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  • 1. Descatha, Alexis
    et al.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Madsen, Ida E. H.
    Rugulies, Reiner
    Peristera, Paraskevi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Accuracy of a Single Item on Mentally Tiring Work as Proxy Measure of Job Demands and Efforts in the Gazel Cohort2017In: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1076-2752, E-ISSN 1536-5948, Vol. 59, no 8, p. E156-E158Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2. Eib, Constanze
    et al.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Peristera, Paraskevi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Time to leave? Organizational justice as predictor of early or late retirement2019In: Abstract Book of the 19th European Association of Work and Organizational Psychology Congress: Working for the greater good - Inspiring people, designing jobs and leading organizations for a more inclusive society, 2019, p. 1036-1036, article id 300Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Research has highlighted that a poor psychosocial work environment is associated with early retirement, which constitutes a drain of knowledge and resources. Organizational justice is one aspect of the work environment that can be addressed by management representatives. In this study, we focus on organizational justice as important job resource with substantial relations to work and health outcomes. Justice theories suggest that organizational justice communicates to employees that they are valued members of the work group. Also, when feeling fairly treated, employees are more likely to want to reciprocate fairness, with, for instance, keep working with the company. The aim of the current research is to investigate the relationship between organizational justice and early and late retirement.

    Methodology: The Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Health Survey (SLOSH) was used. A total of 1570 retirees were available who retired in 2012, 2014 or 2016. Of these, 509 retired before they were 65 years old, 551 when they were 65 years old, and 510 above 65 years of age. Procedural justice was assessed with 7 items from a validated scale.

    Results: Preliminary findings show that those who retired after the statutory retirement age of 65 years reported higher procedural justice one year before they retired than the other two groups.

    Implications: Results suggest that organizational justice may be a good predictor to gauge whether employees want to continue working after their statutory retirement age.

    Originality: One of the few studies investigating how organizational justice relates to actual retirement using longitudinal data in Sweden.

  • 3.
    Ghilagaber, Gebrenegus
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics.
    Peristera, Paraskevi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics.
    Sequential probit modelling of family and community effects on educational progress among children to Polish and Turkish immigrants in Sweden2014In: Quality and quantity, ISSN 0033-5177, E-ISSN 1573-7845, Vol. 48, no 6, p. 3243-3253Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We explore effects of individual, family, and neighborhood effects on educational progress. The statistical model used is a multilevel sequential probit model. Such formulation allows the covariate-effects to vary across different educational levels. Results based on about 2,100 children whose parents are either native Swedes or migrants from Poland or Turkey provide new insights with regard to differentials in educational progress across background varaiables. Among others, we find that parental education is a strong predictor of educational progress at all levels. On the other hand, while family structure, family economy, and ethinic background are strongly correlated to educational progress at lower levels, their effect diminishes at higher levels of education. Possible exaplanations and implications of the results are presented.

  • 4.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Peristera, Paraskevi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Eib, Constanze
    Nyberg, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Interactional justice at work is related to sickness absence: a study using repeated measures in the Swedish working population2017In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 17, article id 912Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Research has shown that perceived unfairness contributes to higher rates of sickness absence. While shorter, but more frequent periods of sickness absence might be a possibility for the individual to get relief from high strain, long-term sickness absence might be a sign of more serious health problems. The Uncertainty Management Model suggests that justice is particularly important in times of uncertainty, e.g. perceived job insecurity. The present study investigated the association between interpersonal and informational justice at work with long and frequent sickness absence respectively, under conditions of job insecurity.

    Methods: Data were derived from the 2010, 2012, and 2014 biennial waves of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH). The final analytic sample consisted of 19,493 individuals. We applied repeated measures regression analyses through generalized estimating equations (GEE), a method for longitudinal data that simultaneously analyses variables at different time points. We calculated risk of long and frequent sickness absence, respectively in relation to interpersonal and informational justice taking perceptions of job insecurity into account.

    Results: We found informational and interpersonal justice to be associated with risk of long and frequent sickness absence independently of job insecurity and demographic variables. Results from autoregressive GEE provided some support for a causal relationship between justice perceptions and sickness absence. Contrary to expectations, we found no interaction between justice and job insecurity.

    Conclusions: Our results underline the need for fair and just treatment of employees irrespective of perceived job insecurity in order to keep the workforce healthy and to minimize lost work days due to sickness absence.

  • 5.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Eib, Constanze
    University of East Anglia, UK.
    Peristera, Paraskevi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    The influence of and change in procedural justice on self-rated health trajectories: Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health results2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 42, no 4, p. 320-328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Procedural justice perceptions are shown to be associated with minor psychiatric disorders, long sickness absence spells, and poor self-rated health, but previous studies have rarely considered how changes in procedural justice influence changes in health. Methods: Data from four consecutive biennial waves of the Swedish Longitudinal Survey of Health (SLOSH) (N=5854) were used to examine trajectories of self-rated health. Adjusting for age, sex, socioeconomic position, and marital status, we studied the predictive power of change in procedural justice perceptions using individual growth curve models within a multilevel framework. Results: The results show that self-rated health trajectories slowly decline over time. The rate of change was influenced by age and sex, with older people and women showing a slower rate. After adjusting for age, sex, socioeconomic position, and marital status, procedural justice was significantly associated with self-rated health. Also, improvements in procedural justice were associated with improvements in self-rated health. Additionally, a reverse relationship with and change in self-rated health predicting procedural justice was found. Conclusions: Our findings support the idea that procedural justice at work is a crucial aspect of the psychosocial work environment and that changes towards more procedural justice could influence self-rated health positively. The reciprocal association of procedural justice and self-rated health warrants further research.

  • 6.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Peristera, Paraskevi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Eib, Constanze
    How is low interpersonal justice related to organizational turnover over time? Results from a longitudinal cohort study2019In: Abstract Book of the 19th European Association of Work and Organizational Psychology Congress: Working for the greater good - Inspiring people, designing jobs and leading organizations for a more inclusive society, 2019, p. 1184-1184, article id 638Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim of the current study is to investigate associations between justice perceptions and turnover behavior over time. We focus on interpersonal justice, which captures the respectful and dignified treatment from the supervisor, because it evokes strong emotional reactions. We relate interpersonal justice to two aspects of turnover (group, employer) over time.

    Design: The project is based on data collected in the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH) 2012-2016 (n=2450). We used autoregressive cross-lagged models within a multilevel structural equation modelling (MSEM) framework to address reciprocal influences on justice perceptions and turnover behavior.

    Results: We found that high interpersonal justice at tn-1 was associated with a decreased risk of having left the employer at tn (B=-.037 p≤.001) and having changed the workgroup (B=-.067 p≤.001). Having changed the employer during the past two years was related to higher perceived interpersonal justice at tn (B=.220, p≤.001). Also, having changed the workgroup was related to increased interpersonal justice (B=.082, p≤.017).

    Limitations: Causality cannot be proven despite the longitudinal design.

    Practical Implications: Interpersonal justice is a potential target for interventions in order to keep employees in the organization.

    Originality: We investigate cross-lagged associations between justice perceptions and two aspects of turnover behaviour taking four repeated measurements into account.

    Conclusion: Poor interpersonal justice is a risk factor for leaving the group and organization.

  • 7.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Hulvej Rod, Naja
    Vahtera, Jussi
    Peristera, Paraskevi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Pentti, Jaana
    Rugulies, Reiner
    Huitfeldt Madsen, Ida Elisabeth
    LaMontagne, Anthony D.
    Milner, Allison
    Lange, Theis
    Suominen, Sakari
    Stenholm, Sari
    Xu, Tianwei
    Kivimäki, Mika
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Multicohort study of change in job strain, poor mental health and incident cardiometabolic disease2019In: Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1351-0711, E-ISSN 1470-7926, Vol. 76, no 11, p. 785-792Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives Several recent large-scale studies have indicated a prospective association between job strain and coronary heart disease, stroke and diabetes. Job strain is also associated with poorer mental health, a risk factor for cardiometabolic disease. This study investigates the prospective relationships between change in job strain, poor mental health and cardiometabolic disease, and whether poor mental health is a potential mediator of the relationship between job strain and cardiometabolic disease.

    Methods We used data from five cohort studies from Australia, Finland, Sweden and UK, including 47 757 men and women. Data on job strain across two measurements 1-5 years apart (time 1 (T1)-time 2 (T2)) were used to define increase or decrease in job strain. Poor mental health (symptoms in the top 25% of the distribution of the scales) at T2 was considered a potential mediator in relation to incident cardiometabolic disease, including cardiovascular disease and diabetes, following T2 for a mean of 5-18 years.

    Results An increase in job strain was associated with poor mental health (HR 1.56, 95% CI 1.38 to 1.76), and a decrease in job strain was associated with lower risk in women (HR 0.70, 95% CI 0.60-0.84). However, no clear association was observed between poor mental health and incident cardiometabolic disease (HR 1.08, 95% CI 0.96-1.23), nor between increase (HR 1.01, 95% CI 0.90-1.14) and decrease (HR 1.08, 95% CI 0.96-1.22) in job strain and cardiometabolic disease.

    Conclusions The results did not support that change in job strain is a risk factor for cardiometabolic disease and yielded no support for poor mental health as a mediator.

  • 8.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Madsen, Ida E. H.
    Rugulies, Reiner
    Peristera, Paraskevi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Descatha, Alexis
    Temporal relationships between job strain and low-back pain2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 43, no 5, p. 396-404Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives Psychosocial working conditions are suggested risk factors for low-back pain, but it is unclear whether these associations are causal. The present study examined whether there are lagged and bidirectional associations between job strain and low-back pain and further controlled for unmeasured time-invariant confounding.

    Methods The study was based on four biennial waves of data from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH), including 3084 men and women. Cross-lagged analyses using structural equation modeling (SEM) were conducted on job strain, a combination of high job demands and low control, and any as well as low-back pain severity (how much any problems affected the respondents life). Analogous SEM (dynamic panel) models with fixed effects were also fitted to remove confounding from time-invariant factors (such as non-observed individual and environmental factors, eg, genetics, childhood conditions, personality).

    Results The SEM models indicated bidirectional associations between job strain and any back pain over a 2-year time lag (β=0.21 and 0.19, P<0.05), when adjusting for a range of covariates. Job strain was also associated with an increase in low-back pain severity and vice versa. However, the SEM models with fixed-effects showed no statistically significant lagged relationships between job strain and any or low-back pain severity (β=-0.05 and β=0.00, respectively).

    Conclusions This study suggests that associations between job strain and low-back pain with a lag of years may be due to residual confounding by time invariant characteristics. Further studies are, however, needed to elucidate short-term relationships.

  • 9.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Peristera, Paraskevi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Chungkham, Holendro S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Indian Statistical Institute, North-East Centre, India.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Psychosocial work characteristics, sleep disturbances and risk of subsequent depressive symptoms: a study of time-varying effect modification2017In: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 266-276Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Job strain and low social support at work are recognized risk factors for depression. However, people with poor sleep may represent a high-risk group more likely to benefit from interventions against work stress. The present study examined whether the associations between these work stressors and depressive symptoms differed by strata of sleep disturbances (effect modification/effect moderation) considering repeat measures of work characteristics and sleep. The study was based on five biennial measurements of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health, including 1537 respondents recurrently in paid work, from an originally representative sample of the Swedish working population. High work demands, low decision authority and low social support were measured waves 2 and 4, sleep disturbances (putative moderator/modifier) waves 1 and 3, and depressive symptoms (outcome) wave 5. Causal effect modification, whether the effect of working conditions differed by strata of sleep disturbances, was analysed by structural nested mean modelling estimated using a regression-with-residuals with inverse-probability-of-treatment weighting approach. High demands and low social support, but not low decision authority, influenced subsequent depressive symptoms. The relationship between social support and depressive symptoms was not apparently modified by sleep disturbances. However, disturbed sleep wave 3 modified the effect of high demands wave 4 (coefficient 1.77, P<0.05) on depressive symptoms wave 5. The results indicate that high job demands is a stronger risk factor for depressive symptoms in people with pre-existing sleep disturbances, suggesting that targeted workplace interventions may be more effective when it comes to preventing negative effects of job demands.

  • 10.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Peristera, Paraskevi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Chungkham, Holendro Singh
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Indian Statistical Institute, India.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Longitudinal Mediation Modeling of Unhealthy Behaviors as Mediators between Workplace Demands/Support and Depressive Symptoms2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 12, article id e0169276Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lifestyle has been regarded as a key pathway through which adverse psychosocial working characteristics can give rise to long-term health problems. The purpose of this study was to estimate the indirect/mediated effect of health behaviors in the longitudinal work characteristics-depression relationship. The analyses were based on the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health, including 3706 working participants with repeat survey measures on four occasions (2008, 2010, 2012 and 2014). Psychosocial work characteristics including demands and social support were analyzed in relation to depressive symptoms. Autoregressive longitudinal mediation models using structural equation modeling were used to estimate the intermediate effects of unhealthy behaviors including current smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, unhealthy diet and physical inactivity. Both workplace demands and social support were related to later depressive symptoms. In bivariate models we found no significant paths from workplace demands to health behaviors, but two out of three significant time-specific paths from workplace support to excessive drinking and from excessive drinking to depressive symptoms. Social support was also associated with subsequent unhealthy diet, and one path from unhealthy diet to depressive symptoms was found. However, despite indications of certain longitudinal relationships between psychosocial working conditions and health behaviors as well as between health behaviors and depressive symptoms, no significant intermediate effects were found (p>0.05). We conclude that changes in unhealthy behaviors over a period of two years are unlikely to act as strong intermediaries in the longitudinal relationship between job demands and depressive symptoms and between social support and depressive symptoms.

  • 11.
    Nyberg, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Peristera, Paraskevi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Does Work-Personal Life Interference Predict Turnover Among Male and Female Managers, and do Depressive Symptoms Mediate the Association?2018In: Book of Proceedings 13th Conference of the European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology: Adapting to rapid changes in today’s workplace / [ed] K. Teoh, N. Saade, V. Dediu, J. Hassard, L. Torres, Nottingham: European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology , 2018, p. 308-309, article id O135Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: To increase possibilities for women and men to remain in leadership positions a better understanding of turnover processes among female and male managers appears important. Although the interface between work and personal life has been recognised as a key issue for managers, it has seldom been empirically investigated in relation to turnover. In the present study we used a longitudinal multi-group design to examine associations between work- personal life interference, managerial turnover and depressive symptoms, and their differences with respect to gender. We hypothesised that 1) work-personal life interference predict managerial turnover, 2) depressive symptoms mediate the association, which 3) differ by gender. 

    Methods: Data were drawn from four waves (2010, 2012, 2014 and 2016) of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH), a cohort of the Swedish working population. Participants who in any wave reported to have a managerial or other leading position were included (n=717 men and 741 women). Mediation models within a multilevel SEM framework, in which repeated measures were nested within individuals, were fitted. First, bivariate autoregressive and cross-lagged paths between the variables (t and t-1) were fitted in gender stratified models. Secondly, a full longitudinal gender stratified mediation model was built to estimate if the association between work-personal life interference (t-2) and turnover (t) was mediated through depressive symptoms (t-1). Gender differences in cross-lagged paths were estimated with multiple-group analysis. All analyses were adjusted for age, education, labour market sector, civil status and children living at home, and conducted in MPLUS 7.

    Results: In accordance with our first hypothesis, significant prospective paths between work- personal life interference and turnover were found among both male and female managers. In line with our second hypothesis, there were furthermore significant prospective associations between work-personal life interference and depressive symptoms as well as between depressive symptoms and turnover in both genders. However, no significant intermediate effect of depressive symptoms in the longitudinal association between work-personal life interference and turnover was found in any gender, and therefore our second hypothesis was not supported. We found gender differences in several of the estimated associations, lending partial support for our third hypothesis.

    Conclusions: Establishing organisational prerequisites for good work-personal life balance among managers may be a means to retain male and female managerial talent.

  • 12.
    Nyberg, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Peristera, Paraskevi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Does work-personal life interference predict turnover among male and female managers, and do depressive symptoms mediate the association? A longitudinal study based on a Swedish cohort2018In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 18, article id 828Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In the present study we used a longitudinal design to examine if work-personal life interference predicted managerial turnover, if depressive symptoms mediated the association, and if the relationships differed by gender.

    Methods: Data were drawn from four waves (2010, 2012, 2014 and 2016) of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH), a cohort of the Swedish working population. Participants who in any wave reported to have a managerial or other leading position were included (n = 717 men and 741 women). Autoregressive longitudinal mediation models within a multilevel structural equation modelling (MSEM) framework, in which repeated measures (level 1) were nested within individuals (level 2), were fitted to data. First, bivariate autoregressive and cross-lagged paths between the variables were fitted in gender stratified models. Secondly, a full gender stratified mediation model was built to estimate if the association between work-personal life interference and turnover was mediated through depressive symptoms. Gender differences in cross-lagged paths were estimated with multiple-group analysis. All analyses were adjusted for age, education, labour market sector, civil status and children living at home, and conducted in MPLUS 7.

    Results: In both genders there were significant paths between work-personal life interference and turnover. Depressive symptoms were, however, not found to mediate in the relationship between work-personal life interference and turnover. The models differed significantly between genders.

    Conclusions: Establishing organisational prerequisites for good work-personal life balance among managers may be a means to retain both male and female managerial talent.

  • 13.
    Nyberg, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Peristera, Paraskevi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Hanson, Linda L. Magnusson
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Socio-economic predictors of depressive symptoms around old age retirement in Swedish women and men2019In: Aging & Mental Health, ISSN 1360-7863, E-ISSN 1364-6915, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 558-565Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To estimate trajectories of depression around old age retirement in Swedish women and men and examine if socio-economic status predicted the trajectoriesMethods: The analytic sample comprised 907 women and 806 men from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health. B-spline smoothers and group-based trajectory modelling were used to identify groups of individuals with similar trajectories of depressive symptoms around retirement. Multinomial regression analyses were conducted to investigate if socio-economic factors were associated with odds of belonging to trajectory groups with higher depression scores.Results: Four depressive symptoms trajectories were identified in both genders, all showing similar symptom levels across the retirement transition. Low levels of depressive symptoms were observed in the three largest groups. In the last trajectory group among women (2.5%) depression scores were moderate to severe and among men (3.3%) depression scores were persistent moderate. Higher educational level and lower subjectively rated social status were associated with higher odds of belonging to trajectory groups with higher levels of depressive symptoms in both genders. Conclusion: Retirement transition was not associated with symptoms of depression. Higher educational level and lower subjective social status may predict higher depressive symptom levels the years around old age retirement.

  • 14.
    Nyberg, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Peristera, Paraskevi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Johansson, Gunn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Does job promotion affect men's and women's health differently? Dynamic panel models with fixed effects2017In: International Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0300-5771, E-ISSN 1464-3685, Vol. 46, no 4, p. 1137-1146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Higher occupational status has consistently been shown to be associated with better health, but few studies have to date examined if an upward change in occupational status is associated with a positive change in health. Furthermore, very little is known about whether this association differs by sex. Methods: Data were derived from four waves (2008-14) of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH), a follow-up study of a nationally representative sample of the Swedish working population. The present study comprises 1410 men and 1926 women. A dynamic panel model with fixed effects was used to analyse the lagged association between job promotion on the one hand and self-rated health (SRH) and symptoms of depression on the other. This method allowed controlling for unobserved time-invariant confounders and determining the direction of causality between the variables. Multigroup comparisons were performed to investigate differences between the sexes. Results: The results showed that job promotion was associated with decreased subsequent SRH and increased symptoms of depression among both men and women. Women reported a larger relative worsening of self-rated health following a job promotion than men and men reported a larger relative worsening of depression symptoms. There was limited evidence that SRH and symptoms of depression were associated with subsequent job promotion. Conclusions: The present study indicates that a job promotion could lead to decreased SRH and increased symptoms of depression in a 2-4-year perspective. Associations appear to differ for women and men.

  • 15.
    Peristera, Paraskevi
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Ghilagaber, Gebrenegus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics.
    Another Look at the Relationship between Cohabitation and Marriage: The Use of Crude and Net Probabilities2017In: Bulletin of Sociological Methodology, ISSN 0759-1063, E-ISSN 2070-2779, Vol. 136, p. 66-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we propose an approach based on the theoretical relationship betweencrude and net probabilities of marriage in a competing-risk framework. Analyses basedon family dynamics among Swedish men born 1936-1964 show that the probabilities ofmarriage increase if cohabitation was eliminated (and that probabilities of cohabitationincrease if marriage was eliminated). Further, the gains in net probabilities increase at the prime ages of family formation (20-28) but are less significant at other ages. Such resultssupport (at least for the data at hand) the argument that informal cohabitation serves as aprelude to marriage rather than a permanent replacement to it.

  • 16.
    Peristera, Paraskevi
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Platts, Loretta G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    A comparison of the B-spline group-based trajectory model with the polynomial group-based trajectory model for identifying trajectories of depressive symptoms around old-age retirement2018In: Aging & Mental Health, ISSN 1360-7863, E-ISSN 1364-6915Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The life event of retirement may be associated with changes in levels of depressive symptoms. The use of polynomial group-based trajectory modelling allows any changes to vary between different groups in a sample. A new approach, estimating these models using B-splines rather than polynomials, may improve modelling of complex changes in depressive symptoms at retirement.

    Methods: The sample contained 1497 participants from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH). Polynomial and B-spline approaches to estimating group-based trajectory models were compared.

    Results: Polynomial group-based trajectory models produced unexpected changes in direction of trajectories unsupported by the data. In contrast, B-splines provided improved insights into trajectory shapes and more homogeneous groups. While retirement was associated with reductions in depressive symptoms in the sample as a whole, the nature of changes at retirement varied between groups.

    Conclusions: Depressive symptoms trajectories around old age retirement changed in complex ways that were modelled more accurately by the use of B-splines. We recommend estimation of group-based trajectory models with B-splines, particularly where abrupt changes might occur. Improved trajectory modelling may support research into risk factors and consequences of major depressive disorder, ultimately assisting with identification of groups which may benefit from treatment.

  • 17.
    Peristera, Paraskevi
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Paid and unpaid working hours among Swedish men and women in relation to depressive symptom trajectories: results from four waves of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health2018In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 8, no 6, article id e017525Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Long working hours and unpaid work are possible risk factors for depressive symptoms. However, little is known about how working hours influence the course of depressive symptoms. This study examined the influence of paid, unpaid working hours and total working hours on depressive symptoms trajectories.

    Methods The study was based on data from four waves of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH 2008–2014). We applied group-based trajectory modelling in order to identify trajectories of depressive symptoms and studied paid and unpaid working hours and total working hours as risk factors.

    Results Six trajectory groups were identified with symptoms: ‘very low stable’, ‘low stable’, ‘doubtful increasing’, ‘high decreasing’, ‘mild decreasing’ and ‘high stable’. More time spent on unpaid work was associated with the ‘low stable’ (OR 1.16, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.30) and the ‘high stable (OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.65) symptom trajectories compared with being in the ‘very low stable’ symptom group. In addition, more total working hours was associated with a higher probability of having ‘high decreasing’ (OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.14 to 1.48) and ‘high stable’ (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.47) symptoms, when adjusting for sex, age, civil status and socioeconomic status. The results, however, differed somewhat for men and women. More unpaid working hours was more clearly associated with higher symptom trajectories among women. More total working hours was associated with ‘high stable’ symptoms among women only.

    Conclusions This study supported heterogeneous individual patterns of depressive symptoms over time among the Swedish working population. The results also indicate that a higher burden of unpaid work and longer total working hours, which indicate a double burden from paid and unpaid work, may be associated with higher depressive symptom trajectories, especially among women.

  • 18.
    Åhlin, Julia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Peristera, Paraskevi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Psychosocial working characteristics before retirement and depressive symptoms across the retirement transition: a longitudinal latent class analysisManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Retirement is a major life transition. However, previous evidence on how it influences mental health is inconclusive. Whether retirement is desirable or not may depend on work characteristics. We aimed to investigate trajectories of depressive symptoms across retirement, and how a number of psychosocial working characteristics influence these trajectories.

    Methods:

    We included 1735 subjects in the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH), retiring in 2008-2016 (mean age 66 years). They had completed biennial questionnaires and reported job demands, job control, workplace social support, effort, reward, procedural justice as well as depressive symptoms. We applied group-based trajectory modeling to model trajectories of depressive symptoms across retirement. Multinomial logistic regression analyses estimated the associations between the psychosocial working characteristics and the depressive symptom trajectories.

    Results:

    We identified five depression trajectories, of which in four groups, depressive symptoms decreased slightly around retirement. For a small group, the symptom level was initially high, but then decreased markedly in relation to retirement. Perceptions of job demands, job strain, workplace social support, rewards, effort-reward imbalance and procedural justice were associated with the trajectories, while perceptions of job control and work effort were only related to some of the trajectories.

    Conclusion:

    We observed positive effects of retirement on depressive symptoms in a sample of Swedish retirees, with a small group showing a clear improvement. A relief from poor psychosocial working conditions seemed to be associated with a more significant improvement. However, poor working conditions were also associated with persistent symptoms suggesting a long-term effect.

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