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  • 1. Abernethy, K. E.
    et al.
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Hilly, Z.
    Schwarz, A.
    Two steps forward, two steps back: The role of innovation in transforming towards community-based marine resource management in Solomon Islands2014In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 28, p. 309-321Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many coastal nations, community-based arrangements for marine resource management (CBRM) are promoted by government, advocated for by non-government actors, and are seen by both as one of the most promising options to achieve sustainable use and secure inshore fisheries and aquatic resources. Although there is an abundant literature on what makes CBRM effective, is it less clear how CBRM is introduced or develops as an idea in a community, and the process of how the idea leads to the adoption of a new resource management approach with supporting institutions. Here we aim to address this gap by applying an explicit process-based approach drawing on innovation history methodology by mapping and analysing the initiation and emergence of CBRM in five fishing-dependent communities in Solomon Islands. We use insights from the literatures on diffusion of innovation and transformability to define phases of the process and help guide the inductive analysis of qualitative data. We show the CBRM institutionalisation processes were non-linear, required specific strategies to move from one phase to the next, and key elements facilitated or hindered movement. Building active support for CBRM within communities depended on the types of events that happened at the beginning of the process and actions taken to sustain this. Matching CBRM to known resource management ideas or other social problems in the community, developing legitimate institutions and decision-making processes, strong continual interactions between key actors and the rest of the community (not necessarily NGO actors), and community members witnessing benefits of CBRM, all contributed to the emergence and diffusion of CBRM in the communities, and helped to overcome barriers to transformative change.

  • 2. Adams, Vanessa M.
    et al.
    Moon, Katie
    Alvarez-Romero, Jorge G.
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Spencer, Michaela
    Blackman, Deborah
    Using Multiple Methods to Understand the Nature of Relationships in Social Networks2018In: Society & Natural Resources, ISSN 0894-1920, E-ISSN 1521-0723, Vol. 31, no 7, p. 755-772Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Effective natural resource management (NRM) often depends on collaboration through formal and informal relationships. Social network analysis (SNA) provides a framework for studying social relationships; however, a deeper understanding of the nature of these relationships is often missing. By integrating multiple analytical methods (including SNA, evidence ratings, and perception matrices), we were able to investigate the nature of relationships in NRM social networks across five service types (e.g., technical advice, on-ground support) in our case study region, Daly catchment Australia. Only one service type was rated as highly associated with free choice in establishing relationships: technical advice/knowledge. Beneficial characteristics of NRM organizations, such as collaborative and transparent, were associated with the presence of freely chosen relationships between organizations. Our results suggest a need to improve our understanding of organizational roles and characteristics, in particular for use in applied NRM contexts, such as network weaving or disseminating information.

  • 3.
    Alexander, Steven M.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. National Socio-Environmental Synthesis Center, USA.
    Armitage, Derek
    Carrington, Peter J.
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Examining horizontal and vertical social ties to achieve social-ecological fit in an emerging marine reserve network2017In: Aquatic conservation, ISSN 1052-7613, E-ISSN 1099-0755, Vol. 27, no 6, p. 1209-1223Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most MPA networks are designed only with ecological processes in mind to increase their conservation utility. However, since MPA networks often involve large geographic areas, they also affect and involve multiple actors, institutions, and policy sectors. A key challenge when establishing an effective MPA network is to align the social system' with the biophysical MPA network (the ecological system'). This challenge is often denoted as social-ecological fit'. Facilitating collaborative social interactions among various actors and stakeholders (social connectivity) is equally as important as accomplishing ecological connectivity. New analytical approaches are required to effectively examine this social' dimension of fit. An emerging marine reserve network in Jamaica and the recent invasion of Indo-Pacific lionfish are used as a case study to: (1) examine the extent to which horizontal and vertical social ties bring local and national actors together to collaborate, coordinate, and share knowledge; and (2) assess the extent to which different attributes and features of such multilevel social networks may enhance or inhibit particular aspects of social-ecological fit. Findings suggest that multilevel linkages have played the greatest role in relation to enhancing fit in the marine reserve network in the context of the recent lionfish invasion. However, the long-term propensity of the multi-actor and multilevel networks to enhance social-ecological fit is uncertain given the prevalence of weak social ties, lack of a culture of information sharing and collaboration, and limited financial resources.

  • 4.
    Alexander, Steven M.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. National Socio-Environmental Synthesis Center, USA.
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Barnes, Michele L.
    Untangling the drivers of community cohesion in small-scale fisheries2018In: International Journal of the Commons, ISSN 1875-0281, E-ISSN 1875-0281, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 519-547Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable fisheries require strong management and effective governance. However, small-scale fisheries (SSF) often lack formal institutions, leaving management in the hands of local users in the form of various governance approaches (e.g. local, traditional, or co-management). The effectiveness of these approaches inherently relies upon some level of cohesion among resource users to facilitate agreement on common policies and practices regarding common pool fishery resources. Understanding the factors driving the formation and maintenance of community cohesion in SSF is therefore critical if we are to devise more effective participatory governance approaches and encourage and empower decentralized, localized, and community-based resource management approaches. Here, we adopt a social relational network perspective to propose a suite of hypothesized drivers that lead to the establishment of social ties among fishers that build the foundation for community cohesion. We then draw on detailed data from Jamaica's small-scale fishery to empirically test these drivers by employing a set of nested exponential random graph models (ERGMs) based on specific structural building blocks (i.e. network configurations) theorized to influence the establishment of social ties. Our results demonstrate that multiple drivers are at play, but that collectively, gear-based homophily, geographic proximity, and leadership play particularly important roles. We discuss the extent to which these drivers help explain previous experiences, as well as their implications for future and sustained collective action in SSF in Jamaica and elsewhere.

  • 5.
    Alexander, Steven M.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. National Socio-Environmental Synthesis Center, United States.
    Epstein, Graham
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Armitage, Derek
    Campbell, Donovan
    Participation in planning and social networks increase social monitoring in community-based conservation2018In: Conservation Letters, ISSN 1755-263X, E-ISSN 1755-263X, Vol. 11, no 5, article id e12562Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biodiversity conservation is often limited by inadequate investments in monitoring and enforcement. However, monitoring and enforcement problems may be overcome by encouraging resource users to develop, endorse, and subsequently enforce conservation regulations. In this article, we draw upon the literature on common-pool resources and social networks to assess the impacts of participation and network ties on the decisions of fishers to voluntarily report rule violations in two Jamaican marine reserves. Data was collected using questionnaires administered through personal interviews with fishers (n = 277). The results suggest that local fishers are more likely to report illegal fishing if they had participated in conservation planning and if they are directly linked to community-based wardens in information sharing networks. This research extends well-established findings regarding the role and impacts of participation on biodiversity conservation by highlighting the importance of synergies between participation and social networks for voluntary monitoring of conservation regulations.

  • 6.
    Alexander, Steven M.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. National Socio‐Environmental Synthesis Center (SESYNC), Maryland, USA; University of Waterloo, Canada.
    Staniczenko, Phillip P. A.
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Social ties explain catch portfolios of small-scale fishers in the Caribbean2019In: Fish and Fisheries, ISSN 1467-2960, E-ISSN 1467-2979Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Small-scale fisheries often involve weak management regimes with limited top-down enforcement of rules and minimal support from legal institutions, making them useful model systems for investigating the role of social influence in determining economic and environmental outcomes. In such regimes, interpersonal relationships are expected to have a strong effect on a fisher's catch portfolio, the set of fish species targeted by an individual fisher. Here, we test three competing hypotheses about social influence using belief propagation network models and show that a peer-to-peer information-sharing social network is key to explaining catch portfolios at a small-scale fishery in Jamaica. We find that experience dictates the direction of influence among fishers in the social network, with older fishers and information brokers having distinct roles in shaping catch patterns for large- and small-sized fish species, respectively. These findings highlight concrete opportunities for harnessing social networks in natural resource management. Our new approach to modelling social influence is applicable to many social-ecological systems with minimal legal and institutional support or those that rely heavily on bottom-up participatory processes.

  • 7. Armitage, Derek
    et al.
    Dzyundzyak, Angela
    Baird, Julia
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Plummer, Ryan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Brock University, Canada.
    Schultz, Lisen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    An Approach to Assess Learning Conditions, Effects and Outcomes in Environmental Governance2018In: Environmental Policy and Governance, ISSN 1756-932X, E-ISSN 1756-9338, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 3-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We empirically examine relationships among the conditions that enable learning, learning effects and sustainability outcomes based on experiences in four biosphere reserves in Canada and Sweden. In doing so, we provide a novel approach to measure learning and address an important methodological and empirical challenge in assessments of learning processes in decision-making contexts. Findings from this study highlight the effectiveness of different measures of learning, and how to differentiate the factors that foster learning with the outcomes of learning. Our approach provides a useful reference point for future empirical studies of learning in different environment, resource and sustainability settings.

  • 8. Baggio, J. A.
    et al.
    Salau, K.
    Janssen, M. A.
    Schoon, M. L.
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Landscape connectivity and predator-prey population dynamics2011In: Landscape Ecology, ISSN 0921-2973, E-ISSN 1572-9761, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 33-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Landscapes are increasingly fragmented, and conservation programs have started to look at network approaches for maintaining populations at a larger scale. We present an agent-based model of predator–prey dynamics where the agents (i.e. the individuals of either the predator or prey population) are able to move between different patches in a landscaped network. We then analyze population level and coexistence probability given node-centrality measures that characterize specific patches. We show that both predator and prey species benefit from living in globally well-connected patches (i.e. with high closeness centrality). However, the maximum number of prey species is reached, on average, at lower closeness centrality levels than for predator species. Hence, prey species benefit from constraints imposed on species movement in fragmented landscapes since they can reproduce with a lesser risk of predation, and their need for using anti-predatory strategies decreases.

  • 9. Baird, Julia
    et al.
    Plummer, Ryan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Brock University, Canada.
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Collaborative governance for climate change adaptation in Canada: experimenting with adaptive co-management2016In: Regional Environmental Change, ISSN 1436-3798, E-ISSN 1436-378X, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 747-758Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The search for strategies to address 'super wicked problems' such as climate change is gaining urgency, and a collaborative governance approach, and adaptive co-management in particular, is increasingly recognized as one such strategy. However, the conditions for adaptive co-management to emerge and the resulting network structures and relational patterns remain unclear in the literature. To address these identified needs, this study examines social relationships from a network perspective while initiating a collaborative multiactor initiative aimed to develop into adaptive co-management for climate change adaptation, an action research project undertaken in the Niagara region of Canada. The project spanned 1 year, and a longitudinal analysis of participants' networks and level of participation in the process was performed. Evidence of support for climate change adaptation from the process included the development of deliberative and adaptive responses to opportunities presented to the group and the development of a strong subgroup of participants where decision-making was centered. However, the complexity of the challenge of addressing climate change, funding constraints, competing initiatives, and the lack of common views among participants may have contributed to the group, highlighting the finding that beneficial network structural features and relational patterns are necessary but not sufficient condition for the development of an adaptive co-management process. The context of climate change adaptation may require a different social network structure and processes than other contexts for adaptive co-management to occur, and there may be limitations to adaptive co-management for dealing with super wicked problems.

  • 10. Baird, Julia
    et al.
    Plummer, Ryan
    Schultz, Lisen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Armitage, Derek
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    How Does Socio-institutional Diversity Affect Collaborative Governance of Social-Ecological Systems in Practice?2019In: Environmental Management, ISSN 0364-152X, E-ISSN 1432-1009, Vol. 63, no 2, p. 200-214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social and institutional diversity (diversity hereafter) are important dimensions in collaborative environmental governance, but lack empirical assessment. In this paper, we examine three aspects of diversity hypothesized in the literature as being important in collaborative forms of environmental governancethe presence of diverse actors, diverse perspectives, and diverse institutions. The presence of these aspects and formative conjectures were empirically considered using a mixed methods approach in four biosphere reserves in Sweden and Canada. We found that the diversity of actors involved and domains of authority varied among cases, that stakeholder perspectives were highly diverse in all cases, and that institutional variety (in terms of strategies, norms, and rules) was evident in all cases, but differed among them. Empirical support from the cases further affirms that diversity contributes to the ability to engage with a broader set of issues and challenges; diversity contributes to novel approaches to solving problems within the governance group; and diversity contributes to the flexibility of the group involved in governance in terms of addressing challenges. One conjecture, that diversity decreases the efficiency of governance in decision-making and responding to issues, was not supported by the data. However, our analysis indicates that there might be a trade-off between diversity and efficiency. The findings highlight differences in the ways in which diversity is conceptualized in the literature and on the ground, emphasizing the pragmatic advantages of actively seeking diversity in terms of competencies and capacities.

  • 11. Baird, Julia
    et al.
    Schultz, Lisen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Plummer, Ryan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Brock University, Canada.
    Armitage, Derek
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Emergence of Collaborative Environmental Governance: What are the Causal Mechanisms?2019In: Environmental Management, ISSN 0364-152X, E-ISSN 1432-1009, Vol. 63, no 1, p. 16-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conflict in environmental governance is common, and bringing together stakeholders with diverse perspectives in situations of conflict is extremely difficult. However, case studies of how diverse stakeholders form self-organized coalitions under these circumstances exist and provide invaluable opportunities to understand the causal mechanisms that operate in the process. We focus on the case of the Georgian Bay Biosphere Reserve nomination process, which unfolded over several years and moved the region from a series of serious conflicts to one where stakeholders came together to support a Biosphere Reserve nomination. Causal mechanisms identified from the literature and considered most relevant to the case were confirmed in it, using an 'explaining outcomes' process tracing methodology. Perceived severity of the problem, institutional emulation, and institutional entrepreneurship all played an important role in the coalition-building process. The fear of marginalization was identified as a potential causal mechanism that requires further study. The findings here contribute to filling an important gap in the literature related to causal mechanisms for self-organized coalition-building under conflict, and contribute to practice with important considerations when building a coalition for natural resource management and governance.

  • 12. Barnes, Michele L.
    et al.
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Guerrero, Angela M.
    McAllister, Ryan R. J.
    Alexander, Steven M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of Maryland, USA.
    Robins, Garry
    The social structural foundations of adaptation and transformation in social-ecological systems2017In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 22, no 4, article id 16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social networks are frequently cited as vital for facilitating successful adaptation and transformation in linked social-ecological systems to overcome pressing resource management challenges. Yet confusion remains over the precise nature of adaptation vs. transformation and the specific social network structures that facilitate these processes. Here, we adopt a network perspective to theorize a continuum of structural capacities in social-ecological systems that set the stage for effective adaptation and transformation. We begin by drawing on the resilience literature and the multilayered action situation to link processes of change in social-ecological systems to decision making across multiple layers of rules underpinning societal organization. We then present a framework that hypothesizes seven specific social-ecological network configurations that lay the structural foundation necessary for facilitating adaptation and transformation, given the type and magnitude of human action required. A key contribution of the framework is explicit consideration of how social networks relate to ecological structures and the particular environmental problem at hand. Of the seven configurations identified, three are linked to capacities conducive to adaptation and three to transformation, and one is hypothesized to be important for facilitating both processes. We discuss how our theoretical framework can be applied in practice by highlighting existing empirical examples from related environmental governance contexts. Further extension of our hypotheses, particularly as more data become available, can ultimately help guide the design of institutional arrangements to be more effective at dealing with change.

  • 13. Barnes, Michele L.
    et al.
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    McClanahan, Tim R.
    Kittinger, John N.
    Hoey, Andrew S.
    Gaoue, Orou G.
    Graham, Nicholas A. J.
    Social-ecological alignment and ecological conditions in coral reefs2019In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 10, article id 2039Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Complex social-ecological interactions underpin many environmental problems. To help capture this complexity, we advance an interdisciplinary network modeling framework to identify important relationships between people and nature that can influence environmental conditions. Drawing on comprehensive social and ecological data from five coral reef fishing communities in Kenya; including interviews with 648 fishers, underwater visual census data of reef ecosystem condition, and time-series landings data; we show that positive ecological conditions are associated with 'social-ecological network closure' - i.e., fully linked and thus closed network structures between social actors and ecological resources. Our results suggest that when fishers facing common dilemmas form cooperative communication ties with direct resource competitors, they may achieve positive gains in reef fish biomass and functional richness. Our work provides key empirical insight to a growing body of research on social-ecological alignment, and helps to advance an integrative framework that can be applied empirically in different social-ecological contexts.

  • 14.
    Bergsten, Arvid
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Ecke, Frauke
    Protected areas in a landscape dominated by logging - A connectivity analysis that integrates varying protection levels with competition-colonization tradeoffs2013In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 160, p. 279-288Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conservation planning is challenging in landscapes where reoccurring habitat destruction and subsequent recovery affect metapopulation persistence, because different species respond differently to landscape change. By building on a graph-theoretical modeling framework, we here develop a connectivity model of how varying levels of area protection and unprotected areas predetermined for destruction affect species differently depending on (1) their tradeoff in colonization versus habitat utilization ability and (2) their maximum dispersal ability. We apply our model to 20,000 patches of old pine forest in northern Sweden, which host many threatened species but are scattered in a landscape dominated by intensive forestry. Unprotected mature forests stands predestined for logging are treated as adequate but temporarily available habitat for colonization specialists, whereas the same stands are assumed to, at best, serve only as intermediate stepping-stones for habitat specialists as they disperse between long-standing forests in protected areas. Our results show that the effect of habitat fragmentation on metapopulation persistence differs greatly not only depending on the dispersal distance of a particular species, but also on how well it utilizes habitat patches of different longevity. Such traits are discussed with respect to the spatiotemporal planning of habitat protection. Also, we suggest that the negative impacts of logging on biodiversity may be reduced if forestry practice is adjusted to better account for the ecological values of maturing production stands, through spatially explicit modeling of connectivity and of complementarity in the protection gradient.

  • 15.
    Bergsten, Arvid
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Galafassi, Diego
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    The problem of spatial fit in social-ecological systems: detecting mismatches between ecological connectivity and land management in an urban region2014In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 19, no 4, article id 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The problem of institutional fit in social-ecological systems has been empirically documented and conceptually discussed for decades, yet there is a shortage of approaches to systematically and quantitatively examine the level of fit. We address this gap, focusing on spatial fit in an urban and peri-urban regional landscape. Such landscapes typically exhibit significant fragmentation of remnant habitats, which can limit critical species dispersal. This may have detrimental effects on species persistence and ecosystem functioning if land use is planned without consideration of the spatial patterns of fragmentation. Managing habitat fragmentation is particularly challenging when the scale of fragmentation reaches beyond the control of single managers, thereby requiring different actors to coordinate their activities to address the problem at the appropriate scale. We present a research approach that maps patterns of collaborations between actors who manage different parts of a landscape, and then relates these patterns to structures of ecological connectivity. We applied our approach to evaluate the fit between a collaborative wetland management network comprising all 26 municipalities in the Stockholm County in Sweden and an ecologically defined network of dispersed but ecologically interconnected wetlands. Many wetlands in this landscape are either intersected by the boundary between two or more municipalities, or are located close to such boundaries, which implies a degree of ecological interconnectedness and a need for intermunicipal coordination related to wetland management across boundaries. We first estimated the level of ecological connectivity between wetlands in neighboring municipalities, and then used this estimate to elaborate the level of social-ecological fit vis-a-vis intermunicipal collaboration. We found that the level of fit was generally weak. Also, we identified critical misalignments of ecological connectivity and intermunicipal collaboration, respectively, as well as collaborations that represented an adequate alignment. These findings inform on where to most effectively allocate limited resources of collaborative capacity to enhance the level of social-ecological fit. Our approach and results are illustrated using maps, which facilitates the potential application of this method in land use planning practice.

  • 16.
    Birnbaum, Simon
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Sandström, Annica
    Tracing the sources of legitimacy: the impact of deliberation in participatory natural resource management2015In: Policy sciences, ISSN 0032-2687, E-ISSN 1573-0891, Vol. 48, no 4, p. 443-461Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is widely assumed that stakeholder participation has great potential to improve the perceived legitimacy of natural resource management (NRM) and that the deliberative-democratic qualities of participatory procedures are central to the prospects of success. However, attempts to measure the actual effects of deliberation on the perceived legitimacy of participatory NRM are rare. This article examines the links between deliberation and legitimacy in participatory NRM empirically by tracing the determinants of stakeholders' level of policy support and their views about procedural fairness. The study uses statistical methods to analyse survey data from a state-led initiative to develop new plans for ecosystem-based coastal and marine management through a participatory approach in five coastal areas in Sweden. We find that the perceived quality of deliberation had a positive impact on these aspects of legitimacy. However, both policy support and perceived procedural fairness were mainly driven by instrumental-substantive considerations rather than deliberative-democratic qualities of the process.

  • 17. Blazquez-Cabrera, Sandra
    et al.
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Saura, Santiago
    Indicators of the impacts of habitat loss on connectivity and related conservation priorities: Do they change when habitat patches are defined at different scales?2014In: Ecological Indicators, ISSN 1470-160X, E-ISSN 1872-7034, Vol. 45, p. 704-716Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Delivering indicators of habitat connectivity first requires identifying the habitat units that will be treated as individual entities for spatially explicit analyses. These units can be defined at different spatial scales or hierarchical levels, from single habitat patches to aggregations of multiple neighbor patches. Many studies have assessed the scale sensitivity of landscape-level pattern metrics when changing spatial resolution or extent. However, how patch-level connectivity indicators change across hierarchical levels (independently from modifications in resolution or extent) has been largely overlooked, despite the potentially strong and determinant effects on their outcomes and final uses. We evaluated how the hierarchical level at which habitat units are defined affects two types of outcomes frequently derived from connectivity indicators: (i) the importance values (or estimated amount of decrease in landscape connectivity that would be caused by the loss of certain habitat areas), and (ii) the priority ranking (key areas to conserve to minimize connectivity loss), as given by a selected set of widely used metrics (habitat availability, network centrality, metapopulation capacity). We found that importance values can largely vary depending on how habitat units are defined, suggesting that such results may be flawed by a particular a priori selection of hierarchical levels. However, the identification of which parts of the landscape contain the key connectivity providers (priority ranking) was robust, particularly for those metrics that account for the amount of connectivity within habitat units. We conclude that current connectivity indicators based on patch removals do not allow, considering their scale dependence, to consistently assess the magnitude of connectivity decrease resulting from large-scale habitat loss, but that they can be used with much more confidence for detecting those key areas that most contribute to maintain current connectivity levels.

  • 18.
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Collaborative environmental governance: Achieving collective action in social-ecological systems2017In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 357, no 6352, p. 1-10Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Managing ecosystems is challenging because of the high number of stakeholders, the permeability of man-made political and jurisdictional demarcations in relation to the temporal and spatial extent of biophysical processes, and a limited understanding of complex ecosystem and societal dynamics. Given these conditions, collaborative governance is commonly put forward as the preferred means of addressing environmental problems. Under this paradigm, a deeper understanding of if, when, and how collaboration is effective, and when other means of addressing environmental problems are better suited, is needed. Interdisciplinary research on collaborative networks demonstrates that which actors get involved, with whom they collaborate, and in what ways they are tied to the structures of the ecosystems have profound implications on actors' abilities to address different types of environmental problems.

  • 19.
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Ecological Topology and Networks2009In: Encyclopedia of Complexity and Systems Science / [ed] Meyers, Robert, New York: Springer , 2009, p. 2728-2744Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Prioritizing habitat patches for conservation in fragmented landscapes/townscapes using network based models and analyses.2009In: Sustainable Development and Planning IV (vol1.): Proc. of  the Fourth International Conference on Sustainable Development and Planning, Cyprus, May 13-15, 2009. / [ed] C. A. Brebbia, N. Neophytou,E. Beriatos , I. Ioannou, and A.G. Kungolos, WIT Press , 2009, p. 109-118Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To preserve biodiversity in highly fragmented landscapes, it is crucial to conserve and possibly improve the connectivity among remaining habitat patches.However, multiple users are competing for a limited amount of land, and conservation efforts subsequently need to be efficiently directed to maximize biodiversity given limited resources.In terms of connectivity, this could be expressed as to which habitat patches do we really need to preserve, and which patches could we lose without facing any significant negative effects on connectivity? Network-based models of fragmented landscapes provide for comprehensive visualizations and analyses of landscape connectivity that could help in prioritizing habitat patches for conservation.This is especially valuable in a planning context where many different types of agents are typically involved, thus emphasizing the importance of being able to present key ecological implications of different spatially explicit habitat configurations in a easily understandable way. Here, three different aspects of landscape connectivity are presented, all suggested as being particularly suitable for network-based modeling approaches. These are: (i) estimating to what degree the landscapes spatial configuration enables re-colonization following local extinctions; (ii) identifying clusters of patches that together form sufficient habitat; and (iii) identifying key-stone patches that are crucial in providing connectivity

  • 21.
    Bodin, Örjan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Alexander, S. M.
    Baggio, J.
    Barnes, M. L.
    Berardo, R.
    Cumming, G. S.
    Dee, L. E.
    Fischer, A. P.
    Fischer, M.
    Mancilla Garcia, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Guerrero, A. M.
    Hileman, Jacob
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Ingold, K.
    Matous, P.
    Morrison, T. H.
    Nohrstedt, D.
    Pittman, J.
    Robins, G.
    Sayles, J. S.
    Improving network approaches to the study of complex social-ecological interdependencies2019In: Nature sustainability, ISSN 2398-9629, Vol. 2, no 7, p. 551-559Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Achieving effective, sustainable environmental governance requires a better understanding of the causes and consequences of the complex patterns of interdependencies connecting people and ecosystems within and across scales. Network approaches for conceptualizing and analysing these interdependencies offer one promising solution. Here, we present two advances we argue are needed to further this area of research: (i) a typology of causal assumptions explicating the causal aims of any given network-centric study of social-ecological interdependencies; (ii) unifying research design considerations that facilitate conceptualizing exactly what is interdependent, through what types of relationships and in relation to what kinds of environmental problems. The latter builds on the appreciation that many environmental problems draw from a set of core challenges that re-occur across contexts. We demonstrate how these advances combine into a comparative heuristic that facilitates leveraging case-specific findings of social-ecological interdependencies to generalizable, yet context-sensitive, theories based on explicit assumptions of causal relationships.

  • 22.
    Bodin, Örjan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Barnes, Michele L.
    McAllister, Ryan R. J.
    Rocha, Juan Carlos
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Swedish Royal Academy of Science, Sweden; Princeton University, USA.
    Guerrero, Angela M.
    Social-Ecological Network Approaches in Interdisciplinary Research: A Response to Bohan et al. and Dee et al.2017In: Trends in Ecology & Evolution, ISSN 0169-5347, E-ISSN 1872-8383, Vol. 32, no 8, p. 547-549Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Bodin, Örjan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Carlsen, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Lyxkonsumera för miljöns skull2015In: Expressen, ISSN 1103-923X, no 28 marsArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 24.
    Bodin, Örjan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Friends or neighbors? Subgroup heterogeneity and the importance of bonding and bridging ties in natural resource governance2011In: Social networks and natural resource management: uncovering the social fabric of environmental governance / [ed] Örjan Bodin, Christina Prell, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011, p. 206-233Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Bodin, Örjan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Science, Sweden.
    Thyresson, Matilda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Golz, Anna-lea
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Tengö, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Conservation Success as a Function of Good Alignment of Social and Ecological Structures and Processes2014In: Conservation Biology, ISSN 0888-8892, E-ISSN 1523-1739, Vol. 28, no 5, p. 1371-1379Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How to create and adjust governing institutions so that they align (fit) with complex ecosystem processes and structures across scales is an issue of increasing concern in conservation. It is argued that lack of such social-ecological fit makes governance and conservation difficult, yet progress in explicitly defining and rigorously testing what constitutes a good fit has been limited. We used a novel modeling approach and data from case studies of fishery and forest conservation to empirically test presumed relationships between conservation outcomes and certain patterns of alignment of social-ecological interdependences. Our approach made it possible to analyze conservation outcome on a systems level while also providing information on how individual actors are positioned in the complex web of social-ecological interdependencies. We found that when actors who shared resources were also socially linked, conservation at the level of the whole social-ecological system was positively affected. When the scales at which individual actors used resources and the scale at which ecological resources were interconnected to other ecological resources were aligned through tightened feedback loops, conservation outcome was better than when they were not aligned. The analysis of individual actors' positions in the web of social-ecological interdependencies was helpful in understanding why a system has a certain level of social-ecological fit. Results of analysis of positions showed that different actors contributed in very different ways to achieve a certain fit and revealed some underlying difference between the actors, for example in terms of actors' varying rights to access and use different ecological resources.

  • 26.
    Bodin, Örjan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Duke University, USA.
    Nohrstedt, D.
    Formation and performance of collaborative disaster management networks: Evidence from a Swedish wildfire response2016In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 41, p. 183-194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural disasters present a multitude of entangled societal challenges beyond the realms and capacities of single actors. Prior research confirms that effective collaboration is of critical significance to address such complex collective action problems. Yet, studies rarely investigate if patterns of collaboration are appropriately aligned ('fit') with how different challenges (tasks) are interdependent, or how levels of fit influence collective action performance. We develop a set of hypotheses specifying what constitutes a good fit between collaborative networks and task interdependency. Using unique empirical data from the response to a major wildfire in Sweden, we examine how individual actors select collaboration partners and tasks during the formation the collaborative crisis response network. Then we test if levels of fit in the established network influence performance. We show that patterns of actor and task interdependency influence the formation of collaborative networks and that a good fit seems to be associated with more effective collaboration. Our data even suggest that a good fit is more important for performance than actors' prior crisis management experience and level of professionalization. Further, we show that actors only partially engage in actor-task configurations conducive to high performance. Our study probes the limitations of simplified accounts of collaborative disaster management by enabling more precise and theoretically informed empirical inquiries regarding the mechanisms that shape the structure and performance of collaborative networks.

  • 27.
    Bodin, Örjan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology. Naturresurshushållning.
    Norberg, Jon
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology. Naturresurshushållning.
    A network approach for analyzing spatially structured populations in fragmented landscape2007In: Landscape Ecology, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 31-44Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Bodin, Örjan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Prell, Christina
    University of Maryland.
    Social network analysis in natural resource governance: summary and outlook2011In: Social Networks and Natural Resource Management: uncovering the Social Fabric of Environmental Governance / [ed] Örjan Bodin; Christina Prell, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011, 1Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Social Network Analysis (SNA), a quantitative approach to the study of social relations, has recently emerged as a key tool for understanding the governance of natural resources. Bringing together contributions from a range of researchers in the field, this is the first book to fully explore the potential applications of SNA in the context of natural resource management. Topics covered include the role of SNA in stakeholder selection; improving fisheries management and conservation; the effect of social network ties on public satisfaction and agrarian communication networks. Numerous case studies link SNA concepts to the theories underlying natural resource governance, such as social learning, adaptive co-management and social movements theory. Reflecting on the challenges and opportunities associated with this evolving field, this is an ideal resource for students and researchers involved in many areas of natural resource management, environmental biology, sustainability science and sociology.

  • 29.
    Bodin, Örjan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Ramirez-Sanchez, S.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Prell, C.
    A social relational approach to natural resource governance2011In: Social networks and natural resource management: uncovering the social fabric of environmental governance, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011, 1, p. 3-28Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Bodin, Örjan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Duke University, USA.
    Robins, Garry
    McAllister, Ryan R. J.
    Guerrero, Angela M.
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Tengö, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Lubell, Mark
    Theorizing benefits and constraints in collaborative environmental governance: a transdisciplinary social-ecological network approach for empirical investigations2016In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 21, no 1, article id 40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When environmental processes cut across socioeconomic boundaries, traditional top-down government approaches struggle to effectively manage and conserve ecosystems. In such cases, governance arrangements that foster multiactor collaboration are needed. The effectiveness of such arrangements, however, depends on how well any ecological interdependencies across governed ecosystems are aligned with patterns of collaboration. This inherent interdisciplinary and complex problem has impeded progress in developing a better understanding of how to govern ecosystems for conservation in an increasingly interconnected world. We argue for the development of empirically informed theories, which are not only able to transcend disciplinary boundaries, but are also explicit in taking these complex social-ecological interdependences into account. We show how this emerging research frontier can be significantly improved by incorporating recent advances in stochastic modeling of multilevel social networks. An empirical case study from an agricultural landscape in Madagascar is reanalyzed to demonstrate these improvements.

  • 31.
    Bodin, Örjan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Sandström, Annica
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Collaborative Networks for Effective Ecosystem-Based Management: A Set of Working Hypotheses2017In: Policy Studies Journal, ISSN 0190-292X, E-ISSN 1541-0072, Vol. 45, no 2, p. 289-314Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecosystem-based management (EBM) represents a comprehensive approach to better govern the environment that also illustrates the collaborative trend in policy and public administration. The need for stakeholder involvement and collaboration is strongly articulated, yet how and for what purposes collaboration would be effective remains largely untested. We address this gap by developing and evaluating a set of hypotheses specifying how certain patterns of collaborations among actors affect their joint ability to accomplish EBM. Content analyses of management plans drawn from five EBM planning processes in Sweden are combined with analyses of the collaborative networks through which these plans have been developed. Our results indicate that system thinking and the ability to integrate across different management phases are favored by collaborations between different kinds of actors, and by project leaders being centrally located in the networks. We also find that dense substructures of collaboration increase the level of specificity in the plans in regards to explicating constraints on human activities. Having many collaborative ties does however not enhance the overall level of specificity. Our results also show that different network characteristics can give rise to similar EBM outcomes. This observed equifinality suggests there is no single blueprint for well-performing collaborative networks.

  • 32.
    Bodin, Örjan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Saura, Santiago
    Ranking individual habitat patches as connectivity providers: Integrating network analysis and patch removal experiments2010In: Ecological Modelling, ISSN 0304-3800, E-ISSN 1872-7026, Vol. 221, no 19, p. 2393-2405Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here we propose an integrated framework for modeling connectivity that can help ecologists, conservation planners and managers to identify patches that, more than others, contribute to uphold species dispersal and other ecological flows in a landscape context. We elaborate, extend and partly integrate recent network-based approaches for modeling and supporting the management of fragmented landscapes. In doing so, experimental patch removal techniques and network analytical approaches are merged into one integrated modeling framework for assessing the role of individual patches as connectivity providers. In particular, we focus the analyses on the habitat availability metrics PC and IIC and on the network metric Betweenness Centrality. The combination and extension of these metrics jointly assess both the immediate connectivity impacts of the loss of a particular patch and the resulting increased vulnerability of the network to subsequent disruptions. In using the framework to analyze the connectivity of two real landscapes in Madagascar and Catalonia (NE Spain), we suggest a procedure that can be used to rank individual habitat patches and show that the combined metrics reveal relevant and non-redundant information valuable to assert and quantify distinctive connectivity aspects of any given patch in the landscape. Hence, we argue that the proposed framework could facilitate more ecologically informed decision-making in managing fragmented landscapes. Finally, we discuss and highlight some of the advantages, limitations and key differences between the considered metrics.

  • 33.
    Bodin, Örjan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Tengö, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Norman, Anna
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Lundberg, Jakob
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    The value of small size: loss of forest patches and ecological thresholds in southern Madagascar2006In: Ecological Applications, ISSN 1051-0761, E-ISSN 1939-5582, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 440-451Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many services generated by forest ecosystems provide essential support for human well-being. However, the vulnerability of these services to environmental change such as forest fragmentation are still poorly understood. We present spatial modeling of the generation of ecosystem services in a human-dominated landscape where forest habitat patches, protected by local taboos, are located in a matrix of cultivated land in southern Madagascar. Two ecosystem services dependent on the forest habitats were addressed: (1) crop pollination services by wild and semidomesticated bees (Apoidea), essential for local crop production of, for example, beans, and (2) seed dispersal services based on the presence of ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta). We studied the vulnerability of these ecosystem services to a plausible scenario of successive destruction of the smallest habitat patches. Our results indicate that, in spite of the fragmented nature of the landscape, the fraction of the landscape presently covered by both crop pollination and seed dispersal services is surprisingly high. It seems that the taboo system, though indirectly and unintentionally, contributes to upholding the generation of these services by protecting the forest patches. Both services are, however, predicted to be very vulnerable to the successive removal of small patches. For crop pollination, the rate of decrease in cover was significant even when only the smallest habitat patches were removed. The capacity for seed dispersal across the landscape displayed several thresholds with habitat patch removal. Our results suggest that, in order to maintain capacity for seed dispersal across the landscape and crop pollination cover in southern Androy, the geographical location of the remaining forest patches is more crucial than their size. We argue that in heavily fragmented production landscapes, small forest patches should increasingly be viewed as essential for maintaining ecosystem services, such as agricultural production, and also should be considered in the ongoing process of tripling the area of protected habitats in Madagascar.

  • 34.
    Bodin, Örjan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Österblom, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    International fisheries regime effectiveness: Activities and resources of key actors in the Southern Ocean2013In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 948-956Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many contemporary environmental challenges are truly global and span several organizational and geographical borders. Research on international environmental regimes has, over the last couple of decades, identified several important factors that contribute to a more effective governance of global ecological resources, but few studies have addressed the different roles certain influential individual organizations play in determining regime effectiveness. Here we address this question by studying a relatively successful fishery governance system in the Southern Ocean. By drawing on insights from the research fields of common-pool resource management and international environmental regimes, we demonstrate that organizations engaged in certain combinations of activities, and that have access to certain combinations of resources stand out as important for regime effectiveness. In particular, collaboration with other flag states and being politically well-connected stand out as important explanatory factors. However, access to advanced technology, engagement in public campaigns, and being active in the field are other factors that, in different combinations, also seem to explain organizational importance. Furthermore, governmental and non-governmental organizations tend to perform different sets of activities and possess different resources, thereby complementing each other. Also, organizations doing similar things are often of different types with different mandates and objectives. This could contribute to improved adaptability and responsiveness to change at the larger regime level. Finally, we discuss some potential implications of our results for capacity-building in international environmental governance.

  • 35.
    Borgström, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Sandström, Annica
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Developing an analytical framework for assessing progress toward ecosystem-based management2015In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 44, p. 357-369Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecosystem-based management (EBM) has become a key instrument of contemporary environmental policy and practice. Given the increasingly important role of EBM, there is an urgent need for improved analytical approaches to assess if and to what extent EBM has been accomplished in any given case. Drawing on the vast literature on EBM, we identify five key ecosystem aspects for assessment. By linking these aspects to four phases of management, we develop an interdisciplinary, analytical framework that enables a high-resolution and systematic assessment of the degree of specificity and integration of ecosystem aspects in an EBM. We then apply the framework to evaluate five coastal EBM initiatives in Sweden, four on the Baltic coast and one on the west coast. Our results demonstrate our framework's usefulness for in-depth and continuous assessments of processes aiming for EBM, and also provide an empirical basis for inferences about the key challenges for successful EBM.

  • 36.
    Carlsen, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Eriksson, E. Anders
    Dreborg, Karl Henrik
    Johansson, Bengt
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Systematic exploration of scenario spaces2016In: Foresight, ISSN 1463-6689, E-ISSN 1465-9832, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 59-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - Scenarios have become a vital methodological approach in business as well as in public policy. When scenarios are used to guide analysis and decision-making, the aim is typically robustness and in this context we argue that two main problems at scenario set level is conservatism, i.e. all scenarios are close to a perceived business-as-usual trajectory and lack of balance in the sense of arbitrarily mixing some conservative and some extreme scenarios. The purpose of this paper is to address these shortcomings by proposing a methodology for generating sets of scenarios which are in a mathematical sense maximally diverse. Design/methodology/approach - In this paper, we develop a systematic methodology, Scenario Diversity Analysis (SDA), which addresses the problems of broad span vs conservatism and imbalance. From a given set of variables with associated states, SDA generates scenario sets where the scenarios are in a quantifiable sense maximally different and therefore best span the whole set of feasible scenarios. Findings - The usefulness of the methodology is exemplified by applying it to sets of storylines of the emissions scenarios of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. This ex-post analysis shows that the storylines were not maximally diverse and given the challenges ahead with regard to emissions reduction and adaptation planning, we argue that it is important to strive for diversity when developing scenario sets for climate change research. Originality/value - The proposed methodology adds significant novel features to the field of systematic scenario generation, especially with regard to scenario diversity. The methodology also enables the combination of systematics with the distinct future logics of good intuitive logics scenarios.

  • 37. Cinner, J. E.
    et al.
    Mcclanahan, T. R.
    Graham, N. A. J.
    Daw, Tim
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Maina, J.
    Stead, S. M.
    Wamukota, A.
    Brown, A.
    Vulnerability of coastal communities to key impacts of climate change on coral reef fisheries2012In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 12-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coral reefs support the livelihood of millions of people especially those engaged in marine fisheries activities. Coral reefs are highly vulnerable to climate change induced stresses that have led to substantial coral mortality over large spatial scales. Such climate change impacts have the potential to lead to declines in marine fish production and compromise the livelihoods of fisheries dependent communities. Yet few studies have examined social vulnerability in the context of changes specific to coral reef ecosystems. In this paper, we examine three dimensions of vulnerability (exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity) of 29 coastal communities across five western Indian Ocean countries to the impacts of coral bleaching on fishery returns. A key contribution is the development of a novel, network-based approach to examining sensitivity to changes in the fishery that incorporates linkages between fishery and non-fishery occupations. We find that key sources of vulnerability differ considerably within and between the five countries. Our approach allows the visualization of how these dimensions of vulnerability differ from site to site, providing important insights into the types of nuanced policy interventions that may help to reduce vulnerability at a specific location. To complement this, we develop framework of policy actions thought to reduce different aspects of vulnerability at varying spatial and temporal scales. Although our results are specific to reef fisheries impacts from coral bleaching, this approach provides a framework for other types of threats and different social-ecological systems more broadly.

  • 38. Cinner, Joshua E.
    et al.
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Livelihood Diversification in Tropical Coastal Communities: A Network-Based Approach to Analyzing 'Livelihood Landscapes'2010In: PloS one, ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 5, no 8, p. e11999-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Diverse livelihood portfolios are frequently viewed as a critical component of household economies in developing countries. Within the context of natural resources governance in particular, the capacity of individual households to engage in multiple occupations has been shown to influence important issues such as whether fishers would exit a declining fishery, how people react to policy, the types of resource management systems that may be applicable, and other decisions about natural resource use. Methodology/Principal Findings: This paper uses network analysis to provide a novel methodological framework for detailed systemic analysis of household livelihood portfolios. Paying particular attention to the role of natural resource-based occupations such as fisheries, we use network analyses to map occupations and their interrelationships-what we refer to as 'livelihood landscapes'. This network approach allows for the visualization of complex information about dependence on natural resources that can be aggregated at different scales. We then examine how the role of natural resource-based occupations changes along spectra of socioeconomic development and population density in 27 communities in 5 western Indian Ocean countries. Network statistics, including in-and out-degree centrality, the density of the network, and the level of network centralization are compared along a multivariate index of community-level socioeconomic development and a gradient of human population density. The combination of network analyses suggests an increase in household-level specialization with development for most occupational sectors, including fishing and farming, but that at the community-level, economies remained diversified. Conclusions/Significance: The novel modeling approach introduced here provides for various types of livelihood portfolio analyses at different scales of social aggregation. Our livelihood landscapes approach provides insights into communities' dependencies and usages of natural resources, and shows how patterns of occupational interrelationships relate to socioeconomic development and population density. A key question for future analysis is how the reduction of household occupational diversity, but maintenance of community diversity we see with increasing socioeconomic development influences key aspects of societies' vulnerability to environmental change or disasters.

  • 39.
    Crona, Beatrice
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Barriers in transforming to sustainable governance: the role of key individuals2011In: Social networks in natural resource governance / [ed] Örjan Bodin, Christina Prell, Cambridge University Press, 2011Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Crona, Beatrice
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Knowledge, social networks, and leadership: setting the stage for the development of adaptive institutions?2011In: Adapting institutions: governance, complexity and social-ecological resilience / [ed] Emily Boyd, Carl Folke, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011, 1, p. 11-36Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Crona, Beatrice
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Gelcich, Stefan
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    The Importance of Interplay Between Leadership and Social Capital in Shaping Outcomes of Rights-Based Fisheries Governance2017In: World Development, ISSN 0305-750X, E-ISSN 1873-5991, Vol. 91, p. 70-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As concerns about anthropogenically driven marine resource decline continue, rights-based approaches to fisheries governance have gained attention. Territorial User Rights (TURF) is one example increasingly promoted to enhancing sustainability of small-scale fisheries. Despite rising global interest empirical inquiry into the factors contributing to TURF outcomes remains limited and focus has centered on the ecological and fisheries outcomes, largely neglecting documentation of social consequences and social determinants of success. This paper aims to move the theoretical and empirical work on the role of social capital and leadership in natural resource governance (particularly fisheries) forward by deepening the discussion around the conceptualization and operationalintion of social capital. We also extend empirical work on TURF performance by examining multiple social and ecological outcomes. We put forth four theoretically informed propositions about the relationship between key explanatory variables and outcomes. Using empirical data from six Chilean Territorial User Rights areas we provide an early assessment of the validity of these propositions using a case comparative approach, and test their usefulness in operationalizing and analyzing such multifaceted data. Findings show that social capital may not be a useful predictor of success, while the presence of engaged leadership and agreement among members around sanctions appears more closely linked to performance across all social and ecological outcome variables. A key finding is that the use of social capital as a broad term encompassing multiple pro-social variables may not be a fruitful way forward for improving our understanding of the determinants of success in resource management. Instead results indicate that leadership interacts with specific aspects of what is generally referred to as social capital to affect outcomes. To allow theoretical refinement and hypotheses testing regarding determinants of governance outcomes we suggest the social processes measured under the broad umbrella of social capital should be kept separate.

  • 42. Cumming, Graeme S.
    et al.
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology. Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology. Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology. Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Network analysis in conservation biogeography: challenges and opportunities2010In: Diversity & distributions: A journal of biological invasions and biodiversity, ISSN 1366-9516, E-ISSN 1472-4642, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 414-425Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims  To highlight the potential value of network analysis for conservation biogeography and to focus attention on some of the challenges that lie ahead in applying it to conservation problems.

    Location  Global.

    Methods  We briefly review existing literature and then focus on five important challenges for the further development of network-based approaches in the field.

    Results  Our five challenges include (i) understanding cross-scale and cross-level linkages in ecological systems (top–down and bottom–up effects, such as trophic cascades, have been demonstrated in food webs but are poorly understood in nested hierarchies such as reserve networks and stream catchments), (ii) capturing dynamic aspects of ecological systems and networks (with a few exceptions we have little grasp of how important whole-network attributes change as the composition of nodes and links changes), (iii) integrating ecological aspects of network theory with metacommunity frameworks and multiple node functions and roles (can we link the spatial patterns of habitat patches in fragmented landscapes, the parallel networks of interacting species using those patches and community-level interactions as defined by metacommunity theory in a single framework?), (iv) integrating the analysis of social and ecological networks (particularly, can they be analysed as a single interacting system?) and (v) laying an empirical foundation for network analysis in conservation biogeography (this will require a larger data bank of well-studied networks from diverse habitats and systems).

    Main conclusions  Recent research has identified a variety of approaches that we expect to contribute to progress in each of our five challenge areas. We anticipate that some of the most exciting outcomes of attempts to meet these challenges will be frameworks that unite areas of research, such as food web analysis and metacommunity theory, that have developed independently.

  • 43.
    Enqvist, Johan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Tengö, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Citizen networks in the Garden City: Protecting urban ecosystems in rapid urbanization2014In: Landscape and Urban Planning, ISSN 0169-2046, E-ISSN 1872-6062, Vol. 130, p. 24-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Citizen groups can be important actors in urban environmental stewardship, and network structure often influences function and performance. However, most previous studies focus on cities in developed countries, thereby overlooking conditions relevant for the parts of the planet where most people live and most urban growth is expected. This paper describes a citizen network engaged in environmental issues in Bangalore, India, where rapid urbanization puts pressure on conventional management structures as well as the ecosystems providing benefits for the city's inhabitants. The study uses a mixed methods approach of qualitative interviews and social network analysis. Results show that the citizen network functions as a platform that enables interaction between diverse interest groups, and as a watchdog that monitors parks, lakes and trees to prevent further loss of fragmented urban ecosystems. The network's activities are influenced by internal tensions between inclusiveness and efficiency, and between internal and external legitimacy. Although core actors have central network positions, strong leadership or political alliances are not considered important; members instead prefer to emphasize transparency and democratic participation. This limits the capacity to act collectively on controversial issues, but creates an inclusive forum that bridges between groups in the heterogeneous and dynamic population. This is important for monitoring Bangalore's fragmented ecosystems and for raising public awareness and support. Findings indicate an urgent need to develop a comprehensive framework for urban environmental stewardship, to better describe potential roles of citizens in governance across diverse social, political and ecological conditions, and during different periods of urban change.

  • 44.
    Enqvist, Johan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Tengö, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Enhancing social–ecological fit from the bottom up: Urban lake networks and grassroots innovatorsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban environmental governance is often hampered by social institutions being poorly aligned with fragmented ecosystems. Bottom-up approaches have been argued to address this problem of social-ecological fit, but there is a lack of empirical understanding of how local initiatives might emerge and spread in a way that enhances fit. We study a system of hydrologically interconnected lakes in Bengaluru, which public authorities have largely failed to protect resulting in many degraded lakes and undermined societal and ecological benefits that the system of lakes provides. Local residents have, largely in response to these failures, formed lake groups and convinced municipal actors to recognize them as partners that share management responsibilities for certain lakes. These initiatives have inspired others to follow suit and work with lakes elsewhere in the city, hence triggering the question whether local lake groups in this way contribute to a better social–ecological fit at a broader landscape scale. This study mixes quantitative social–ecological network analysis with interviews to analyze fit and describe the processes by which lake management can be shaped to match ecosystem structure. Results show that certain key lake groups – enabled by supportive municipal officers – have successfully innovated how lakes are managed, acknowledging their place in and dependence on the broader network of interconnected lakes. In the wake of this, a new generation of collaborative lake groups is emerging, where lakes are often managed more holistically by recognizing them to be part of the larger network of lakes. The analysis identifies key lake groups that are instrumental to shaping the spread of the bottom-up driven initiatives in ways that aligns with the interconnected nature of the lake system. This is a process that relies on acknowledgement and support from public authorities, but is primarily driven by local actors. By describing this process of innovation and diffusion, the study contributes important lessons on how to enhance fit between governance arrangements and the ecosystem on which cities depend.

  • 45.
    Galaz, Victor
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Daw, T
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Nyström, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Can web crawlers revolutionize ecological monitoring?2010In: Frontiers in ecology and the environment, ISSN 1540-9295, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 99-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite recent advances, ecosystem service monitoring is limited by insufficient data, the complexity of social–ecological systems, and poor integration of information that tracks changes in ecosystems and economic activities. However, new information and communication technologies are revolutionizing the generation of, and access to, such data. Can researchers who are interested in ecological monitoring tap into these increased flows of information by “mining” the internet to detect “early-warning” signs that may signal abrupt ecological changes? Here, we explore the possibility of using web crawlers and internet-based information to complement conventional ecological monitoring, with a special emphasis on the prospects for avoiding “late warnings”, that is, when ecosystems have already shifted to less desirable states. Using examples from coral reef ecosystems, we explore the untapped potential, as well as the limitations, of relying on web-based information to monitor ecosystem services and forewarn us of negative ecological shifts.

  • 46.
    Galaz, Victor
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Österblom, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Global networks and global change-induced tipping points2016In: International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics, ISSN 1567-9764, E-ISSN 1573-1553, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 189-221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The existence of tipping points in human-environmental systems at multiple scales-such as abrupt negative changes in coral reef ecosystems, runaway climate change, and interacting nonlinear planetary boundariesaEurois often viewed as a substantial challenge for governance due to their inherent uncertainty, potential for rapid and large system change, and possible cascading effects on human well-being. Despite an increased scholarly and policy interest in the dynamics of these perceived tipping points, institutional and governance scholars have yet to make progress on how to analyze in which ways state and non-state actors attempt to anticipate, respond, and prevent the transgression of tipping points at large scales. In this article, we use three cases of global network responses to what we denote as global change-induced tipping pointsaEuroocean acidification, fisheries collapse, and infectious disease outbreaks. Based on the commonalities in several research streams, we develop four working propositions: information processing and early warning, multilevel and multinetwork responses, diversity in response capacity, and the balance between efficiency and legitimacy. We conclude by proposing a simple framework for the analysis of the interplay between perceived global change-induced tipping points, global networks, and international institutions.

  • 47.
    Garcia, Maria Mancilla
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Hileman, Jacob
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Nilsson, Annika
    Jacobi, Pedro Roberto
    The unique role of municipalities in integrated watershed governance arrangements: a new research frontier2019In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 24, no 1, article id 28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Local governments, or municipalities, play a key role in water governance around the world owing to the many administrative competencies they hold, ranging from water service delivery to urban planning. However, the ability of municipalities to carry out their competencies effectively depends in large part on the characteristics of the institutional arrangements in which they are embedded. In particular, the relationship between municipalities and watershed governance institutions has received little attention in the literature on polycentric and multilevel governance. Drawing on insights from diverse cases around the world, we argue that empirical research must pay closer attention to the links, or lack thereof, between municipalities and watershed governance institutions to improve the sustainability of water governance outcomes in practice. We identify a set of critical issues affecting municipalities' engagement in governance at the watershed scale that broadly apply across different contexts, and which we argue deserve more attention in future research: (1) disconnect and ambiguities of authority across hierarchical levels; (2) internal and external challenges to municipalities engaging in effective collaborations; (3) barriers to expanding the scope of traditional municipal affairs; and (4) misalignment of biophysical, institutional, and political timescales.

  • 48.
    García, María Mancilla
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Participatory Water Basin Councils in Peru and Brazil: Expert discourses as means and barriers to inclusion2019In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 55, p. 139-148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the last twenty years, participatory forums have been increasingly used to manage water basins around the world. The implementation of participatory forums has sought to prevent and overcome conflicts by bringing together a multiplicity of stakeholders in joint efforts to deliberate, achieve mutually agreed upon decisions, and distribute limited water resources. Different literature streams have evaluated the benefits and challenges of participatory forums in practice, such as the difficulties some forums have had when confronting existing power structures. Separately, research on water governance has paid particular attention to the ways in which expert discourses are used by traditionally powerful actors to exclude less powerful others. This paper draws from the literatures on participation and discourses in environmental governance to empirically investigate how expert discourses may empower or disempower certain actors in four basin councils - two in Peru and two in Brazil. Through qualitative thematic analysis of 116 interviews and observation notes, we specifically investigate the extent to which expert discourses in these basin councils help empower previously excluded actors. Our findings indicate stakeholder interests that are not, or cannot, be expressed within the frame of expert discourses are often marginalized. This suggests participation has made it possible for some previously excluded actors to have a voice, yet their potential influence is seemingly confined to a restricted space beyond which their voices will have little effect.

  • 49.
    Gonzalez-Mon, Blanca
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Nenadovic, Mateja
    Basurto, Xavier
    Small-scale fish buyers' trade networks reveal diverse actor types and differential adaptive capacities2019In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 164, article id 106338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of understanding how social-ecological interdependencies deriving from global trade influence sustainability has been argued for decades. Even if substantial progress has been made, a research gap remains regarding how the adaptability of small-scale fish buyers, whose daily operations have implications for the livelihood of more than 100 million people, are affected by networks of trade relationships. Adaptability is here defined as fish buyers' abilities to adapt using their relationships with others. We elaborate how these capacities relate to the precise patterns in which a fish buyer is entangled with other fish buyers, with the fishers, and with the targeted fish species, by combining a multilevel social-ecological network model with empirical data from a small-scale fishery in Mexico. Further, we also identify types of fish buyers distinguishable by how they operate, and how they are embedded in the trading network. Our results suggest that adaptability differs substantially amongst these types, thus implying that fish buyers' abilities to respond to changes are unevenly distributed. This study demonstrates the need for a more profound understanding of the consequences of the different ways in which fish buyers operate commercially, and how these operations are affected by patterns of social and social-ecological interdependencies.

  • 50. Guerrero, Angela M.
    et al.
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    McAllister, Ryan R. J.
    Wilson, Kerrie A.
    Achieving social-ecological fit through bottom-up collaborative governance: an empirical investigation2015In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 20, no 4, article id 41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Significant benefits can arise from collaborative forms of governance that foster self-organization and flexibility. Likewise, governance systems that fit with the extent and complexity of the system under management are considered essential to our ability to solve environmental problems. However, from an empirical perspective the fundamental question of whether self-organized (bottom-up) collaborative forms of governance are able to accomplish adequate fit is unresolved. We used new theory and methodological approaches underpinned by interdisciplinary network analysis to address this gap by investigating three governance challenges that relate to the problem of fit: shared management of ecological resources, management of interconnected ecological resources, and cross-scale management. We first identified a set of social-ecological network configurations that represent the hypothesized ways in which collaborative arrangements can contribute to addressing these challenges. Using social and ecological data from a large-scale biodiversity conservation initiative in Australia, we empirically determined how well the observed patterns of stakeholder interactions reflect these network configurations. We found that stakeholders collaborate to manage individual parcels of native vegetation, but not for the management of interconnected parcels. In addition, our data show that the collaborative arrangements enable management across different scales (local, regional, supraregional). Our study provides empirical support for the ability of collaborative forms of governance to address the problem of fit, but also suggests that in some cases the establishment of bottom-up collaborative arrangements would likely benefit from specific guidance to facilitate the establishment of collaborations that better align with the ways ecological resources are interconnected across the landscape. In our case study region, this would improve the capacity of stakeholders to detect both the intended and unintended off-site impacts of management actions. Our approach offers an avenue for empirical evaluations of collaborative governance so that preconditions for effectiveness of environmental programs can be enhanced.

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