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  • 1. Grahn, Håkan
    et al.
    von Schoenberg, Pontus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. The Swedish Defence Research Agency, Umeå, Sweden.
    Brännström, Niklas
    What's that smell? Hydrogen sulphide transport from Bardarbunga to Scandinavia2015In: Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, ISSN 0377-0273, E-ISSN 1872-6097, Vol. 303, p. 187-192Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    On Sep 9 2014 several incidences of foul smell (rotten eggs) were reported on the coast of Norway (in particular in the vicinity of Molde) and then on Sep 10 in the interior parts of county Vasterbotten, Sweden. One of the theories that were put forward was that the foul smell was due to degassing of the Bardarbunga volcano on Iceland. Using satellite images (GOME-1,-2) of the sulphur dioxide, SO2, contents in the atmosphere surrounding Iceland to estimate flux of SO2 from the volcano and an atmospheric transport model, PELLO, we vindicate this theory: we argue that the cause for the foul smell was hydrogen sulphide originating from Bardarbunga. The model concentrations are also compared to SO2 concentration measurements from Muonio, Finland.

  • 2. Sato, Yousuke
    et al.
    Takigawa, Masayuki
    Sekiyama, Tsuyoshi Thomas
    Kajino, Mizuo
    Terada, Hiroaki
    Nagai, Haruyasu
    Kondo, Hiroaki
    Uchida, Junya
    Goto, Daisuke
    Quélo, Denis
    Mathieu, Anne
    Quérel, Arnaud
    Fang, Sheng
    Morino, Yu
    von Schoenberg, Pontus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Grahn, Håkan
    Brännström, Niklas
    Hirao, Shigekazu
    Tsuruta, Haruo
    Yamazawa, Hiromi
    Nakajima, Teruyuki
    Model Intercomparison of Atmospheric Cs-137 From the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident: Simulations Based on Identical Input Data2018In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres, ISSN 2169-897X, E-ISSN 2169-8996, Vol. 123, no 20, p. 11748-11765Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A model intercomparison of the atmospheric dispersion of cesium-137 (Cs-137) emitted after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in Japan was conducted to understand the behavior of atmospheric Cs-137 in greater detail. The same meteorological data with a fine spatiotemporal resolution and an emission inventory were applied to all models to exclude the differences among the models originating from differences in meteorological and emission data. The meteorological data were used for initial, boundary, and nudging data or offline meteorological field. Furthermore, a horizontal grid with the same resolution as that of the meteorological data was adopted for all models. This setup enabled us to focus on model variability originating from the processes included in each model, for example, physical processes. The multimodel ensemble captured 40% of the atmospheric Cs-137 events observed by measurements, and the figure of merit in space for the total deposition of Cs-137 exceeded 80. The lower score of the atmospheric Cs-137 than that of the deposition originated from the difference in timing between observed and simulated atmospheric Cs-137. Our analyses indicated that meteorological data were most critical for reproducing the atmospheric Cs-137 events. The results further revealed that differences in Cs-137 concentrations among the models originated from deposition and diffusion processes when the meteorological field was simulated reasonably well. The models with small deposition fluxes produced higher scores for atmospheric Cs-137, and those with strong diffusion succeeded in capturing the high Cs-137 concentrations observed; however, they also tended to overestimate the concentrations.

  • 3. Thomas, Manu Anna
    et al.
    Brännström, Niklas
    Persson, Christer
    Grahn, Håkan
    von Schoenberg, Pontus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. The Swedish Defence Research Agency, FOI, Sweden.
    Robertson, Lennart
    Surface air quality implications of volcanic injection heights2017In: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 166, p. 510-518Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Air quality implications of volcanic eruptions have gained increased attention recently in association with the 2010 Icelandic eruption that resulted in the shut-down of European air space. The emission amount, injection height and prevailing weather conditions determine the extent of the impact through the spatio-temporal distribution of pollutants. It is often argued that in the case of a major eruption in Iceland, like Laki in 1783-1784, that pollutants injected high into the atmosphere lead to substantially increased concentrations of sulfur compounds over continental Europe via long-range transport in the jet stream and eventual large-scale subsidence in a high-pressure system. Using state-of-the-art simulations, we show that the air quality impact of Icelandic volcanoes is highly sensitive to the injection height. In particular, it is the infinitesimal injections into the lower half of the troposphere, rather than the substantial injections into the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere that contribute most to increased pollutant concentrations, resulting in atmospheric haze over mainland Europe/Scandinavia. Besides, the persistent high pressure system over continental Europe/Scandinavia traps the pollutants from dispersing, thereby prolonging the haze.

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