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  • 1. Aarne, Päivikki
    et al.
    Almkvist, Ove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Risholm Mothander, Pia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Tallberg, Ing-Mari
    Parent-rated socio-emotional development in children with language impairment in comparison with typically developed children2014In: European Journal of Developmental Psychology, ISSN 1740-5629, E-ISSN 1740-5610, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 279-291Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Children with language impairment (LI) and children with typical development (TD) were assessed by their respective parents using The MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories (Swedish version SECDI) and Greenspan Socio Emotional Growth Chart (GSEGC). The aim was to investigate socio-emotional and language development in children with LI and TD with respect to possible differential patterns and relations between the groups. The results highlight a clear association between language and socio-emotional development. Children with LI were rated similar to young language-matched children with TD, but significantly lower relative to age-matched TD children, particularly concerning symbolic stages of development: the use of linguistic symbols as well as related areas such as symbol play and symbolic mental ability. The results are discussed in light of presumable background factors and possible consequences for children or sub-groups of children with LI.

  • 2. Brandtzaeg, Ida
    et al.
    Moe, Rigmor
    Risholm Mothander, Pia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hva kjennetegner de minste barna uten akse 1-diagnose i DC:0-3 systemet?2009In: Tidsskrift for Norsk Psykologforening, ISSN 0332-6470, Vol. 46, no 9, p. 850-856Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Characteristics of children with no Axis 1 diagnosis in the DC 0-3 system. This investigation forms part of a more extensive Norwegian study of the diagnostic system DC:0-3. 75 children aged 0-4 years participated in the investigation. Of these, 45 received an axis 1 diagnosis. Our aim was to establish whether children with and without a primary diagnosis differ in regard to age, gender, maternal age, living conditions, parents' educational status, relational difficulties and maternal depression. No significant differences were found between the groups. However, the investigation did find that mothers of children with no primary diagnosis displayed a significantly higher level of depression than mothers of children with a primary diagnosis. The authors discuss these results and the implications they might have for clinical practice.

  • 3. Broberg, Anders
    et al.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    Ivarsson, Tord
    Risholm Mothander, Pia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Anknytningsteori: Betydelsen av nära känslomässiga relationer2006Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    This book gives a broad picture of the development of the attachment theory and research related to attachment theory. It presents the links to evolutionary biology, ethology, systems theory as well as to psychoanalytic theory and cognitive psychology.

  • 4. Broberg, Anders
    et al.
    Risholm Mothander, Pia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    Ivarsson, Tord
    Anknytning i praktiken: Tillämpningar av anknytningsteorin2008Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    The book presents basic knowledge of attachment theory, research and clinical applications. It includes chapters of Infant Mental Health, parenting and family life, as well as descriptions of methods to assess attachment security in children, teenagers and adults. Further, it includes chapters on psychopathology and psychotherapy.

  • 5. Grette Moe, R.
    et al.
    Risholm Mothander, Pia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kartlegging og diagnostisering av vansker hos sped- og småbarn2010In: Håndbok i sped- og småbarns psykiske helse / [ed] Vibeke Moe, Kari Slinning, Marit Bergum Hansen, Oslo: Gyldendal , 2010, p. 610-635Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [no]

    For å øke vår forståelse av de symptomene på mistilpasning og emosjonelle problemer vi møter hos de yngste barna, har det lenge vært et behov for å utvikle spesielle kartleggingsverktøy og diagnostiske beskrivelser. Det diagnostiske kartleggingssystemet «Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood» (DC: 0–3) er utviklet spesielt for å fange opp problemer hos de minste barna, det vil si fra fødselen og opp til fireårsalderen, og gir en referanseramme for å kunne forstå og utveksle kunnskap om disse vanskene. I dette kapittelet ser vi på begrunnelsene for å ha et eget kartleggings- og diagnosesystem for de yngste barna. Vi går igjennom oppbyggingen av DC 0–3 R (revidert utgave kom i 2005) og tar for oss kartleggingsverktøy som vi mener bør brukes for å kvalitetssikre de diagnostiske vurderingene og de behandlingsplanene som legges ved hjelp av systemet. Kartleggings- og diagnostiseringsprosessen belyses ved et klinisk eksempel. Til slutt tar vi for oss noen erfaringer fra bruk av systemet.

  • 6. Havnesköld, Leif
    et al.
    Risholm Mothander, Pia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Utvecklingspsykologi2009 (ed. 3)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna nya och helt omarbetade upplaga av Utvecklingspsykologi redovisas aktuell teori och forskning inom modern utvecklingsteori. Boken belyser individens utveckling ur både ett psykodynamiskt och kognitivt synsätt. De kompletterande perspektiven befruktar varandra och tydliggör bilden av människans psykiska utveckling, för att visa hur de tidiga psykiska utvecklingsprocesserna påverkar individens beteende och utveckling under barndomen, från fostertiden fram till puberteten. Boken tar upp minne och informationsprocessande, intersubjektivitetsteori, självets utveckling, känslans psykologi, den emotionella hjärnan, anknytningsteori, mentaliseringsteori samt barnets utveckling från fostertiden till puberteten.

  • 7.
    Lilliengren, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Falkenström, Fredrik
    Sandell, Rolf
    Risholm Mothander, Pia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Werbart, Andrzej
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Secure attachment to therapist, alliance, and outcome in psychoanalytic psychotherapy with young adults2015In: Journal of counseling psychology, ISSN 0022-0167, E-ISSN 1939-2168, Vol. 62, no 1, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a novel approach to assess attachment to therapist from patient narratives (Patient Attachment to Therapist Rating Scale; PAT-RS), we investigated the relationships between secure attachment to therapist, patient-rated alliance, and outcome in a sample of 70 young adults treated with psychoanalytic psychotherapy. A series of linear mixed-effects models, controlling for length of therapy and therapist effects, indicated that secure attachment to therapist at termination was associated with improvement in symptoms, global functioning and interpersonal problems. After controlling for the alliance, these relationships were maintained in terms of symptoms and global functioning. Further, for the follow-up period, we found a suppression effect indicating that secure attachment to therapist predicted continued improvement in global functioning whereas the alliance predicted deterioration when both variables were modeled together. While limited by the correlational design, this study suggests that the development of a secure attachment to therapist is associated with treatment gains as well as predictive of post-treatment improvement in functioning. Future research should investigate the temporal development of attachment to therapist and its interaction with alliance and outcome more closely. To ensure differentiation from patient-rated alliance, observer-based measurement of attachment to therapist should be considered.

  • 8.
    Lilliengren, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Werbart, Andrzej
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Risholm Mothander, Pia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ekström, August
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sjögren, Susanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ögren, Marie-Louise
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Patient attachment to therapist rating scale: development and psychometric properties2014In: Psychotherapy Research, ISSN 1050-3307, E-ISSN 1468-4381, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 184-201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To report on the development and initial psychometric properties of a new rating scale for patent-therapist attachment. Method: Seventy interviews from the Young Adult Psychotherapy Project (YAPP) were rated. Results: Excellent internal consistency (Cronbach's > .90) was observed for all four subscales (Security, Deactivation, Hyperactivation, and Disorganization). Three subscales showed good inter-rater reliability (ICC > .60), while one (Hyperactivation) had poor (ICC < .40). Correlations with measures of alliance, mental representations, and symptom distress support the construct validity of the reliable subscales. Exploratory factor analysis indicated three underlying factors explaining 82% of the variance. Conclusions: The Patient Attachment to Therapist Rating Scale is a promising approach for assessing the quality of attachment to therapist from patient narratives. Future development should focus on improving the discrimination of the insecure subscales.

  • 9. Moe, Rigmor Grette
    et al.
    Mothander, Pia Risholm
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kartlegging av vansker hos sped- og småbarn2009In: Tidsskrift for Norsk Psykologforening, ISSN 0332-6470, Vol. 46, no 8, p. 749-756Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the results of a study where disorders were diagnosed using the Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and the Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood (DC: 0–3) at Nic Waals Institute (NWI), in Oslo, Norway. During a three-year period 138 children under four who were referred to a parent-infant clinic, and were assessed and independently classified using both the DC: 0–3 and the ICD-10 systems. Fifty nine per cent of the children received a DC 0–3, Axis I classification. Regulatory disorders, disorders of affect and traumatic stress disorders were the most common diagnoses. Forty eight per cent received a DC: 0–3 Axis II classification of relationship disorder and 27 % received classifications in both DC: 0–3 Axes I and II.

  • 10.
    Mothander, Pia Risholm
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Moe, Rigmor Grette
    Self-reported depressive symptoms and parental stress in mothers and fathers who bring their infants to an infant mental health clinic2010In: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 64, no 5, p. 310-316Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The parental functioning and its influence upon infant mental health development have been extensively studied but there are few clinical studies investigating less severe psychiatric problems among mothers and fathers in the same family. Aim: This study focuses on the emotional well-being of mothers' and fathers' who bring their infants to an Infant Mental Health Clinic. Methods: The studied sample is comprised of 63 families with 0-47-month-old infants where the mothers completed the Center for Epidemiological Study-Depression Scale (CES-D), including 43 families in which the CES-D was completed by both parents. In 44 families, the mothers also filled in the Swedish Parental Stress Questionnaire (SPSQ), including 32 where the SPSQ was completed by both parents. The children were independently classified with the Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood (DC 0-3). Results: Altogether, 54% of the mothers and 11% of the fathers reported depressive symptoms above the CES-D clinical cut-off. Self-rated depressive symptoms and parental stress were strongly related. The mothers' self-rated depressive symptoms were associated with the severity of their infant's problems, but the association was not specific to the DC 0-3 Axis I classification. The mothers' stress level was marginally related to DC 0-3 Axis II relationship classification. Conclusion: The results indicate that the inclusion of systematic parental self-ratings in infant mental health assessments could add clinical information facilitating the planning of family oriented interventions.

  • 11.
    Neander, Kerstin
    et al.
    Universitetssjukvårdens forskningscentrum, Region Örebro län.
    Risholm Mothander, Pia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Trygghetscirkeln för ett reflekterande föräldraskap: COS-P i Sverige - kunskapsspridning och prövning av ett psykoedukativt föräldraprogram2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektet avsåg att pröva ett anknytningsbaserat föräldrastödsprogram, Trygghetscirkeln (COS-P), vars mål är att hjälpa föräldrar att nå fördjupad förståelse för barns behov av känslomässigt stöd från sina föräldrar.

    Prövningen av Trygghetscirkeln som komplement till övrig behandling genomfördes på tre geografiskt spridda behandlingsenheter för familjer med små barn i Sverige. Efter gruppledarutbildning genomfördes en RCT-studie där 52 föräldrar i åldern 18-44 år (M=30 år) med barn under 58 månader (M=15 mån) randomiserades till att antingen få behandling enligt planerad form (TAU), n=24 föräldrar, eller få behandling plus ett tillskott av 8 ggr Trygghetscirkel i grupp (COS), n=28 föräldrar. Vid baslinjen (T1) fyllde föräldrarna i självskattningsformulär avseende nivå av egen ångest (STAI), grad av depressivitet (CES-D), grad av reflekterande förmåga (PRFQ) och nivå av föräldrastress (SPSQ). Föräldrarna fyllde vidare i en anknytningsdagbok (AD). En diagnostisk DC:0-3R profil sammanställdes utifrån journaldata, samspelet mellan förälder och barn bedömdes kvalitativt (EAS) och en semistrukturerad djupintervju om förälderns inre bild av sig själv och sitt barn (WMCI) värderades. Nya mätningar gjordes därefter vid sex månader (T2) och 12 månader (T3) efter baslinjemätningen, med undantag för AD, den diagnostiska profilen och djupintervjun som enbart gjordes vid T1 och T3. Efter genomförda föräldragrupper utvärderades Trygghetscirkeln med hjälp av särskilda frågeformulär riktade till föräldrar och till gruppledare. Som avslutning av projektet gjordes öppna intervjuer dels med personal på respektive behandlingsenhet och dels med ett bekvämlighetsurval av föräldrar.

    Resultaten gav vid handen att både behandlare och föräldrar var mycket nöjda med Trygghetscirkeln, som var stimulerande, gav en fördjupad kunskap och hjälpte föräldrarna i sin föräldraroll. I COS-gruppen förändrades samspelskvalitet och framför allt den inre bilden av föräldrarollen och av barnet signifikant mer än i TAU-gruppen. I hela gruppen uppmättes över tid sänkt föräldrastress, reduktion av stressfaktorer i omgivningen, bättre föräldra-barnrelation och mer åldersadekvat socioemotionell utvecklingsnivå hos barnen. Den skattade nivån av egen psykiska hälsa, eller självskattad reflekterande förmåga förbättrades emellertid inte i någon av grupperna. Vid uppföljningen våren 2015 visade det sig att Trygghetscirkeln integrerats som en väsentlig del i verksamheternas behandlingsutbud.

    Rapporten lyfter fram att genomsnittsåldern för barnen i den undersökta gruppen var låg, vilket ledde till en låg förekomst av individuella barnkliniska symtom. Problemen var i huvudsak koncentrerade till föräldrafunktionen. Föräldrarna hade i allmänhet en etablerad behandlingskontakt innan de bjöds in till studien vilket troligen medförde att upplevelsen av den egna psykiska hälsan redan hade stabiliserats. Däremot förändrades stress, samspelskvalitet och den inre bilden långsammare, med mätbara positiva förändringar först vid uppföljningen efter 12 månader. Denna förändring var mer tydlig hos COS-gruppen än hos TAU-gruppen.

    Slutsatsen är att Trygghetscirkeln är ett föräldraprogram som uppskattas stort av både föräldrar och gruppledare. Då Trygghetscirkeln syftar till ökad förståelse för hur det egna förhållningssättet påverkar föräldrabeteendet, aktualiseras förälderns egna hinder och svårigheter i mötet med materialet och gruppdiskussionerna. Detta stärker betydelsen av erfarna gruppledare och att det sammanhang inom vilket Trygghetscirkeln erbjuds får möjlighet att fungera som en trygg bas. Vi kan inte uttala oss om Trygghetscirkeln som en generellt preventiv insats till alla föräldrar men vill rekommendera den för riktade insatser till barn med identifierade risker för psykisk ohälsa eller utvecklingsavvikelser samt som komplement till annan behandling där större behov av barnkliniska insatser föreligger.

  • 12.
    Risholm Mothander, Pia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Behövs de barnpsykiatriska diagnoserna?2005In: Mellanrummet, Vol. 12, p. 49-61Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    The paper draws a line from the historical use of diagnoses in infant psychiatry to how diagnostic work can be used in an infant mental health setting today. A clinical procedure model and a classification system, Diagnostic Classification, DC:0-3, are introduced and discussed.

  • 13.
    Risholm Mothander, Pia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Förord till den andra utgåvan2010In: En trygg bas: kliniska tillämpningar av anknytningsteorin / [ed] John Bowlby, Stockholm: Natur och kultur, 2010, 2Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The foreword introduces central concepts of  attachment theory and discusses how the theory has developed during the 30 years since the first edition of the book was published. Three areas are focused; the changing family roles with fathers being more actively present in the life of their small children, the attachment relationship as an on-going relationship where mis-match and repair can strengthen the quality of the relationship and finally the acceptance of attachment theory both as a scientific and a clinical theory.

  • 14.
    Risholm Mothander, Pia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Förord till svenska upplagan.2005In: Ögonblickets psykologi: Om tid och förändring i psykoterapi och vardagsliv., Natur och Kultur, Stockholm , 2005Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    The foreword introduces the author D.N. Stern and discusses his new book in relation to earlier work. It focuses on how theory of intersubjectivity, based on infant research, can be of help in clinical and therapeutic work.

  • 15.
    Risholm Mothander, Pia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Utvecklingspsykologi2008In: Handbok i rättspsykologi, Liber Förlag, Stockholm , 2008Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    The chapter presents different aspects of child development. The discussion of nature and nurture is brought forward. Theories of cognitive and emotional development are presented. Applications of developmental theory in the pre-school and school environment is discussed as well as abuse, neglect and children in non-optimal environments.

  • 16.
    Risholm Mothander, Pia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Broberg, Anders
    Psykologiska institutionen, Göteborgs universitet.
    Små barns behov av en långsiktig trygg bas: En barnpsykologisk kunskapsöversikt2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta kunskapsunderlag handlar om de yngsta barnens behov i de situationer där brister i deras omvårdnad kräver särskild samhällelig uppmärksamhet. Rapporten inleds med en genomgång av anknytningsteorin. Denna används som en utvecklingspsykologisk referensram för att beskriva barns känslomässiga utveckling med speciellt fokus på de anknytningsrelationer som skapas under de första tre till fyra levnadsåren. Människobarnet är vid födseln fysiskt och psykiskt beroende av den vuxne för sin överlevnad och den eller de föräldrapersoner som regelbundet tar hand om barnet kommer genom sin omvårdnad att bli barnets anknytningsperson/er och påverka barnets psykosociala utveckling, både på kort och på lång sikt.

  • 17.
    Risholm Mothander, Pia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Furmark, Catarina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Neander, Kerstin
    Adding Circle of Security - Parenting to treatment as usual in three Swedish infant mental health clinics. Effects on parents' internal representations and quality of parent-infant interaction2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 59, no 3, p. 262-272Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents effects of adding Circle of Security-Parenting (COS-P) to an already established comprehensive therapeutic model for early parent-child intervention in three Swedish infant mental health (IMH) clinics. Parents' internal representations and quality of parent-infant interaction were studied in a clinical sample comprised of 52 parent-infant dyads randomly allocated to two comparable groups. One group consisted of 28 dyads receiving treatment as usual (TAU) supplemented with COS-P in a small group format, and another group of 24 dyads receiving TAU only. Assessments were made at baseline (T1), 6 months after inclusion (T2) and 12 months after inclusion (T3). Changes over time were explored in 42 dyads. In the COS-P group, the proportion of balanced representations, as assessed with Working Model of the Child Interview (WMCI), significantly increased between T1 and T3. Further, the proportion of emotionally available interactions, as assessed with Emotional Availability scales (EA), significantly increased over time in the COS-P group. Improvements in the TAU-group were close to significant. Limitations of the study are mainly related to the small sample size. Strength is the real world character of the study, where COS-P was implemented in a clinical context not otherwise adapted to research. We conclude by discussing the value of supplementing TAU with COS-P in IMH treatment.

  • 18.
    Risholm Mothander, Pia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Grette Moe, Rigmor
    Infant Mental Health Assessment: The use of DC 0-3 in an outpatient child psychiatric clinic in Scandinavia2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 49, no 3, p. 259-267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study focuses on Infant Mental Health data from an outpatient psychiatric clinic using the “Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood” (DC 0-3) and parental questionnaires, CBCL and ITSC. In total, 138 infants (aged 0–3) went through the diagnostic procedure. Sixty-eight per cent were diagnosed within Axis I, with regulatory disorder, disorder of affect and traumatic stress disorder being the most frequent diagnoses. In addition, 48% were classified as having a relationship disorder according to Axis II, with an additional 40% being considered to be at risk of developing a relationship disorder. The mothers’ and fathers’ ratings of their children’s externalized and sensitivity problems were in agreement with the clinicians, but the ratings of internalized problems as well as relationship problems presented a more complex pattern.

  • 19.
    Risholm Mothander, Pia M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Diagnostic classification of mental health and developmental disorders of infancy and early childhood (DC:0-5): Implementation considerations and clinical remarks2016In: Infant Mental Health Journal, ISSN 0163-9641, E-ISSN 1097-0355, Vol. 37, no 5, p. 523-524Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood (DC: 0–3) gave infant mental health specialists a tool to describe behavioral symptoms during infancy, earlier often ignored as minor or transient baby problems. In a new form, called the DC: 0–5, the tool now aims to describe mental health problems during the first 6 years of life. In my commentary, I discuss some implications of the proposed changes.

  • 20.
    Risholm Mothander, Pia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Neander, Kerstin
    Trygghetscirkeln som stöd till späd- och småbarnsfamiljer - användbarhet och effekter2017In: Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, Vol. 94, no 4, p. 426-436Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Artikeln bygger på data hämtade från en svensk effektstudie av Trygghetscirkeln. Utvärderingar gjorda av gruppledare och 25 föräldrar presenteras tillsammans med förändringar av föräldrars inre representationer av barnet samt samspelskvalitet i föräldra-barnparet före och efter interventionen. Bedömningarna gjordes med Working Model of the Child Interview (WMCI) and Emotional Available (EA) scales. Gruppledare och föräldrar var enhälligt positiva till Trygghetscirkelns teori, begrepp och upplägg. Gruppledarna uttryckte att metoden underlättade föräldrarnas delaktighet i behandlingen, men betonade att uppväckta känslor måste ges utrymme för bearbetning mellan sessionerna. Uppföljningen visade att 10 föräldrars inre representation förändrats till balanserad och att 13 föräldra-barnpar förbättrat sin samspelskvalitet efter interventionen. Resultaten lyfter fram Trygghetscirkelns värde som komplement till sedvanlig behandling för familjer med späda och små barn.

  • 21.
    Risholm Mothander, Pia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wang, Mo
    Parental Rearing, Attachment, and Social Anxiety in Chinese Adolescents2014In: Youth & society, ISSN 0044-118X, E-ISSN 1552-8499, Vol. 46, no 2, p. 155-175Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This cross-sectional study investigated associations between perceived parental rearing, attachment, and social anxiety. 510 Chinese middle school students, aged 12 to 20 years, completed a set of questionnaires including “Egna Minnen Beträffande Uppfostran” for Children (EMBU-C), Inventory for Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA) and Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (SAS-A). The results showed that intercorrelations between adolescents’ rated attachment to parents were stronger than betweenparental and peer attachment. Girls scored higher on attachment to mother and peer than boys. Lack of parental rejection and presence of emotional warmth were strongly related to parental attachment. The rated level of total anxiety was not related to gender or age, but it was lower than what has earlier been reported from China. Perceived rejection from fathers and mothers’ as well as attachment to peer and mother acted as predictors; together they explained 19% of the variance in social anxiety.

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