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  • 1.
    Bradshaw, Clare
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Meseh, Dina A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Alasawi, Hiba
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Qiang, Ma
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Snoeijs-Leijonmalm, Pauline
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Nascimento, Francisco J. A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Joint effects of gamma radiation and cadmium on subcellular-, individual-and population-level endpoints of the green microalga Raphidocelis subcapitata2019In: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 211, p. 217-226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interpreting and predicting the combined effects of toxicants in the environment is an important challenge in ecotoxicology. How such effects are connected across different levels of biological organisation is an additional matter of uncertainty. Such knowledge gaps are particularly prominent with regards to how ionising radiation interacts with contaminants. We assessed the response of twelve endpoints at the subcellular, individual and population level in a green microalga when exposed singly and jointly to gamma radiation and cadmium (Cd). We used a fully factorial experimental design where observed effects were compared to those predicted by the Independent Action (IA) model for mixture toxicity to determine whether they deviated from additivity. Subcellular endpoints (e.g., catalase, thiamine diphosphate, xanthophyll cycle pigments) showed an increased antioxidant and/or photoprotective response. However, our results indicate that this protection was not sufficient to prevent lipid peroxidation, which also increased with dose. At ecologically relevant doses, most interactions between gamma radiation and Cd regarding subcellular-, individual- and population-level endpoints were additive as predicted by the IA model. However, exposure to binary mixtures displayed antagonistic interactions between gamma radiation and Cd at the higher end of the tested dose spectrum. No correlations were observed between subcellular endpoints and higher-level endpoints, but there were linkages between individual and population endpoints. Our results suggest that antagonistic interactions between gamma radiation and Cd can occur at higher doses and that these interactions seem to disseminate from subcellular and individual to population level. Possible consequences for aquatic primary production and food-web interactions are discussed.

  • 2.
    Diez, Beatriz
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Bergman, Birgitta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Pedros-Alio, Carlos
    Anto, Meritxell
    Snoeijs, Pauline
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    High cyanobacterial nifh gene diversity in arctic seawater and sea ice brine2012In: Environmental Microbiology Reports, ISSN 1758-2229, E-ISSN 1758-2229, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 360-366Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although cyanobacterial diazotrophs are common in Arctic terrestrial and freshwater habitats, they have been assumed to be absent from Arctic marine habitats. We report here a high diversity of cyanobacterial nifH genes in Fram Strait and the Greenland Sea. The nifH gene encodes the iron protein of the nitrogenase enzyme complex, which is essential for biological N2 fixation. Using primers specific for nifH genes we uncovered communities of autotrophic and heterotrophic bacteria in sea ice brine and seawater between latitudes 65 and 81 degrees N. Cyanobacteria (Oscillatoriales and Chroococcales) with known marine planktonic and benthic distributions were distinguished, alongside a mix of metabolically versatile eubacteria (nifH Clusters I and III). Using primers selective for cyanobacterial nifH genes we identified filamentous non-heterocystous Trichodesmium-like and LPP (Leptolyngbya, Phormidium and Plectonema)-like Oscillatoriales, as well as Cyanothece-like Chroococcales in a brine sample from 81 degrees N. The occurrence of Trichodesmium-like cyanobacteria was further confirmed by sequences of the hetR gene of Trichodesmium. Microscopic examinations confirmed the presence of viable filamentous and unicellular cyanobacteria. Our results reveal the potential for microbial N2 fixation in the Arctic seas. However, it is still left to determine if these genes are also metabolically active before any biogeochemical importance of diazotrophy in the polar oceans can be assessed.

  • 3.
    Diez, Beatriz
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. Pontificia Univ Catolica Chile, Fac Biol Sci, Dept Mol Genet & Microbiol, Santiago 6513677, Chile.
    Van Nieuwerburgh, Lies
    Snoeijs, Pauline
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Water nutrient stoichiometry modifies the nutritional quality of phytoplankton and somatic growth of crustacean mesozooplankton2013In: Marine Ecology Progress Series, ISSN 0171-8630, E-ISSN 1616-1599, Vol. 489, p. 93-+Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here, we investigated how changes in water nutrient stoichiometry may change the nutritional quality of phytoplankton for mesozooplankton. For 6 d, we added nutrients to nine 1300 l mesocosms with natural summer phytoplankton from the Baltic Sea to create communities that were N-limited (P-treatment), Si-limited (PN-treatment) and not limited by nutients (PNSi-treatment). With the addition of P, no major changes occurred in phytoplankton biomass or species composition with time. With the addition of P and N, with or without excess of Si, C: N ratios approached the Redfield ratio, biomass increased and diatoms and dinoflagellates became dominant. Analysis of the 18S rRNA gene showed that the availability and diversity of phytoplankton other than diatoms and dinoflagellates, like prasinophytes or heterotrophic flagellates and ciliates, were not affected by the nutrient treatments. We then tested how the modified phytoplankton communities affected somatic growth in a natural mesozooplankton community dominated by the copepod genus Acartia. After 6 d of grazing, the zooplankton more than doubled their C content per individual when grazing on the Si-limited phytoplankton (PN-treatment) while total community biomass was maintained. In the other 2 treatments, the C content per individual remained the same and total community biomass decreased by ca. 60%, which suggests that the zooplankton was not optimally fed. Thus, a phytoplankton community with stoichiometry close to the Redfield ratio provided the best nutritional quality for the zooplankton, but not when the diatoms were Si saturated. This study shows that nutrient stoichiometry in the seawater can affect zooplankton growth by modification of the phytoplankton community. It also shows that the food quality of phytoplankton does not depend only on the taxonomic composition, but also on the nutrient stoichiometry.

  • 4. Elliott, Michael
    et al.
    Snoeijs-Leijonmalm, Pauline
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Barnard, Steve
    ‘The dissemination diamond’ and paradoxes of science-to-science and science-to-policy communication: Lessons from large marine research programmes2017In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 125, no 1-2, p. 1-3Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5. Fernández-Gómez, Beatriz
    et al.
    Díez, Beatriz
    Polz, Martin F.
    Ignacio Arroyo, José
    Alfaro, Fernando D.
    Marchandon, Germán
    Sanhueza, Cynthia
    Farías, Laura
    Trefault, Nicole
    Marquet, Pablo A.
    Molina-Montenegro, Marco A.
    Sylvander, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Snoeijs-Leijonmalm, Pauline
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Bacterial community structure in a sympagic habitat expanding with global warming: brackish ice brine at 85-90 degrees N2019In: The ISME Journal, ISSN 1751-7362, E-ISSN 1751-7370, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 316-333Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Larger volumes of sea ice have been thawing in the Central Arctic Ocean (CAO) during the last decades than during the past 800,000 years. Brackish brine (fed by meltwater inside the ice) is an expanding sympagic habitat in summer all over the CAO. We report for the first time the structure of bacterial communities in this brine. They are composed of psychrophilic extremophiles, many of them related to phylotypes known from Arctic and Antarctic regions. Community structure displayed strong habitat segregation between brackish ice brine (IB; salinity 2.4-9.6) and immediate sub-ice seawater (SW; salinity 33.3-34.9), expressed at all taxonomic levels (class to genus), by dominant phylotypes as well as by the rare biosphere, and with specialists dominating IB and generalists SW. The dominant phylotypes in IB were related to Candidatus Aquiluna and Flavobacterium, those in SW to Balneatrix and ZD0405, and those shared between the habitats to Halomonas, Polaribacter and Shewanella. A meta-analysis for the oligotrophic CAO showed a pattern with Flavobacteriia dominating in melt ponds, Flavobacteriia and Gammaproteobacteria in solid ice cores, Flavobacteriia, Gamma- and Betaproteobacteria, and Actinobacteria in brine, and Alphaproteobacteria in SW. Based on our results, we expect that the roles of Actinobacteria and Betaproteobacteria in the CAO will increase with global warming owing to the increased production of meltwater in summer. IB contained three times more phylotypes than SW and may act as an insurance reservoir for bacterial diversity that can act as a recruitment base when environmental conditions change.

  • 6. Haubner, Norbert
    et al.
    Sylvander, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Vuori, Kristiina
    Snoeijs, Pauline
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    ABIOTIC STRESS MODIFIES THE SYNTHESIS OF ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL AND BETA-CAROTENE IN PHYTOPLANKTON SPECIES2014In: Journal of Phycology, ISSN 0022-3646, E-ISSN 1529-8817, Vol. 50, no 4, p. 753-759Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We performed laboratory experiments to investi-gate whether the synthesis of the antioxidants -tocopherol (vitamin E) and -carotene in phytoplankton depends on changes in abiotic factors. Cultures of Nodularia spumigena, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Skeletonema costatum, Dunaliella tertiolecta, Prorocentrum cordatum, and Rhodomonas salina were incubated at different tempe-ratures, photon flux densities and salinities for 48h. We found that abiotic stress, within natural ecological ranges, affects the synthesis of the two antioxidants in different ways in different species. In most cases antioxidant production was stimulated by increased abiotic stress. In P.tricornutumKAC 37 and D.tertiolectaSCCAP K-0591, both good producers of this compound, -tocopherol accumulation was negatively affected by environmentally induced higher photosystem II efficiency (F-v/F-m). On the other hand, -carotene accumulation was positively affected by higher F-v/F-m in N.spumigena KAC 7, P.tricornutum KAC 37, D.tertiolecta SCCAP K-0591 and R.salina SCCAP K-0294. These different patterns in the synthesis of the two compounds may be explained by their different locations and functions in the cell. While -tocopherol is heavily involved in the protection of prevention of lipid peroxidation in membranes, -carotene performs immediate photo-oxidative protection in the antennae complex of photosystem II. Overall, our results suggest a high variability in the antioxidant pool of natural aquatic ecosystems, which can be subject to short-term temperature, photon flux density and salinity fluctuations. The antioxidant levels in natural phytoplankton communities depend on species composition, the physiological condition of the species, and their respective strategies to deal with reactive oxygen species. Since -tocopherol and -carotene, as well as many other nonenzymatic antioxidants, are exclusively produced by photo-synthetic organisms, and are required by higher trophic levels through dietary intake, regime shifts in the phytoplankton as a result of large-scale environmental changes, such as climate change, may have serious consequences for aquatic food webs.

  • 7. Hillebrand, Helmut
    et al.
    Soininen, Janne
    Snoeijs, Pauline
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Warming leads to higher species turnover in a coastal ecosystem2010In: Global Change Biology, ISSN 1354-1013, E-ISSN 1365-2486, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 1181-1193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The responses of ecological communities and ecosystems to increased rates of environmental change will be strongly influenced by variation in the diversity of community composition. Yet, our understanding of how diversity is affected by rising temperatures is inconclusive and mainly based on indirect evidence or short-term experiments. In our study, we analyse the diversity and species turnover of benthic epilithic communities within the thermal flume of a nuclear power plant at the Swedish coast. This flume covers the range of predicted future temperature rises. Species composition was significantly different between control sites and sites with higher temperatures. We found that temperature had little effect on the number of species in three functional groups (macroinvertebrates, benthic diatoms, and macrophytes, which here comprise multicellular algae and macroscopic colonies of unicellular algae and cyanobacteria), neither at single sampling dates nor summed for the entire observation year. However, species turnover significantly increased with increasing temperature for diatoms, macrophytes and invertebrates. Different temperature regimes resulted in significantly different species composition and indicator species. Thus, increasing temperatures in the thermal flume increased temporal beta-diversity and decreased compositional stability of communities, although observed richness did not change at any point in time. We highlight the need to investigate the consequences of such declines in compositional stability for functional stability of ecosystem processes.

  • 8. Hylander, Samuel
    et al.
    Kiørboe, Thomas
    Snoeijs, Pauline
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Sommaruga, Ruben
    Nielsen, Torkel Gissel
    Concentrations of sunscreens and antioxidant pigments in Arctic Calanus spp. in relation to ice cover, ultraviolet radiation, and the phytoplankton spring bloom2015In: Limnology and Oceanography, ISSN 0024-3590, E-ISSN 1939-5590, Vol. 60, no 6, p. 2197-2206Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Arctic zooplankton ascend to shallow depths during spring to graze on the yearly occurring phytoplankton bloom. However, in surface waters they are exposed to detrimental ultraviolet radiation (UVR) levels. Here, we quantified concentrations of substances known to have UVR-protective functions, namely mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) and the carotenoid astaxanthin, from March to May in Calanus finmarchicus, Calanus glacialis and Calanus hyperboreus. Ice cover was 100% in the beginning of March, started to break up during April and was gone by the end of May. UVR-exposure in the water column was tightly linked to the ice conditions and water UVR-transparency was up to 6 m (depth where 1% radiation remains). Concentrations of MAAs in C. finmarchicus and C. glacialis increased sharply during ice break-up and peaked concurrently with maximum chlorophyll a (Chl a) levels. MAA-concentrations in C. hyperboreus increased later in accordance with its later arrival to the surface. The concentration of astaxanthin increased in all three species over time but there was no synchrony with ice conditions or the phytoplankton bloom. Even though only the upper 6 m of the water column was affected by UV-radiation, MAAs in the copepods were tightly correlated to the UV-threat. Hence, changes in ice cover are projected to have a large impact on the UVR-exposure of zooplankton emphasizing the importance of the timing of zooplankton ascent from deep waters in relation to the phytoplankton bloom and the ice break-up.

  • 9. Hylander, Samuel
    et al.
    Sylvander, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Gonçalves, Rodrigo
    Kiørboe, Thomas
    Snoeijs, Pauline
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Oxidative stress and food quality regulate astaxanthin and thiamine dynamics in the copepod Temora longicornisManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Kautsky, Hans
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Martin, Georg
    Snoeijs-Leijonmalm, Pauline
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    The phytobenthic zone2017In: Biological Oceanography of the Baltic Sea / [ed] Pauline Snoeijs-Leijonmalm, Hendrik Schubert, Teresa Radziejewska, Dordrecht: Springer, 2017, p. 387-455Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Phytobenthic communities consist of macrophytes (macroalgae, vascular plants andmosses) with their accompanying fauna and microorganisms.

    2. The phytobenthic communities occur in the photic zone, which in the Baltic Sea extendsfrom the water surface down to a*20 m water depth, but in turbid coastal waters onlydown to*5m.

    3. The type of vegetation is determined by the available substrate, which is a result ofgeography and geology in combination with currents. Most macroalgae grow attachedto hard substrates whereas vascular plants and charophytes grow on sandy or soft (siltand mud) substrates.

    4. Generally, the coastal areas of the Baltic Sea consist of mixed substrates with anintermingled vegetation of vascular plants and algae. In the northern Baltic Sea hardsubstrates dominate in the outer archipelagos, and in the southeastern Baltic Sea sandyand muddy substrates dominate.

    5. Luxuriant stands of macrophytes provide food, shelter and spawning habitats for theassociated sessile and mobile micro-, meio- and macrofauna, includingfish.

    6. On an ecosystem-wide scale, the phytobenthic communities vary along the large-scaleBaltic Sea gradient. Biomass decreases with lower salinity and colder climate, while theproportion of freshwater species increases.

    7. On a local scale, the phytobenthic communities are mainly, directly or indirectly, shapedby water movement (e.g.by the occurrence of sandy beaches and rocky shores) andwinter ice cover. Light and substrate availability give rise to typical depth zonationpatterns, ending with soft-substrate communities deepest down.

    8. On a small scale (patches), phytobenthic community structure and composition isinfluenced by microhabitat structure and biotic interactions.

    9. The phytobenthic communities in the brackish Baltic Sea are more sensitive to dis-turbance than their marine counterparts due to low diversity, physiological stress and theloss of sexual reproduction when species approach their salinity limit.

  • 11. Liu, Bin-yang
    et al.
    Nie, Xiang-ping
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Liu, Wei-qiu
    Snoeijs, Pauline
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Guan, Chao
    Tsui, Martin T. K.
    Toxic effects of erythromycin, ciprofloxacin and sulfamethoxazole on photosynthetic apparatus in Selenastrum capricornutum2011In: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, ISSN 0147-6513, E-ISSN 1090-2414, Vol. 74, no 4, p. 1027-1035Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of three antibiotics (erythromycin, ciprofloxacin and sulfamethoxazole) on photosynthesis process of Selenastrum capricornutum were investigated by determining a battery of parameters including photosynthetic rate, chlorophyll fluorescence, Hill reaction, and ribulose-1.5-bisphosphate carboxylase activity, etc. The results indicated that three antibiotics could significantly inhibit the physiological progress including primary photochemistry, electron transport, photophosphorylation and carbon assimilation. Erythromycin could induce acute toxic effects at the concentration of 0.06 mg L(-1) while the same results were exhibited for ciprofloxacin and sulfamethoxazole at higher than 1.0 mg L(-1). Erythromycin was considerably more toxic than ciprofloxacin and sulfamethoxazole and may pose a higher potential risk to the aquatic ecosystem. Some indices like chlorophyll fluorescence, Mg(2+)-ATPase activity and RuBPCase activity showed a high specificity and sensitivity to the exposure of erythromycin, and may be potentially used as candidate biomarkers for the exposure of the macrolide antibiotics.

  • 12.
    Nie, Xiang-Ping
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Zie, Jenny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Haeubner, Norbert
    Tallmark, Bo
    Snoeijs, Pauline
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Why Baltic herring and sprat are weak conduits for astaxanthin from zooplankton to piscivorous fish2011In: Limnology and Oceanography, ISSN 0024-3590, E-ISSN 1939-5590, Vol. 56, no 3, p. 1155-1167Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Atlantic salmon living in the brackish Baltic Sea have lower muscle pigmentation than populations elsewhere. The pigment in question is the antioxidant and vitamin A precursor astaxanthin, which is synthesized by crustaceans from algal carotenoids. Baltic salmon feed nearly exclusively on the clupeids sprat and herring. To evaluate astaxanthin availability to salmon we assessed astaxanthin levels and isomeric composition in their prey fish. We also analyzed astaxanthin dynamics in the dominant piscivorous fish in the Baltic Sea, the Atlantic cod. The geometrical E-(trans-) and Z-(cis-) isomers were distributed selectively in fish tissues, with highest E : Z ratios in salmon gonads (82 : 18) and lowest in herring gonads (24 : 76). Sprat and herring are not ideal prey with respect to their high whole-body concentrations of Z-isomers, which have low bioavailability for salmon and cod. These Z-isomers predominantly accumulate in the clupeid gonads. A crucial mechanism for the transport of astaxanthin from clupeids to piscivores is the direct transfer of crustacean astaxanthin (mainly all-E) from the clupeid stomachs. Low stomach astaxanthin content in clupeids decreases total astaxanthin transfer to higher trophic levels. In autumn, herring stomachs (including contents) had 12.5 times lower astaxanthin concentrations than sprat stomachs, and herring had 2.8 times less whole-body all-E-astaxanthin (by weight) than sprat. These results confirm recent reports of starvation in the Baltic herring, which may further decrease astaxanthin levels in the Baltic salmon. Cod did not have lower astaxanthin levels than their Atlantic counterpart, which may be attributed to their lower need for astaxanthin and higher food diversity.

  • 13.
    Snoeijs, Pauli
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Weckström, K
    Diatoms and environmental change in large brackish-water ecosystems2010In: The Diatoms:  Applications for the Environmental and Earth Sciences / [ed] Smol JP, Stoermer EF, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press , 2010Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Snoeijs-Leijonmalm, Pauline
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Patterns of biodiversity2017In: Biological Oceanography of the Baltic Sea / [ed] Pauline Snoeijs-Leijonmalm, Hendrik Schubert, Teresa Radziejewska, Dordrecht: Springer, 2017, p. 123-191Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Snoeijs-Leijonmalm, Pauline
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Andrén, Elinor
    Why is the Baltic Sea so special to live in?2017In: Biological Oceanography of the Baltic Sea / [ed] Pauline Snoeijs-Leijonmalm, Hendrik Schubert, Teresa Radziejewska, Dordrecht: Springer, 2017, p. 23-84Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Snoeijs-Leijonmalm, Pauline
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Barnard, Steve
    Elliott, Michael
    Andrusaitis, Andris
    Kononen, Kaisa
    Sirola, Maija
    Towards better integration of environmental science in society: Lessons from BONUS, the joint Baltic Sea environmental research and development programme2017In: Environmental Science and Policy, ISSN 1462-9011, E-ISSN 1873-6416, Vol. 78, p. 193-209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Integration of environmental science in society is impeded by the large gap between science and policy that is characterised by weaknesses in societal relevance and dissemination of science and its practical implementation in policy. We analyse experiences from BONUS, the policy-driven joint Baltic Sea research and development programme (2007-2020), which is part of the European Research Area (ERA) and involves combined research funding by eight EU member states. The ERA process decreased fragmentation of Baltic Sea science and BONUS funding increased the scientific quality and societal relevance of Baltic Sea science and strengthened the science policy interface. Acknowledging the different drivers for science producers (academic career, need for funding, peer review) and science users (fast results fitting policy windows), and realising, that most scientists aim at building conceptual understanding rather than instrumental use, bridges can be built through strategic planning, coordination and integration. This requires strong programme governance stretching far beyond selecting projects for funding, such as coaching, facilitating the sharing of infrastructure and data and iterative networking within and between science producer and user groups in all programme phases. Instruments of critical importance for successful science-society integration were identified as: (1) coordinating a strategic research agenda with strong inputs from science, policy and management, (2) providing platforms where science and policy can meet, (3) requiring cooperation between scientists to decrease fragmentation, increase quality, clarify uncertainties and increase consensus about environmental problems, (4) encouraging and supporting scientists in disseminating their results through audience-tailored channels, and (5) funding not only primary research but also synthesis projects that evaluate the scientific findings and their practical use in society - in close cooperation with science users - to enhance relevance, credibility and legitimacy of environmental science and expand its practical implementation.

  • 17.
    Snoeijs-Leijonmalm, Pauline
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Schubert, HendrikRadziejewska, Teresa
    Biological Oceanography of the Baltic Sea2017Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This is the first comprehensive science-based textbook on the biology and ecology of the Baltic Sea, one of the world’s largest brackish water bodies. The aim of this book is to provide students and other readers with knowledge about the conditions for life in brackish water, the functioning of the Baltic Sea ecosystem and its environmental problems and management. It highlights biological variation along the unique environmental gradients of the brackish Baltic Sea Area (the Baltic Sea, Belt Sea and Kattegat), especially those in salinity and climate.

    The first part of the book presents the challenges for life processes and ecosystem dynamics that result from the Baltic Sea’s highly variable recent geological history and geographical isolation. The second part explains interactions between organisms and their environment, including biogeochemical cycles, patterns of biodiversity, genetic diversity and evolution, biological invasions and physiological adaptations. In the third part, the subsystems of the Baltic Sea ecosystem – the pelagic zone, the sea ice, the deep soft sea beds, the phytobenthic zone, the sandy coasts, and estuaries and coastal lagoons – are treated in detail with respect to the structure and function of communities and habitats and consequences of natural and anthropogenic constraints, such as climate change, discharges of nutrients and hazardous substances. Finally, the fourth part of the book discusses monitoring and ecosystem-based management to deal with contemporary and emerging threats to the ecosystem’s health.

  • 18.
    Svensson, Filip
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Karlsson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Gårdmark, Anna
    Olsson, Jens
    Adill, Anders
    Zie, Jenny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Snoeijs, Pauline
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Eklöf, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    In situ warming increases top-down control in a coastal food webManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Svensson, Filip
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. Institute of Coastal Research, Sweden.
    Gårdmark, Anna
    Olsson, Jens
    Adill, Anders
    Zie, Jenny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Snoeijs-Leijonmalm, Pauline
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Eklöf, Johan S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    In situ warming strengthens trophic cascades in a coastal food web2017In: Oikos, ISSN 0030-1299, E-ISSN 1600-0706, Vol. 126, no 8, p. 1150-1161Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Global warming may affect most organisms and their interactions. Theory and simple mesocosm experiments suggest that consumer top-down control over primary producer biomass should strengthen with warming, since consumer respiration increases faster with warming than plant photosynthesis. However, these predictions have so far not been tested on natural communities that have experienced warming over many generations. Natural systems display a higher diversity, heterogeneity and complexity than mesocosms, which could alter predicted effects of warming. Here we used an artificially heated part of the northern Baltic Sea (the Forsmark Biotest basin) to test how warming influences trophic interactions in a shallow coastal food web with four trophic levels: omnivorous fish, invertivorous fish, herbivorous invertebrates, and filamentous macroalgae. Monitoring of fish assemblages over six years showed that small invertivorous fish (gobiids, sticklebacks and minnows) were much less abundant in the heated basin than in unheated references areas. Stomach content analyses of the dominating omnivorous fish - Eurasian perch Perca fluviatilis - revealed a strikingly different diet within and outside the Biotest basin; gammarid crustaceans were the dominating prey at heated sites, whereas invertivorous fish (e.g. gobiids) dominated at unheated sites. A 45-day cage experiment showed that fish exclusion did not affect the biomass of algal herbivores (gastropods and gammarids), but reduced algal biomass in heated sites (but not unheated). This suggests that warming induced a trophic cascade from fish to algae, and that this effect was mediated by predator-induced changes in herbivore behavior, rather than number. Overall, our study suggests that warming has effectively compressed the food chain from four to three trophic levels (algae, gammarids and perch), which have benefitted the primary producers by reducing grazing pressure. Consequently, warming appears to have restructured this coastal food web through a combination of direct (physiological) and indirect (species interactions) effects.

  • 20.
    Svensson, Filip
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Norberg, Jon
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Snoeijs, Pauline
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Diatom Cell Size, Coloniality and Motility: Trade-Offs between Temperature, Salinity and Nutrient Supply with Climate Change2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 10, article id e109993Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reduction in body size has been proposed as a universal response of organisms, both to warming and to decreased salinity. However, it is still controversial if size reduction is caused by temperature or salinity on their own, or if other factors interfere as well. We used natural benthic diatom communities to explore how body size'' (cells and colonies) and motility change along temperature (2-26 degrees C) and salinity (0.5-7.8) gradients in the brackish Baltic Sea. Fourth-corner analysis confirmed that small cell and colony sizes were associated with high temperature in summer. Average community cell volume decreased linearly with 2.2% per degrees C. However, cells were larger with artificial warming when nutrient concentrations were high in the cold season. Average community cell volume increased by 5.2% per degrees C of artificial warming from 0 to 8.5 degrees C and simultaneously there was a selection for motility, which probably helped to optimize growth rates by trade-offs between nutrient supply and irradiation. Along the Baltic Sea salinity gradient cell size decreased with decreasing salinity, apparently mediated by nutrient stoichiometry. Altogether, our results suggest that climate change in this century may polarize seasonality by creating two new niches, with elevated temperature at high nutrient concentrations in the cold season (increasing cell size) and elevated temperature at low nutrient concentrations in the warm season (decreasing cell size). Higher temperature in summer and lower salinity by increased land-runoff are expected to decrease the average cell size of primary producers, which is likely to affect the transfer of energy to higher trophic levels.

  • 21.
    Svensson, Filip
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Zie, Jenny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Snoeijs, Pauline
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Warming decreases sensitivity of epilithic algal communities to nutrient and copper additionsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Svensson, Filip
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Zie, Jenny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Snoeijs, Pauline
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Warming increases photosynthetic activity in a shallow coastal ecosystem dominated by Cladophora glomerata (L.) KützingManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Sylvander, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Häubner, Norbert
    Snoeijs, Pauline
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    The thiamine content of phytoplankton cells is affected by abiotic stress and growth rate2013In: Microbial Ecology, ISSN 0095-3628, E-ISSN 1432-184X, Vol. 65, no 3, p. 566-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thiamine (vitamin B1) is produced by many plants, algae and bacteria, but by higher trophic levels, it must be acquired through the diet. We experimentally investigated how the thiamine content of six phytoplankton species belonging to five different phyla is affected by abiotic stress caused by changes in temperature, salinity and photon flux density. Correlations between growth rate and thiamine content per cell were negative for the five eukaryotic species, but not for the cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena. We demonstrate a high variability in thiamine content among phytoplankton species, with the highest content in N. spumigena. Salinity was the factor with the strongest effect, followed by temperature and photon flux density, although the responses varied between the investigated phytoplankton species. Our results suggest that regime shifts in phytoplankton community composition through large-scale environmental changes has the potential to alter the thiamine availability for higher trophic levels. A decreased access to this essential vitamin may have serious consequences for aquatic food webs.

  • 24.
    Sylvander, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Snoeijs, Pauline
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Thiamine concentrations in the Baltic Sea pelagic food web decrease with increasing trophic levelManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Thiamine deficiency in top predators has been reported from several aquatic systems. In the Baltic populations of the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) this has been observed since 1974, but knowledge of thiamine levels in its prey species is limited. To address this, we measured thiamine concentrations in different tissues of the major Baltic planktivores, Baltic herring (Clupea harengus membras) and Baltic sprat (Sprattus sprattus balticus). Additionally, we measured thiamine concentrations in the major pelagic top predator fish in the Baltic Sea, the Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and its prey species along with sprat and herring, the benthic isopod Saduria entomon. Field sampling was conducted during five offshore expeditions in the Baltic Sea proper in 2004, 2005 and 2010. Thiamine was analysed in liver, gonad, stomach and muscle tissues of the fish and the whole body of the isopod. Liver generally had the highest concentrations and muscle tissue the lowest. In contrast to previous reports from other aquatic ecosystems, there was a negative relationship between trophic level and thiamine in the Baltic Sea. Temporal fluctuations of thiamine concentrations in the fish showed the same pattern as previously shown for Baltic plankton communities. Altogether these results suggest a bottom up effect on the thiamine status of the higher trophic levels in the Baltic Sea, possibly influencing the occurrence of thiamine deficiency in Baltic top predators.

  • 25.
    Sylvander, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Sundström, Malin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Snoeijs, Pauline
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Bottom-up control of mesozooplankton thiamine levels in the Baltic SeaManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Thiamine (vitamin B1) is an essential vitamin for many organisms, including all animals. In aquatic systems it is synthesised by prokaryotes and photoautotrophs and transferred to higher trophic levels through predation. This study quantifies for the first time the in situ thiamine concentrations of plankton communities in the brackish Baltic Sea area and analyses which environmental and biotic factors regulate these concentrations. Samples from 93 off-shore stations covering different seasons and two years (2004 and 2005) were included in the analyses. The thiamine concentrations in the phyto- and mesozooplankton varied with season and community composition. Phytoplankton thiamine concentrations were highest in August, which was most likely due to high abundances of thiamine-rich cyanobacteria, and those in the zooplankton were highest in November. The thiamine concentrations in the zooplankton were positively correlated to those in the phytoplankton, which suggests a bottom-up effect for the thiamine status of the zooplankton and possibly also for that of higher trophic levels. A positive correlation between the concentrations of thiamine and the antioxidant zooplankton pigment astaxanthin may indicate an aetiology of thiamine deficiency involving oxidative stress. In both plankton fractions the concentrations of the active vitamin, thiamine diphosphate (TDP), were negatively correlated to phytoplankton C:P ratios, suggesting a coupling between low TDP concentrations and cellular P-limitation in the phytoplankton. Significantly lower TDP concentrations were observed in the phyto- and zooplankton communities in 2005 than in 2004. P-limitation in the phytoplankton cells in 2005 was not related to low availability of dissolved inorganic P in the water. Our results suggest that a low intracellular P-availiability hinders the phosphorylation of thiamine to TDP inside the phytoplankton cells despite the availability of enough P in the water and enough free thiamine in the cells. Further studies are needed to explain the mechanism behind these field observations.

  • 26. Turja, R.
    et al.
    Hoeher, N.
    Snoeijs, Pauline
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Barsiene, J.
    Butrimaviciene, L.
    Kuznetsova, T.
    Kholodkevich, S. V.
    Devier, M. -H
    Budzinski, H.
    Lehtonen, K. K.
    A multibiomarker approach to the assessment of pollution impacts in two Baltic Sea coastal areas in Sweden using caged mussels (Mytilus trossulus)2014In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 473, p. 398-409Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Blue mussels (Mytilus trossulus) were transplanted in cages for three months in two Swedish coastal areas in the Bothnian Sea (northern Baltic Sea) to investigate the interactions between analysed environmental chemicals and biological responses. A wide array of biological parameters (biomarkers) including antioxidant and biotransformation activity, geno-, cyto- and neurotoxic effects, phagocytosis, bioenergetic status and heart rate were measured to detect the possible effects of contaminants. Integrated Biomarker Response index and Principal Component Analysis performed on the individual biological response data were able to discriminate between the two study areas as well as the contaminated sites from their respective local reference sites. The two contaminated sites outside the cities of Sundsvall (station 51) and Gavle (station G1) were characterised by different biomarker response patterns. Mussels at station S1 showed a low condition index, increased heart rate recovery time and phagocytosis activity coinciding with the highest tissue concentrations of some trace metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organotins. At station G1 the highest organochlorine pesticide concentration was recorded as well as elevations in glutathione S-transferase activity, thiamine content and low lysosomal membrane stability. Significant variability in the geno- and cytotoxic responses and bioenergetic status was also observed at the different caging stations. The results obtained suggest that different chemical mixtures present in the study areas cause variable biological response patterns in organisms.

  • 27. Turja, Raisa
    et al.
    Lehtonen, Kari K.
    Meierjohann, Axel
    Brozinski, Jenny-Maria
    Vahtera, Emil
    Soirinsuo, Anna
    Sokolov, Alexander
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre, Baltic Nest Institute.
    Snoeijs, Pauline
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Budzinski, Helene
    Devier, Marie-Helene
    Peluhet, Laurent
    Paakkonen, Jari-Pekka
    Viitasalo, Markku
    Kronberg, Leif
    The mussel caging approach in assessing biological effects of wastewater treatment plant discharges in the Gulf of Finland (Baltic Sea)2015In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 97, no 1-2, p. 135-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biological effects of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents were investigated in Baltic mussels (Mytilus trossulus) caged for one month 800 m and 1100 m from the WWTP discharge site and at a reference site 4 km away. Significant antioxidant, genotoxic and lysosomal responses were observed close to the point of the WWTP discharge. Passive samplers (POCIS) attached to the cages indicated markedly higher water concentrations of various pharmaceuticals at the two most impacted sites. Modeling the dispersal of a hypothetical passive tracer compound from the WWTP discharge site revealed differing frequencies and timing of the exposure periods at different caging sites. The study demonstrated for the first time the effectiveness of the mussel caging approach in combination with passive samplers and the application of passive tracer modeling to examine the true exposure patterns at point source sites such as WWTP pipe discharges in the Baltic Sea.

  • 28. Verdugo, Josefa
    et al.
    Damm, Ellen
    Snoeijs, Pauline
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Diez, Beatriz
    Farias, Laura
    Climate relevant trace gases (N2O and CH4) in the Eurasian Basin (Arctic Ocean)2016In: Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers, ISSN 0967-0637, E-ISSN 1879-0119, Vol. 117, p. 84-94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concentration of greenhouse gases, including nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4), and compounds such as total dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), along with other oceanographic variables were measured in the ice covered Arctic Ocean within the Eurasian Basin (EAB). The EAB is affected by the perennial ice-pack and has seasonal microalgal blooms, which in turn may stimulate microbes involved in trace gas cycling. Data collection was carried out on board the LOMROG III cruise during the boreal summer of 2012. Water samples were collected from the surface to the bottom layer (reaching 4300 m depth) along a South-North transect (SNT), from 82.19 degrees N, 8.75 degrees E to 89.26 degrees N, 58.84 degrees W, crossing the EAB through the Nansen and Amundsen Basins. The Polar Mixed Layer and halocline waters along the SNT showed a heterogeneous distribution of N2O, CH4 and DMSPt, fluctuating between 42-111 and 27-649% saturation for N2O and CH4, respectively; and from 3.5 to 58.9 nmol L-1 for DMSPt. Spatial patterns revealed that while CH4 and DMSPt peaked in the Nansen Basin, N2O was higher in the Amundsen Basin. In the Atlantic Intermediate Water and Arctic Deep Water N2O and CH4 distributions were also heterogeneous with saturations between 52% and 106% and 28% and 340%, respectively. Remarkably, the Amundsen Basin contained less CH4 than the Nansen Basin and while both basins were mostly under-saturated in N2O. We propose that part of the CH4 and N2O may be microbiologically consumed via methanotrophy, denitrification, or even diazotrophy, as intermediate and deep waters move throughout EAB associated with the overturning water mass circulation. This study contributes to baseline information on gas distribution in a region that is increasingly subject to rapid environmental changes, and that has an important role on global ocean circulation and climate regulation.

  • 29.
    Zie, Jenny
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Grahn, Mats
    Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik vid Södertörns högskola..
    Snoeijs, Pauline
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Warming modifies the genetic composition of Cladophora glomerata (Chlorophyta)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Zie, Jenny
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Snoeijs, Pauline
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Congruent direction in genetic selection to warming in the clonal alga Cladophora glomerata in two different parts of the Baltic Sea.Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
1 - 30 of 30
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