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  • 1.
    Gao, Man
    et al.
    Academy of Humanities and Media Studies, Högskolan Dalarna.
    Sundkvist, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    An acoustic study of front rounded vowels in Shetland dialect2010In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 127, no 3, p. 2020-2020Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an acoustic analysis of front rounded vowels (FRVs) in the dialect spoken in the Shetland Islands, the northernmost locality of the British Isles. FRVs are typologically marked and estimated to occur in only 6.6% of the world's languages [I. Maddieson, in Haspelmath et al. The World Atlas of Language Structures (2005)]. Their occurrence in the Shetland dialect is, at least partly, attributable to a Scandinavian substratum language. There is significant variation across the archipelago regarding several aspects such as (1) the number of lexically contrastive FRVs, (2) phonetic quality (close to half-close), (3) contrastive length, and (4) lexical distribution and support. This paper presents an investigation of three speakers from one locality in which FRVs have retained firm lexical support. The issues addressed concern the dialect's overall acoustic vowel space (based on F1, F2, and F3), the position of FRVs within the acoustic space, and what the contrasts among FRVs and other adjacent vowels appear to rest on acoustically. Special focus is directed to phonetic contexts that support the greatest number of vowel contrasts and display the most crowded acoustic vowels spaces.

  • 2.
    Shaw, Philip
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Erman, BrittStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.Melchers, GunnelStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.Peter, SundkvistStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    From clerks to corpora: essays on the English language yesterday and today2015Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Why is the Isle of Dogs in the Thames called Isle of Dogs? Did King Canute’s men bring English usage back to Jutland? How can we find out where English speakers suck their breath in to give a short response? And what did the Brontës do about dialect and think about foreign languages? The answers are in this collection of empirical work on English past and present in honour of Nils-Lennart Johannesson, Professor of English Language at Stockholm University. The first five chapters report individual studies forming an overview of current issues in the study of Old and Middle English phonology, lexis and syntax. The next six look at Early Modern and Modern English from a historical point of view, using data from corpora, manuscript archives, and fiction. Two more look at the Old English scholar JRR Tolkien and his work. The remaining chapters discuss aspects of Modern English. Several use corpora to look at English usage in itself or in relation to Swedish, French, or Norwegian. The last three look at grammatical models, the pragmatics of second language use, and modern English semantics.

  • 3.
    Sundkvist, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Acoustic vowel space in pre-/r/ contexts: Shetland and American English2009In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 125, p. 2698-2698Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Sundkvist, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    An outline of the pre-rhotic vowel system of Shetland English, with reference to General American, received pronunciation, and Scottish English2010In: Southwest Journal of Linguistics, ISSN 0737-4143, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 138-163Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Sundkvist, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    ‘Insular isles, insular speech’? Language change in the Shetland Islands2012In: Moderna Språk, ISSN 0026-8577, Vol. 106, no 2, p. 150-158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Shetland Isles, a group of islands settled in the North Sea approximately halfway between Norway and Scotland, are perhaps popularly best known for ponies, sheep dogs, and knitwear. Considerably less well known is the fact that the isles are also home to a highly distinct local dialect. The Shetland dialect constitutes a form of Lowland Scots but also displays a significant Scandinavian component. This is attributable to Shetland's history: the isles were settled by Vikings around 800AD and a Nordic language - first Old Norse and later Norn - was spoken there up until about the 18th century. As for many local speech forms, however, there are strong signs that the Shetland dialect is undergoing drastic change; arguably, it is even in rapid decline. The aim of this essay is to provide an accessible introduction to the Shetland Isles, their settlement and linguistic history, and the complex local language situation. Furthermore, some of the discourse surrounding current language change, involving both local and non-local contributors, is reviewed. Recent empirical research, which provides important clues to the future of the Shetland dialect, is also discussed, as well as its various implications.

  • 6.
    Sundkvist, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    On complementary quantity in Shetland Scots: results from a regional survey2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Sundkvist, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Pulmonic ingressive speech in Shetland English2012In: World Englishes, ISSN 0883-2919, E-ISSN 1467-971X, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 434-448Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a study of pulmonic ingressive speech, a severely understudied phenomenon within varieties of English. While ingressive speech has been reported for several parts of the British Isles, New England, and eastern Canada, thus far Newfoundland appears to be the only locality where researchers have managed to provide substantial evidence from audio recordings. The present investigation is based on a digital speech corpus consisting of over 40 hours of interviews, recorded between 1980 and 1985 throughout the entire Shetland archipelago, including the most remote isles; speech samples from 49 men and 47 women are included in the corpus. Ingressive speech was found throughout the Shetland Isles, and occurred on discourse particles representing yes and no responses, such as yeah, aye, no, and mmm. It was attested for 27 per cent of males and 32 per cent of females, although significantly more tokens were contributed by females. Both voiced and voiceless ingressives were encountered, which revealed further clues to potential gender marking: 72 per cent of all tokens from males were voiceless, and 65 per cent of tokens from females were voiced. While the paper provides firm evidence for ingressive speech in Shetland, it also discusses recent observations indicative of a decline in ingressive speech within the isles.

  • 8.
    Sundkvist, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Pulmonic ingressive speech in the Shetland Isles: Some observations on a potential Nordic relic feature2012In: Nordic Journal of English Studies, ISSN 1654-6970, E-ISSN 1654-6970, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 188-202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides a commentary on and discussion of pulmonic ingressive speech inthe Shetland Isles. The aim is to contribute towards a further understanding of the currentdistribution of ingressive speech in the Shetland community and some of the situationalfactors governing its usage. Observations are also discussed which may provide clues tothe mechanisms for and constraints on the transference of ingressives and may thereforebe relevant for establishing the origin of ingressives in Shetland. The observationsdiscussed were made by the author in Shetland and Sweden and by previous researchersin Norway, the USA and elsewhere.

  • 9.
    Sundkvist, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Pulmonic ingressive speech: Shetland Scots and Tohono O’odham compared2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Sundkvist, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Scottish standard English as spoken in Lerwick: an overview of pronunciation features2010In: Northern lights, northern words: selected papers from the FRLSU conference, Kirkwall 2009 / [ed] Millar, Robert M., Aberdeen: Forum for Research on the Languages of Scotland and Ireland , 2010, , p. 9p. 98-106Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Sundkvist, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Stage Accents on Steroids: ‘Oirish’, ‘Pirate Speech’, and Jim Carrey’sNew Foundland Fisherman ‘Captain Sham’2013In: NIS: Nordic Irish Studies, ISSN 1602-124X, E-ISSN 2002-4517, Vol. 12, p. 147-162Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Sundkvist, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    ‘Standard English’ as spoken in Shetland’s capital2011In: World Englishes, ISSN 1467-971X, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 166-181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with the local accent of Standard English spoken in Lerwick, the main town or capital in the Shetland Islands, in contrast to previous research on Shetland speech which focused on the local Scots dialect, commonly referred to as ‘Shetland dialect’. The account is based on data collected for a phonological study, in which a judgment sample of bidialectal, middle-aged, middle-class speakers was obtained through a network model. It is also informed by data collected in an earlier regional survey, as well as observations made over a ten year period. An analysis is presented of systemic, distributional and realizational aspects of the vowel and consonant systems. It may be concluded that the accent displays a number of localized features, especially regarding phonetic realization, but also standardized features, including various consonant contrasts and the lexical distribution of phonemes. An overview is also provided of grammatical and lexical features, which further supports the suggestion that the speech accounted for constitutes a form of (Scottish) Standard English.

  • 13.
    Sundkvist, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    The pronunciation of Scottish Standard English in Lerwick, Shetland2007In: English World-Wide, ISSN 0172-8865, E-ISSN 1569-9730, English, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 1-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research on Shetland speech has not explicitly dealt with speech forms leaning towards Scottish Standard English (SSE) but has focused on Shetland dialect, the local Scots dialect. This paper argues that a local accent of SSE can be identified in Shetland, especially for speakers in Lerwick, the largest town in Shetland. The accent has not been previously fully described, and this paper presents an analysis of systemic, distributional and realizational aspects of the vowel and consonant systems, based on data from a recent survey (Sundkvist 2004). It is suggested that the Lerwick accent displays a phonemic inventory and lexical distribution similar to that commonly reported for mainland accents of SSE, with the exception of a somewhat larger inventory of vowel phonemes. At the level of phonetic realization, the Lerwick accent shares several features with mainland varieties of SSE, but displays a number of localized features in addition.

  • 14.
    Sundkvist, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    The Shetland Isles: globalisation and the changing status of Standard English2011In: English Today, ISSN 0266-0784, E-ISSN 1474-0567, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 19-25Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article serves as a commentary on the current position of ‘Standard English’ in the Shetland Islands, the northernmost part of the British Isles. Experience gained during linguistic fieldwork over a ten-year period suggests that there is a need to re-examine this issue, not least in view of societal changes. It will be argued that Shetland is by now a locality of relevance for those with an interest in standards of English, as well as Scots, and suggestions will also be made regarding potential future directions for research into Shetland English.

  • 15.
    Sundkvist, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Using the World Wide Web to research spoken varieties of English: The case of pulmonic ingressive speech2015In: From clerks to corpora: essays on the English language yesterday and today: essays in honour of Nils-Lennart Johannesson / [ed] Philip Shaw, Britt Erman, Gunnel Melchers, Peter Sundkvist, Stockholm: Stockholm University Press, 2015, p. 303-321Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Sundkvist, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Gao, Man
    A regional survey of the relationship between vowel and consonant duration in Shetland Scots2015In: Folia linguistica, ISSN 0165-4004, E-ISSN 1614-7308, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 57-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The local dialect spoken in the Shetland Isles constitutes a form of Lowland Scots. It has been suggested that stressed syllables in Shetland Scots tend to contain either a long vowel followed by a short consonant (V:C) or a short vowel followed by a long consonant ( C:), and furthermore that this pattern constitutes a trace of complementary quantity in Norn, a Nordic language spoken in Shetland approximately until the end of the eighteenth century. The existence of such a pattern has also been supported by acoustic measurements. Following a summary and overview of Norn's demise in the Shetland Isles, this paper presents a regional survey of the relationship between vowel and consonant duration in stressed syllables in Shetland Scots. Based on acoustic data from 43 speakers, representing ten separate regions across the Shetland Isles, the inverse correlation between vowel and consonant duration is assessed. The results reveal that the inverse correlation is strongest in the northern part of Shetland and weakest in the south, and displays a general north-to-south decline across Shetland. The results are thus generally consistent with predictions that follow from regional variation concerning Norn's death; evidence suggests that it survived the longest in the northern parts of Shetland.

  • 17.
    Sundkvist, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Gao, Man
    Pulmonic ingressive speech in Orkney dialect2015In: Scottish Language, ISSN 0264-0198, Vol. 34, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Sundkvist, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Gao, Man
    Pulmonic ingressive speech in Orkney Scots2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Sundkvist, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Gao, Man
    Rhoticity in Yunnan English2016In: World Englishes, ISSN 0883-2919, E-ISSN 1467-971X, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 42-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a study of the pronunciation of English by speakers from Yunnan Province in Southwest China. Eight non-English major undergraduate students participated in three tasks: an informal interview, reading a text, and a dialectological-style questionnaire. The degree of rhoticity was assessed based on auditory analysis, with an inter-rater agreement of 97 per cent. The results revealed significant inter-speaker variation: two informants were virtually non-rhotic whereas the remaining six were rhotic to a considerable degree. Intra-speaker variation among these six was furthermore systematic: the degree of rhoticity was lowest in the interview, intermediate in reading, and highest in the questionnaire. These results are discussed with reference to several factors, including the level of formality and attention to speech triggered by the tasks, potentially emerging norms for rhoticity, and the stage of development of a local form of ‘Yunnan English’.

  • 20.
    Sundkvist, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Gao, Man
    Rhoticity in Yunnan English: Stylistic and phonological conditioning2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Sundkvist, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Gao, Man
    Stylistic and Phonological Conditioning of Rhoticity among Chinese (Yunnan) Speakers of English2015In: Workshop Chinese "Accents and Accented Chinese": Nordic Centre, Fudan University, Shanghai, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, the presence and importance of English has increased significantly in China, which is now regarded as belonging to the ‘Expanding circles’ of English (Kachru, 1982). Although this has triggered scholarly attention tothe status, function, and features of English in China, research on pronunciation remains limited (Bolton & Graddol, 2012). Spoken forms of English are commonly classified as ‘rhotic’ or ‘non-rhotic’, depending on whether or not /r/ is pronounced in non-prevocalic positions (e.g. car, cart). Although it constitute some of the most salient English pronunciation features globally, little is known about the patterning of rhoticity among Chinese speakers of English. Rhoticity is generally affected by such factors as L1(s), teaching models, and exposure; its presence is often also taken as a sign of growing influence of American English. This paper presents a study of the pronunciation of English by speakers from Yunnan Province. In part 1, ten non-English major undergraduate students participated in three speech tasks of different formality levels, enabling investigation of inter-and intra-speaker variation. The degree of rhoticity was assessed based on auditory analysis (inter-rater agreement 97%). The results point to considerable inter-speaker variation; they further reveal systematic intra-speaker variation: increasing formality is associated with an increase in the degree of rhoticity. In part 2, additional data was collected to examine phonological conditioning of rhoticity in greater detail. Factors assessed include transference andvowel quality. Finally, implications of the present findings for norm emergence among Yunnan speakers of English (cf. Ao & Low, 2012) are considered.

  • 22.
    Sundkvist, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Gao, Man
    Tracing syllable structure through time: Durational reflexes of complementary quantity in Shetland Scots2013Conference paper (Refereed)
1 - 22 of 22
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