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  • 1.
    Blasiak, Robert
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The University of Tokyo, Japan.
    Huang, Julia Hsiang-Wen
    Ishihara, Hiroe
    Kelling, Ingrid
    Lieng, Sopha
    Lindoff, Hannah
    Macfarlane, Alastair
    Minohara, Akane
    Miyakoshi, Yasuyulti
    Wisse, Herman
    Yagi, Nobuyuki
    Promoting diversity and inclusiveness in seafood certification and ecolabelling: Prospects for Asia2017In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 85, p. 42-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Building on the inputs by a range of experts who participated in the February 2017 international symposium on Designing the Future for Fisheries Certification Schemes at the University of Tokyo, this manuscript traces the origins of fisheries certification schemes, relevant developments, and remaining challenges from an Asian perspective. Over the past 20 years, seafood certification has emerged as a powerful tool for meeting growing demands for sustainable fisheries and aquaculture products. Despite broad consensus among countries regarding what constitute responsible fishing practices, the fisheries certification landscape remains uneven. A plethora of certification schemes has generated confusion among consumers and retailers, and capital-intensive certification schemes may be out-of-reach or impractical for some small-scale fisheries, particularly within the developing world. A recent initiative by the Global Sustainable Seafood Initiative (GSSI) is aiming to address the diversity within the certification landscape by creating a tool to benchmark certification schemes that are in line with the FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries and other relevant agreed FAO guidelines on fisheries, ecolabelling and aquaculture. Countries in Asia are among the world's top consumers and exporters of seafood, yet have faced some particular challenges with regard to seafood certification, underscoring the need for certification schemes that account for regional and local conditions and management practices, particularly with regard to small-scale fisheries.

  • 2.
    Blasiak, Robert
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The University of Tokyo, Japan.
    Jouffray, Jean-Baptiste
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Wabnitz, Colette C. C.
    Sundström, Emma
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Österblom, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Corporate control and global governance of marine genetic resources2018In: Science Advances, ISSN 0036-8156, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 4, no 6, article id eaar5237Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Who owns ocean biodiversity? This is an increasingly relevant question, given the legal uncertainties associated with the use of genetic resources from areas beyond national jurisdiction, which cover half of the Earth's surface. We accessed 38 million records of genetic sequences associated with patents and created a database of 12,998 sequences extracted from 862 marine species. We identified >1600 sequences from 91 species associated with deepsea and hydrothermal vent systems, reflecting commercial interest in organisms from remote ocean areas, as well as a capacity to collect and use the genes of such species. A single corporation registered 47% of all marine sequences included in gene patents, exceeding the combined share of 220 other companies (37%). Universities and their commercialization partners registered 12%. Actors located or headquartered in 10 countries registered 98% of all patent sequences, and 165 countries were unrepresented. Our findings highlight the importance of inclusive participation by all states in international negotiations and the urgency of clarifying the legal regime around access and benefit sharing of marine genetic resources. We identify a need for greater transparency regarding species provenance, transfer of patent ownership, and activities of corporations with a disproportionate influence over the patenting of marine biodiversity. We suggest that identifying these key actors is a critical step toward encouraging innovation, fostering greater equity, and promoting better ocean stewardship.

  • 3.
    Blasiak, Robert
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The University of Tokyo, Japan; United Nations University Institute for the Advanced Study of Sustainability, Japan.
    Spijkers, Jessica
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. James Cook University, Australia.
    Tokunaga, Kanae
    Pittman, Jeremy
    Yagi, Nobuyuki
    Österblom, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Climate change and marine fisheries: Least developed countries top global index of vulnerability2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 6, article id e0179632Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Future impacts of climate change on marine fisheries have the potential to negatively influence a wide range of socio-economic factors, including food security, livelihoods and public health, and even to reshape development trajectories and spark transboundary conflict. Yet there is considerable variability in the vulnerability of countries around the world to these effects. We calculate a vulnerability index of 147 countries by drawing on the most recent data related to the impacts of climate change on marine fisheries. Building on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change framework for vulnerability, we first construct aggregate indices for exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity using 12 primary variables. Seven out of the ten most vulnerable countries on the resulting index are Small Island Developing States, and the top quartile of the index includes countries located in Africa (17), Asia (7), North America and the Caribbean (4) and Oceania (8). More than 87% of least developed countries are found within the top half of the vulnerability index, while the bottom half includes all but one of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development member states. This is primarily due to the tremendous variation in countries' adaptive capacity, as no such trends are evident from the exposure or sensitivity indices. A negative correlation exists between vulnerability and per capita carbon emissions, and the clustering of states at different levels of development across the vulnerability index suggests growing barriers to meeting global commitments to reducing inequality, promoting human well-being and ensuring sustainable cities and communities. The index provides a useful tool for prioritizing the allocation of climate finance, as well as activities aimed at capacity building and the transfer of marine technology.

  • 4.
    Blasiak, Robert
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The University of Tokyo, Japan.
    Wabnitz, Colette C. C.
    Aligning fisheries aid with international development targets and goals2018In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 88, p. 86-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Official development assistance (ODA) is intended to spur progress and increase security among recipient countries. Billions in ODA have been allocated to fisheries to support nutrition and livelihoods worldwide. Yet, from 2010 to 2015, fisheries allocations decreased by > 30%, while grants for non-fisheries sectors increased by > 13%. Globally, grants for climate change adaptation and mitigation fell for fisheries, while rapidly increasing in sectors like agriculture and forestry. In Oceania, a region highly dependent on fisheries for food security and particularly vulnerable to climate change, disbursements fell by 44%. Grants for fisheries research, education and training fell in absolute numbers, and as a proportion of total ODA to fisheries. These findings are out of alignment with recent international commitments, including the Sustainable Development Goals (2015), The Future We Want (2012), and relevant Aichi Targets (2010). Risk aversion among donors; redirection of climate finance into other sectors; and allocation decisions based on factors unrelated to fisheries are identified as contributing to observed findings. Increasing the volume of fisheries-related ODA and better aligning it with international commitments could bring substantial co-benefits and contribute to the sustainable use of marine ecosystems, support sustainable trade and economic opportunities, increase adaptive capacity, and foster human well-being.

  • 5.
    Blasiak, Robert
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of Tokyo, Japan.
    Wabnitz, Colette C. C.
    Daw, Tim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm Univ, SRC, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Berger, Michael
    Blandon, Abigayil
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Carneiro, Goncalo
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Sweden.
    Davidson, Mary Frances
    Guggisberg, Solene
    Hills, Jeremy
    Mallin, Felix
    McManus, Edmund
    Ould-Chih, Karim
    Pittman, Jeremy
    Santos, Xose
    Westlund, Lena
    Wetterstrand, Hanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Wiegler, Kai
    Towards greater transparency and coherence in funding for sustainable marine fisheries and healthy oceans2019In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 107, article id UNSP 103508Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This final manuscript in the special issue on Funding for ocean conservation and sustainable fisheries is the result of a dialogue aimed at connecting lead authors of the special issue manuscripts with relevant policymakers and practitioners. The dialogue took place over the course of a two-day workshop in December 2018, and this coda manuscript seeks to distil thinking around a series of key recurring topics raised throughout the workshop. These topics are collected into three broad categories, or needs: 1) a need for transparency, 2) a need for coherence, and 3) a need for improved monitoring of project impacts. While the special issue sought to collect new research into the latest trends and developments in the rapidly evolving world of funding for ocean conservation and sustainable fisheries, the insights collected during the workshop have helped to highlight remaining knowledge gaps. Therefore, each of the three needs identified within this manuscript is followed by a series of questions that the workshop participants identified as warranting further attention as part of a future research agenda. The crosscutting nature of many of the issues raised as well as the rapid pace of change that characterizes this funding landscape both pointed to a broader need for continued dialogue and study that reaches across the communities of research, policy and practice.

  • 6.
    Jouffray, Jean-Baptiste
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Blasiak, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Norström, Albert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Österblom, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Nyström, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    The blue accelerationManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 7. Lu, Yu-Heng
    et al.
    Yagi, Nobuyuki
    Blasiak, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The University of Tokyo, Japan.
    Factors contributing to effective management in the Sakuraebi (Sergia lucens) fishery of Donggang, Taiwan2017In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 86, p. 72-81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An in-depth assessment was conducted on the functioning of a Taiwanese Sakuraebi (Sergia lucens) fishery management institution to understand the role of leadership in the context of long-term incentive creation. Interviews with relevant stakeholders and statistical analysis of fisheries data indicated that the daily vessel quota system and fishers' collective efforts to influence the market resulted in increased sales value, while simultaneously allowing for the equitable distribution of benefits from the Sakuraebi fishery in Donggang, Taiwan. Local fishers expressed a high level of satisfaction with the corresponding activities initiated by the fisher's organization. Interview respondents felt that promotional marketing activities led by the organization to enhance domestic consumption were particularly effective, and statistical analysis suggests that these activities helped to reduce the dependency of Taiwanese Sakuraebi fishers on export markets. A notable characteristic of this fishery is that it combines a large-scale sales organization, which enables the exertion of market influence, with a small-sized subsidiary organization for fisheries management. An annually rotating leadership system for managing fishery operations also provides members with the opportunity to share a sense of participation and responsibility, while keeping long-term policy goals. This study reinforces previous findings that leadership, social cohesion, and the nature of the resource are key factors determining the effectiveness and success of fisheries management.

  • 8. Pittman, Jeremy
    et al.
    Wabnitz, Colette C. C.
    Blasiak, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The University of Tokyo, Japan.
    A global assessment of structural change in development funding for fisheries2019In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 109, article id 103644Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Foreign aid constitutes a significant part of the national income of many developing countries. Fisheries are often of relevance for livelihoods and food security in these countries, so funding aimed at supporting sustainable fisheries can directly contribute to human well-being. In theory, foreign aid is aimed at promoting the economic development and welfare of developing countries and its allocation should therefore be aligned with development needs. However, the aid literature points to colonialism and donor self-interest at national levels as well as in the international arena as important forces shaping aid flows. Using network analytical techniques, this study examines to what extent both the magnitude and structural patterns of Official Development Assistance (ODA) funding for fisheries have changed over time (2002-2016) and what appear to be sources of stability or long-term tie formation in the network. The resulting network demonstrates that short-term ties, typically over a single year, are the norm for fisheries-related ODA, while long-term ties are uncommon. Among donor states, Japan has fostered the greatest number of donor-recipient ties over the entire study period, which in some cases appear to overlap with geopolitical priorities. The existence of historical colonial linkages is a poor predictor for ties that last the entire 15 years under examination; however, they are a strong predictor of shorter duration ties. The analysis suggests that more effort is needed to optimize resource use towards achieving the international development agenda reflected in the Sustainable Development Goals.

  • 9.
    Spijkers, Jessica
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. James Cook University, Australia.
    Morrison, Tiffany H.
    Blasiak, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The University of Tokyo, Japan.
    Cumming, Graeme S.
    Osborne, Matthew
    Watson, James
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Österblom, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Marine fisheries and future ocean conflict2018In: Fish and Fisheries, ISSN 1467-2960, E-ISSN 1467-2979, Vol. 19, no 5, p. 798-806Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conflict over marine fishery resources is a growing security concern. Experts expect that global changes in our climate, food systems and oceans may spark or exacerbate resource conflicts. An initial scan of 803 relevant papers and subsequent intensive review of 31 fisheries conflict studies, focused on subnational and international conflicts, suggests that four substantial scientific gaps need addressing to improve our understanding of the nature and drivers of fisheries conflict. First, fisheries conflict and levels of conflict intensity are not precisely defined. Second, complex adaptive systems thinking is underutilized but has the potential to produce more realistic causal models of fishery conflict. Third, comparative large-scale data and suitably integrative methodologies are lacking, underscoring the need for a standardized and comparable database of fisheries conflict cases to aid extrapolation beyond single case-studies. Fourth, there is room for a more widespread application of higher order concepts and associated terminology. Importantly, the four gaps highlight the homogenized nature of current methodological and theoretical approaches to understanding fishery conflict, which potentially presents us with an oversimplified understanding of these conflicts. A more nuanced understanding of the complex and dynamic nature of fishery conflict and its causes is not only scientifically critical, but increasingly relevant for policymakers and practitioners in this turbulent world.

  • 10.
    Spijkers, Jessica
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. James Cook University, Australia.
    Singh, Gerald
    Blasiak, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of Tokyo, Japan.
    Morrison, Tiffany H.
    Le Billon, Philippe
    Österblom, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Global patterns of fisheries conflict: Forty years of data2019In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 57, article id 101921Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    International fisheries conflict can cause crises by threatening maritime security, ecosystems and livelihoods. In a highly connected world, the possibility for localized fisheries conflict to escalate into 'systemic risks', where risk in one domain such as food supply can increase risk in another domain such as maritime security and international relations, is growing. However, countries often choose hard-line actions rather than strategies initiating or repairing fisheries cooperation. To design, prioritize and implement more effective responses, a deeper understanding of the temporal and regional patterns of fisheries conflict is needed. Here, we present novel findings from the first global and longitudinal database of international fisheries conflict between 1974-2016. We explore the characteristics of conflict over time and develop a typology of eight distinct types of conflict. Fisheries conflict increased between 1974 and 2016, with substantial variation in both the type of conflict and the countries involved. Before 2000, fisheries conflict involved mostly North American and European countries fighting over specific species. Since then, conflict primarily involved Asian countries clashing over multiple and nonspecified species linked to illegal fishing practices. We use this empirical data to consider potential response strategies that can foster maritime security and thereby contribute to broader societal stability.

  • 11. Wabnitz, Colette C. C.
    et al.
    Blasiak, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The University of Tokyo, Japan.
    The rapidly changing world of ocean finance2019In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 107, article id UNSP 103526Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A suite of recent international commitments and aspirational targets related to ocean conservation and sustainable fisheries management suggest growing consensus among states regarding the urgency of action. Yet, securing adequate financial resources to achieve these goals will be a crucial hurdle for many countries and will depend on financing mechanisms that go beyond traditional official development assistance (ODA) and philanthropy. An expanding and diversifying universe of financing mechanisms, however, risks generating confusion, incoherence, and uneven outcomes. This Special Issue on Funding for ocean conservation and sustainable fisheries was conceived to gain insights into current and emerging trends in the rapidly evolving world of 'blue' finance. While one emphasis of the Special Issue is on ODA and philanthropy, additional contributions also cover new and emerging financing mechanisms. Throughout the Special Issue, authors reflect on important gaps, future perspectives and prospects for greater impact. Two relevant topics for the Special Issue, for which dedicated manuscripts are not available, are also briefly addressed: China's growing role as a provider of development finance and a shift to overtly transactional use of aid by the current US administration.

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