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  • 1.
    Messori, Gabriele
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology . Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Gaetani, Marco
    Zhang, Qiang
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Zhang, Qiong
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Pausata, Francesco S. R.
    The water cycle of the mid-Holocene West African monsoon: The role of vegetation and dust emission changes2019In: International Journal of Climatology, ISSN 0899-8418, E-ISSN 1097-0088, Vol. 39, no 4, p. 1927-1939Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the mid-Holocene (6 kyr BP), West Africa experienced a much stronger and geographically extensive monsoon than in the present day. Changes in orbital forcing, vegetation and dust emissions from the Sahara have been identified as key factors driving this intensification. Here, we analyse how the timing, origin and convergence of moisture fluxes contributing to the monsoonal precipitation change under a range of scenarios: orbital forcing only; orbital and vegetation forcings (Green Sahara); orbital, vegetation and dust forcings (Green Sahara-reduced dust). We further compare our results to a range of reconstructions of mid-Holocene precipitation from palaeoclimate archives. In our simulations, the greening of the Sahara leads to a cyclonic water vapour flux anomaly over North Africa with an anomalous westerly flow bringing large amounts of moisture into the Sahel from the Atlantic Ocean. Changes in atmospheric dust under a vegetated Sahara shift the anomalous moisture advection pattern northwards, increasing both moisture convergence and precipitation recycling over the northern Sahel and Sahara and the associated precipitation during the boreal summer. During this season, under both the Green Sahara and Green Sahara-reduced dust scenarios, local recycling in the Saharan domain exceeds that of the Sahel. This points to local recycling as an important factor modulating vegetation-precipitation feedbacks and the impact of Saharan dust emissions. Our results also show that temperature and evapotranspiration over the Sahara in the mid-Holocene are close to Sahelian pre-industrial values. This suggests that pollen-based paleoclimate reconstructions of precipitation during the Green Sahara period are likely not biased by possible large evapotranspiration changes in the region.

  • 2. Xu, Guobao
    et al.
    Liu, Xiaohong
    Zhang, Qiong
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Zhang, Qiang
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Hudson, Amy
    Trouet, Valerie
    Century-scale temperature variability and onset of industrial-era warming in the Eastern Tibetan Plateau2019In: Climate Dynamics, ISSN 0930-7575, E-ISSN 1432-0894, Vol. 53, no 7-8, p. 4569-4590Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To improve our understanding of climate variability in the Tibetan Plateau (TP) and its sensitivity to external forcings, recent temperature changes need to be placed in a long-term historical context. Here, we present two tree-ring based temperature reconstructions: a 1003-year (1000-2002 CE) annual temperature reconstruction for the northeastern TP (NETP) based on seven series and a 522-year (1489-2010 CE) summer (June-July-August) temperature reconstruction for the southeastern TP (SETP) based on 11 series. Our reconstructions show six centuries of generally warm NETP temperatures (1000-1586 CE), followed by a transition to cooler temperatures (1587-1887 CE for NETP and 1588-1930 CE for SETP). The transition from the Medieval Climate Anomaly to the Little Ice Age thus happened in the 1580s in NETP and SETP, which is about 150 years later than in larger-scale (e.g. Asia and the Northern Hemisphere) temperature reconstructions. We found that TP temperature variability, especially in SETP, was influenced by the Atlantic multi-decadal oscillation and that the twentieth century was the warmest on record in NETP and SETP. Our reconstructions and climate model simulations both show industrial-era warming trends, the onset of which happened earlier in NETP (1812 CE) compared to SETP (1887 CE) and other temperature reconstructions for Western China, East Asia, Asia, and the Northern Hemisphere. The early NETP onset of industrial-era warming can likely be explained by NETP's faster warming rate and by local feedback factors (i.e., ice-snow cover-albedo). Comparisons between climate model simulations and our reconstructions reveal that cooler TP temperatures from 1600 to 1800 CE might be related to land-use and land-cover change.

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