery from work and morning salivary cortisol2008In: Journal of Occupational Health, ISSN 1341-9145, Vol. 50, no 1, 24-30 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To date, the understanding of how recovery from work relates to cortisol output is poor. Considering this, the present study set out to investigate the associations between self-ratings of 15 items of rest and recovery and salivary cortisol sampled every second hour across two working days. Data came from 12 female and 13 male white-collar workers and were analyzed by linear regression analyses and repeated measures ANOVA. Poor rest and recovery was associated with high levels of morning cortisol, with the strongest relationships emerging for "rested in the morning", "rested after a weekend", "feel energetic during the working day", "tired during the working day", "sufficient sleep" and "worry about something". Moreover, significant interaction effects emerged between sex and "rested after a weekend" and "worry about something". To conclude, the findings show that self-ratings of rest and recovery are related to cortisol, particularly to morning cortisol, and that self-ratings provide important information on physiological recovery in terms of cortisol output.

  • 23.
    Gustafsson, Klas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lundberg, Ulf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Validation of questions on recovery2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Positive psychology investigates the positive aspects of human life. Positive psychologists contend that it is difficult to understand the factors that create health, balance and meaningful lives through studying sickness, dissatisfaction and suffering. Accordingly, positive psychology represents a turn for a more positive approach to psychology.

    The ideas of positive psychology are also applicable within the sphere of work and organisational psychology. It is a central contention of this report that positive psychology may provide interesting answers to some of the challenges that are confronting the Nordic welfare states in the years ahead.

    The aim of this report is to give a theoretical and methodological overview of existing Nordic research about positive factors at work. The report contains a series of operationalised concepts that measure positive factors at work. These measures of positive factors at work are brought together in a theoretical model that the authors of this report will use as a starting point for further research into positive psychology at work in a Nordic context.

  • 24.
    Gustafsson, Klas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Lundberg, Ulf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Validering av frågor avseende nedvarvning och återhämtning: Samband mellan salivkortisol och subjektiva skattningar.2006In: Arbete & Hälsa, no 7Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    The aim of this study was to validate subjective ratings of questions on unwinding and recuperation and to investigate the relationships with cortisol output. Participants were 25 white-collar workers employed at a Swedish government authority. Linear regressions and repeated measures of ANOVA were used to calculate mean levels of salivary cortisol as related to recovery/recuperation. The results show significant main effects of cortisol as related to subjective ratings (p < 0.01) and a significant interaction effect (p < 0.05) between cortisol and sex. The study indicates that high levels of morning cortisol are significantly related to failure to recuperate. Results are discussed in terms of validity, prediction, sex differences, selection and generalization.

  • 25.
    Göransson, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ishäll, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nylén, Eva Charlotta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kylin, Camilla
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Dialog och kunskap om arbetsmiljö: En intervention som balanserar?2013In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, Vol. 19, no 4, 113-125 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Psykosociala arbetsmiljöfaktorers inverkan på hälsa och produktivitet kan sammanfattas i ett antal balanser; balanserna krav-kontroll, ansträngning-belöning, arbete-återhämtning, mål-resurser och kvalitet-kvantitet. Trots befintlig kunskap saknas interventionsstudier som fokuserat på dessa balanser. Här redovisas resultat från ett pilotprojekt där medarbetare och chefer deltog i en intervention med fokus på dialog om uppdraget och arbetsmiljöns balanser.

  • 26.
    Hansen, Niklas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Two aspects of control and their importance for job satisfaction: Does ownership matter?Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    New ownership types have entered the health care sector that besides traditional public hospitals now includes private for-profit and private non-profit companies. The new hospital ownership types typically underscore increased cost and production efficiency, which may have implications for psychosocial work characteristics and job satisfaction among employees.

    Objectives: This study set out to investigate how job demands along with control over work (COW) and control within work (CWW) relate to job satisfaction in publicly administered, private non-profit and private for-profit hospitals.

    Methods: Questionnaire data came from employees at three hospitals; a publicly administered (n=774), a private non-profit (n=1481) and a private for-profit (n=694) hospital. Besides mean-level analyses, hierarchical regressions with multiple group tests were conducted.

    Results: Demands in terms of workload were significantly lower at the publicly administered hospital while control in terms of CWW was significantly higher. Background factors and their associations with job satisfaction differed slightly between ownership types. Notably, attitude to privatization was not associated with job satisfaction within any ownership type. Overall, psychosocial work characteristics, including job demands and control, were significantly associated with job satisfaction while their interactions showed no consistent associations with job satisfaction. As regards the strength of the associations between background factors, psychosocial work characteristics and job satisfaction, no consistent differences emerged between ownership types.

    Conclusions: The associations between psychosocial work characteristics at work and job satisfaction seem comparable across ownership types. This perhaps relates to societal demands on the structuring of costs, work and production efficiency that go beyond ownership types.

  • 27.
    Hasson, Dan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Gustavsson, Petter
    Trends in self-rated health among nurses: a 4-year longitudinal study on the transition from nursing education to working life2010In: Journal of Professional Nursing, ISSN 8755-7223, E-ISSN 1532-8481, Vol. 26, no 1, 54-60 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For nurses, the transition from higher education to working life involves several types of changes and seems to be a major contributing cause of distress and, consequently, ill health on a longer term basis. The aim of this study was to longitudinally monitor the development of self-rated health (SRH) in nurses, starting from the last semester at the university with subsequent follow-ups when the nurses had entered working life. The Longitudinal Analyses of Nurses' Education and working life is an ongoing nationwide longitudinal project focusing on mapping health and career development in nurses in Sweden. SRH is one of the most widely used single-item measures of perceived health status with a well-established predictive ability on future health outcomes, including morbidity and mortality. This study found a small but significant and continuous decline in SRH among nurses during 3 years of follow-ups, starting from their last semester of nursing education and continuing 3 years into their working life. The most pronounced decline in SRH seems to occur in the transition between student life and working life and is most explicit among the youngest nurses. However, the long-term effect on SRH when entering into working life seems to be more pronounced among the older nurses.

  • 28.
    Hasson, Dan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Self-rated Health and Allostatic Load in Women Working in Two Occupational Sectors2009In: Journal of Health Psychology, ISSN 1359-1053, Vol. 14, no 4, 568-577 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study set out to investigate how biological dysregulation, in terms of allostatic load (AL), relates to selfrated health (SRH) in women. Data on SRH and 12 biomarkers used to assess AL were available for 241 employees from the health care sector and 98 employees from the IT/media sector. In line with the hypothesis, results showed that a poor SRH, along with occupational sector, age and education, were significantly associated with a high AL, particularly for those working withinthe health care sector. This association between a poor SRH and AL, suggests a link between SRH and biological dysregulation.

  • 29.
    Hellgren, Johnny
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Psychosocial risk assessment and prevention in Sweden2013In: International Yearbook on Psychosocial Risk Prevention and Quality of Life at Work / [ed] J.M. Peirò & C. Molina, Secretary of Labour Health and Environment UGT-CEC , 2013, 171-192 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern working life involves higher demands on individual responsibility, blurrier lines between work and private life, increasing flexibility as regards the scheduling of work hours including a high variability from week-to-week or day-today, temporary employment contracts and job insecurity, and unstable organizational conditions. This development has raised concerns regarding job-related stress in Sweden, as well as in other countries, and underscored the need to create sustainable psychosocial work conditions for economic competitiveness and occupational health and safety. This chapter aims to provide an overview of psychosocial risk factors characterizing the contemporary Swedish working life, to describe the institutional frameworks that regulate work environment issues, and to describe how various actors work to prevent psychosocial risk factors. The following section outlines work environment trends and the Swedish system in terms of legislation, various actors on the labor market and so on. Drawing on this, we highlight four sets of psychosocial risk factors (flexible work, working hours, new demands at work, and organizational restructuring) before describing activities related to prevention, health promotion at work and healthy work practices.

  • 30.
    Johansson, Gunn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Huang, Qinghai
    Stockholm University.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    A life-span perspective on women's careers, health, and well-being2007In: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 65, no 4, 685-697 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate if and how health and well-being in mid-life are influenced by the ways in which individuals have combined educational, occupational, and family involvement throughout their adult lives. Lifecareer patterns (LC) and occupational career patterns (OC) were retrieved from a longitudinal cohort of Swedish women born in the 1950s. Retrospective occupational biographies retrieved at age 43 generated nine LC and 10 OC patterns which served as the basis for the present study. LC patterns combined timing, ordering, duration, and content of activities (e.g., education, work, and parenthood), while OC patterns considered occupational level and its stability over time. Data on life and job satisfaction, psychological well-being, work-family conflict, optimism, and mental distress were collected at age 49. For a sub-sample of the women who took part in a medical examination, seven biomarkers were combined into a measure of allostatic load (AL). The results showed that LC pattern-groups differed significantly but modestly in four aspects of health and well-being whereas OC pattern-groups displayed significant between-group differences in all outcome variables except life satisfaction. The results are interpreted in terms of a social-health gradient effect and a supportive societal context of the Swedish welfare state, which offered a considerable amount of free choice to the women in the cohort.

  • 31.
    Johansson, Gunn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Huang, Qinghai
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    A life-span perspective on women's careers, health, and well-being2006In: Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 65, no 4, 685-97 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate if and how health and well-being in mid-life are influenced by the ways in which individuals have combined educational, occupational, and family involvement throughout their adult lives. Life-career patterns (LC) and occupational career patterns (OC) were retrieved from a longitudinal cohort of Swedish women born in the 1950s. Retrospective occupational biographies retrieved at age 43 generated nine LC and 10 OC patterns which served as the basis for the present study. LC patterns combined timing, ordering, duration, and content of activities (e.g., education, work, and parenthood), while OC patterns considered occupational level and its stability over time. Data on life and job satisfaction, psychological well-being, work–family conflict, optimism, and mental distress were collected at age 49. For a sub-sample of the women who took part in a medical examination, seven biomarkers were combined into a measure of allostatic load (AL). The results showed that LC pattern-groups differed significantly but modestly in four aspects of health and well-being whereas OC pattern-groups displayed significant between-group differences in all outcome variables except life satisfaction. The results are interpreted in terms of a social-health gradient effect and a supportive societal context of the Swedish welfare state, which offered a considerable amount of free choice to the women in the cohort.

  • 32. Karlson, Björn
    et al.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Riva, Roberto
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Mellner, Christin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Lundberg, Ulf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Psychosocial work stressors and salivary cortisol2012In: The role of saliva cortisol measurement in health and disease / [ed] Margareta Kristenson, Peter Garvin, Ulf Lundberg, Sharjah: Bentham Science , 2012, 1, 43-66 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter systematically reviews how different measures of salivary cortisol are related to different measures of psychosocial work stress. Divergent findings were scrutinized with respect to study quality and the methods used. Measures of work stress included concepts reflecting those included in the demand–control–support model or the effort–reward–imbalance model. General bibliographic databases (PsychINFO and PubMed) were searched up to September 30, 2009. Two reviewers extracted data on study characteristics and study quality. In total 27 articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Cortisol measures were grouped into single time points at different times during the day, deviations at different time periods during the day, reactivity and recovery after a standardized laboratory test, area under the curve from deviations and reactivity measures. A large proportion of the analyses of the associations between cortisol and psychosocial work stressors showed nonsignificant findings. However, of the significant findings, most results showed that a high work stress was associated with high cortisol levels. Significant relationships were evenly distributed across different measures of psychosocial work stress. As regards salivary sampling or statistical analysis, no strategy seemed superior but some strategies have only been used in the past few years. Typically, older studies were of lower quality. Low quality studies tended to have a higher proportion of significant findings which is a reason for concern. The relatively few significant findings may be because many psychosocial work stressors were of mild or moderate intensity and the study groups were rather small and fairly homogeneous, thus variability was too small to reveal any effects. The results indicate a normal, healthy response to work stress in most workers, according to CATS and the Allostatic Load Models.

  • 33.
    Kristenson, Margareta
    et al.
    Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping Univeristy.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lundberg, Ulf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Harris, Anette
    Department of Psychology, Bergen University, Bergen, Norway.
    Hansen, Åse M.
    National Work Environment Research Institute, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Garvin, Peter
    Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping Univeristy.
    Ursin, Holger
    Department of Psychology, Bergen University, Bergen, Norway.
    The role of saliva cortisol measurements in health and disease: A matter of theory and methodology2010In: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine: The Offical Journal of the International Society of Behavioral Medicine / [ed] Joost Dekker, Springer , 2010, S206-S206 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last decade, the technique of using ambulatory salivary sampling has become increasingly popular in field research and clinical studies. The non-invasive method is easy to administer and analyze and allows implmentation in large scale study designs. However, this large interest in the use of salivary cortisol measurement is paralleled with frustrations on opposing results. This presentation is based on a critical evaluation of the existing literature on salivary cortisol, aiming to evaluate the utility of salivary cortisol as a biomarker in various settings  and how we can understand cortisol reactivity using evidence of experiences from different study designs. The work is compiled by the Scandinavian Stress and Cortisol Network, a network financed by the Swedish Research Council, and one main question asked was: is it possible that different results of studies involving cortisol assessments are functions of differences in the theoretical assumptions made and methods used. In particular, the symposium will focus on how the many different ways of evaluating levels and dynamics of salivary cortisol (i. e. with regard to time points of assessment and different algorithms based on multiple time points) may have an impact on the interpretation of cortisol measurements in various contexts. Salivary cortisol has been studied in relation to the following topics: demographic variables, psychosocial work environment, psychosocial resources (e.g. mastery) and outcomes (e.g. burnout), sleep quality, biological markers (markers of cardivascular risk, inflammation and metabolism) and somatic outcome.

  • 34.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Radboud University, The Netherlands.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Change in Work-Time Control and Work-Home Interference Among Swedish Working Men and Women: Findings from the SLOSH Cohort Study2016In: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, ISSN 1070-5503, E-ISSN 1532-7558, Vol. 23, no 6, 670-678 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: The aim is to study the influence of change in work-time control (WTC) on work-home interference (WHI) while adjusting for other work-related factors, demographics, changes at work and WHI at baseline among women and men. An additional aim was to explore sex differences in the relation between change in WTC and WHI.

    METHODS: The study included working participants of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH) study of the third (2010) and fourth (2012) waves (n = 5440). Based on a seven-item index, four groups of WTC were formed: stable high (40 %), stable low (42 %), increasing (9 %), or decreasing (9 %) WTC over the 2 years. WHI was measured by four items and individuals were categorised in whether suffering or not suffering of WHI. Sex-stratified logistic regression analyses with 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were used to estimate the odds of experiencing WHI by change in WTC.

    RESULTS: Controlling for demographics and work-related factors, women with stable low (OR = 1.46; 95 % CI 1.14-1.88) and women and men with decreasing WTC (women OR = 1.99; 95 % CI 1.38-2.85; men OR = 1.80; 95 % CI 1.18-2.73) had higher odds of WHI than those with a stable high WTC. Additionally, adjusting for changes at work and WHI at baseline did not alter the results substantially. Interaction analysis did not reveal any significant sex difference in the relation between WTC and WHI.

    CONCLUSIONS: For both women and men decreased and for women only, low control over working hours resulted in WHI also after adjusting for work-related factors and demographics.

  • 35.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Biological underpinnings of recovery from work2008In: Paper presented at the XXIX International Congress of Psychology, Berlin, Germany, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This presentation summarizes findings from our studies on the biological underpinnings of recovery, asking respondents to complete a measure of self-rated recovery from work and to provide biological data. Examining the relationships between self-rated recovery and salivary cortisol in 25 white-collar workers revealed that high morning cortisol is associated with poor recovery. Analyses of linkages between self-rated recovery and biological dysregulation in 241 women employed within the health care sector showed that poor recovery increases the risk for biological dysregulation. These linkages between self-rated recovery and biological markers imply that poor recovery from work increases the risk for health problems.

  • 36.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Perspektiv på hälsa: Omvårdnad utifrån individens styrkor2010In: Hemsjukvård / [ed] Eva Drevenhorn, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2010, 53-73 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Med en vård som inriktar sig på ohälsa och dysfunktion utgör patientens styrkor och positiva erfarenheter en bortglömd resurs i behandlingen. I följande kapitel behandlas olika aspekter av hälsa. Beskrivningen fokuserar på olika typer av styrkor som kan användas som resurser i hemsjukvården för att främja patienters hälsa och välbefinnande.

  • 37.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Perspektiv på hälsa: Omvårdnad utifrån individens styrkor2017In: Hemsjukvård / [ed] Eva Drevenhorn, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2017, 2, 109-131 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Med en vård som inriktar sig på ohälsa och dysfunktion utgör patientens styrkor och positiva erfarenheter en bortglömd resurs i behandlingen. I följande kapitel behandlas olika aspekter av hälsa. Beskrivningen fokuserar på olika typer av styrkor som kan användas som resurser i hemsjukvården för att främja patienters hälsa och välbefinnande.

  • 38.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Physiological correlates of mental well-being2012In: Mental Well-Being: International Contributions to the Study of Positive Mental Health / [ed] Corey L.M. Keyes, Springer, 2012, 259-274 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter reviews research investigating physiological correlates of mental well-being including both hedonic and eudaimonic orientations of well-being and their common measures. This review makes it clear that there are consistent associations between different physiological systems and hedonic wellbeing in terms of positive affect; findings on the physiology of life satisfaction are unconvincing. Research investigating eudaimonic well-being is inconclusive but suggests that there are physiological correlates of psychological well-being. In particular, meaning, one of the dimensions of psychological well-being turns out to be strongly associated with physiology. This chapter concludes that additional research is needed to further clarify the physiological underpinnings of various aspects of mental well-being including both hedonic and eudaimonic orientations.

  • 39.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Psychosocial stress, health and cortisol in working women living in high and low status neighbourhoods in Sweden2016In: Proceedings from the Fourth Annual Conference of The European Association of Psychosomatic Medicine, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Contextual factors including neighbourhood status have consistently been associated with health disparities. Focusing on mechanisms, this study investigated linkages between psychosocial stress, health and cortisol in working women (N=542) living in high and low status neighbourhoods. Method: Women living with children in objectively defined high and low status neighbourhoods in Stockholm County suburban areas were invited to a questionnaire study and a subsample (n=88) also

    provided salivary samples analysed for cortisol. Results: Results showed that women in high status neighbourhoods had significantly better selfrated health while women in low status neighbourhoods had significantly lower waking cortisol. However, there were no group differences in aggregate cortisol measures. Conclusions The findings follow previous research with cortisol results tentatively suggesting hypocortisolism as a pathway linking neighbourhood status and health disparities, albeit a less consistent finding in this particular sample. This may relate to the Swedish welfare state and its way of fostering of equality, which is an important contextual aspect to factor in also in health psychology research.

  • 40.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Saliva cortisol in psychosocial work environment studies2010In: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine: Abstracts from the 11th International Congress of Behavioral Medicine, Springer , 2010, S206-S206 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last decade, the technique of using ambulatory salivary sampling has becme increasingly popular in field research and clinical studies. The non-invasive method is easy to administer and analyze and allows implementation in large scale study designs. However, this large interest in the use of salivary cortisol measurement is paralleled with frustrations on opposing results. This presentation is based on a critical evaluation of the existing literature on salivary cortisol, aiming to evaluate the utility of various measures of salivary cortisol as a biomarker in relation to psychosocial work stressors. Various measures of salivary cortisol were studied in relation to psychosocial work stressors. Twenty-seven papers including psychosocial work stress in terms of the Job-Demand-Control-Support model or the Effort-Reward Imbalance model were reviewed. The presentation focuses on how salivary cortisol relates to work stressors and discusses how these results may vary depending on measurement and data analysis.

  • 41.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stress, health and well-being in midlife: The 2004 stress study on men.2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This technical report describes the 2004 stress study on a subsample of men within the longitudinal research program Individual Development and Adaptation (IDA). The purpose of this study was to investigate psychological and physiological stress as related to well-being in middle-aged men. Self-ratings in questionnaires and salivary samples were collected via a mail survey that was sent to a subsample (n=161) of those men who participated in the 2002-2003 follow-up study (n=393). About 35.8% of the eligible men volunteered to participate in the stress study. The report covers details on the data collection procedure, the measures inluded in the questionnaire, frequency tables for each measure and drop-out. In addition, the report summarizes findings on salivary cortisol, stress and well-being.

  • 42.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stress hos yrkesarbetande kvinnor och män: perspektiv och insatser2013In: Stress: gen, individ, samhälle / [ed] Bengt B. Arnetz och Rolf Ekman, Stockholm: Liber, 2013, 3, 313-317 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Stora grupper av människor riskerar idag att drabbas av social jetlag - att leva i ett tomrum där de är fysiskt uppkopplade men inte socialt, emotionellt och intellektuellt upplever ett sammanhang. Nytt i denna upplaga är beskrivningen av strategier för att motverka detta och för att öka vår egen och arbetslivets motståndskraft mot stress. Här presenteras både beprövade och helt nya metoder för en effektiv stressbehandling på individ-, grupp-, organisations- och samhällsnivå.

  • 43.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Time for a healthy balance?: Linking work/life interference and total workload to health-related outcomes in women and men2017In: 15th European Congress of Psychology, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 11-14 July 2017: Abstract Book (Oral abstracts, Thursday July 13), 2017, 133-133 p., KEY15Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Combining work and family life can involve both challenges and demands for those who have to juggle competing demands of these different life spheres. Despite such challenges and demands having been associated with negative effects, possibilities for women and men to combine work and family life have also been linked to positive effects on various health-related outcomes. But with much of the research having focused on negative consequences, fewer studies have investigated how balancing work and family life along with time spent on doing different paid and unpaid tasks link to positive aspects of functioning such as psychological well-being.Specifically, this keynote summarizes research on work/life interference among women and men, detailing how the total workload of women and men and time spent on paid work, unpaid household tasks and child-care link topositive and negative health-related outcomes. Gender-specific findings are discussed to highlight potential variations between women and men in different contexts.

  • 44.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Utredning av individens styrkor2010In: Kriminalvård i praktiken: strategier för att minska återfall i brott och missbruk / [ed] Berman, Anne H., Farbring, Carl Åke, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2010Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Lindfors, Petra
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Berntsson, Leeni
    Lundberg, Ulf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Factor structure of Ryff’s psychological well-being scales in Swedish female and male white-collar workers.2006In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, Vol. 40, no 6, 1213-1222 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study aimed to investigate the structure of a Swedish translation of Ryff’s psychological wellbeing scales covering self-acceptance, positive relations, autonomy, environmental mastery, personal growth and purpose in life. Moreover, the consistency of previously reported age and gender profiles of psychological well-being was examined. Analyses were based on data from 1260 white-collar workers aged 32–58 years. The internal consistency coefficients of the translated scales were higher than that of the original Ryff scales. Further confirmatory factor analyses replicated previous findings showing that the proposed six-factor model with a single second-order super-factor had better fit than the single factor model. Besides confirming previously reported age and gender profiles, the study showed age differences in self-acceptance and gender differences in environmental mastery and purpose in life but not in personal growth. The present findings clearly demonstrate the adequacy of the Swedish version of the Ryff scales in female and male white-collar workers.

  • 46.
    Lindfors, Petra
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Berntsson, Leeni
    Lundberg, Ulf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Total workload as related to psychological well-being and symptoms in full-time employed female and male white-collar workers.2006In: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, ISSN 1070-5503, Vol. 13, no 2, 131-137 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most research on the combined effects of paid and unpaid workload has related these factors to stress, depression, and physical symptoms. Thus, comparative knowledge concerning positive aspects of human functioning, such as health and well-being and how they relate to total workload of employed women and men, is limited. Our aim in this study was to investigate how total workload including paid and unpaid work is related to psychological well-being and symptoms in full-time employed women and men. We obtained data on workload, general symptoms, and the Ryff scales covering self-acceptance, environmental mastery, positive relations, personal growth, purpose in life, and autonomy from questionnaires mailed to a stratified sample of highly educated white-collar workers aged between 32 and 58 years. Data from women (n = 430) and men (n = 400) living in partner relationships with at least one child showed that increasing hours of unpaid work was associated with decreasing levels of self-acceptance and environmental mastery in women, whereas paid work was associated with increasing levels of personal growth and decreasing levels of purpose in life. For men, paid work was associated with increasing levels of personal growth and more symptoms. We discuss factors underlying the gender-specific relationships between paid and unpaid work, psychological well-being, and symptoms.

  • 47.
    Lindfors, Petra
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Falkenberg, Helena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    A meta-review of job demands and job resources as related to various health-related outcomes among women and men with different occupations2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This systematic meta-review uses the job demands-resources (JD-R) model to investigate the associations between various psychosocial factors at work and a range of health-related outcomes. Specifically, this study investigated how job demands and resources are linked to health-related outcomes such as depressive symptoms, cardiovascular disease and musculoskeletal complaints and whether the linkages varied between genders and occupations.

    Design/Methodology: This meta-review focuses on meta-analyses and systematic literature reviews published during the past 10 years. These secondary studies were identified through combined searches in different international databases. Search terms were selected to identify a range of psychosocial factors and to retrieve published journal articles, and systematic reports linking such factors to health-related outcomes.

    Results: In total, 14 job demands and 7 job resources were identified. Lining these to outcomes resulted in the identification of 273 potential associations. Taken together, the findings show what is known from previous research, namely that job demands are related to poorer health. As expected resources typically relate to better health outcomes that are beneficial for organizations and individual employees. Separating findings for women and men suggest that the overall linkages between psychosocial factors and health-related outcomes hold for both women and men. However, less is know regarding occupational variations.

    Limitations: A meta-review restricts specificity and detail.

    Research/Practical Implications: Adds to the systematic knowledge of health-related consequences of psychosocial factors at work, for research as well as practice.

    Originality/Value: The use of a meta-approach that discusses issues relating to gender and occupation.

  • 48.
    Lindfors, Petra
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Falkenberg, Helena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Job demands and job resources as related to job attitudes and work-related health outcomes among women and men with different occupations2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    State of the art: Several models, including the job demands-resources (JD-R) model, describe how various psychosocial factors at work relate to different outcomes. This has resulted in abundant empirical research. Such primary research findings have been summarized in reviews and meta-analyses. Overall results show that job demands link to poorer attitudes, behaviours and health-related outcomes while resources typically link to attitudes, behaviours and health-related outcomes beneficial for both employers and individual employees. However, much secondary research focuses on specific outcomes meaning that few bring together a range of outcomes.

    New perspectives/contributions: Using the JD-R model as a meta-model, this symposium presents how job demands and resources relate a number of outcomes ranging from attitudes and behaviours to health-related outcomes. Additionally, factors such as gender and occupation are addressed. Specifically, two contributions introduce meta-review findings investigating how demands and resources relate to different outcomes while also addressing gender and occupation. The third contribution is a primary study of psychosocial factors at work and health in women and men within one occupation. The fourth contribution is a primary study of another occupation and uses a different design focusing on the interplay between different levels. The symposium ends with a discussion addressing assessment, integration of findings, and the balancing of different levels.

    Research/practical implications: The contributions and the final discussion aim to inform and inspire researchers and practitioners to address thoroughly the impact of psychosocial factors for women and men working in different contexts and occupations.

  • 49.
    Lindfors, Petra
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Folkesson Hellstadius, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stress hos flickor och pojkar i tonåren2014In: Psykisk hälsa, ISSN 0033-3212, no 4, 30-36 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under senare år har stress bland ungdomar uppmärksammats i ökad utsträckning. Det hänger samman med att ungdomar i skolålder rapporterar vad som anses vara höga nivåer av upplevd stress och stressrelaterade besvär. Förekomsten av stress ser dock olika ut mellan flickor och pojkar men hänger också samman med ålder. Vanligen rapporterar yngre flickor och pojkar ungefär jämförbara nivåer av stress. Men under tonårstiden ökar skillnaderna. Flickor rapporterar stress och stressrelaterade besvär i större utsträckning än pojkar i samma ålder. Med tanke på att tonårstiden är förenad med olika förändringar och utmaningar av exempelvis fysiologisk, psykologisk och social karaktär är det rimligt att anta att dessa förändringar innebär att tonåringar har att hantera delvis nya situationer. De utmaningar och krav som det medför kan upplevas som stressiga. Utöver att kortfattat beskriva olika källor till stress bland elever i grundskolans årskurs 7–9 kommer vi här att diskutera vad stress är, hur det kan studeras,samt presentera resultat från ett pågående forskningsprojekt som fokuserar på en grupp ungdomar i grundskolans årskurs 8 och 9.

  • 50.
    Lindfors, Petra
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Folkesson Hellstadius, Lisa
    Östberg, V.
    Perceived stress, recurrent pain and salivary cortisol in mid-adolescent girls and boys2016In: Proceedings from the Fourth Annual Conference of The European Association of Psychosomatic Medicine, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Measures of perceived stress have been criticised for theoretical inconsistency. However, the validated pressure activation stress scale has been suggested as a theoretically sound alternative. But it is unclear how pressure and activation stress relate to objective and subjective measures including commonly used aggregate cortisol measures and health complaints respectively. Specifically, this study aimed at investigating how pressure and activation stress were related to aggregate salivary cortisol measures and recurrent pain in mid-adolescent girls and boys. Methods: Mid-adolescents (119 girls and 56 boys) provided self-reports in questionnaires on activation and pressure stress and recurrent pain (headache, stomachache, neck/shoulder and back pain). Additionally, adolescents sampled saliva during an ordinary school day: 1) immediately at awakening, 2) 30 minutes after waking up, 3) 60 minutes after waking up, and 4) at 8 p.m. These samples were analysed for cortisol. Results: Hierarchical regressions showed no statistically significant associations between activation and pressure stress and cortisol, neither for girls nor for boys. However, activation and pressure stress were significantly associated with recurrent pain but only for girls. The findings may relate to subjective and objective measures reflecting distinct aspects of stress-related functioning. However, the study participants included mid-adolescents whose bodily systems are flexible and still relatively unaffected by the strain of their daily stress perceptions. Conclusions: To conclude, the non-significant relationships between activation and pressure stress and commonly used aggregate measures of cortisol adds to the understanding of how perceived stress relate to physiological functioning in the daily life of adolescents. Also, the finding suggests that health psychology research on adolescent stress should focus on multiple biomarkers.

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