Change search
Refine search result
1 - 40 of 40
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1. Abernethy, K. E.
    et al.
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Hilly, Z.
    Schwarz, A.
    Two steps forward, two steps back: The role of innovation in transforming towards community-based marine resource management in Solomon Islands2014In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 28, p. 309-321Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many coastal nations, community-based arrangements for marine resource management (CBRM) are promoted by government, advocated for by non-government actors, and are seen by both as one of the most promising options to achieve sustainable use and secure inshore fisheries and aquatic resources. Although there is an abundant literature on what makes CBRM effective, is it less clear how CBRM is introduced or develops as an idea in a community, and the process of how the idea leads to the adoption of a new resource management approach with supporting institutions. Here we aim to address this gap by applying an explicit process-based approach drawing on innovation history methodology by mapping and analysing the initiation and emergence of CBRM in five fishing-dependent communities in Solomon Islands. We use insights from the literatures on diffusion of innovation and transformability to define phases of the process and help guide the inductive analysis of qualitative data. We show the CBRM institutionalisation processes were non-linear, required specific strategies to move from one phase to the next, and key elements facilitated or hindered movement. Building active support for CBRM within communities depended on the types of events that happened at the beginning of the process and actions taken to sustain this. Matching CBRM to known resource management ideas or other social problems in the community, developing legitimate institutions and decision-making processes, strong continual interactions between key actors and the rest of the community (not necessarily NGO actors), and community members witnessing benefits of CBRM, all contributed to the emergence and diffusion of CBRM in the communities, and helped to overcome barriers to transformative change.

  • 2. Bennett, Elena M.
    et al.
    Solan, Martin
    Biggs, Reinette
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stellenbosch University, Australia.
    McPhearson, Timon
    Norström, Albert V.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Pereira, Laura
    Peterson, Garry D.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Raudsepp-Hearne, Ciara
    Biermann, Frank
    Carpenter, Stephen R.
    Ellis, Erle C.
    Hichert, Tanja
    Galaz, Victor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Lahsen, Myanna
    Milkoreit, Manjana
    López, Berta Martin
    Nicholas, Kimberly A.
    Preiser, Rika
    Vince, Gaia
    Vervoort, Joost M.
    Xu, Jianchu
    Bright spots: seeds of a good Anthropocene2016In: Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, ISSN 1540-9295, E-ISSN 1540-9309, Vol. 14, no 8, p. 441-448Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The scale, rate, and intensity of humans' environmental impact has engendered broad discussion about how to find plausible pathways of development that hold the most promise for fostering a better future in the Anthropocene. However, the dominance of dystopian visions of irreversible environmental degradation and societal collapse, along with overly optimistic utopias and business-as-usual scenarios that lack insight and innovation, frustrate progress. Here, we present a novel approach to thinking about the future that builds on experiences drawn from a diversity of practices, worldviews, values, and regions that could accelerate the adoption of pathways to transformative change (change that goes beyond incremental improvements). Using an analysis of 100 initiatives, or seeds of a good Anthropocene, we find that emphasizing hopeful elements of existing practice offers the opportunity to: (1) understand the values and features that constitute a good Anthropocene, (2) determine the processes that lead to the emergence and growth of initiatives that fundamentally change human-environmental relationships, and (3) generate creative, bottom-up scenarios that feature well-articulated pathways toward a more positive future.

  • 3. Chapin, F. Stuart, III
    et al.
    Carpenter, Stephen R.
    Kofinas, Gary P.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Abel, Nick
    Clark, William C.
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Smith, D. Mark Stafford
    Walker, Brian
    Young, Oran R.
    Berkes, Fikret
    Biggs, Reinette
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Grove, J. Morgan
    Naylor, Rosamond L.
    Pinkerton, Evelyn
    Steffen, Will
    Swanson, Frederick J.
    Ecosystem stewardship: sustainability strategies for a rapidly changing planet2010In: Trends in Ecology & Evolution, ISSN 0169-5347, E-ISSN 1872-8383, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 241-249Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecosystem stewardship is an action-oriented framework intended to foster the social ecological sustainability of a rapidly changing planet. Recent developments identify three strategies that make optimal use of current understanding in an environment of inevitable uncertainty and abrupt change: reducing the magnitude of, and exposure and sensitivity to, known stresses; focusing on proactive policies that shape change; and avoiding or escaping unsustainable social ecological traps. As we discuss here, all social ecological systems are vulnerable to recent and projected changes but have sources of adaptive capacity and resilience that can sustain ecosystem services and human well-being through active ecosystem stewardship.

  • 4. Chapin, III F.S.
    et al.
    Kofinas, G.P.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Carpenter, S.R.
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Abel, N
    Biggs, Reinette Oonsie
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Naylor, R.L
    Pinkerton, E
    Stafford-Smith, D.M.
    Steffen, W.L.
    Walker, B.H.
    Young, O.R
    Resilience-based stewardship: Strategies for navigating sustainable pathways in a changing world.2009In: Principles of ecosystem stewardship:: Resilience-based natural resource management in a changing world / [ed] F.S. Chapin, III, G.P. Kofinas and C. Folke, New York: Springer Verlag , 2009, p. 319-337Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Accelerated global changes in climate, environment, and social–ecological systems demand a transformation in human perceptions of our place in nature and patterns of resource use. The biology and culture of Homo sapiens evolved for about 95% of our species’ history in hunting-and-gathering societies before the emergence of settled agriculture. We have lived in complex societies for about 3%, and in industrial societies using fossil fuels for about 0.1% of our history. The pace of cultural evolution, including governance arrangements and resource-use patterns, appears insufficient to adjust to the rate and magnitude of technological innovations, human population increases, and environmental impacts that have occurred. Many of these changes are accelerating, causing unsustainable exploitation of ecosystems, including many boreal and tropical forests, drylands, and marine fisheries. The net effect has been serious degradation of the planet’s life-support system on which societal development ultimately depends (see Chapters 2 and 14.

  • 5. Cumming, Graeme S.
    et al.
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Chapin III, F. S.
    Holling, C. S.
    Resilience, experimentation, and scale mismatches in social-ecological landscapes2013In: Landscape Ecology, ISSN 0921-2973, E-ISSN 1572-9761, Vol. 28, no 6, p. 1139-1150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Growing a resilient landscape depends heavily on finding an appropriate match between the scales of demands on ecosystems by human societies and the scales at which ecosystems are capable of meeting these demands. While the dynamics of environmental change and ecosystem service provision form the basis of many landscape ecology studies, enhancing landscape resilience is, in many ways, a problem of establishing relevant institutions that act at appropriate scales to modify and moderate demand for ecosystem services and the resulting exploitation of ecosystems. It is also of central importance for landscape sustainability that institutions are flexible enough to adapt to changes in the external environment. The model provided by natural ecosystems suggests that it is only by encouraging and testing a diversity of approaches that we will be able to build landscapes that are resilient to future change. We advocate an approach to landscape planning that involves growing learning institutions on the one hand, and on the other, developing solutions to current problems through deliberate experimentation coupled with social learning processes.

  • 6.
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Andersson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. North-West University, South Africa.
    Frantzeskaki, Niki
    McPhearson, Timon
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The New School, USA; Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies, USA.
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Gaffney, Owen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Takeuchi, Kazuhiko
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Sustainability and resilience for transformation in the urban century2019In: Nature Sustainability, ISSN 2398-9629, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 267-273Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have entered the urban century and addressing a broad suite of sustainability challenges in urban areas is increasingly key for our chances to transform the entire planet towards sustainability. For example, cities are responsible for 70% of global greenhouse gas emissions and, at the same time, 90% of urban areas are situated on coastlines, making the majority of the world's population increasingly vulnerable to climate change. While urbanization accelerates, meeting the challenges will require unprecedented transformative solutions for sustainability with a careful consideration of resilience in their implementation. However, global and local policy processes often use vague or narrow definitions of the concepts of 'urban sustainability' and 'urban resilience', leading to deep confusion, particularly in instances when the two are used interchangeably. Confusion and vagueness slow down needed transformation processes, since resilience can be undesirable and many sustainability goals contrast, or even challenge efforts to improve resilience. Here, we propose a new framework that resolves current contradictions and tensions; a framework that we believe will significantly help urban policy and implementation processes in addressing new challenges and contributing to global sustainability in the urban century.

  • 7.
    Eriksson, Hampus
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    de la Torre-Castro, Maricela
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Breaking degradation of sea cucumber resources: a social-ecological analysis of the fisheries in Zanzibar and Mayotte Islands in the Western Indian OceanManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite increasing research and management attention to tropical sea cucumber fisheries no apparent successes have been documented. To broaden the perspective of recent advances in management tools this study analyses the social-ecological processes in two contrasting sea cucumber fisheries situations, Zanzibar (Tanzania) and Mayotte (France) in the Western Indian Ocean. Zanzibar has an on-going fishery while the fishery in Mayotte operated approximately 10 years before it was closed in 2004. The study compares how different management strategies in Mayotte and Zanzibar were taken to address increasing fishing effort and a declining sea cucumber population. The comparison provide an opportunity learning and reflection. A visual census of stocks shows that the commercial value is nearly 30 times higher in Mayotte than Zanzibar owing to different fishery and management practices. In Mayotte less than 100 people were engaged in the fishery when it was active and the fishery was a comparatively small enterprise. In contrast, over 1000 people collect sea cucumbers as part of an expansive trade network that has developed in Zanzibar. In addition, in this site fishers are dependent on the resource for livelihood and expanding fishery processes have therefore occurred as a response to declines in catch abundance and value. These responses have taken place in the context of insufficient management and reinforce an unsustainable fishery situation difficult to break – referred to as a social-ecological trap. In contrast, management in Mayotte was receptive and adaptive to changes. The closure of the fishery illustrates the importance and positive outcome of matching the fishery – management temporal scales to avoid reinforcing fishery processes and to maintain ecosystem integrity. The multiple fisheries targeting sea cucumbers documented in this study captures how different management approaches and management plans are required, building on an understanding of the social-ecological context of the fishery. In addition, the comparison illustrates the importance of management systems with adequate resources (e.g. human and economic) and functioning information flows for positive management outcomes.  

  • 8.
    Eriksson, Hampus
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    de la Torre-Castro, Maricela
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology. Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Mobility, Expansion and Management of a Multi-Species Scuba Diving Fishery in East Africa2012In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 4, p. e35504-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Scuba diving fishing, predominantly targeting sea cucumbers, has been documented to occur in an uncontrolled manner in the Western Indian Ocean and in other tropical regions. Although this type of fishing generally indicates a destructive activity, little attention has been directed towards this category of fishery, a major knowledge gap and barrier to management. 

    Methodology and Principal Findings: With the aim to capture geographic scales, fishing processes and social aspects the scuba diving fishery that operate out of Zanzibar was studied using interviews, discussions, participant observations and catch monitoring. The diving fishery was resilient to resource declines and had expanded to new species, new depths and new fishing grounds, sometimes operating approximately 250 km away from Zanzibar at depths down to 50 meters, as a result of depleted easy-access stock. The diving operations were embedded in a regional and global trade network, and its actors operated in a roving manner on multiple spatial levels, taking advantage of unfair patron-client relationships and of the insufficient management in Zanzibar. Conclusions and

    Significance: This study illustrates that roving dynamics in fisheries, which have been predominantly addressed on a global scale, also take place at a considerably smaller spatial scale. Importantly, while proposed management of the sea cucumber fishery is often generic to a simplified fishery situation, this study illustrates a multifaceted fishery with diverse management requirements. The documented spatial scales and processes in the scuba diving fishery emphasize the need for increased regional governance partnerships to implement management that fit the spatial scales and processes of the operation. 

  • 9. Eriksson, Hampus
    et al.
    de la Torre-Castro, Maricela
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Purcell, Steven W.
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Lessons for resource conservation from two contrasting small-scale fisheries2015In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 44, no 3, p. 204-213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Small-scale fisheries present challenges to management due to fishers' dependency on resources and the adaptability of management systems. We compared social-ecological processes in the sea cucumber fisheries of Zanzibar and Mayotte, Western Indian Ocean, to better understand the reasons for resource conservation or collapse. Commercial value of wild stocks was at least 30 times higher in Mayotte than in Zanzibar owing to lower fishing pressure. Zanzibar fishers were financially reliant on the fishery and increased fishing effort as stocks declined. This behavioral response occurred without adaptive management and reinforced an unsustainable fishery. In contrast, resource managers in Mayotte adapted to changing fishing effort and stock abundance by implementing a precautionary fishery closure before crossing critical thresholds. Fishery closure may be a necessary measure in small-scale fisheries to preserve vulnerable resources until reliable management systems are devised. Our comparison highlighted four poignant lessons for managing small-scale fisheries: (1) diagnose the fishery regularly, (2) enable an adaptive management system, (3) constrain exploitation within ecological limits, and (4) share management responsibility.

  • 10. Fazey, Joan
    et al.
    Schäpke, Niko
    Caniglia, Guido
    Patterson, James
    Hultman, Johan
    van Mierlo, Barbara
    Säwe, Filippa
    Wiek, Arnim
    Wittmayer, Julia
    Aldunce, Paulina
    Al Waer, Husam
    Battacharya, Nandini
    Bradbury, Hilary
    Carmen, Esther
    Colvin, John
    Cvitanovic, Christopher
    D'Souza, Marcella
    Gopel, Maja
    Goldstein, Bruce
    Hämäläinen, Timo
    Harper, Gavin
    Henfry, Tom
    Hodgson, Anthony
    Howden, Mark S.
    Kerr, Andy
    Klaes, Matthias
    Lyon, Christopher
    Midgley, Gerald
    Moser, Susanne
    Mukherjee, Nandan
    Müller, Karl
    O'Brien, Karen
    O'Connell, Deborah A.
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Page, Glenn
    Reed, Mark S.
    Searle, Beverley
    Silvestri, Giorgia
    Spaiser, Viktoria
    Strasser, Tim
    Tschakert, Petra
    Uribe-Calvo, Natalia
    Waddell, Steve
    Rao-Williams, Jennifer
    Wise, Russell
    Wolstenholme, Ruth
    Woods, Mel
    Wyborn, Carina
    Ten essentials for action-oriented and second order energy transitions, transformations and climate change research2018In: Energy Research & Social Science, ISSN 2214-6296, E-ISSN 2214-6326, Vol. 40, p. 54-70Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The most critical question for climate research is no longer about the problem, but about how to facilitate the transformative changes necessary to avoid catastrophic climate-induced change. Addressing this question, however, will require massive upscaling of research that can rapidly enhance learning about transformations. Ten essentials for guiding action-oriented transformation and energy research are therefore presented, framed in relation to second-order science. They include: (1) Focus on transformations to low-carbon, resilient living; (2) Focus on solution processes; (3) Focus on 'how to' practical knowledge; (4) Approach research as occurring from within the system being intervened; (5) Work with normative aspects; (6) Seek to transcend current thinking; (7) Take a multi-faceted approach to understand and shape change; (8) Acknowledge the value of alternative roles of researchers; (9) Encourage second-order experimentation; and (10) Be reflexive. Joint application of the essentials would create highly adaptive, reflexive, collaborative and impact-oriented research able to enhance capacity to respond to the climate challenge. At present, however, the practice of such approaches is limited and constrained by dominance of other approaches. For wider transformations to low carbon living and energy systems to occur, transformations will therefore also be needed in the way in which knowledge is produced and used.

  • 11.
    Folke, Carl
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Beijer Institute, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Jansson, Åsa
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Beijer Institute, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Rockström, Johan
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Crépin, Anne-Sophie
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Beijer Institute, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Ebbesson, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, Stockholm Environmental Law and Policy Centre.
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Galaz, Victor
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Moberg, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Albaeco, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Nilsson, Måns
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Österblom, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Baltic Nest Institute.
    Persson, Åsa
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Peterson, Garry
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Steffen, Will
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Walker, Brian
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Beijer Institute, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden; CSIRO Sustainable Ecosystems, Canberra, ACT, Australia .
    Reconnecting to the biosphere2011In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 40, no 7, p. 719-738Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Humanity has emerged as a major force in the operation of the biosphere, with a significant imprint on the Earth System, challenging social-ecological resilience. This new situation calls for a fundamental shift in perspectives, world views, and institutions. Human development and progress must be reconnected to the capacity of the biosphere and essential ecosystem services to be sustained. Governance challenges include a highly interconnected and faster world, cascading social-ecological interactions and planetary boundaries that create vulnerabilities but also opportunities for social-ecological change and transformation. Tipping points and thresholds highlight the importance of understanding and managing resilience. New modes of flexible governance are emerging. A central challenge is to reconnect these efforts to the changing preconditions for societal development as active stewards of the Earth System. We suggest that the Millennium Development Goals need to be reframed in such a planetary stewardship context combined with a call for a new social contract on global sustainability. The ongoing mind shift in human relations with Earth and its boundaries provides exciting opportunities for societal development in collaboration with the biosphere-a global sustainability agenda for humanity.

  • 12.
    Galaz, Victor
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Biermann, Frank
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Loorbach, Derk
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Nilsson, Måns
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Allouche, Jeremy
    Persson, Åsa
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Reischl, Gunilla
    'Planetary boundaries' - exploring the challenges for global environmental governance2012In: Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, ISSN 1877-3435, E-ISSN 1877-3443, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 80-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A range of studies from Earth system scientists argue that human activities drive multiple, interacting effects that cascade through the Earth system. Recent contributions state and quantify nine, interacting 'planetary boundaries' with possible threshold effects. This article provides an overview of the global governance challenges that follow from this notion of multiple, interacting and possibly non-linear 'planetary boundaries'. Here we discuss four interrelated global environmental governance challenges, as well as some possible ways to address them. The four identified challenges are related to, first, the interplay between Earth system science and global policies, and the implications of differences in risk perceptions in defining these boundaries; second, the capacity of international institutions to deal with individual 'planetary boundaries', as well as interactions between them; third, the role of international organizations in dealing with 'planetary boundaries' interactions; and fourth, the role of global governance in framing social ecological innovations.

  • 13.
    Galaz, Victor
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Daw, T
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Nyström, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Can web crawlers revolutionize ecological monitoring?2010In: Frontiers in ecology and the environment, ISSN 1540-9295, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 99-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite recent advances, ecosystem service monitoring is limited by insufficient data, the complexity of social–ecological systems, and poor integration of information that tracks changes in ecosystems and economic activities. However, new information and communication technologies are revolutionizing the generation of, and access to, such data. Can researchers who are interested in ecological monitoring tap into these increased flows of information by “mining” the internet to detect “early-warning” signs that may signal abrupt ecological changes? Here, we explore the possibility of using web crawlers and internet-based information to complement conventional ecological monitoring, with a special emphasis on the prospects for avoiding “late warnings”, that is, when ecosystems have already shifted to less desirable states. Using examples from coral reef ecosystems, we explore the untapped potential, as well as the limitations, of relying on web-based information to monitor ecosystem services and forewarn us of negative ecological shifts.

  • 14.
    Galaz, Victor
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Österblom, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Polycentric systems and interacting planetary boundaries: Emerging governance of climate change—ocean acidification—marine biodiversity2012In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 81, p. 21-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Planetary boundaries and their interactions pose severe challenges for global environmental governance due to their inherent uncertainties and complex multi-scale dynamics. Here we explore the global governance challenge posed by planetary boundaries interactions by focusing on the role of polycentric systems and order, a theoretical field that has gained much interest in the aftermath of claims of a stagnant UN-process. In the first part we work toward a clarification of polycentric order in an international context, and develop three propositions. We then present a case study of the emergence of international polycentricity to address interacting planetary boundaries, namely the climate change, ocean acidification and loss of marine biodiversity complex. This is done through a study of the Global Partnership on Climate, Fisheries and Aquaculture (PaCFA) initiative. As the case study indicates, a range of mechanisms of polycentric order (ranging from information sharing to coordinated action and conflict resolution) operates at the international level through the interplay between individuals, international organizations and their collaboration patterns. While polycentric coordination of this type certainly holds potential, it is also vulnerable to internal tensions, unreliable external flows of funding, and negative institutional interactions.

  • 15.
    Galaz, Victor
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Tallberg, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Boin, Arjen
    Ituarte-Lima, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Hey, Ellen
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Westley, Frances
    Global Governance Dimensions of Globally Networked Risks: The State of the Art in Social Science Research2017In: Risk, Hazards & Crisis in Public Policy, ISSN 1944-4079, E-ISSN 1944-4079, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 4-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Global risks are now increasingly being perceived as networked, and likely to result in large-scale, propagating failures and crises that transgress national boundaries and societal sectors. These so called globally networked risks pose fundamental challenges to global governance institutions. A growing literature explores the nature of these globally networked or systemic risks. While this research has taught us much about the anatomy of these risks, it has consistently failed to integrate insights from the wider social sciences. This is problematic since the prescriptions that result from these efforts flow from naive assumptions about the way real-world state and non-state actors behave in the international arena. This leaves serious gaps in our understanding of whether networked environmental risks at all can be governed. The following essay brings together decades of research by different disciplines in the social sciences, and identifies five multi-disciplinary key insights that can inform global approaches to governing these. These insights include the influence of international institutions; the dynamics and effect of international norms and legal mechanisms; the need for international institutions to cope with transboundary and cross-sectoral crises; the role of innovation as a strategy to handle unpredictable global risks; and the necessity to address legitimacy issues.

  • 16. Gelcich, Stefan
    et al.
    Hughes, Terry P.
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Defeo, Omar
    Fernandez, Miriam
    Foale, Simon
    Gunderson, Lance H.
    Rodriguez-Sickert, Carlos
    Scheffer, Marten
    Steneck, Robert S.
    Castilla, Juan C.
    Navigating transformations in governance of Chilean marine coastal resources2010In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 107, no 39, p. 16794-16799Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Marine ecosystems are in decline. New transformational changes in governance are urgently required to cope with overfishing, pollution, global changes, and other drivers of degradation. Here we explore social, political, and ecological aspects of a transformation in governance of Chile's coastal marine resources, from 1980 to today. Critical elements in the initial preparatory phase of the transformation were (i) recognition of the depletion of resource stocks, (ii) scientific knowledge on the ecology and resilience of targeted species and their role in ecosystem dynamics, and (iii) demonstration-scale experimental trials, building on smaller-scale scientific experiments, which identified new management pathways. The trials improved cooperation among scientists and fishers, integrating knowledge and establishing trust. Political turbulence and resource stock collapse provided a window of opportunity that triggered the transformation, supported by new enabling legislation. Essential elements to navigate this transformation were the ability to network knowledge from the local level to influence the decision-making processes at the national level, and a preexisting social network of fishers that provided political leverage through a national confederation of artisanal fishing collectives. The resultant governance scheme includes a revolutionary national system of marine tenure that allocates user rights and responsibilities to fisher collectives. Although fine tuning is necessary to build resilience of this new regime, this transformation has improved the sustainability of the interconnected social-ecological system. Our analysis of how this transformation unfolded provides insights into how the Chilean system could be further developed and identifies generalized pathways for improved governance of marine resources around the world.

  • 17. Gomez-Baggethun, Erik
    et al.
    Reyes-Garcia, Victoria
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Montes, Carlos
    Traditional ecological knowledge and community resilience to environmental extremes: a case study in Donana, SW Spain2012In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 640-650Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research in the last decade has emphasised the potential contribution of traditional ecological knowledge to cope with challenges from global environmental change. This research examines the role of traditional ecological knowledge and shared systems of beliefs in building long-term social-ecological resilience to environmental extremes. Data were collected from 13 villages of the Donana region, southwestern Spain, through interviews, focus groups, and systematic reviews of historical archives. First, we assess adaptive practices to cope with environmental change. Then, we use historical records of religious ceremonies (1577-1956) to reconstruct collective responses to environmental extremes. Our results (1) show how environmental extremes could induce social and economic crises through declines in ecosystem services and (2) identify practices to cope with recurrent disturbance and institutional devices developed in response to environmental extremes. We conclude that traditional ecological knowledge and shared systems of beliefs can facilitate collective responses to crises and contribute to the maintenance of long-term resilience of social-ecological systems.

  • 18.
    Hahn, T.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Schultz, Lisen
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Folke, C.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Olsson, P.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Social Networks as Sources of Resilience in Social-Ecological Systems2008In: Complexity science for a sustainable future, Princeton University Press , 2008Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 19. Hughes, TP
    et al.
    Gunderson, LH
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Baird, AH
    Bellwood, D
    Berkes, F
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Helfgott, A
    Leslie, H
    Norberg, Jon
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Nyström, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Olsson, Per
    interfaculty units, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Österblom, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Scheffer, M
    Schuttenberg, H
    Adaptive management of the Great Barrier Reef and the Grand Canyon world heritage areas2007In: Ambio, Vol. 36, no 7, p. 586-592Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Järnberg, Linn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Enfors Kautsky, Elin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Dagerskog, Linus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Green niche actors navigating an opaque opportunity context: Prospects for a sustainable transformation of Ethiopian agriculture2018In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 71, p. 409-421Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Identifying trajectories of agricultural development that enable substantial increases in food production is of prime importance for food security and human development in Sub-Saharan Africa in general, and Ethiopia in particular. To ensure long-term welfare for people and landscapes, it is imperative that such agricultural transformations sustain and enhance the natural resource base upon which agriculture depends. To understand the prospects for a sustainable transformation of Ethiopian agriculture we develop a new conceptual framework for sustainability transformations that combines insights from the social-ecological transformations literature with research on socio-technical transitions and institutional entrepreneurship. Using this framework, we analyse the agricultural development trajectory currently envisaged by the government, as expressed in policy narratives and public institutions. We also explore the opportunity context facing non-state actors who promote sustainable intensification (referred to as green niche actors), as well as the strategies they employ to navigate this context and lever change in the direction they perceive as desirable. We find that current policies for agricultural development are primarily dominated by a narrative of Agriculture as an engine for growth, which focuses on the role of external inputs and commercialisation in boosting agricultural production so as to drive economic growth. While another narrative of Natural resource rehabilitation exists in policy, it sees natural resource management as a means of reducing degradation rather than a crucial component of enhanced and sustainable agricultural production, and the policies largely decouple issues of natural resources from issues of agricultural production. Institutional structures in the agricultural sector are found to reflect these discursive patterns. Further, the general institutional context in the country is characterised by strong government domination and rigid structures, which indicates an opaque opportunity context with limited opportunities for niche actors to have an impact. Given these challenging conditions, green niche actors adapt their strategies to fit the existing opportunity context and choose to collaborate closely with the government and the extension system. While this strategy offers the possibility of a direct impact at potentially large scale, it also leads to a range of trade-offs for the green niche actors and ultimately reduces the prospects for a sustainable agricultural transformation. In conclusion, an adaptation of the regime's proposed development trajectory for Ethiopian agriculture is, under current conditions, a more likely scenario than a more fundamental sustainability transformation, although options remain for more transformative action. Through the case of Ethiopian agriculture, this study adds insights into how transformation processes could play out in non-Western contexts where a strong state plays a dominant role, thus broadening the scope of empirical applications of the emerging research field on social-ecological transformations. We also demonstrate how the multilevel perspective from the transition literature and the concepts of opportunity context and situated agency from the literature on institutional entrepreneurship can be fruitfully merged with the social-ecological transformations literature, thereby moving towards a more comprehensive conceptual framework for analysing sustainability transformations.

  • 21.
    Merrie, Andrew
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    An innovation and agency perspective on the emergence and spread of Marine Spatial Planning2014In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 44, p. 366-374Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The roles of governance and technological innovation have been widely recognized as important parts of sustainability transitions. However, less attention has been paid to understanding the mechanisms of the emergence and spread of innovative ideas for stewardship of social-ecological systems. This study considers how theories of innovation and agency are able to provide explanatory power regarding the spread and impact of such ideas. This includes how innovations may contribute to resolving the mismatches between the scale of ecological processes and the scale of governance of ecosystems. The emergence and spread of Marine Spatial Planning (MSP) is used as an illustrative case study. The study shows that individuals embedded in informal networks have played a key role in driving the emergence of MSP across scales and in constantly re-framing the tool in order to overcome obstacles to adoption and implementation. In a number of cases, MSP has been decoupled from the ecosystem despite being framed as a tool for ecosystem-based management. Finally, this study is important to understand the process of emergence of new integrated tools for ecosystem stewardship at the global level.

  • 22.
    Moore, Michele-Lee
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Nilsson, Warren
    Rose, Loretta
    Westley, Frances R.
    Navigating emergence and system reflexivity as key transformative capacities: experiences from a Global Fellowship program2018In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 23, no 2, article id 38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The distinction between adaptive and transformative capacities is still not well understood, and in this study we aimed to build a transformative learning space to strengthen transformative capacities. We proposed that two capacities will be essential to transformation: the capacity to navigate emergence and cross-scale systems reflexivity. We outline our efforts to design and deliver a Global Fellowship program in social innovation, intended to strengthen these two capacities among practitioners already engaged in socially innovative work. Results indicated that the concepts, frameworks, and experiences introduced through the Fellowship led to four key insights about these capacities. Firstly, individual Fellows and their organizations were able to see some complex system dynamics that were previously invisible, which in turn, allowed Fellows to see the distribution of resources and agency across the system in new ways. Secondly, engaging with diversity is essential in social innovation and transformative change processes, and system reflexivity aided in doing this. Additionally, Fellows indicated they were able to identify different kinds of opportunities and the generative potential that can lie within social-ecological systems. Lastly, the findings demonstrate the challenging nature of crossing scales and how a transformative space, such as a Fellowship, helps to practice the experience of contestation, unpredictability, and the uncontrollable dynamics of transformation and social innovation.

  • 23. Moore, Michele-Lee
    et al.
    Tjornbo, Ola
    Enfors, Elin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Knapp, Corrie
    Hodbod, Jennifer
    Baggio, Jacopo A.
    Norström, Albert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Biggs, Duan
    Studying the complexity of change: toward an analytical framework for understanding deliberate social-ecological transformations2014In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 54-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Faced with numerous seemingly intractable social and environmental challenges, many scholars and practitioners are increasingly interested in understanding how to actively engage and transform the existing systems holding such problems in place. Although a variety of analytical models have emerged in recent years, most emphasize either the social or ecological elements of such transformations rather than their coupled nature. To address this, first we have presented a definition of the core elements of a social-ecological system (SES) that could potentially be altered in a transformation. Second, we drew on insights about transformation from three branches of literature focused on radical change, i.e., social movements, socio-technical transitions, and social innovation, and gave consideration to the similarities and differences with the current studies by resilience scholars. Drawing on these findings, we have proposed a framework that outlines the process and phases of transformative change in an SES. Future research will be able to utilize the framework as a tool for analyzing the alteration of social-ecological feedbacks, identifying critical barriers and leverage points and assessing the outcome of social-ecological transformations.

  • 24.
    Norström, Albert V.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Nyström, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Jouffray, Jean-Baptiste
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Graham, Nicholas A. J.
    Moberg, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Williams, Gareth J.
    Guiding coral reef futures in the Anthropocene2016In: Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, ISSN 1540-9295, E-ISSN 1540-9309, Vol. 14, no 9, p. 490-498Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anthropogenic changes to the Earth now rival those caused by the forces of nature and have shepherded us into a new planetary epoch - the Anthropocene. Such changes include profound and often unexpected alterations to coral reef ecosystems and the services they provide to human societies. Ensuring that reefs and their services endure during the Anthropocene will require that key drivers of coral reef change fishing, water quality, and anthropogenic climate change - stay within acceptable levels or safe operating spaces. The capacity to remain within these safe boundaries hinges on understanding the local, but also the increasingly global and cross-scale, socioeconomic causes of these human drivers of change. Consequently, local and regional management efforts that are successful in the short term may ultimately fail if current decision making and institution-building around coral reef systems remains fragmented, poorly coordinated, and unable to keep pace with the escalating speed of social, technological, and ecological change.

  • 25.
    Olsson, Per
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Beijer Institute.
    Building transformative capacity for ecosystem stewardship in social-ecological systems2010In: Adaptive Capacity and Environmental Governance / [ed] Armitage, D. and Plummer, R., Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2010, p. 263-285Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Olsson, Per
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Beijer Institute, The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Building transformative capacity in social-ecological systems: insights and challenges2010In: Adaptive Capacity and Environmental Governance / [ed] Derek Armitage, Ryan Plummer, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2010, p. 263-285Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We use a “resilience lens” to identify gaps in the understanding of capacity to transform social-ecological systems’ (SES) trajectories toward ecosystem stewardship and highlight some challenges that need to be addressed. We draw on the organizational evolution literature in combination with the latest insights on SES transformations to give a more detailed understanding of what constitute transformative capacity. Two case studies illustrate the possibilities and challenges. SES transformations require knowledge and skills that can link ecosystem and social system dynamics, and develop strategies to overcome barriers and enable institutional changes that foster transformations. We identify some criteria that seem important for developing a framework for analyzing transformations and assessing transformative capacity in social-ecological systems. These criteria include experimentation and innovation, agency and social networks, opportunity context, diversity, boundaries, and collaboration.

  • 27.
    Olsson, Per
    et al.
    Stockholm University, interfaculty units, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Folke, Carl
    Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology. naturresurshushållning.
    Galaz, Viktor
    Hahn, Thomas
    Schultz, Lisen
    Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology. naturresurshushållning.
    Enhancing the fit through adaptive comanagement: creating and maintaining bridging functions for matching scales in the Kristianstads Vattenrike Biosphere Reserve Sweden2007In: Ecology and Society, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 28-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Olsson, Per
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology. Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Hughes, Terry P.
    Navigating the transition to ecosystem-based management of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia2008In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 105, no 28, p. 9489-9494Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyze the strategies and actions that enable transitions toward ecosystem-based management using the recent governance changes of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park as a case study. The interplay among individual actors, organizations, and institutions at multiple levels is central in such transitions. A flexible organization, the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, was crucial in initiating the transition to ecosystem-based management. This agency was also instrumental in the subsequent transformation of the governance regime and provided leadership throughout the process. Strategies involved internal reorganization and management innovation, leading to an ability to coordinate the scientific community, to increase public awareness of environmental issues and problems, to involve a broader set of stakeholders, and to maneuver the political system for support at critical times. The transformation process was induced by increased pressure on the Great Barrier Reef (from terrestrial runoff, over-harvesting, and global warming) that triggered a new sense of urgency to address these challenges. The focus of governance shifted from protection of selected individual reefs to stewardship of the larger-scale seascape. The study emphasizes the significance of stewardship that can change patterns of interactions among key actors and allow for new forms of management and governance to emerge in response to environmental change. This example illustrates that enabling legislations or other social bounds are essential, but not sufficient for shifting governance toward adaptive comanagement of complex marine ecosystems.

  • 29.
    Olsson, Per
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Galaz, Victor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Social-ecological innovation and transformation2011In: Social innovation: blurring boundaries to reconfigure markets / [ed] Alex Nicholls and Alex Murdoch, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011, p. 223-Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Olsson, Per
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Moore, Michele-Lee
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of Victoria, Canada.
    Westley, Frances R.
    McCarthy, Daniel D. P.
    The concept of the Anthropocene as a game-changer: a new context for social innovation and transformations to sustainability2017In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 22, no 2, article id 31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    After tracing the antecedents of the concept and considering its intersection in social innovation research, we put forward the argument that the Anthropocene concept points to three areas of thought that are strategically imperative and must be accelerated if social innovation theory and practice is to prove transformative and respond to the challenges associated with the Anthropocene. First, we contend that the current debate on social innovation for sustainability lacks a deeper focus on human-environmental interactions and the related feedbacks, which will be necessary to understand and achieve large-scale change and transformations to global sustainability. Many innovations focus on only the social or the ecological, and we believe a more integrated approach will be needed moving forward. Second, social innovation research must confront the path-dependencies embedded within systems, and we propose that the act of "bricolage," which recombines existing elements in novel ways, will be essential, rather than single variable solutions, which currently dominate social innovation discussions. Finally, we put forward the idea that confronting the cross-scalar nature of the Anthropocene requires revisiting both the scope and temporal nature of social innovations that are most typically focused upon by scholars and funders alike. We believe the concept of the Anthropocene creates new opportunities for social innovation scholars to imagine new possibilities.

  • 31. Pereira, Laura M.
    et al.
    Karpouzoglou, Timothy
    Frantzeskaki, Niki
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Designing transformative spaces for sustainability in social-ecological systems2018In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 23, no 4, article id 32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transformations toward sustainability have recently gained traction, triggered in part by a growing recognition of the dramatic socio-cultural, political, economic, and technological changes required to move societies toward more desirable futures in the Anthropocene. However, there is a dearth of literature that emphasizes the crucial aspects of sustainability transformations in the diverse contexts of the Global South. Contributors to this Special Feature aim to address this gap by weaving together a series of case studies that together form an important navigational tool on the how to as well as the what and the where to of sustainability transformations across diverse challenges, sectors, and geographies. They propose the term transformative space as a safe-enough collaborative process whereby actors invested in sustainability transformations can experiment with new mental models, ideas, and practices that can help shift social-ecological systems onto more desirable pathways. The authors also highlight the challenges posed to researchers as they become transformative space-makers, navigating the power dynamics inherent in these processes. Because researchers and practitioners alike are challenged to provide answers to complex and often ambiguous or incomplete questions around sustainability, the ideas, reflections and learning gathered in this Special Feature provide some guidance on new ways of engaging with the world.

  • 32.
    Rosen, Franciska
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Institutional entrepreneurs, global networks, and the emergence of international institutions for ecosystem-based management: The Coral Triangle Initiative2013In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 38, p. 195-204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the role of institutional entrepreneurship in the creation of an international agreement to radically transform management of coastal and marine resources in the Coral Triangle. It analyzes how institutional entrepreneurs develop strategies to overcome barriers to change and navigate opportunity contexts to mobilize support for ecosystem-based management. The analysis shows that institutional change depends on collaboration among several institutional entrepreneurs that have access to different networks and are supported by different types of organizations. It also shows that interplay between institutional entrepreneurship and high-level political leadership plays a critical role in institution building. Institutional entrepreneurs must therefore align their ideas of ecosystem-based management to multiple political priorities and transfer experience and social capital from previous multilateral projects. By supporting the development of new governance arenas for deliberation, institutional entrepreneurs may enhance the fit between domestic and multilateral policy making. Lastly, institutional entrepreneurship may raise critical questions about legitimacy, accountability and ownership.

  • 33.
    Schultz, Lisen
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Olsson, Per
    Enhancing ecosystem management through social-ecological inventories: lessons from Kristianstads Vattenrike, Sweden2007In: Environmental Conservation, ISSN 0376-8929, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 140-152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental policy increasingly emphasizes involvement of local users and land owners in ecosystem management, but conservation planning is still largely a bureaucratic-scientific endeavour of identifying biological values for protection. Neither biological inventories nor stakeholder analyses, that tend to focus on conflicting interests, capture human resources in the landscape or the social structures and processes underlying biological conservation values. Social-ecological inventories are therefore proposed during the preparation phase of conservation projects as a means to identify people with ecosystem knowledge that practise ecosystem management. The method presented here focuses on local steward groups acting outside official management plans. In a social-ecological inventory of a river basin of southern Sweden, local steward groups, their ecosystem management activities, motives and links to other actors involved in ecosystem management were identified through interviews, participatory observations and a review of documents and other written material. Several hundred active local stewards were organized in 10 local steward groups that managed and monitored a range of ecosystem services at different spatial scales. Contributions of local stewards included on-site ecosystem management, long-term and detailed monitoring of species and ecosystem dynamics, local ecological knowledge, public support for ecosystem management and specialized networks. Two conservation projects are used to illustrate how local steward groups came together in multi-level networks and collaborated around specific conservation issues. The projects have been linked to ecosystem management at the landscape level through a flexible municipality organization, the Ecomuseum Kristianstads Vattenrike (EKV). EKV has acted as a ‘bridging organization’, coordinating and connecting many of the local steward groups to organizations and institutions at other levels. The process has been guided by social capital and shared visions for the whole landscape. The study shows that ecosystem management likely relies on multi-level collaboration and social-ecological inventories may help identify actors that are fundamental in such management systems. Social-ecological inventories should be employed in any attempt to develop and implement ecosystem management.

  • 34.
    Schultz, Lisen
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Science, Sweden; Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Österblom, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Adaptive governance, ecosystem management, and natural capital2015In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 112, no 24, p. 7369-7374Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To gain insights into the effects of adaptive governance on natural capital, we compare three well-studied initiatives; a landscape in Southern Sweden, the Great Barrier Reef in Australia, and fisheries in the Southern Ocean. We assess changes in natural capital and ecosystem services related to these social-ecological governance approaches to ecosystem management and investigate their capacity to respond to change and new challenges. The adaptive governance initiatives are compared with other efforts aimed at conservation and sustainable use of natural capital: Natura 2000 in Europe, lobster fisheries in the Gulf of Maine, North America, and fisheries in Europe. In contrast to these efforts, we found that the adaptive governance cases developed capacity to perform ecosystem management, manage multiple ecosystem services, and monitor, communicate, and respond to ecosystem-wide changes at landscape and seascape levels with visible effects on natural capital. They enabled actors to collaborate across diverse interests, sectors, and institutional arrangements and detect opportunities and problems as they developed while nurturing adaptive capacity to deal with them. They all spanned local to international levels of decision making, thus representing multilevel governance systems for managing natural capital. As with any governance system, internal changes and external drivers of global impacts and demands will continue to challenge the long-term success of such initiatives.

  • 35. Schäpke, Niko
    et al.
    Stelzer, Franziska
    Caniglia, Guido
    Bergmann, Matthias
    Wanner, Matthias
    Singer-Brodowski, Mandy
    Loorbach, Derk
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Baedeker, Carolin
    Lang, Daniel J.
    Jointly Experimenting for Transformation? Shaping Real-World Laboratories by Comparing Them2018In: GAIA, ISSN 0940-5550, Vol. 27, p. 85-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Real-world laboratories (RwLs, German Reallabore) belong to a family of increasingly popular experimental and transdisciplinary research approaches at the science-society interface. As these approaches in general, and RwLs in particular, often lack clear definitions of key characteristics and their operationalization, we make two contributions in this article. First, we identify five core characteristics of RwLs: contribution to transformation, experimental methods, transdisciplinary research mode, scalability and transferability of results, as well as scientific and societal learning and reflexivity. Second, we compare RwLs to similar research approaches according to the five characteristics. In this way, we provide an orientation on experimental and transdisciplinary research for societal transformations, and reveal the contributions of this type of research in supporting societal change. Our findings enable learning across the different approaches and highlight their complementarities, with a particular focus on RwLs.

  • 36.
    Stange, Kari
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Österblom, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Baltic Nest Institute.
    Managing organizational change in an international scientific network: a study of ICES reform processes2012In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 681-688Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organizations involved in the governance of natural resources are challenged to adjust to the call for more holistic management approaches. This often necessitates organizational change. Here change processes in the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) during the years 1998–2009 are investigated using semi-structured interviews combined with observations and review of documents. Several organizational reforms were implemented during the time period studied. The major drivers were the need to improve efficiency and a striving for better integration between different components within the organization. The reform processes were driven forward by individuals who navigated between opportunities and constrains embedded in the network structure of ICES. This required good leadership and communication skills. Broad consultations were important to ensure support within the ICES community. By increasing the understanding of the dynamics of change in organizations, which operate at the science–policy interface developments in desired directions can be facilitated.

  • 37. Steneck, R. S.
    et al.
    Hughes, T. P.
    Cinner, J. E.
    Adger, W. N.
    Arnold, S. N.
    Berkes, F.
    Boudreau, S. A.
    Brown, K.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Gunderson, L.
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Scheffer, M.
    Stephenson, E.
    Walker, B.
    Wilson, J.
    Worm, B.
    Creation of a Gilded Trap by the High Economic Value of the Maine Lobster Fishery2011In: Conservation Biology, ISSN 0888-8892, E-ISSN 1523-1739, Vol. 25, no 5, p. 904-912Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Unsustainable fishing simplifies food chains and, as with aquaculture, can result in reliance on a few economically valuable species. This lack of diversity may increase risks of ecological and economic disruptions. Centuries of intense fishing have extirpated most apex predators in the Gulf of Maine (United States and Canada), effectively creating an American lobster (Homarus americanus) monoculture. Over the past 20 years, the economic diversity of marine resources harvested in Maine has declined by almost 70%. Today, over 80% of the value of Maine's fish and seafood landings is from highly abundant lobsters. Inflation-corrected income from lobsters in Maine has steadily increased by nearly 400% since 1985. Fisheries managers, policy makers, and fishers view this as a success. However, such lucrative monocultures increase the social and ecological consequences of future declines in lobsters. In southern New England, disease and stresses related to increases in ocean temperature resulted in more than a 70% decline in lobster abundance, prompting managers to propose closing that fishery. A similar collapse in Maine could fundamentally disrupt the social and economic foundation of its coast. We suggest the current success of Maine's lobster fishery is a gilded trap. Gilded traps are a type of social trap in which collective actions resulting from economically attractive opportunities outweigh concerns over associated social and ecological risks or consequences. Large financial gain creates a strong reinforcing feedback that deepens the trap. Avoiding or escaping gilded traps requires managing for increased biological and economic diversity. This is difficult to do prior to a crisis while financial incentives for maintaining the status quo are large. The long-term challenge is to shift fisheries management away from single species toward integrated social-ecological approaches that diversify local ecosystems, societies, and economies.

  • 38.
    Valman, Matilda
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Österblom, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Adaptive governance of the Baltic Sea - lessons from elsewhere2015In: International Journal of the Commons, ISSN 1875-0281, E-ISSN 1875-0281, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 440-465Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Governance of marine resources is increasingly characterized by integrated, cross sectoral and ecosystem based approaches. Such approaches require that existing governing bodies have an ability to adapt to ecosystem dynamics, while also providing transparent and legitimate outcomes. Here, we investigate how the Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission (HELCOM), the international governing body for the Baltic Sea, could improve its prospects for working with the ecosystem approach, drawing from the literature on adaptive governance. We construct an ideal type of adaptive governance to which we compare the way in which HELCOM is operating and relate these dynamics to two other international marine environment governance organizations, the Coral Triangle Initiative on Coral Reefs, Fisheries and Food Security (CTI-CFF) and the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR). We conclude that HELCOM deviates from an ideal type of adaptive governance in several ways but also that the other two case studies provide empirical support for potential ways in which HELCOM could improve its adaptive capacity. Key aspects where HELCOM could improve include increasing stakeholder participation - both in information sharing and decision making. Further, HELCOM need to develop evaluation mechanisms, secure compliance to improve adaptive capacity and organizational effectiveness, which entails the development of structures for conflict resolution. Finally, HELCOM need to increase communication and harmonization between different levels of authority.

  • 39.
    von Heland, Franciska
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Clifton, Julian
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Improving Stewardship of Marine Resources: Linking Strategy to Opportunity2014In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 6, no 7, p. 4470-4496Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The need for improved stewardship of coastal and marine resources is evident worldwide. However, complex ecosystem dynamics, institutional inertia, and budgetary constraints impede such action. This study explores how networks of change-oriented individuals or “institutional entrepreneurs” can introduce new types of human-environment interaction. The focus is on investigating the interplay between the strategies of institutional entrepreneurs and broader system dynamics that shape the context in which they are working, and possible impacts of institutional entrepreneurship on marine governance. We explore these issues in the context of Wakatobi National Park in eastern Indonesia. We suggest that creating links between different social spheres, such as between marine resource management and spirituality or between marine resource management and education, may accelerate the development of a new ecosystem stewardship.  We further suggest that the use of media has significant power to show alternative futures, but that media may also serve to objectify certain resource users and increase the complexity of marine resource management. In general, institutional entrepreneurs play an important role in capturing and managing opportunity to open up space for experimentation and novel ideas, for example by linking their ideas to broader political priorities. Yet, such strategies bear the risk of institutional capture. Finally, institutional entrepreneurs sometimes have vested interests in certain solutions that may forsake experimentation toward a sustainable future.

  • 40.
    Westley, Frances
    et al.
    Social Innovation Generation, University of Waterloo, Canada.
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Nilsson, Måns
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Galaz, Victor
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Tipping toward sustainability: emerging pathways of transformation2011In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 40, no 7, p. 762-780Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the links between agency, institutions, and innovation in navigating shifts and large-scale transformations toward global sustainability. Our central question is whether social and technical innovations can reverse the trends that are challenging critical thresholds and creating tipping points in the earth system, and if not, what conditions are necessary to escape the current lock-in. Large-scale transformations in information technology, nano-and biotechnology, and new energy systems have the potential to significantly improve our lives; but if, in framing them, our globalized society fails to consider the capacity of the biosphere, there is a risk that unsustainable development pathways may be reinforced. Current institutional arrangements, including the lack of incentives for the private sector to innovate for sustainability, and the lags inherent in the path dependent nature of innovation, contribute to lock-in, as does our incapacity to easily grasp the interactions implicit in complex problems, referred to here as the ingenuity gap. Nonetheless, promising social and technical innovations with potential to change unsustainable trajectories need to be nurtured and connected to broad institutional resources and responses. In parallel, institutional entrepreneurs can work to reduce the resilience of dominant institutional systems and position viable shadow alternatives and niche regimes.

1 - 40 of 40
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf