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  • 1. Balldin, Jan
    et al.
    Berglund, Kristina J.
    Berggren, Ulf
    Wennberg, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Fahlke, Claudia
    TAQ1A1 Allele of the DRD2 Gene Region Contribute to Shorter Survival Time in Alcohol Dependent Individuals When Controlling for the Influence of Age and Gender. A Follow-up Study of 18 Years2018In: Alcohol and Alcoholism, ISSN 0735-0414, E-ISSN 1464-3502, Vol. 53, no 3, p. 216-220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: To investigate the influence of the A1 allele of the TAQ1A polymorphism in the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) gene region on mortality in adult individuals with alcohol dependence. Methods: The study sample consisted of 359 alcohol-dependent individuals treated for severe alcohol withdrawal symptoms in 1997. Years of survival was studied in an 18-year follow-up. In the analyses, gender and age were controlled for. Results: At the 18-year follow-up, 53% individuals had deceased. The analyses showed that older age (P < 0.001), male gender (P < 0.05) and carrying the A1 allele (P < 0.01) all significantly and independently contributed to shorten years of survival. Among the deceased individuals, the genotype A1+ was the only significant contributor to shorten years of survival. Conclusions: An important contribution of the present study is that in alcohol dependence the Taq1A1 allele of the DRD2 gene region is a risk factor for premature death of similar importance as the well-known risk factors of age and gender. Short Summary: We investigated the influence of A1 allele of the TAQ1A polymorphism in DRD2 receptor gene region on mortality in alcohol-dependent individuals in an 18-year follow-up. Age, gender and the A1 allele contributed to shorten years of survival. Among the deceased, the A1+ was the only contributor to shorten years of survival.

  • 2. Berglund, Kristina
    et al.
    Wennberg, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Typologisering av alkoholberoende individer i relation till kön och genus2014In: Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, Vol. 91, no 6, p. 624-631Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3. Berglund, Kristina
    et al.
    Wennberg, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    UIV- en intervju som redovisar kvalitet utifrån brukares och socialsekreterares bedömningar2014In: Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, Vol. 91, no 6, p. 614-623Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4. Berman, Anne H.
    et al.
    Wennberg, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Sinadinovic, Kristina
    Changes in Mental and Physical Well-Being Among Problematic Alcohol and Drug Users in 12-Month Internet-Based Intervention Trials2015In: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, ISSN 0893-164X, E-ISSN 1939-1501, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 97-105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Twelve-month well-being outcomes were investigated for 835 participants in 1 of 2 randomized controlled trials offering online assessment and brief intervention for either problematic alcohol (n = 633) or drug use (n = 202). The well-being of participants who had reduced their substance use to a less problematic level (regardless of intervention) over 12 months was compared with that of participants who had maintained or increased their use. At a 12-month follow-up, the 227 alcohol trial participants with reduced use showed better well-being in comparison to the 406 with stable or increased use, in physical health and sleep quality, as well as general well-being, ability to concentrate, lower stress, better social life satisfaction and sense of control, and a lower rate of depressed mood. Among the 70 drug trial participants who had reduced their drug use over 12 months, 80% had ceased all drug use, and at follow-up they had fewer alcohol-related problems than the stable group. No differences in well-being between these groups were identified. Self-reported access to additional treatment modalities beyond the trial interventions (e.g., speaking to someone about problematic use and accessing additional Internet-based interventions) was higher among participants in both cohorts with reduced substance use in comparison to those with stable/increased use. Drug users who reduced their use accessed prescribed medication to a larger extent than those whose use remained stable or increased. Points to consider when conducting future research on well-being and problematic substance use are discussed.

  • 5. Berman, Anne
    et al.
    Wennberg, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Källmen, Håkan
    AUDIT och DUDIT – Att identifiera problem med alkohol och droger2012Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Formulären AUDIT och DUDIT är evidensbaserade och lättillgängliga verktyg som identifierar problematiskt alkohol- och drogbruk och ger ett bra underlag för dialog mellan behandlare och klient/patient. AUDIT och DUDIT rekommenderas som förstahandsval för screening (identifiering) i Socialstyrelsens riktlinjer för missbruks- och beroendevård.

    Det här är en handbok som tar upp användning, poängsättning och tolkning av formulären samt olika alternativ för att gå vidare vid positivt utfall. Den presenterar också hur man kan samtala kring resultatet och hur vidare utredning, diagnostisering och uppföljning går till.

    Boken AUDIT och DUDIT - identifiera problem med alkohol och droger vänder sig till behandlare och rådgivare inom bland annat hälso- och sjukvård, elevhälsa, mödravård, socialtjänst, beroendevård, kriminalvård och psykiatri.

  • 6. Bronner, Kerstin Birgitta Thelin
    et al.
    Wennberg, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Kallmen, Hakan
    Schult, Marie-Louise Birgitta
    Alcohol habits in patients with long term musculoskeletal pain: comparison with a matched control group from the general population2012In: International Journal of Rehabilitation Research, ISSN 0342-5282, E-ISSN 1473-5660, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 130-137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This prospective study aimed to describe alcohol habits in patients with chronic pain compared with those in a matched control group from the general Swedish population. In total, 100 consecutive patients enrolled were matched against 100 individuals in a control group on the basis of age and sex. Alcohol habits were measured using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test in both groups. The patients were recruited if they underwent a biopsychosocial pain analysis for possible participation in pain rehabilitation. The patients with chronic pain drank alcohol significantly less, less often, in smaller quantities, and became intoxicated less than the control group did. The study was rather small and at a single site, but its strengths were the comprehensive and simple design and the possibility to describe the sample's representativeness compared with other clinics on the basis of data from a national quality register.

  • 7. Dahlberg, Mikael
    et al.
    Anderberg, Mats
    Wennberg, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Psychometric properties of the UngDOK: A structured interview for adolescents with substance-use problems2017In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 160-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: This article describes and discusses the Swedish UngDOK interview and its psychometric properties. Method: The study is based on empirical data from 1633 intake interviews collected by 15 units in ten cities and focused primarily on the two central sections of intake form: alcohol and drug use and mental health. The statistical analyses concern internal consistency, test-retest reliability, discriminant validity and internal non-response. Results: The reliability of AUDIT-C and the mental health domain was good with regard to both internal consistency and test-retest. The test-retest values were generally satisfactory, except for frequency of drug use and association with peers who use drugs. The discriminant validity shows that the interview clearly distinguishes adolescents with more profound problems from a group with milder problems and that a minor degree of inconsistency and non-response bias may occur in empirical material based upon self-reported information. Conclusion: The study showed that the psychometric properties of the UngDOK interview are generally satisfactory and may be regarded as a valuable option for practices engaged in treating adolescents with substance-use problems.

  • 8. Danielsson, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Wennberg, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Hibell, Björn
    Romelsjö, Anders
    Alcohol use, heavy episodic drinking, and subsequent problems among adolescents in 23 European countries: does the prevention paradox apply?2012In: Addiction, ISSN 0965-2140, E-ISSN 1360-0443, Vol. 107, no 1, p. 71-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims  According to the prevention paradox, a majority of alcohol-related problems in a population can be attributed to low to moderate drinkers simply because they are more numerous than heavy drinkers, who have a higher individual risk of adverse outcomes. We examined the prevention paradox in annual alcohol consumption, heavy episodic drinking (HED) and alcohol-related problems among adolescents in 23 European countries.

    Design and setting  Survey data from the 2007 European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Drugs (ESPAD) among 16-year-old students were analysed.

    Participants  A total of 38 370 alcohol-consuming adolescents (19 936 boys and 18 434 girls) from 23 European countries were included.

    Measurements  The upper 10% and the bottom 90% of drinkers by annual alcohol intake, with or without HED, and frequency of HED, were compared for the distribution of 10 different alcohol-related problems.

    Findings  Although the mean levels of consumption and alcohol-related problems varied largely between genders and countries, in almost all countries the heavy episodic drinkers in the bottom 90% of consumers by volume accounted for most alcohol-related problems, irrespective of severity of problem. However, adolescents with three or more occasions of HED a month accounted for a majority of problems.

    Conclusions  The prevention paradox, based on measures of annual consumption and heavy episodic drinking, seems valid for adolescent European boys and girls. However, a minority with frequent heavy episodic drinking accounted for a large proportion of all problems, illustrating limitations of the concept. As heavy episodic drinking is common among adolescents, our results support general prevention initiatives combined with targeted interventions.

  • 9. Danielsson, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Wennberg, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Tengström, Anders
    Romelsjö, Anders
    Adolescent alcohol use trajectories: Predictors and subsequent problems.2010In: Addictive Behaviours, ISSN 0306-4603, E-ISSN 1873-6327, Vol. 35, no 9, p. 848-852Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed at identifying different alcohol drinking trajectories in early to late adolescence. We also examined whether certain factors predicted membership of a specific trajectory and to what extent trajectory membership was linked to later negative consequences. Data were drawn from a longitudinal cohort study starting with 1923 adolescents including all seventh grade students in six school districts in Stockholm, Sweden 2001 (age 14), with follow-up in 2002, 2003, and 2006 (age 19). Cluster- and multinomial logistic regression analyses revealed four developmental pathways: low, gradually increasing, high, and suddenly increasing consumption. “High consumers” and “sudden increasers” reported higher levels of alcohol consumption, heavy episodic drinking, and alcohol-related problems both at age 14–16 and at age 19. The “gradual increasers” were more likely to smoke cigarettes, have easy access to alcohol, visit youth recreation centres, have friends who drink, and report a poorer health, compared to the “low consumer/abstainer group”. “High consumers” were more likely to have drinking peers than both “low consumers/abstainers” and “gradual increasers”.

     

  • 10. Frankl, My
    et al.
    Philips, Björn
    Berggraf, Lene
    Ulvenes, Pål
    Johansson, Robert
    Wennberg, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Psychometric properties of the Affect Phobia Test2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 57, no 5, p. 482-488Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to make the first evaluation of the psychometric properties of the Affect Phobia Test, using the Swedish translation - a test developed to screen the ability to experience, express and regulate emotions. Data was collected from a clinical sample (N=82) of patients with depression and/or anxiety participating in randomized controlled trial of Internet-based affect-focused treatment, and a university student sample (N=197). The internal consistency for the total score was satisfactory (Clinical sample =0.88/Student sample =0.84) as well as for all the affective domains, except Anger/Assertion (=0.44/0.36), Sadness/Grief (=0.24/0.46) and Attachment/Closeness (=0.67/0.69). Test retest reliability was satisfactory (ICC>0.77) for the total score and for all the affective domains except for Sadness/Grief (ICC=0.04). The exploratory factor analysis resulted in a six-factor solution and did only moderately match the test's original affective domains. An empirical cut-off between the clinical and the university student sample were calculated and yielded a cut-off of 72 points. As expected, the Affect Phobia test showed negative significant correlations in the clinical group with measures on depression (r(xy)=-0.229; p<0.01) and anxiety (r(xy)=-0.315; p<0.05). The conclusion is that the psychometric properties are satisfactory for the total score of the Affect Phobia Test but not for some of the test's affective domains. Consequently the domains should not be used as subscales. The test can discriminate between individuals who seek help for psychological problems and those who do not.

  • 11. Frankl, My
    et al.
    Philips, Björn
    Wennberg, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Psychotherapy role expectations and experiences Discrepancy and therapeutic alliance among patients with substance use disorders2014In: Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, ISSN 1476-0835, E-ISSN 2044-8341, Vol. 87, no 4, p. 411-424Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ObjectivesThe main aim of the study was to examine how the discrepancy between role expectations prior to psychotherapy and experiences of ongoing psychotherapy related to therapeutic alliance. We hypothesized that a similarity between patient role expectations and experiences would be associated with a stronger alliance. The study also examined whether different dimensions of psychotherapy role expectations predicted retention in psychotherapy. DesignA naturalistic study design was used with data collected prior to therapy and during the first 6months of therapy. MethodPatients with substance use disorders completed the Psychotherapy Expectation Questionnaire-short version (PEX-S) at the time of therapy assessment. A subsample of these patients (n=41; n=24 in individual therapy and n=17 in group therapy) provided data from therapy including psychotherapy experiences (also measured with PEX-S) and therapeutic alliance, measured with Working Alliance Questionnaire-short version. ResultsFor patients in group therapy, discrepancy between role expectations and experiences correlated negatively with alliance. Expectations prior to psychotherapy characterized by defensiveness correlated negatively with therapy retention. ConclusionThe finding that disconfirmation of patients' role expectations in group therapy were associated with weaker therapeutic alliance highlights the importance of discussing psychotherapy expectations at an early stage in treatment. Expectations characterized by defensiveness predicted worse retention in psychotherapy, which indicates that the PEX-S can be helpful in detecting patients at risk for dropout. Practitioner points <list list-type=bulleted> In targeting a patient's role expectancies prior to treatment, possible discrepancies between patient and therapist are made visible and possible to examine. Clarifying the patient's role expectations and the therapist's rationale might be a first step towards establishing a strong working alliance. Surveying the patient's defensiveness tendencies at the beginning of therapy offers a chance to discuss possible fears and other obstacles concerning therapy. Discrepancy between the patient's role expectations prior to treatment and their actual experiences of psychotherapy render valuable information that can be of use in the therapy process. <doi origin=wiley registered=yes>10.1111/(ISSN)2044-8341</doi

  • 12.
    Gustafsson, Nina-Katri
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Wennberg, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Developmental alcohol trajectories when price and availability changed2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To identify developmental trajectories for alcohol consumption in southern Sweden in relation to increased availability of cheaper alcohol, and to study the likelihood of belonging to one of the identified trajectory groups. An increase of total consumption was expected to be related to an increase in consumption of spirits due to the nature of the changes. Developmental patterns were assumed to be different in northern Sweden given the distance to the changes.

    Design: 16-80 year olds from general population samples from southern (n=610) and northern (n=575) Sweden were interviewed by telephone before and after changes. Alcohol use trajectories for the years 2003-2006 were identified through longitudinal cluster analysis. Characteristics of clusters – sex, age, income, price expectations, alcohol attitude, alcohol consumption, binge drinking and beverage preferences – were compared.

    Findings: Three developmental trajectories for consumption were identified for each region. Alcohol habits influenced the likelihood of trajectory membership as decreasers on average had a higher initial consumption. An increase in spirits consumption was also observed among overall increasers. Other potential explanations were not linked to trajectories.

    Research implications: Earlier research of the changes was unable to find an overall increase in consumption but these results suggests that some groups changed as expected.

    Originality: Few studies have identified trajectories of alcohol use in relation to policy changes. Studying patterns of change puts the focus on consumption rather than population groups.

  • 13. Kallmen, Hakan
    et al.
    Wennberg, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Leifman, Hakan
    Bergman, Hans
    Berman, Anne H.
    Alcohol Habits in Sweden during 1997-2009 with Particular Focus on 2005 and 2009, Assessed with the AUDIT: A Repeated Cross-Sectional Study2011In: European Addiction Research, ISSN 1022-6877, E-ISSN 1421-9891, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 90-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: This study aimed to survey the changes in alcohol habits during a period with the European Union legal practices. Methods: Alcohol habits in Sweden were surveyed in the general Swedish population at four timepoints, in 1997, 2001, 2005 and 2009, using the 10-item AUDIT questionnaire. Design: Four separate randomly drawn cross-sectional samples of 1,250 individuals were surveyed at each timepoint. Results: An average of 70% of the sampled individuals responded to the AUDIT questionnaire. Men had higher total AUDIT scores than women in 2005 and 2009, but scores increased among women 61-71 years old and decreased among men 61-71 years old. Younger men and women 17-27 years old decreased their AUDIT-C consumption scores by almost 20% between 2005 and 2009. An analysis of problem drinkers (+8 for men/+6 for women) indicated that a larger proportion of elderly women drank moderately in 2009 compared with 2005, but fewer elderly women drank hazardously. Conclusions: Earlier increases in drinking levels between 1997 and 2001 may reflect a latent high demand that was restricted by low availability. When availability due to European Union harmonization increased, alcohol consumption followed suit. After a period of adaptation, alcohol consumption appears to have stabilized.

  • 14. Källmen, Håkan
    et al.
    Sinadinovic, Kristina
    Wennberg, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Berman, Anne
    Risky drinking of alcohol in Sweden: a randomized population survey comparing web- and  paper-based self-report2011In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 123-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS – This study compared data quality and response rates for the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) in a web-based versus in a paper-and-pencil format survey. SETTING – Subjects were randomised to one of two parallel samples, one web-based and the other paper-based. Data were collected during 2009. RESULTS – The web-based format yielded a lower response rate compared to the paper version (26.2% vs. 53.6%), internal consistency was quite similar (0.82 vs. 0.77), while the mean AUDIT scores were higher in the web-based format for both men and women. Conclusions – Future studies should focus on methods for combining different administration methods in order to maximize response rates.

  • 15. Källmen, Håkan
    et al.
    Wennberg, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Bergman, Hans
    Psychometric properties and norm data of the Swedish version of the NEO-PI-R2011In: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 65, no 5, p. 311-314Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Internationally, the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R) is a well established questionnaire for assessment of personality in accordance with the Five Factor Model. The instrument has been translated into many languages including Swedish. Aim: The aim of this study was to make a psychometric evaluation of the Swedish version of NEO-PI-R based on a sample from the general population. Methods: Postal questionnaires were sent to a random sample of 1250 persons (n = 766 responders). Results and conclusions: The test showed satisfactory internal consistency in the broad factors as well as the facets. A factor analysis indicated that the factors were similar but not identical to those obtained in American studies. In sum, The Swedish version of the NEO-PI-R shows satisfactory psychometric properties and the instrument will continue to be a valuable tool in psychological research and in clinical practice.

  • 16. Källmén, Håkan
    et al.
    Wennberg, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Ramstedt, M.
    Hallgren, M.
    Changes in alcohol consumption between 2009 and 2014 assessed with the AUDIT2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 43, no 4, p. 381-384Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Alcohol habits in Sweden, assessed as sales and estimates of unrecorded consumption, have changed since joining the EU. Earlier studies using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) showed that reported consumption is consistent with sales data, which makes it possible to assess consumption according to sex and age. Aims: This study reports the changes in alcohol habits between 2009 and 2014, a period starting a couple of years after Sweden joined the EU. Method: The AUDIT was sent to a random sample of the Swedish population aged between 17 and 80 years old. Results: No statistically significant changes were shown in six age and sex groups. Conclusions: Alcohol habits have stabilised in Sweden but on a higher consumption level than before.

  • 17. Källmén, Håkan
    et al.
    Wennberg, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Ramstedt, Mats
    Hallgren, Mats
    The psychometric properties of the AUDIT: a survey from a random sample of elderly Swedish adults2014In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 14, p. 672-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Increasing alcohol consumption and related harms have been reported among the elderly population of Europe. Consequently, it is important to monitor patterns of alcohol use, and to use a valid and reliable tool when screening for risky consumption in this age group. The aim was to evaluate the internal consistency reliability and construct validity of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) in elderly Swedish adults, and to compare the results with the general Swedish population. Another aim was to calculate the level of alcohol consumption (AUDIT-C) to be used for comparison in future studies. Methods: The questionnaire was sent to 1459 Swedish adults aged 79-80 years with a response rate of 73.3%. Internal consistency reliability, were assessed using Cronbach alpha, and confirmatory factor analysis assessed construct validity of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) in elderly population as compared to a Swedish general population sample. Results: The results showed that AUDIT was more reliable and valid among the Swedish general population sample than among the elderly and that Item 1 and 4 in AUDIT was less reliable and valid among the elderly. Conclusions: While the AUDIT showed acceptable psychometric properties in the general population sample, it's performance was of less quality among the elderly respondents. Further psychometric assessments of the AUDIT in elderly populations are required before it is implemented more widely.

  • 18.
    Ledberg, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Wennberg, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Estimating the size of hidden populations from register data2014In: BMC Medical Research Methodology, ISSN 1471-2288, E-ISSN 1471-2288, Vol. 14, p. 58-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Prevalence estimates of drug use, or of its consequences, are considered important in many contexts and may have substantial influence over public policy. However, it is rarely possible to simply count the relevant individuals, in particular when the defining characteristics might be illegal, as in the drug use case. Consequently methods are needed to estimate the size of such partly 'hidden' populations, and many such methods have been developed and used within epidemiology including studies of alcohol and drug use. Here we introduce a method appropriate for estimating the size of human populations given a single source of data, for example entries in a health-care registry. Methods: The setup is the following: during a fixed time-period, e. g. a year, individuals belonging to the target population have a non-zero probability of being registered. Each individual might be registered multiple times and the time-points of the registrations are recorded. Assuming that the population is closed and that the probability of being registered at least once is constant, we derive a family of maximum likelihood (ML) estimators of total population size. We study the ML estimator using Monte Carlo simulations and delimit the range of cases where it is useful. In particular we investigate the effect of making the population heterogeneous with respect to probability of being registered. Results: The new estimator is asymptotically unbiased and we show that high precision estimates can be obtained for samples covering as little as 25% of the total population size. However, if the total population size is small (say in the order of 500) a larger fraction needs to be sampled to achieve reliable estimates. Further we show that the estimator give reliable estimates even when individuals differ in the probability of being registered. We also compare the ML estimator to an estimator known as Chao's estimator and show that the latter can have a substantial bias when applied to epidemiological data. Conclusions: The population size estimator suggested herein complements existing methods and is less sensitive to certain types of dependencies typical in epidemiological data.

  • 19. Palm, Anna
    et al.
    Olofsson, Niclas
    Danielsson, Ingela
    Skalkidou, Alkistis
    Wennberg, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Högberg, Ulf
    Motivational interviewing does not affect risk drinking among young women: A randomised, controlled intervention study in Swedish youth health centres2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 44, no 6, p. 611-618Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study was to analyse risk and binge drinking at 12-month follow-up in young women with risk drinking who received motivational interviewing compared with controls.

    Methods: Young women attending Swedish youth health centres were randomised into intervention or control groups. The intervention group members were asked about their alcohol consumption by a midwife/social worker using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test Consumption. A score of 5 was used as the cut-off value for risk drinking. Participants with risk drinking in the intervention group received motivational interviewing within the same visit. Participants in the control group had a regular visit with a midwife/social worker and answered the same questions about alcohol consumption in a questionnaire after their visit. A questionnaire with the same questions was administered to participants 12 months after baseline.

    Results: Of 1445 eligible young women, 1051 (73%) consented to randomisation and were enrolled in the study. The follow-up rate was 54%. There was a significant decrease in risk- and binge drinking, from baseline to follow-up, in both the intervention and the control groups. Generalised estimating equation analyses demonstrated no significant effect between groups. Of participants who did not have risk drinking at baseline, about 20% in both groups had developed high-risk drinking by the 12-month follow-up.

    Conclusions: No significant differences in risk drinking between young women who received motivational interviewing and controls were found. There was a large intra-individual mobility in young women's risk drinking behaviour. This highlights the importance of finding reliable screening tools that can capture the mobility in drinking behaviour in youth. More research is needed before recommendations can be made.

  • 20. Philips, Björn
    et al.
    Wennberg, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    The Importance of Therapy Motivation for Patients With Substance Use Disorders2014In: Psychotherapy, ISSN 0033-3204, E-ISSN 1939-1536, Vol. 51, no 4, p. 555-562Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study aimed to examine whether patients' pretherapy motivation was related to other patient characteristics and whether it predicted retention in psychotherapy. Data were collected within a naturalistic outcome study of various forms of psychotherapy for patients (N = 172) with substance use disorders (SUD). Therapy motivation was measured using the Client Motivation for Therapy Scale (CMOTS), including the variables autonomous motivation, controlled motivation, and amotivation. Female patients had higher levels of autonomous motivation (d = .53), lower levels of controlled motivation (d = -.32), and lower levels of amotivation (d = -.62). Level of symptoms and impairment was significantly positively correlated with controlled motivation (r = .31). Autonomous motivation was positively correlated with four expectation subscales associated with constructive therapeutic work, whereas amotivation was negatively correlated with three of these subscales. Controlled motivation was positively correlated with the subscales external orientation, defensiveness, and support. In a logistic regression, amotivation stood out as a negative predictor of retention, in terms of starting in psychotherapy after assessment or not. Quite surprisingly, autonomous motivation was not a significant predictor of retention. The present study indicates that amotivation is a risk factor for early dropout among SUD patients. More efforts should be directed at preparing patients for psychotherapy through strengthening motivation.

  • 21.
    Philips, Björn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Stockholm County Council, Sweden; Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Wennberg, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Konradsson, Per
    Franck, Johan
    Mentalization-Based Treatment for Concurrent Borderline Personality Disorder and Substance Use Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Feasibility Study2018In: European Addiction Research, ISSN 1022-6877, E-ISSN 1421-9891, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: There is a scarcity of clinical trials on psychological treatments for concurrent borderline personality disorder (BPD) and substance use disorder (SUD). Mentalization-based treatment (MBT) have shown efficacy in several trials on BPD. The aim of the present study was to examine the feasibility and effectiveness of MBT for concurrent BPD and SUD. Methods: Patients (n = 46) with concurrent BPD and SUD were randomized either to MBT in combination with SUD treatment (n = 24) or to SUD treatment alone (n = 22). Outcome was measured after 18 months using objective data, as well as interview and self-report measures. Results: There was no significant difference between the groups on any outcome variable. No suicide attempts occurred in the MBT group in contrast to 4 suicide attempts that occurred in the control group - a difference that did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.06). A majority of the therapists did not show sufficient MBT adherence and quality. Conclusion: MBT for patients with concurrent BPD and SD does not appear to be harmful; on the other hand, it is possibly helpful in reducing the risk involved in suicide attempts.

  • 22. Romelsjö, Anders
    et al.
    Danielsson, Anna-Karin
    Wennberg, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Hibell, Björn
    Cannabis use and drug related problems among adolescents in 27 European countries: The utility of the prevention paradox2014In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 359-370Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS - To study the prevalence of cannabis use and drug-related problems among European adolescents and the utility of the prevention paradox. METHODS - Survey data from the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD) in 2007 in the 27 countries with information about drug use and drug-related problems was used. We analysed the proportion of all drug-related problems that occurred in a high risk group and among others who had used cannabis in the previous 12 months. The cut-off for the high risk group was chosen to include 10-15% of the most frequent cannabis users. RESULTS - The high risk groups accounted for a substantial, but a minority, of drug-related problems among boys as well as girls. A minority of those who had used cannabis reported any drug-related problem. The proportion of adolescents with drug-related problems and the average number of problems increased with frequency of cannabis use. CONCLUSIONS - We find support for policy measures of more general character, supported by the prevention paradox. However, this does not exclude a policy supporting frequent drug users if they can be identified

  • 23. Sinadinovic, Kristina
    et al.
    Berman, Anne H
    Hasson, Dan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Wennberg, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Internet-based assessment and self-monitoring of problematic alcohol and drug use2010In: Addictive Behaviours, ISSN 0306-4603, E-ISSN 1873-6327, Vol. 35, no 5, p. 464-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A Swedish web-based service (www.escreen.se) offers self-assessment and self-monitoring of alcohol and drug use via on-line screening with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and the Drug Use Disorders Identification Test (DUDIT) as well as in-depth risk assessment using extended versions of both tests (Alcohol-E and DUDIT-E). Users receive individualized feedback concerning their alcohol and drug consumption and can follow their alcohol and drug use over time in personal diagrams and by writing in an electronic diary. This study describes user characteristics, service utilization patterns, and psychometric test properties for 2361 individuals who created a valid account over 20 months starting in February 2007. Problematic alcohol use according to AUDIT criteria was indicated for 67.4%, while 46.0% met DUDIT criteria for problematic drug use. Men and women accessed the service equally, with a mean age of 23 years. Internal consistency reliability figures were 0.90 for 1846 first-time AUDIT users and 0.97 for 1211 first-time DUDIT users; among 213 second-time AUDIT users reliability was 0.93, and 0.96 for 97 second-time DUDIT users. Internet-based alcohol and drug monitoring could function as a self-help tool or as a complement to substance abuse treatment.

  • 24. Sinadinovic, Kristina
    et al.
    Wennberg, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Berman, Anne H.
    Internet-Based Screening and Brief Intervention for Illicit Drug Users: A Randomized Controlled Trial With 12-Month Follow-Up2014In: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1937-1888, E-ISSN 1938-4114, Vol. 75, no 2, p. 313-318Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: This trial investigated the effects of access to an Internet-based screening and brief intervention site for illicit drug users. This article adds to previously published results from the 3- and 6-month follow-ups by extending the follow-up period to 12 months and reporting changes in substance use between the 6- and 12-month follow-ups. Method: In total, 202 Internet help-seekers with illicit drug use, 15-70 years old, were randomly assigned to either an intervention group that received Internet-based screening and brief intervention via eScreen.se or to an assessment-only control group. The primary outcome measure was the Drug Use Disorders Identification Test consumption questions (DUDIT-C) score, and secondary outcome measures were the DUDIT, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test consumption questions (AUDIT-C), and AUDIT scores, as well as the proportion of drug abstainers and participants making a clinically significant change in their alcohol and other drug use. Results: DUDIT-C, DUDIT, AUDIT-C, and AUDIT scores remained stable between the 6- and 12-month follow-ups. However, 12 months after recruitment, 34.3% of those who used eScreen.se had changed their alcohol use to a clinically lower level compared with the 21.8% of the controls. Also, none of the eScreen.se users increased their level of alcohol use during this 12-month period, whereas 5.0% in the control group did so. Conclusions: Despite no changes in illicit drug use from the 6- to 12-month follow-up for both the intervention and control group, eScreen.se seems to be more effective than assessment only for reducing alcohol use among illicit drug users over a 12-month period.

  • 25. Sinadinovic, Kristina
    et al.
    Wennberg, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Berman, Anne H.
    Population screening of risky alcohol and drug use via Internet and Interactive Voice Response (IVR): A feasibility and psychometric study in a random sample2011In: Drug And Alcohol Dependence, ISSN 0376-8716, E-ISSN 1879-0046, Vol. 114, no 1, p. 55-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The wide accessibility of computer-based technologies like the Internet and Interactive Voice Response (IVR) systems raises the question of whether population survey data could be collected more easily and cheaply compared to using paper questionnaires. In the area of possibly stigmatized behaviors such as problematic alcohol and drug use, the question extends to whether the prevalence of such behaviors in the general population could be surveyed without compromising the quality of the data. Aims: This study compares Internet and IVR versions of the AUDIT and DUDIT with respect to: (1) response rate, (2) problematic alcohol and drug use and (3) reliability. Method: 5000 individuals, randomly selected from the Swedish general population, were contacted via postal mail and invited to complete the AUDIT and DUDIT questionnaires via Internet or IVR. In total, 1861 (37.8%) participated in the study, 1089 via Internet and 772 via IVR. Results: The Internet administration mode yielded a higher response rate (38.1%) compared to the IVR mode (33.9%). When respondents were given a choice between Internet and IVR, a higher response rate resulted (43.2-46.6%). Problematic alcohol and drug use occurred among 21.1% and 2.8% of the sample, respectively, with no significant differences by administration mode. Both the AUDIT and DUDIT exhibited satisfactory reliability across administration modes, Cronbach's alpha 0.76/0.86. Conclusions: Data quality does not deteriorate with computerized administration methods for the AUDIT and pupil-in population studies but paper questionnaires should also be made available to respondents in order to maximize response rates.

  • 26. Sinadinovic, Kristina
    et al.
    Wennberg, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Berman, Anne H.
    Targeting Problematic Users of Illicit Drugs with Internet-based Screening and Brief Intervention: A Randomized Controlled Trial2012In: Drug And Alcohol Dependence, ISSN 0376-8716, E-ISSN 1879-0046, Vol. 126, no 1-2, p. 42-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of an Internet-based screening and brief intervention (SBI) site for problematic alcohol and drug use among illicit drug users. Method: Individuals searching for information about alcohol or drugs online who scored over 0 on the Drug Use Disorders Identification Test (DUDIT) and were 15 years or older were recruited for this trial and randomized into one group receiving Internet-based screening and brief intervention via eScreen.se (n = 101) or one assessment-only control group (n = 101). Both groups were screened at baseline and followed up at 3 and 6 months. The primary outcome measure was the DUDIT-C score and secondary outcome measures were DUDIT, AUDIT-C (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-C) and AUDIT scores. Additional outcomes included the proportion of drug abstainers and those who made a clinically significant change in their alcohol and drug use. Four statistical models of analysis were used to conservatively assess results. Results: A significant decrease in DUDIT-C scores at the 3-month follow-up occurred in both groups. Three out of four statistical models showed a larger decrease in the DUDIT score in the intervention group than in the control group (p = 0.006; p = 0.046; p = 0.001). Two models showed a continued decrease in AUDIT-C and AUDIT scores also at the 6-month follow-up in the intervention group but not in the control group. No additional differences occurred. Conclusions: The results are inconclusive but provide some evidence that SBI sites such as eScreen.se could be effective for short-term reductions of problematic substance use.

  • 27. Sinadinovic, Kristina
    et al.
    Wennberg, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Johansson, Magnus
    Berman, Anne H.
    Targeting Individuals with Problematic Alcohol Use via Web-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Self-Help Modules, Personalized Screening Feedback or Assessment Only: A Randomized Controlled Trial2014In: European Addiction Research, ISSN 1022-6877, E-ISSN 1421-9891, Vol. 20, no 6, p. 305-318Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background/Aims: Most problematic alcohol users never seek professional help to reduce their use, and Web-based interventions might fulfill users' unmet needs for professional support. Methods: This randomized controlled trial compared two open Web-based interventions, one extended self-help program and one brief screening and feedback intervention, with an assessment-only control group. Participants were 633 Internet help seekers with at least hazardous alcohol use (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, AUDIT >= 6 for women and >= 8 for men). Results: All groups reduced their alcohol use at 3-month follow-up (p < 0.001), remaining stable at the 6-and 12-month follow-ups (n.s.) according to AUDIT-C and AUDIT scores (intention-to-treat, ITT, analysis). Per protocol (PP) analysis, including only participants who accessed the interventions and also reported accessing additional outside interventions during the trial, showed that about 75% of extended self-help participants moved from probable dependence, harmful or hazardous use to lower alcohol use levels at 3- and 6- and 12-month follow-ups, compared to about 40-60% of brief intervention users and controls who accessed extra help (p < 0.05). Conclusion: ITT analysis suggested parity over time for all interventions, including assessment only, in reducing problematic alcohol use. In contrast, PP analysis suggested that cognitive- behavioral extended self-help in combination with other interventions was more effective in changing alcohol use than brief intervention or assessment only.

  • 28.
    Sohlberg, Tove
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Wennberg, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Developmental pathways to smoking cessation2014In: Drugs and alcohol today, ISSN 1745-9265, E-ISSN 2042-8359, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 96-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – To a great extent research about smoking cessation has focussed on effects from different support programs and means, in spite of that several studies have shown that over 90 percent quit smoking without such help. Factors that are important for the individual in the process from being a smoker to becoming smoke-free is less examined and also how these factors interact. The purpose of this paper is to describe typical careers or pathways that end up with a successful smoking cessation.

    Design/methodology/approach – Respondents were recruited during Oct 2009-May 2010 via screening-questions in the so-called Monitor – project. By the turn of each month 1,500 individuals, aged 16-84, from a representative sample in the Swedish population, were interviewed via telephone. Respondents who stated being previous daily smokers, but smoke-free for at least 12 months, and agreed to participate were asked to answer a postal survey (n=¼1,683) concerning their process to a smoke-free life. The analyses of data included the linking of individuals between different states in the stages toward becoming smoke-free.

    Findings – Several typical pathways were described and respondents with more severe smoking habits followed different pathways than individuals with milder problems. Nicotine replacement therapys or Swedish smoke-free tobacco was not found to be a component in any of the typical pathways.

    Originality/value – Smoking cessation is a heterogeneous phenomenon and individuals can follow several pathways to become smoke-free, therefore this study adds to a more nuanced picture of smoking cessation and also expands the knowledge concerning smoking cessation in individual long-term processes.

  • 29.
    Sundqvist, Kristina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Jonsson, Jakob
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Wennberg, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Gambling Motives in a Representative Swedish Sample of Risk Gamblers2016In: Journal of Gambling Studies, ISSN 1050-5350, E-ISSN 1573-3602, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 1231-1241Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Motives for gambling have been shown to be associated with gambling involvement, and hence important in the understanding of the etiology of problem gambling. The aim of this study was to describe differences in gambling motives in different subgroups of lifetime risk gamblers, categorized by: age, gender, alcohol- and drug habits and type of game preferred, when considering the level of risk gambling. A random Swedish sample (n = 19,530) was screened for risk gambling, using the Lie/Bet questionnaire. The study sample (n = 257) consisted of the respondents screening positive on Lie/Bet and completing a postal questionnaire about gambling and motives for gambling (measured with the NODS-PERC and the RGQ respectively). When considering the level of risk gambling, motives for gambling were not associated with gender, whereas younger persons gambled for the challenge more often than did older participants. Card/Casino and Sport gamblers played to a greater extent for social and challenge reasons then did Lotto/Bingo-gamblers. EGM-gamblers played more for coping reasons than did Lotto/Bingo gamblers. However, this association turned non-significant when considering the level of risk gambling. Moderate risk gamblers played for the challenge and coping reasons to a greater extent than low risk gamblers motives for gambling differ across subgroups of preferred game and between gamblers with low and moderate risk. The level of risk gambling is intertwined with motives for gambling and should be considered when examining gambling reasons.

  • 30.
    Sundqvist, Kristina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Rosendahl, Ingvar
    Wennberg, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    The association between at-risk gambling and binge drinking in the general Swedish population2015In: Addictive Behaviors Reports, ISSN 1583-9583, E-ISSN 2076-3387, Vol. 2, p. 49-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While the association between problem gambling and alcohol use disorders has been studied previously, little is known about the association between risk gambling and risk drinking. This study aimed at examining the association between at-risk gambling and binge drinking in the general Swedish population and to test whether this association remained after controlling for demographic factors. The data was part of a larger ongoing survey in the general Swedish population. Respondents (N = 19 530) were recruited through random digit dialing and interviewed about their alcohol habits (binge drinking), at-risk gambling (the Lie/Bet questionnaire) and demographics (gender, age, education, residence size, marital status, labor market status, country of origin and smoking). There was an association between lifetime at-risk gambling and current (12 months) weekly binge drinking for both men (OR = 1.73; CI 95%: 1.27–2.35) and women (OR = 2.27; CI 95%: 1.05–4.90). After controlling for demographics this association no longer remained significant (OR = 1.38; CI 95%; .99–1.90 for men and OR = 1.99; CI 95%: .94–4.66 for women). Age and smoking had the largest impact on this association. At-risk gambling and binge drinking are associated behaviors. However, it seems as if this association may be confounded by demographic variables. We hypothesize that similarities in personality profiles and health aspects could account for an additional part of the association.

  • 31.
    Sundqvist, Kristina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Wennberg, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Risk Gambling and Personality: Results from a Representative Swedish Sample2015In: Journal of Gambling Studies, ISSN 1050-5350, E-ISSN 1573-3602, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 1287-1295Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The association between personality and gambling has been explored previously. However, few studies are based on representative populations. This study aimed at examining the association between risk gambling and personality in a representative Swedish population. A random Swedish sample (N = 19,530) was screened for risk gambling using the Lie/Bet questionnaire. The study sample (N = 257) consisted of those screening positive on Lie/Bet and completing a postal questionnaire about gambling and personality (measured with the NODS-PERC and the HP5i respectively). Risk gambling was positively correlated with Negative Affectivity (a facet of Neuroticism) and Impulsivity (an inversely related facet of Conscientiousness), but all associations were weak. When taking age and gender into account, there were no differences in personality across game preference groups, though preferred game correlated with level of risk gambling. Risk gamblers scored lower than the population norm data with respect to Negative Affectivity, but risk gambling men scored higher on Impulsivity. The association between risk gambling and personality found in previous studies was corroborated in this study using a representative sample. We conclude that risk and problem gamblers should not be treated as a homogeneous group, and prevention and treatment interventions should be adapted according to differences in personality, preferred type of game and the risk potential of the games.

  • 32. Sydén, Lovisa
    et al.
    Wennberg, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Forsell, Yvonne
    Romelsjö, Anders
    Stability and change in alcohol habits of different socio-demographic subgroups - a cohort study2014In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 14, p. 525-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Stability in alcohol habits varies over time and in subgroups, but there are few longitudinal studies assessing stability in alcohol habits by socio-demographic subgroups and potential predictors of stability and change. The aim was to study stability and change in alcohol habits by sex, age, and socio-economic position (SEP).

    Methods: Data derived from two longitudinal population based studies in Sweden; the PART study comprising 19 457 individuals aged 20-64 years in 1998-2000, and the Stockholm Public Health Cohort (SPHC) with 50 067 individuals aged 18-84 years in 2002. Both cohorts were followed-up twice; PART 2000-2003 and 2010, and SPHC 2007 and 2010. Alcohol habits were measured with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), and with normal weekly alcohol consumption (NWAC). Stability in alcohol habits was measured with intraclass correlation. Odds ratios were estimated in multinomial logistic regression analysis to predict stability in alcohol habits.

    Results: For the two drinking measures there were no consistent patterns of stability in alcohol habits by sex or educational level. The stability was higher for older age groups and self-employed women. To be a man aged 30-39 at baseline predicted both increase and decrease in alcohol habits.

    Conclusions: The findings illustrate higher stability in alcohol habits with increasing age and among self-employed women with risky alcohol habits. To be a man and the age 30-39 predicted change in alcohol habits. No conclusive pattern of socio-economic position as predictor of change in alcohol habits was found and other studies of potential predictors seem warranted.

  • 33.
    Wennberg, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Centre for Dependency Disorders, Stockholm County Council, Sweden.
    Andersson, Tommy
    Female drinking from young adolescence to middle age: A prospective longitudinal study2013In: Journal of Child & Adolescent Substance Abuse, ISSN 1067-828X, E-ISSN 1547-0652, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 269-283Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed at describing female drinking from young adolescence to middle age in a female Swedish community cohort (N = 238). Different aspects of alcohol habits were assessed at the ages of 14, 27, and 43, and the analyses focused on stability and change over this time. The results showed that large variations in alcohol habits over the life course were normally occurring phenomena. Furthermore, advanced drinking habits were neither necessary nor sufficient for developing heavy drinking or alcohol-related symptoms in adult age. The developmental patterns found in this study resembled the developmental patterns earlier described in male cohorts.

  • 34.
    Wennberg, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Berglund, Kristina
    Berggren, Ulf
    Balldin, Jan
    Fahlke, Claudia
    Predicting Treatment Outcome on the Basis of Temperament in Patients Who Are Socially Stable and Alcohol Dependent2016In: Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, ISSN 0734-7324, E-ISSN 1544-4538, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 329-336Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The literature on predictors of treatment outcome is relatively extensive, but results on personality factors that predicts treatment outcome among alcohol dependent patients are still inconclusive. The aim of this study was to investigate if the scales of the Temperament and Character Inventory could predict treatment outcome after 18 months in a sample of patients who were socially well adjusted and alcohol dependent (N = 202). Bivariate comparisons indicate that patients with higher levels of harm avoidance showed a lower probability of successful treatment. Further, exploratory analysis of specific configurations associated with treatment success or failure was presented. The results indicate that harm avoidance seem to be a key factor for this specific sample of patients who are socially well adjusted and alcohol dependent, results that might be useful in clinical practice.

  • 35.
    Wennberg, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Berglund, Kristina
    Berggren, Ulf
    Balldin, Jan
    Fahlke, Claudia
    The Cloninger Type I/Type II Typology: Configurations and Personality Profiles in Socially Stable Alcohol Dependent Patients2014In: Advances in Psychiatry, ISSN 2356-685X, E-ISSN 2314-7768, article id 346157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many attempts have been made to derive alcohol use typologies or subtypes of alcohol dependence and this study aimed at validating the type I/type II typology in a treatment sample of socially stable alcohol dependent males and females. A second aim was to compare the two types with respect to their temperament profiles. Data was part of a larger ongoing longitudinal study, the Gothenburg Alcohol Research Project, and included 269 alcohol dependent males and females recruited from three treatment centers. The results showed that type II alcoholism occurred as a more homogenous type than type I alcoholism, and type I alcoholism seemed too heterogeneous to be summarized into one single type. When adapting a strict classification, less than a third of the study population could be classified in accordance with the typology, suggesting that the typology is not applicable, at least in socially stable individuals with alcohol dependence. The results also showed that type II alcoholics showed higher levels of novelty seeking than did the individuals that were classified as type I alcoholics. Quite surprisingly, the individuals classified as type II alcoholics also showed higher levels of harm avoidance than did the individuals that were classified as type I alcoholics.

  • 36.
    Wennberg, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Bergman, Hans
    Berglund, Mats
    The AVI-R2: an inventory for a differentiated diagnosis of alcohol problems2014In: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 68, no 4, p. 266-269Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Often in clinical practice, a diagnosis of alcohol dependence or abuse does not provide enough information to establish an adequate treatment plan. Hence, multidimensional instruments have been constructed better to describe the extent and character of a patient's alcohol problem. The purpose of the current article is to present the AVI-R2, a self-report test that provides a standardized and differentiated description of an ongoing drinking problem. The instrument includes 81 items categorized into 16 primary scales that were further summarized into four secondary scales: alcohol dependence, psychological benefits, relational complications and multiple dependence. The article provides reference values and psychometric properties of the Swedish version of the test. Data were based on 270 alcoholic patients recruited from the Centre for Dependency Disorders in Stockholm. Except for one primary scale (social complications due to drinking), the psychometric properties of the test were satisfactory. Recommendations on when and how the test can be used were also provided.

  • 37.
    Wennberg, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Källmen, Håkan
    Kraus, Ludvig
    The Dimensional Structure of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test.2014In: Advances in Psychology Research / [ed] Alexandra M. Columbus, New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2014, p. 143-148Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Wennberg, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Philips, Björn
    de Jong, Kim
    The Swedish version of the Outcome Questionnaire (OQ-45): Reliability and factor structure in a substance abuse sample2010In: Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, ISSN 1476-0835, E-ISSN 2044-8341, Vol. 83, no 3, p. 325-329Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study described the psychometric properties of the Swedish version of the Outcome Questionnaire (OQ-45.2) in a substance abuse sample (N = 227). The test properties were satisfactory except for somewhat low internal consistency in the social role subscale. The results were similar to those obtained in other countries but systematic international comparisons are still lacking.

  • 39.
    Wennberg, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Sundqvist, Kristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Psychometric Properties of the Swedish Version of the Reasons for Gambling Questionnaire (RGQ)2017In: Journal of gambling issues, ISSN 1910-7595, no 37, p. 172-180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Reasons for Gambling Questionnaire (RGQ) is a self-report instrument containing 15 items to assess individual motives or reasons to gamble. This study presents psychometric data on the Swedish version of the instrument with a focus on factor structure. A Swedish sample (N = 19,530) was screened for risk gambling with the Lie/Bet questionnaire, the effective study sample (n = 237) consisting of respondents with a positive answer on this questionnaire who agreed to participate in an additional postal questionnaire and had no missing items on the RGQ. The originally proposed subscales of the instrument fit the data poorly and a slightly different five-factor solution was suggested. We conclude that the RGQ needs further revision and that the dimensionality of gambling motives is a question that deserves further attention.

  • 40.
    Wennberg, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Svensson, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Ramstedt, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    The effects of missing data when surveying alcohol habits2011In: Nordisk Alkohol- og narkotikatidsskrift (NAT), ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 43-50Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf