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  • 1.
    Andersson, Eva
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Hennerdal, Pontus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Malmberg, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    The Re-Emergence of Educational Inequality during a Period of Reforms: A Study of Swedish School Leavers 1991–20122018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Against the background of a liberalization of Swedish compulsory education, this paper analyses post-1991 shifts in the way compulsory education performance in Sweden has been shaped by parental background, residential context and school context. We can document increasing school and residential segregation of foreign background students and, after 2008, increasing segregation by income, employment status, and social allowance reception. Over time, educational performance has become increasingly linked to family, neighbourhood and school context. The greatest change has been for parental background, but the importance of school context and neighbourhood context has also increased. A noteworthy finding is that residential context consistently has a stronger effect on student performance than school context. Student grades were found to be most strongly influenced by the closest (12 or 25) residential peers of the school leavers as compared to larger peer groups. The increase in the influence of family, neighbourhood and residential context has been accompanied by a dramatic increase in the between-school variation (ICC) in student performance, but it was not until after 2005 that this increased variability became clearly linked to the social composition of the schools. This study’s results suggest that the restructuring of Swedish compulsory education has had consequences for equality, possibly because disadvantaged social groups have not been as able as advantaged groups to navigate and benefit from the educational landscape created by the school reforms.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Eva K.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Hennerdal, Pontus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Malmberg, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    The re-emergence of educational inequality during a period of reforms: A study of Swedish school leavers 1991-20122019In: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, ISSN 2399-8083Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Against the background of a liberalization of Swedish compulsory education, this paper analyses post-1991 shifts in the way compulsory education performance in Sweden has been shaped by parental background, residential context and school context. We can document increasing school and residential segregation of foreign background students and, after 2008, increasing segregation by income, employment status and social allowance reception. Over time, educational performance has become increasingly linked to family, neighbourhood and school context. The greatest change has been for parental background, but the importance of school context and neighbourhood context has also increased. A noteworthy finding is that residential context consistently has a stronger effect on student performance than school context. Student grades were found to be most strongly influenced by the closest (12 or 25) residential peers of the school leavers as compared to larger peer groups. The increase in the influence of family, neighbourhood and residential context has been accompanied by a dramatic increase in the between-school variation (intra-class correlation) in student performance, but it was not until after 2005 that this increased variability became clearly linked to the social composition of the schools. This study's results suggest that the restructuring of Swedish compulsory education has had consequences for equality, possibly because disadvantaged social groups have not been as able as advantaged groups to navigate and benefit from the educational landscape created by the school reforms.

  • 3.
    Hennerdal, Pontus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Beyond the Periphery: child and Adult Understanding of World Map Continuity2015In: Annals of the Association of American Geographers, ISSN 0004-5608, E-ISSN 1467-8306, Vol. 105, no 4, p. 773-790Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well established that map projections make it difficult for a map reader to correctly interpret angles, distances, and areas from a world map. A single map projection cannot ensure that all of the intuitive features of Euclidean geometry, such as angles, relative distances, and relative areas, are the same on the map and in reality. This article adds an additional difficulty by demonstrating a clear pattern of naïveté regarding the site at which a route that crosses the edge of a world map reappears. The argument is that this naïve understanding of the peripheral continuation is linear, meaning that the proposed continuation is along the straight line that continues tangentially to the original route when it crosses the edge. In general, this understanding leads to an incorrect interpretation concerning the continuation of world maps. It is only in special cases—such as radial routes on a planar projection and peripherally latitudinal routes on a cylindrical or pseudocylindrical projection with a normal aspect—that the actual peripheral continuation of the world map is linear. The data used in this article are based on questionnaires administered to 670 children aged nine to fifteen and eighty-two adults. This naïve understanding of the peripheral continuation, which leads to errors, was found to be entirely dominant among the children, regardless of the projection, and was clearly observed among the adults when the projection was cylindrical with a normal aspect.

  • 4.
    Hennerdal, Pontus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Changes in place location knowledge: a follow-up study in Arvika, Sweden, 1968 and 20132016In: International Research in Geographical and Environmental Education, ISSN 1038-2046, E-ISSN 1747-7611, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 309-327Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has long been understood that widespread place name ignorance exists among the youth of today. The present study compares place location knowledge among students in a Swedish town in 2013 with the knowledge in the same town 45 years earlier. The study used outline maps to determine the ability to locate geographic names. A total of 1,124 students were included in the study in 2013, and the results are compared with the results from a previous study of 1,200 students conducted in 1968. The results indicate that contemporary children have improved knowledge of continents and oceans on a world map but have worse knowledge of countries and other locations on a map of Europe. These changes indicate neither a general improvement nor a worsening of place location knowledge but rather an adaptation to contemporary society, in which children travel to and receive news from many parts of the world and in which detailed geographic information is easily obtained.

  • 5.
    Hennerdal, Pontus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Continuity markers as an aid for children in finding the peripheral continuity of world maps2017In: Cartography and Geographic Information Science, ISSN 1523-0406, E-ISSN 1545-0465, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 76-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many map readers, including both children and adults, find it difficult to determine where they would be located along the edge of a world map after crossing that edge. Different types of markers have long been drawn close to the map’s edge – for example, in an atlas – to help map readers identify the map upon which they will find themselves if that edge is passed. In this study, a method similar to that used to show the continuity between maps in an atlas has been tested to determine whether continuity markers can also be used to help map readers find a world map’s actual peripheral continuity. The study involved children between the ages of 10 and 13 years and showed that continuity markers do help children determine the map’s actual peripheral continuity, in combination with a lesson that describes how to find the actual peripheral continuity of a world map. This article, therefore, concludes that continuity markers for world maps can be a useful part of map design that clarifies how the edges of a world map fit together for children who have learned to use this tool.

  • 6.
    Hennerdal, Pontus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Education through Maps: The Challenges of Knowing and Understanding the World2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall purpose of this thesis is to study, in relation to geography education and with a historical perspective, the challenges of knowing and understanding the world. The cases are all from Sweden. In the first paper, educational ideas in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries are studied, and the results indicate that some of the previously criticised educational ideas that were perceived as resulting from the ideas of nineteenth century regional geography in fact can be observed in earlier centuries and were criticised during the nineteenth century. In the second paper, school children’s ability to locate geographical names on outline maps is compared with children’s ability to complete the same task 45 years earlier. A total of 1,124 students were included in the latter study, and the results were compared with those from a study of 1,200 students from the same town conducted in 1968. The results raise questions regarding the picture of the continuous decline in children’s school results and show, for example, that children today are better at locating continents on a world map. The final paper identifies a new aspect of map reading difficulties. These difficulties in map reading are increasingly important in our global society, i.e., how the edges of the world map cohere. The paper shows that many map readers, children and adults, respond according to the idea of linear peripheral continuity, which indicates that the proposed continuation is along the straight line that continues tangentially to the original route when it crosses the edge. In general, this understanding leads to incorrect interpretations of the continuation of world maps.

  • 7.
    Hennerdal, Pontus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Educational ideas in geography education in Sweden during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries: the relationship between maps and texts2015In: International Research in Geographical and Environmental Education, ISSN 1038-2046, E-ISSN 1747-7611, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 258-272Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Descriptions of the geography education of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries in Sweden are typically offered to contrast with current ideas in geography education, and the content of geography textbooks is the focus of this comparison. The role of maps and visual pedagogy are ignored, and the educational ideas developed from regional geography are only regarded as old-fashioned encyclopaedia-like descriptions to be removed as the academic field of geography changed direction in the twentieth century. The objective of this paper is to describe the educational ideas of geography education during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries in Sweden, focusing on the relationship between maps and textbooks. The sources are texts from 1726 to 1969 that were written to instruct geography teachers. These texts demonstrate that educational ideas emphasised context and understanding in geography education, critiqued rote learning, and opposed the focus on texts over maps. The old discussion about avoiding encyclopaedia-like descriptions of regions in geography textbooks has continued to the present day Sweden, but is now described as a dichotomy between regional geography versus thematic or systematic studies in geography.

  • 8.
    Hennerdal, Pontus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Kontinuitet vid världskartans kant2015In: Geografiska Notiser, ISSN 0016-724X, Vol. 73, no 4, p. 143-153Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 9.
    Hennerdal, Pontus
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Malmberg, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Andersson, Eva K.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Competition and School Performance: Swedish School Leavers from 1991–20122020In: Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 0031-3831, E-ISSN 1470-1170, Vol. 64, no 1, p. 70-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on the wide-ranging liberal reforms introduced in the early 1990s, Sweden has become one of the most prominent realizations of Milton Friedman’s proposal for market-based schooling. From 1991 to 2012, the percentage of Swedish ninth-grade students attending independent, voucher-financed, private schools increased from 2.8% to 14.2%. A recent study using municipality-level data claimed that the resulting increase in school competition positively affected student performance in both private and public schools. In this study, using data on 2,154,729 school leavers, we show that this result does not hold when controlling for individual-level background factors and differences in the peer composition of schools.

  • 10.
    Hennerdal, Pontus
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Nielsen, Michael Meinild
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    A Multiscalar Approach for Identifying Clusters and Segregation Patterns That Avoids the Modifiable Areal Unit Problem2017In: Annals of the Association of American Geographers, ISSN 0004-5608, E-ISSN 1467-8306, Vol. 107, no 3, p. 555-574Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One problem encountered in analyses based on data aggregated into areal units is that the results can depend on the delineation of the areal units. Therefore, a particular aggregation at a specific scale can yield an arbitrary result that is valid only for that specific delineation. This problem is called the modifiable areal unit problem (MAUP), and it has previously been shown to create issues in analyses of clusters and segregation patterns. Many analyses of segregation and clustering use the ratio or difference between a value for an areal unit and the corresponding value for a larger area of reference. We argue that the results of such an analysis can also be rendered arbitrary if one does not examine the effects of varying the geographical extent of the area of reference to test whether the analysis results are valid for more than a specific areal delineation. We call this the part of the MAUP that is related to the area of reference. In this article, we present and demonstrate a multiscalar approach for studying segregation and clustering that avoids the MAUP, including the part of the problem related to the area of reference. The proposed methods rely on multiscalar aggregation of the k nearest neighbors of a location in a statistical comparison with a larger area of reference consisting of the K nearest neighbors. The methods are exemplified by identifying clusters and segregation patterns of the Hispanic population in the contiguous United States.

  • 11.
    Meinild Nielsen, Michael
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Hennerdal, Pontus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Segregation of Residents with Tertiary Education in Sweden from 1990 to 20122019In: Professional Geographer, ISSN 0033-0124, E-ISSN 1467-9272, Vol. 71, no 2, p. 301-314Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There has been a dramatic increase in the number of people with tertiary education in Sweden, partly due to the governmental policy of making higher education more geographically available. In this study, we analyze how educational expansion and the governmental policy of offering tertiary education outside of old academic centers affected segregation patterns in 2012 compared to 1990. We analyze the spatial distribution of those with tertiary education using neighborhoods based on k-nearest neighbors and measure the segregation of residents with tertiary education using a multiscalar method. Additionally, we compare local labor market regions that include old, new, or no institutions of higher education. The results show an overall higher share of tertiary-educated people age twenty-five to sixty-four in all parts of Sweden in 2012 and a decrease in the levels of population-weighted mean segregation at all geographical scales. Segregation was mostly introduced on the city or city district level (for larger cities) and regional level rather than the neighborhood level. Segregation also decreased in all three types of labor market regions. The segregation patterns remained similar between 2012 and 1990, however, and a higher share of the population lived in segregated areas in 2012 compared to that in 1990.

  • 12.
    Nielsen, Michael M.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Hennerdal, Pontus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    MAUPing Workplace Clusters2014In: Growth and Change, ISSN 0017-4815, E-ISSN 1468-2257, Vol. 45, no 2, p. 211-221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The modifiable areal unit problem (MAUP) is seldom accounted for in economic geography cluster studies. This issue is particularly problematic as clusters play such a central role in regional development policy. In this study, we tested for the appearance of the MAUP when examining workplace category clusters over three different administrative scales in Stockholm County, Sweden. The measures used were the standardised ratio, global autocorrelation, and local autocorrelation. We discovered not only that the appearance of clusters depended on the administrative unit scale but also that the location of the clusters, based on the local indicator of spatial association, fluctuated wildly over the various administrative scales. Thus, our conclusion was that the robustness and validity of workplace category clusters should always be challenged if the MAUP has not been taken into account, or at least tested for.

  • 13.
    Nielsen, Michael Meinild
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Hennerdal, Pontus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Changes in the residential segregation of immigrants in Sweden from 1990 to 2012: Using a multi-scalar segregation measure that accounts for the modifiable areal unit problem2017In: Applied Geography, ISSN 0143-6228, E-ISSN 1873-7730, Vol. 87, p. 73-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the levels of residential segregation of immigrants in Sweden during the years 1990, 1997, 2005, and 2012 are calculated. This paper applies a novel method for calculating segregation that is multi-scalar and addresses the modifiableareal unit problem (MAUP). The level of segregation is evaluated for each populated location by identifying the population that includes the kappa-nearest neighbours. The share of immigrants in this assessment population is then compared to the share in the reference population that comprises the kappa-nearest neighbours. One of the strengths of this method is the possibility to modify the reference population, thus making it possible to measure the difference in the results due to the size of the reference population. This study demonstrates that the results can considerably differ depending on which reference population is used. Furthermore, this study indicates that using different reference areas can produce completely different trends over time, such as decreasing or increasing segregation. The results demonstrate a general increase in segregation between 1990 and 1997, followed by a more complex pattern from 1997 to 2012. The segregation values are presented for all populated locations in Sweden, and population-weighted means are calculated for the whole of Sweden, in addition to the Stockholm, Malmo, and Gothenburg metropolitan areas.

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