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  • 1. Abubakar, Amin
    et al.
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Social connectedness, life satisfaction and school engagement: moderating role of ethnic minority status on resilience processes of Roma youth2016In: European Journal of Developmental Psychology, ISSN 1740-5629, E-ISSN 1740-5610, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 361-376Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined the influence of connectedness on school engagement and life satisfaction among Roma (n = 121) and Bulgarian (n = 143) mainstream adolescents (mean age 15.89, SD = 1.18). A set of measures on family, peer, school and neighbourhood connectedness were administered alongside life satisfaction and school engagement scales. Multigroup path analysis indicated that while the relationship between connectedness, life satisfaction and school engagement was largely the same across groups, the strength of such relationship differed among groups. A closer inspection of the model indicated that when it comes to school engagement, there was a salient difference in the role of different forms of connectedness between Roma and mainstream adolescents. For Roma adolescents, familial connectedness was especially salient for school engagement. The practical and theoretical implications of our findings for strengths and adaptive processes among Roma adolescents in Bulgaria are discussed.

  • 2. Abubakar, Amina
    et al.
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Tair, Ergyul
    Measurement Invariance of the Brief Multidimensional Student’s Life Satisfaction Scale Among Adolescents and Emerging Adults Across 23 Cultural Contexts2016In: Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, ISSN 0734-2829, E-ISSN 1557-5144, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 28-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is hardly any cross-cultural research on the measurement invariance of the Brief Multidimensional Students’ Life Satisfaction Scales (BMSLSS). The current article evaluates the measurement invariance of the BMSLSS across cultural contexts. This cross-sectional study sampled 7,739 adolescents and emerging adults in 23 countries. A multi-group confirmatory factor analysis showed a good fit of configural and partial measurement weights invariance models, indicating similar patterns and strengths in factor loading for both adolescents and emerging adults across various countries. We found insufficient evidence for scalar invariance in both the adolescents’ and the emerging adults’ samples. A multi-level confirmatory factor analysis indicated configural invariance of the structure at country and individual level. Internal consistency, evaluated by alpha and omega coefficients per country, yielded acceptable results. The translated BMSLSS across different cultural contexts presents good psychometric characteristics similar to what has been reported in the original scale, though scalar invariance remains problematic. Our results indicate that the BMSLSS forms a brief measure of life satisfaction, which has accrued substantial evidence of construct validity, thus suitable for use in cross-cultural surveys with adolescents and emerging adults, although evaluation of degree of invariance must be carried out to ensure its suitability for mean comparisons.

  • 3. Aydinli-Karakulak, Arzu
    et al.
    Baylar, Ayben
    Cagla Keles, Seray
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology. Hiroshima University, Japan .
    Positive Affect and School Related Outcomes: Feeling Good Facilitates School Engagement Among Turkish-Bulgarian Minority Adolescents2017In: Well-Being of Youth and Emerging Adults across Cultures: Novel Approaches and Findings from Europe, Asia, Africa and America / [ed] Radosveta Dimitrova, Cham: Springer, 2017, p. 145-156Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fredrickson's (Rev Gen Psychol 2:300-319, 1998, Am Psychol 56:218-226, 2001) Broaden and Build Theory (BBT) proposes that experiencing positive affect results in broadened thoughts and behaviors, which facilitate adaptive responses to various environmental conditions. The present chapter tests the applicability of this theory for school engagement in an acculturation context and examines whether or to what extent positive affect also facilitates school engagement for 201 Turkish-Bulgarian adolescents (59% male) aged 14-19 years. Results showed that experiencing positive affect was positively related to school engagement among Turkish-Bulgarian youth, and thereby provide support for the applicability of Fredrickson's theory in an acculturation contect. Findings highlight the role of positive affect for school engagement and can be used to facilitate the adaption process of youth by promoting the creation of environment in which the experience of positive affect is fostered.

  • 4. Aydinli-Karakulak, Arzu
    et al.
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Brief report: When does identity lead to negative affective experiences?: A comparison of Turkish–Bulgarian and Turkish–German adolescents2016In: Journal of Adolescence, ISSN 0140-1971, E-ISSN 1095-9254, Vol. 47, p. 125-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine relationships between social identity domains (ethnic, national, and religious) and negative affect among Turkish–Bulgarian and Turkish–German youth. Path analysis confirmed a multiple social identities (MSI) factor that has negative relations to experiencing negative affect for Turkish youth in both countries. Beyond this negative relationship, the component of national identity showed a positive relationship to negative affect for Turkish–Bulgarians, but not for Turkish–Germans. Our findings indicate that beyond the generally adaptive effect of MSI on youth development, unique components of social identity may not always be an asset: In an assimilative acculturation context (i.e., Bulgaria), the endorsement of national identity was not adaptive. Our research therefore highlights the need for a contextually differentiated view on “healthy” identity formation among immigrants for research and practice.

  • 5. Buzea, Carmen
    et al.
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Internal versus External Ethnic Identification of Roma: Implications for Social Inclusion in Romania2016In: Social Work Review, ISSN 1583-0608, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Roma represent the most relevant and sizable ethnic minority across Europe with estimates varying from 10 up to 15 million of people. However, discrepancy in external (ascribed by others) and internal or self-defined ethnic identification of Roma are largely present in Europe and Romania in particular. We set out to explore internal and external ethnic identification of Romanian Roma by investigating Roma communities from 58 Romanian sites (10 cities and 48 villages), based on data collected from local experts (policemen, teachers, social workers, religious leaders). Results showed that: a) external ethnic identification (identification made by others) is three times higher than the official census data and the extreme poverty is the common characteristic of Roma communities; b) according to local experts, main markers to identify Roma refer to geographic proximity, extreme poverty, poor living conditions and enlarged family size. Implications for social inclusion programs at local and European level are discussed along with directions for future research.

  • 6. Buzea, Carmen
    et al.
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology. Hiroshima University, Japan .
    Positive Affect and the Experience of Meaning in Life Among Romanian Emerging Adults2017In: Well-Being of Youth and Emerging Adults across Cultures: Novel Approaches and Findings from Europe, Asia, Africa and America / [ed] Radosveta Dimitrova, Cham: Springer, 2017, p. 95-103Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Meaning in life has been consistently documented as an essential component for a "good life" and a key to positive functioning (Davis, Wortman, Lehman, & Silver, 2000; Scollon & King, 2004). In this chapter, we examined the relationship between positive affect (PA) and the experience of life meaning among emerging adults in Romania. Results showed that PA was positively and significantly correlated with meaning of life and the most consistent predictor of the overall experience of meaning of life. We conclude that positive moods may predispose emerging adults to feel that life is meaningful. These results provide new knowledge on the construct of meaning in life among under investigated cultural sample in Europe in line with renewed attention on psychological strengths in emerging adulthood.

  • 7. Chen, Bin-Bin
    et al.
    Wiium, Nora
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    A Life History Approach to Understanding Developmental Assets Among Chinese Adolescents2019In: Child and Youth Care Forum, ISSN 1053-1890, E-ISSN 1573-3319, Vol. 48, no 2, p. 155-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Life history theory provides a unifying perspective on understanding human behaviors as adaptive strategies in response to particular environmental conditions. There is little empirical literature on the relationships between life history strategies and positive youth development.

    Objective: This study examines the relationships between environmental certainty, life history strategies and external and internal developmental assets among adolescents.

    Methods: Participants were 577 adolescents (53.5% boys) from Shanghai, China. Data on environmental certainty, life history strategies and developmental assets were collected from adolescents’ self-reports.

    Results: Adolescents with a slower life strategy reported higher levels of both external and internal assets. Furthermore, perceptions of environmental certainty were associated with both external and internal assets through a slower life history strategy.

    Conclusions: Developmental assets may be a part of or the result of the slow life history strategy in response to certain environments. This pattern also complements and expands previous findings linking life history strategy and negative adolescent development. The present study suggests profitable avenues of study in the areas of social environments and positive youth development.

  • 8. Chen, Bin-Bin
    et al.
    Wiium, Nora
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Factor structure of positive youth development: Contributions of exploratory structural equation modeling2018In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 124, p. 12-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The five Cs model of positive youth development describes adolescents' development as reflecting five distinct but related domains of Competence, Confidence, Character, Connection, and Caring. This research used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) to test the five Cs model in a Chinese sample of 384 adolescents (49.6% males; mean of age = 15.13 years old). The results showed that ESEM had better fit and relatively smaller factor correlations than CFA. In addition, factors such as Connection and Caring were well defined by their target indicators, although several non-target indicators significantly loaded onto Confidence factor in ESEM analysis. These results suggest that the correlations between some factors might be greatly overestimated in previous research based on CFA. The implication that ESEM is a more appropriate approach for testing the factor structure of the five Cs model of PYD is discussed.

  • 9. Chen, Bin-Bin
    et al.
    Wiium, Nora
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Chen, Ning
    The Relationships between Family, School and Community Support and Boundaries and Student Engagement among Chinese Adolescents2019In: Current Psychology, ISSN 1046-1310, E-ISSN 1936-4733, Vol. 38, no 3, p. 705-714Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships between social support and boundaries from family, school and community and student engagement among Chinese adolescents. Participants were 577 adolescents (53.5% boys) from Shanghai who provided data on student engagement, environmental support and boundaries from family, school and community. Results showed that family, school and community support and boundaries were positively related to two dimensions of student engagement (i.e., behavioral and affective). Several interaction terms were also observed. Specifically, school support strengthened the relationship between community support and behavioral engagement, and family support and affective engagement; school boundary strengthened the relationship between family boundary and affective engagement. Practical implications for the contributions of support and boundaries from family, school and community on student engagement are discussed.

  • 10. Crocetti, Elisabetta
    et al.
    Hale, William W., III
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Abubakar, Amina
    Gao, Cheng-Hai
    Agaloos Pesigan, Ivan Jacob
    Generalized Anxiety Symptoms and Identity Processes in Cross-Cultural Samples of Adolescents from the General Population2015In: Child and Youth Care Forum, ISSN 1053-1890, E-ISSN 1573-3319, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 159-174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Approximately 20 % of adolescents around the world experience mental health problems, most commonly depression or anxiety. High levels of anxiety disorder symptoms can hinder adolescent development, persist into adulthood, and predict negative mental outcomes, such as suicidal ideation and attempts. We analyzed generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) symptoms in cross-cultural samples from the general population. We sought to examine cultural and gender differences, and correlates of GAD symptoms in samples of adolescents from six countries located in three different continents (Europe: Bulgaria, Italy, the Netherlands; Africa: Kenya; Asia: China and Philippines). Participants were 3,445 (51 % male) adolescents aged between 14 and 18 years old. They filled self-report measures of GAD symptoms and identity. First, it was found that the scores on GAD symptoms varied significantly across countries, with Dutch respondents reporting the lowest levels whereas Filipino participants exhibited the highest levels of GAD symptoms. Second, gender differences (i.e., girls reported more GAD symptoms than boys) were significant in each country (as well as in the total sample), with the only exception being that of Kenya. Third, GAD symptoms were significantly related to identity processes and similarities and differences across countries were examined. This study highlighted that prevalence, gender differences, and correlates of GAD vary across countries. Therefore, it is important when researching GAD symptoms to examine one's research findings within a global perspective.

  • 11.
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Capacity Building2018In: The SAGE Encyclopedia of Lifespan Human Development / [ed] Marc H. Bornstein, Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, 2018, p. 303-305Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This entry describes historical development and definitions of capacity building. Capacity building refers to a wide array of activities that strengthen the ability of people and organizations to formulate solutions to problems and achieve objectives. The term gained considerable attention in the early 1970s and emerged as a leading concept in international policy in the late 1990s. This entry also provides various conceptualizations and applications of capacity building in a variety of contexts through all phases of the human life course. The concluding section addresses the benefits of successful capacity building for the society. Capacity building is a relevant topic for lifespan human development because of the emphasis on development of human resources in all phases of the life course.

  • 12.
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Cohesion, similarity and value in parent-child representations of Albanian and Serbian immigrant and Italian native children2016In: Psychology. Journal of the Higher School of Economics, ISSN 1813-8918, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 192-213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study of parent-child representations across cultures is important in order to obtain a proper understanding of the attributes, size and positioning of such figures as indicators of different interaction patterns across cultures. A thorough base of research evidence for the interpretation of children’s drawings may facilitate work in multicultural educational settings and enhance our understanding of cultural diversity in schools. Italy provides an ideal context for the study of parent-child representations, as the country has witnessed increasing cultural diversity in recent years with the immigration of various ethnic groups. This study examined the extent to which this context influences children’s representations in domains of Cohesion (interpersonal bonding), Similarity (affinity) and Value (spatial relevance) among parent-child figures because these domains inform important representational processes of interpersonal bonding with parents across specific cultures. The Pictorial Assessment of Interpersonal Relationships (PAIR) was used to codify drawings of 326 children with Albanian (n = 59), Serbian (n = 85) and Italian (n = 182) backgrounds. The results showed that in drawings made by Albanian and Serbian children parental figures were drawn similar to and close to the child figure representing their less independent reciprocal stance. The parental figures drawn by Italian children appear bigger and farther apart. Important implications may be derived from the results in facilitating work in multicultural educational settings, by enhancing knowledge regarding cultural diversity in schools.

  • 13.
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Ingredients of good PhD supervision: evidence from a student survey at Stockholm University2016In: Utbildning och Lärande / Education and Learning, ISSN 2001-4554, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 40-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Doktorandhandledning är en relevant fråga för en pedagogisk forskarutbildning vid univer-sitet vilket har betydande implikationer inom rad sammanhang, såväl inom industrin som för  grupper  av  arbetsgivare,  studentföreningar  och  akademiker.  Denna  studie  undersöker  centrala aspekter av handledning utifrån doktoranders perspektiv vid Stockholms universi-tet baserat på en undersökning med 761 forskarstuderande. En konfirmatorisk faktoranalys genomförd med strukturell ekvationsmodellering visade sig ge stöd åt en endimensionell modell för handledning som exemplifieras av givandet av konstruktiv kritik till studenter, handledarens tillgänglighet, tillräckligt med tid för handledning, möjlighet till självständigt arbete  och  en  kreativ  miljö  för  forskarutbildningen.  Handledningsindikatorerna  var  även  signifikant och positivt korrelerade. Att studera dessa indikatorer spelar stor roll för riktlinjer inom  utbildning  och  metoder  för  undervisning  i  avsikt  att  kunna  förbättra  forskarutbild-ningen. Studenter skulle kunna bli tydligt informerade om viktiga faktorer att överväga när de väljer samt påbörjar sina studier. Universitetsledning och handledare kan upprätthållas i sin roll att säkerställa en fullgod doktorandupplevelse för deras studenter.

  • 14.
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Parenting Stress and Depressive Symptoms of Immigrant and Nonimmigrant Families in Italy2018In: Parental Roles and Relationships in Immigrant Families: An International Approach / [ed] Susan S. Chuang, Catherine L. Costigan, Springer, 2018, p. 169-187Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter examines the influence of parenting stress on depressive symptoms of immigrant parent–child dyads in Italy, which has turned from a traditional country of emigration to that of immigration, where immigrants represent the fastest growing population segment (Hernandez et al., Child Indicators Research 3:13–37, 2010). Participants were 390 children aged 7–13 years old and their parents with immigrant Albanian, Russian, Serbian, Slovene, and mainstream Italian background. Both children and parents completed a depression scale and parents also provided data on their levels of parenting stress. Results showed that immigrant parents report significant levels of depression and parenting stress, and those levels are differently associated to their children’s depressive outcomes. A path model showed that parenting stress was related to depression in both parents and that only parenting stress of fathers was related to depression of their children.

  • 15.
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Well-Being of Youth and Emerging Adults across Cultures: Novel Approaches and Findings from Europe, Asia, Africa and America2017Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current volume presents new empirical data on well-being of youth and emerging adults from a global international perspective. Its outstanding features are the focus on vast geographical regions (e.g., Europe, Asia, Africa, North and South America), and on strengths and resources for optimal well-being. The international and multidisciplinary contributions address the complexities of young people’s life in a variety of cultural settings to explore how key developmental processes such as identity, religiosity and optimism, social networks, and social interaction in families and society at large promote optimal and successful adaptation. The volume draws on core theoretical models of human development to highlight the applicability of these frameworks to culturally diverse youth and emerging adults as well as universalities and cultural specifics in optimal outcomes. With its innovative and cutting-edge approaches to cultural, theoretical and methodological issues, the book offers up-to-date evidence and insights for researchers, practitioners and policy makers in the fields of cross-cultural psychology, developmental science, human development, sociology, and social work.

  • 16.
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Aydinli, Arzu
    Chasiotis, Athanasios
    Bender, Michael
    van de Vijver, Fons J. R.
    Heritage Identity and Maintenance Enhance Well-Being of Turkish-Bulgarian and Turkish-German Adolescents2015In: Social Psychology, ISSN 1864-9335, E-ISSN 2151-2590, Vol. 46, no 2, p. 93-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study compares Turkish minority youth in Bulgaria and Germany by examining differences in ethnic identity (heritage and mainstream), acculturation (host culture adoption and heritage culture maintenance), and their influence on psychological and sociocultural outcomes. Participants were 178 Turkish-Bulgarian and 166 Turkish-German youth (mean age of 15.96 years). Youth in both cultural contexts regarded their Turkish identity and culture maintenance as more relevant than their mainstream identity and culture adoption. Turkish-Bulgarians also reported higher scores on host culture adoption than Turkish-Germans. A multigroup path model showed that Turkish identity and maintenance were positively related to well-being and adjustment to both cultures, whereas mainstream identity and adoption were positively associated with adjustment to the host culture only.

  • 17.
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology. Hiroshima University, Japan.
    Aydinli-Karakulak, Arzu
    Acculturation orientations mediate the link between religious identity and adjustment of Turkish-Bulgarian and Turkish-German adolescents2016In: SpringerPlus, E-ISSN 2193-1801, Vol. 5, article id 1024Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a growing recognition of the need to examine religiousness and conduct research on its influence on acculturation and adjustment among ethnic minorities (Güngör et al. in Int J Behav Dev 36:367–373, 2012. doi:10.1177/0165025412448357). The present study compares Turkish minority youth in Bulgaria and Germany by examining relationships among religious identity, acculturation orientations (i.e., cultural maintenance and adoption) and acculturation outcomes (i.e., life satisfaction and socio-cultural adjustment to the Turkish and mainstream cultures). Participants were 161 youth in Bulgaria and 155 in Germany who completed measures on religious identity, acculturation orientations and adjustment. Results revealed that religious identity and Turkish culture maintenance are more important for Turkish-German, than for Turkish-Bulgarian youth. A multigroup path model showed that for both samples acculturation orientations partially mediated the link between religious identity and adjustment to the Turkish culture, whereas religious identity was directly related both to adjustment to the mainstream culture and to life satisfaction. Findings highlight the centrality of religious identity and Turkish domains of acculturation for positive adjustment outcomes for Turkish youth in Bulgaria and Germany.

  • 18.
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology. Hiroshima University, Japan.
    Bayram Özdemir, Sevgi
    Farcas, Diana
    Kosic, Marianna
    Mastrotheodoros, Stefanos
    Michalek, Justyna
    Stefenel, Delia
    Is There a Paradox of Adaptation in Immigrant Children and Youth Across Europe? A Literature Review2017In: Well-Being of Youth and Emerging Adults across Cultures: Novel Approaches and Findings from Europe, Asia, Africa and America / [ed] Radosveta Dimitrova, Cham: Springer, 2017, p. 261-298Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This review examines how well children of immigrants in Europe are doing in terms of educational, psychological, and behavioral outcomes. Based on theory and research in developmental, social and acculturation psychology fields, we explore the immigrant paradox (e.g., first-generation immigrant children show better adaptation in comparison to their native and second-generation counterparts) and migration morbidity (e.g., immigrants display less favorable outcomes than natives) in 102 studies conducted in 14 European countris. We conclude that theoretical assumptions of developmental (e.g., promoting context in families, schools, neighborhoods), social (e.g., intercultural behaviors and attitudes, lack of discrimination) and acculturation psychology (e.g., cultural maintenance and adoption, biculturalism) are powerful constituents for optimal adaptation of immigrant children and youth. Taken together, these constituents should guide policies and programs targeting optimal outcomes for children of immigrants. A discussion within empirically based policy practices to promote positive outcomes of young immigrant populations in Europe is offered.

  • 19.
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Buzea, Carmen
    Tausova, Jitka
    Uka, Fitim
    Zakaj, Skerdi
    Crocetti, Elisabetta
    Relationships between identity domains and life satisfaction in minority and majority youth in Albania, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Kosovo, and Romania2018In: European Journal of Developmental Psychology, ISSN 1740-5629, E-ISSN 1740-5610, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 61-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between identity domains (educational and relational identity) and life satisfaction in a cross-national perspective, by targeting minority (Roma) and majority youth in Albania, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Kosovo, and Romania. Based on the three-factor identity formation model, we investigated the interplay between three identity processes (i.e., commitment, in-depth exploration, and reconsideration of commitment) and life satisfaction. Participants were 1860 adolescents aged 12–19 years from Albania (n = 350), Bulgaria (n = 398), the Czech Republic (n = 293), Kosovo (n = 542), and Romania (n = 277). They completed self-reports of the Utrecht-Management of Identity Commitments Scale (U-MICS) and the Life Satisfaction Scale (SWLS). We adopted a structural equation modelling approach to test (a) measurement invariance of identity and life satisfaction models across groups and (b) associations between identity domains (educational and relational) and life satisfaction. Findings indicated measurement invariance for identity and life satisfaction measures across cultural groups. In the total sample, life satisfaction was consistently associated with high commitment, high in-depth exploration, and low reconsideration of commitment in the educational identity domain. Sample-specific associations highlighted important cultural differences. Implications of these findings for identity and well-being in minority and mainstream youth across the countries under investigation are discussed.

  • 20.
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology. Hiroshima University, Japan.
    Chasiotis, Athanasios
    Bender, Michael
    van de Vijver, Fons J. R.
    Identity and well-being of ethnic minority and mainstream adolescents in Bulgaria2017In: Current Issues in Personality Psychology, ISSN 2353-4192, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 41-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    We study identity in the context of long-term sedentary groups in Eastern Europe in contrast to the frequently studied short-term immigrants in typical Western European or US American contexts. This paper provides a novel approach to youth identity in an Eastern European post-communist context for minority groups that are quite distinct from the mainstream group to advance the study of identity. Turkish-Bulgarians and Muslim-Bulgarians have been subjected to extensive assimilation campaigns, which prompted them to carefully negotiate their ethnic identity and sense of belonging.

    Participants and procedure

    Participants were 366 adolescents aged 16 to 18 years (M = 16.72, SD = 0.71) from South Central and South Western regions of Bulgaria. This sample included Turkish-Bulgarian (n = 145), Muslim-Bulgarian (n = 85), and (mainstream) Bulgarian (n = 136) youth who provided data on personal, ethnic, familial, and religious identity as well as psychological well-being.

    Results

    Turkish-Bulgarian youth scored higher on achievement, diffusion, and foreclosure but lower on moratorium and Bulgarian ethnic and familial identity than Muslim-Bulgarian and Bulgarian youth. Bulgarian mainstreamers scored significantly lower on religious identity compared to their Turkish-Bulgarian and Muslim-Bulgarian peers. Finally, Bulgarian mainstream identity significantly predicted well-being of youth from all groups, independent of their ethnic background.

    Conclusions

    A strong ethnic and familial identity results in beneficial psychological outcomes for youth, even in the face of adversity and assimilation.

  • 21.
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology. Hiroshima University, Japan.
    Chasiotis, Athanasios
    Bender, Michael
    van de Vijver, Fons J.R.
    Collective Identity Resources for Positive Well-Being Among Turkish-Bulgarian and Muslim-Bulgarian Minority Adolescents in Bulgaria2017In: Well-Being of Youth and Emerging Adults across Cultures: Novel Approaches and Findings from Europe, Asia, Africa and America / [ed] Radosveta Dimitrova, Cham: Springer, 2017, p. 191-207Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter advances research in understudied minority groups in Eastern Europe by providing empirical evidence on a novel approach that examines collective identity assets for optimal well-being of youth. We apply collective identity perspective conceptualized in terms of strong relationships among ethnic, familial, and religious group memberships in comparing adolescents from two stigmatized ethnic minority groups and their mainstream Bulgarian peers. Turkish-Bulgarians and Muslim-Bulgarians historically experienced continuous assimilation attempts and severe discrimination, effectively limiting their religious and ethnic minority rights (Vassilev R, Glob Rev Ethnopolitics 3:40-51, 2004). This chapter furthers our understanding of multiple identity resources as core component of well-being of ethnic minority youth with Turkish-Bulgarian and Muslim-Bulgarian background. These results further extend findings on identity and well-being conducted in Western European and American settings to the unique and scarcely researched context of long-term acculturating ethnic minority groups in Eastern Europe.

  • 22.
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Chasiotis, Athanasios
    van de Vijver, Fons
    Adjustment Outcomes of Immigrant Children and Youth in Europe: A Meta-Analysis2016In: European Psychologist, ISSN 1016-9040, E-ISSN 1878-531X, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 150-162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Compared to natives, immigrants have been reported to display either more (migration morbidity) or fewer (immigrant paradox) adjustment problems. We examined these two perspectives using a meta-analysis from 51 studies (N = 224,197), reporting internalizing, externalizing, and academic outcomes among immigrant children and youth in Europe. Overall, migration morbidity was better supported than the immigrant paradox. Migration morbidity was supported for (a) externalizing outcomes in Northern Europe and adolescent samples; (b) academic outcomes for low SES and fewer girls across samples; (c) internalizing outcomes in Western Europe and preadolescent samples. Cultural diversity and long-term residence of immigrants are favorable factors for the paradox in externalizing outcomes, whereas immigrant family reunion was predictive for the paradox in internalizing and academic outcomes. Implications for future research and policy are discussed.

  • 23.
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Crocetti, Elisabetta
    Buzea, Carmen
    Jordanov, Venzislav
    Kosic, Marianna
    Tair, Ergyul
    Tausova, Jitka
    van Cittert, Natasja
    Uka, Fitim
    The Utrecht-Management of Identity Commitments Scale (U-MICS) Measurement Invariance and Cross-National Comparisons of Youth From Seven European Countries2016In: European Journal of Psychological Assessment, ISSN 1015-5759, E-ISSN 2151-2426, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 119-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Utrecht-Management of Identity Commitments Scale (U-MICS; Crocetti, Rubini, & Meeus, 2008) is a recently developed measure of identity that has been shown to be a reliable tool for assessing identity processes in adolescents. This study examines psychometric properties of the U-MICS in a large adolescent sample from seven European countries focused on the interplay of commitment, in-depth exploration, and reconsideration of commitment. Participants were 1,007 adolescents from Bulgaria (n = 146), the Czech Republic (n = 142), Italy (n = 144), Kosovo (n = 150), Romania (n = 142), Slovenia (n = 156), and the Netherlands (n = 127). We tested the U-MICS measurement invariance, reliability estimates in each language version, and compared latent identity means across groups. Results showed that the U-MICS has good internal consistency as well as configural, metric, and partial scalar invariance across groups in the sampled countries.

  • 24.
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology. Hiroshima University, Japan.
    del Carmen Dominguez Espinosa, Alejandra
    Relationships Between Religiousness and Life Satisfaction Among Emerging Adults in Mexico and Nicaragua2017In: Well-Being of Youth and Emerging Adults across Cultures: Novel Approaches and Findings from Europe, Asia, Africa and America / [ed] Radosveta Dimitrova, Cham: Springer, 2017, p. 225-234Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines relationships between religiousness and life satisfaction among 571 emerging adults (M age 29.94, SD = 2.93) from Mexico and Nicaragua. Based on the four-factor religiousness model (Saroglou V, J Cross-Cultural Psychol 42:1320-1340, 2011), we investigated the interplay of believing (beliefs relative to external transcendence), bonding (rituals and emotions), behaving (adherence to norms) and belonging (social group cohesion) and their relation to life satisfaction. Participants completed the Four Basic Dimensions of Religiousness Scale (4-BDRS; Saraglou V, J Cross-Cultural Psychol 42:1320-1340, 2011) and the Life Satisfaction Scale (SWLS; Diener E, Emmerson RA, Larsen RJ, Griffin S, J Pers Assess 49:71-75), 1985). We tested measurement invariance and associations of religiousness and life satisfaction models across groups. Findings indicated good measurement invariance for both measures and that life satisfaction was consistently associated with high endorsement of all four religiousness domains.

  • 25.
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    del Carmen Domínguez Espinosa, Alejandra
    Factorial structure and measurement invariance of the Four Basic Dimensions of Religiousness Scale among Mexican males and females2017In: Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, ISSN 1941-1022, E-ISSN 1943-1562, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 231-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Four Basic Dimensions of Religiousness Scale (4-BDRS) is a newly developed instrument based on 4 components of religion: believing (beliefs relative to external transcendence), bonding (rituals and emotions), behaving (adherence to norms and moral arguments), and belonging (community and social group cohesion; Saroglou, 2011). This paper provides empirical evidence to support the factorial structure and measurement invariance assumptions of 4-BDRS among 1,982 adults (mean age of 29.27 years) from Mexico, a country among the top 10 nations in the world for religious involvement. The fit indices indicate similar patterns and strengths in factor loadings, means, and intercepts across males and females. Gender comparisons showed that females score significantly higher on all 4 religiousness dimensions than males. We conclude that the 4-BDRS is a brief and valid measure of religiousness that is suitable for use in Mexican samples.

  • 26.
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Ferrer-Wreder, Laura
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Positive Youth Development of Roma Ethnic Minority Across Europe2017In: Handbook on Positive Development of Minority Children and Youth / [ed] Natasha J. Cabrera, Birgit Leyendecker, Springer, 2017, p. 307-320Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Roma are one of Europe’s largest and most vulnerable ethnic minority groups, currently making up nearly 12 million people, and have historically experienced severe marginalization and discrimination. Roma children and youth in particular are globally recognized to be in need of support and their successful adaptation and optimal outcomes are of major interest to practitioners and policy makers. This chapter addresses resources within proximal contexts, such as peers and family contexts that have the potential to foster positive youth development in Roma ethnic minority populations in Europe. Roma are mainly a sedentary indigenous ethnic minority group characterized by strong family, community and peer bonds, thereby creating a unique and underrepresented context to study PYD. In this chapter, we provide a brief historical overview, current research and empirical findings on Roma children and youth within peer and family contexts. We draw on core theoretical models of PYD as well as selected developmental theories of normative development to highlight the applicability of these traditional frameworks to Roma ethnic minority groups. In so doing, we pay careful attention to the cultural, ethnic, and economic characteristics of Roma youth and their family context. In the conclusion, we explored the implications of the reviewed evidence to the development of resource-oriented policy and practice for Roma youth.

  • 27.
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Ferrer-Wreder, Laura
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Galanti, Maria Rosaria
    Pedagogical and Social Climate in School Questionnaire: Factorial Validity and Reliability of the Teacher Version2016In: Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, ISSN 0734-2829, E-ISSN 1557-5144, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 282-288Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study evaluated the factorial structure of the Pedagogical and Social Climate in School (PESOC) questionnaire among 307 teachers in Bulgaria. The teacher edition of PESOC consists of 11 scales (i.e., Expectations for Students, Unity Among Teachers, Approach to Students, Basic Assumptions About Students’ Ability to Learn, School–Home Relations, Teacher Cooperation, Teachers’ Professional Development, Teaching Activities, Student Valuation, Principal’s Pedagogical Leadership, and School Management). A confirmatory factor analysis conducted with structural equation modeling supported a bi-dimensional factor model (Students and Teachers; School Leadership and Management). School climate indicators were also significantly and positively correlated. PESOC is an asset to the literature on assessment of school climate with evidence for factorial validity and reliability in an underresearched international context.

  • 28.
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ferrer-Wreder, Laura
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Trost, Kari
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    Intergenerational transmission of ethnic identity and life satisfaction of Roma minority adolescents and their parents2015In: Journal of Adolescence, ISSN 0140-1971, E-ISSN 1095-9254, Vol. 45, p. 296-306Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates intergeneration transmission of ethnic identity as a resource for life satisfaction of Roma adolescents and their parents. Historically, Roma represent the largest ethnic minority in Europe. They have been exposed to severe discrimination, social exclusion, and poverty. Therefore, identifying resources for their life satisfaction is theoretically and practically important. The present study included 1093 participants, of which there were 171 Roma adolescents (age: M = 14.96 years, SD = 1.85), 155 mothers (age: M = 36.16 years, SD = 5.77) and 123 fathers (age: M = 39.68 years, SD = 6.06). Further, a comparison group of 248 mainstream adolescents with their mothers (n = 221) and fathers (n = 175) was also included in the study. Adolescents and their parents provided data on ethnic identity (MEIM;  Phinney, 1992) and life satisfaction (SWLS; Diener, Emmons, Larsen, & Griffin, 1985). Results indicated that Roma youth were lower on endorsement of ethnic identity and average on life satisfaction compared to their mainstream peers. A structural equation model showed that ethnic identity was a positive predictor of life satisfaction for both adolescents and their Roma parents. Furthermore, parents' ethnic identity was a predictor of adolescent life satisfaction. We concluded that for Roma youth and their parents, ethnic identity represents a salient source for life satisfaction and an intergenerational continuity of identity and life satisfaction exists.

  • 29.
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Hatano, Kai
    Sugimura, Kazumi
    Ferrer-Wreder, Laura
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    The Erikson Psychosocial Stage Inventory in Adolescent Samples: Factorial Validity and Equivalence of Identity as Measured From the United States and Japan2018In: European Journal of Psychological Assessment, ISSN 1015-5759, E-ISSN 2151-2426Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study tested the factorial structure and equivalence of identity as measured by the Erikson Psychosocial Stage Inventory (EPSI; Rosenthal, Gurney, & Moore, 1981) in 2,666 adolescents (Mage = 16.53, SD = 1.50, 55% girls) in the United States and Japan. The EPSI Identity Scale is a widely used measure of the Eriksonian conceptualization of personal identity (i.e., individual self-knowledge, synthesis, and consistency) and is measured with two factors: identity confusion and synthesis. A bi-factor model for the EPSI had a better fit than a single- and two-factor model. Moreover, the EPSI results showed configural and partial metric equivalence, but did not show scalar equivalence across samples. Future cross-national research with adolescents from the United States and Japan may investigate correlates between identity, as measured by the EPSI, with other measures of interest. However, group comparisons among these samples may be ill advised due to a lack of scalar equivalence.

  • 30.
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Johnson, Deborah J.
    van de Vijver, Fons J. R.
    Ethnic socialization, ethnic identity, life satisfaction and school achievement of Roma ethnic minority youth2018In: Journal of Adolescence, ISSN 0140-1971, E-ISSN 1095-9254, Vol. 62, p. 175-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Explaining Positive Adaptation of Immigrant Youth across Cultures.

    This study tested a mediation model of ethnic socialization (i.e., parental practices that promote children's knowledge about their history, heritage culture, cultural authenticity, and ethnic bias management) in Roma youth. Roma are the largest ethnic minority group in Europe subjected to severe discrimination, both currently and historically. Participants were 202 Roma youth aged 14 to 19 years old (M = 16.25, 53% females), who provided self-reports on their experience of ethnic socialization, ethnic identity, school achievement, and life satisfaction. Cultural pride reinforcement was related to better school achievement, whereas cultural coping with antagonism was positively related to life satisfaction. The study confirmed the model in that ethnic socialization was positively related to life satisfaction through effects on ethnic identity but negatively associated with school achievement. Findings have implications for adaptive cultural mechanisms promoting positive developmental outcomes among historically disadvantaged groups including those intersecting immigrant and multigenerational ethnic minority group categories.

  • 31.
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Musso, Pasquale
    Naude, Luzelle
    Zahaj, Skerdi
    Solcova, Iva Polackova
    Stefenel, Delia
    Uka, Fitim
    Jordanov, Venzislav
    Jordanov, Evgeni
    Tavel, Peter
    National collective identity in transitional societies: Salience and relations to life satisfaction for youth in South Africa, Albania, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Kosovo and Romania2017In: Journal of Psychology in Africa, ISSN 1433-0237, E-ISSN 1815-5626, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 150-158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we investigated the salience of the construct of national collective identity and its associations with life satisfaction among adolescents living in transitional societies characterised by relevant change in the last decades. Participants were 1 066 adolescents (M = 15.35 years, SD = 1.35) from South Africa (n = 186) and five Central Eastern European countries, including Albania (n = 209), Bulgaria (n = 146), Czech Republic (n = 306), Kosovo (n = 116), and Romania (n = 103). They completed a questionnaire including national identity and life satisfaction scales. Data were analysed using confirmatory factor analysis and multi-group structural equation modeling. Results showed that national identity of adolescents in transitional societies is multidimensional and pertains to different salient dimensions (i.e., self-categorisation, evaluation, importance, attachment, and behavioural involvement). Importantly, the findings provided evidence to suggest that higher levels of national collective identity are associated with increased levels of life satisfaction.

  • 32.
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Musso, Pasquale
    Polackova Solcova, Iva
    Stefenel, Delia
    Uka, Fitim
    Zahaj, Skerdi
    Tavel, Peter
    Jordanov, Venzislav
    Jordanov, Evgeni
    Multiple Social Identities in Relation to Self-Esteem of Adolescents in Post-communist Albania, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Kosovo, and Romania2018In: Changing Values and Identities in the Post-Communist World / [ed] Nadezhda Lebedeva, Radosveta Dimitrova, John Berry, Springer, 2018, p. 225-241Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We test a model linking ethnic, familial, and religious identity to self-esteem among youth in Albania, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Kosovo, and Romania. All countries are post-communist nations in Europe, offering novel and underexplored settings to study identity. Participants were 880 adolescents (mean age, 15.93 years; SD, 1.40) with Albanian (n = 209), Bulgarian (n = 146), Czech (n = 306), Kosovan (n = 116), and Romanian (n = 103) background who filled in an Ethnic Identity Scale (Dimitrova et al., 2016), familial and religious identity scales adapted from the Utrecht Management of Identity Commitment Scales [U-MICS; Crocetti et al. Child and Youth Care Forum, 40, 7–23 (2011); Crocetti et al. Assessment, 1, 2–16 (2015)], and the Rosenberg’s Self-Esteem Scale [Rosenberg, Conceiving the self. Basic Books, New York (1979)]. A multigroup path model showed that ethnic, familial, and religious identities were significantly positively related to a single underlying construct of social identities. In all countries, youth with a stronger multiple identities reported higher self-esteem. These results are particularly valuable in addressing the scope of the proposed book by providing new knowledge on multiple social identities among under investigated samples from post-communist countries in Europe faced with dynamic societal changes. They also mirror increasing attention on multiple, inclusive, and intersectional identities as psychological assets for young generations.

  • 33.
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology. University of Bergen, Norway.
    Musso, Pasquale
    Polackova Solcova, Iva
    Stefenel, Delia
    Uka, Fitim
    Zahaj, Skerdi
    Tavel, Peter
    Jordanov, Venzislav
    Jordanov, Evgeni
    Understanding Factors Affecting Well-Being of Marginalized Populations in Different Cultural Contexts: Ethnic and National Identity of Roma Minority Youth in Europe2018In: Developmental Science and Sustainable Development Goals for Children and Youth / [ed] Suman Verma, Anne C. Petersen, Springer, 2018, p. 169-185Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter focuses on the intersection of the third, fourth and tenth Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), referring together to key pillars for improving social inclusion of vulnerable disadvantaged youth. Based on both Positive Youth Development approach and mutual intercultural relations perspective, it sets out to investigate developmental assets (such as ethnic and national identities), optimal outcomes (self-esteem), and their relations among Roma youth in six European countries (Albania, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Italy, Kosovo, and Romania). Among these countries, the Czech Republic was initially recognized as the more favorable context facilitating potential alignment of Roma young people’s ecology with their identity resources, and therefore, promoting well-being. Results supported that in the Czech Republic youth experienced more stable integration of both Roma ethnic and national identities in terms of similar mean levels as well as positive associations of both identities with self-esteem. Results for the other countries were quite fragmented depending on the specific contextual conditions. The findings are discussed in light of the SDGs, the theoretical frameworks, research contexts and limitations, and implications.

  • 34.
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    van de Vijver, Fons J. R.
    Tausova, Jitka
    Chasiotis, Athanasios
    Bender, Michael
    Buzea, Carmen
    Uka, Fitim
    Tair, Ergyul
    Ethnic, Familial, and Religious Identity of Roma Adolescents in Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Kosovo, and Romania in Relation to Their Level of Well-Being2017In: Child Development, ISSN 0009-3920, E-ISSN 1467-8624, Vol. 88, no 3, p. 693-709Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines ethnic, national, familial, and religious identity and well-being of 632 Roma minority and 589 majority adolescents (age: M = 15.98 years, SD = 1.34) in Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Kosovo, and Romania. Results indicated that Roma showed lower endorsement of national identity but stronger religious identity than their majority counterparts. Path models showed positive associations of familial and religious identities with well-being, whereas Roma identity was negatively associated with well-being, particularly for Roma in Bulgaria and Kosovo (countries with a less active policy toward improving conditions of Roma). In the latter countries, Roma ethnic identity is less relevant and weakly associated with psychological well-being of youth.

  • 35. Ferguson, Gail M.
    et al.
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Behavioral and Academic Adjustment of Remotely Acculturating Adolescents in Urban Jamaica2019In: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, ISSN 1548-5943, E-ISSN 1548-5951, no 164, p. 27-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Remote acculturation (RA) is a modern form of non-migrant acculturation toward distant cultures prompted by indirect/ intermittent globalization-related cultural exposure. RA theory holds that not only are global cultures now pouring into local neighborhoods, but many youth are also internalizing these remote cultures. How well do they fare? Prior studies in Jamaica and elsewhere have reported that U. S./ Western-oriented adolescents exhibit poorer health habits. However, no studies have yet investigated adolescents' behavioral or academic adjustment in the context of RA, whether in Jamaica or elsewhere. Therefore, 245 adolescents and their mothers from high schools in Kingston, Jamaica (M-adolescent_age = 13.3; M-mother_age = 40.2) completed questionnaires assessing their RA in terms of behaviors and values, as well as the adolescents' behavioral resilience and grades. SEM analyses revealed that RA was, indeed, linked to adolescent behavioral and academic adjustment in Jamaica. Overall, Jamaican orientation was associated with better adaptation whereas European American orientation was associated with worse. 

  • 36.
    Ferrer-Wreder, Laura
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Eichas, Kyle
    Lorente, C.
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Galanti, M.R.
    Exploring identity synthesis, gender, and adjustment in the KUPOL Study: Initial findings2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 37. He, Jia
    et al.
    van de Vijver, Fons J. R.
    Dominguez Espinosa, Alejandra
    Abubakar, Amina
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Adams, Byron G.
    Aydinli, Arzu
    Atitsogbe, Kokou
    Alonso-Arbiol, Itziar
    Bobowik, Magdalena
    Fischer, Ronald
    Jordanov, Venzislav
    Mastrotheodoros, Stefanos
    Neto, Felix
    Ponizovsky, Yael J.
    Reb, Jochen
    Sim, Samantha
    Sovet, Laurent
    Stefenel, Delia
    Suryani, Angela O.
    Tair, Ergyul
    Villieux, Arnaud
    Socially Desirable Responding: Enhancement and Denial in 20 Countries2015In: Cross-cultural research, ISSN 1069-3971, E-ISSN 1552-3578, Vol. 49, no 3, p. 227-249Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigated the dimensionality, measurement invariance, and cross-cultural variations of social desirability. A total of 3,471 university students from 20 countries completed an adapted version of the Marlowe-Crowne scale. A two-dimensional structure was revealed in the pooled sample, distinguishing enhancement (endorsement of positive self-description) and denial (rejection of negative self-description). The factor structure was supported in most countries; medium-sized item bias was found in two denial items. In a multilevel analysis, we found that (a) there was more cross-cultural variation in denial than enhancement; (b) females tended to score higher on enhancement whereas males tended to score higher on denial; (c) the Human Development Index, an indicator of country socioeconomic development, was the best (negative) predictor of denial; and (d) both enhancement and denial seemed to be associated with country-level values and personality pertinent to fitting in. We conclude that social desirability has a positive and a negative impression management dimension that are meaningfully associated with country-level characteristics, and we argue that social desirability is better interpreted as culturally regulated response amplification.

  • 38. He, Jia
    et al.
    Van de Vijver, Fons J. R.
    Fetvadjiev, Velichko H.
    Dominguez Espinosa, Alejandra de Carmen
    Adams, Byron
    Alonso-Arbiol, Itziar
    Aydinli-Karakulak, Arzu
    Buzea, Carmen
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Fortin, Alvaro
    Hapunda, Given
    Ma, Sang
    Sargautyte, Ruta
    Sim, Samantha
    Schachner, Maja K.
    Suryani, Angela
    Zeinoun, Pia
    Zhang, Rui
    On Enhancing the Cross-Cultural Comparability of Likert-Scale Personality and Value Measures: A Comparison of Common Procedures2017In: European Journal of Personality, ISSN 0890-2070, E-ISSN 1099-0984, Vol. 31, no 6, p. 642-657Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to evaluate a number of procedures that have been proposed to enhance cross-cultural comparability of personality and value data. A priori procedures (anchoring vignettes and direct measures of response styles (i.e. acquiescence, extremity, midpoint responding, and social desirability), a posteriori procedures focusing on data transformations prior to analysis (ipsatization and item parcelling), and two data modelling procedures (treating data as continuous vs as ordered categories) were compared using data collected from university students in 16 countries. We found that (i) anchoring vignettes showed lack of invariance, so they were not bias-free; (ii) anchoring vignettes showed higher internal consistencies than raw scores where all other correction procedures, notably ipsatization, showed lower internal consistencies; (iii) in measurement invariance testing, no procedure yielded scalar invariance; anchoring vignettes and item parcelling slightly improved comparability, response style correction did not affect it, and ipsatization resulted in lower comparability; (iv) treating Likert-scale data as categorical resulted in higher levels of comparability; (v) factor scores of scales extracted from different procedures showed similar correlational patterning; and (vi) response style correction was the only procedure that suggested improvement in external validity of country-level conscientiousness. We conclude that, although no procedure resolves all comparability issues, anchoring vignettes, parcelling, and treating data as ordered categories seem promising to alleviate incomparability. We advise caution in uncritically applying any of these procedures.

  • 39. Hultin, H.
    et al.
    Eichas, K.
    Ferrer-Wreder, Laura
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Karlberg, M.
    Galanti, M. R.
    Pedagogical and Social School Climate: Psychometric Evaluation and Validation of the Student Edition of PESOC2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 0031-3831, E-ISSN 1470-1170, Vol. 63, no 4, p. 534-550Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies indicate that school climate is important for student health and academic achievement. This study concerns the validity and reliability of the student edition a Swedish instrument for measuring pedagogical and social school climate (PESOC). Data were collected from 5,745 students at 97 Swedish secondary schools. Multilevel confirmatory factor analyses were conducted, and multilevel composite reliability estimates, as well as correlations with school-level achievement indicators, were calculated. The results supported an 8-factor structure at the student level and 1 general factor at the school level. Factor loadings and composite reliability estimates were acceptable at both levels. The school-level factor was moderately and positively correlated with school-level academic achievement. The student PESOC is a promising instrument for studying school climate.

  • 40. Hultin, H.
    et al.
    Eichas, K.
    Ferrer-Wreder, Laura
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Karlberg, M.
    Galanti, M.R.
    Pedagogical and Social School Climate: Psychometric Evaluation and Validation of the Student Edition of PESOC2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 0031-3831, E-ISSN 1470-1170, Vol. 63, no 4, p. 534-550Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies indicate that school climate is important for student health and academic achievement. This study concerns the validity and reliability of the student edition a Swedish instrument for measuring pedagogical and social school climate (PESOC). Data were collected from 5,745 students at 97 Swedish secondary schools. Multilevel confirmatory factor analyses were conducted, and multilevel composite reliability estimates, as well as correlations with school-level achievement indicators, were calculated. The results supported an 8-factor structure at the student level and 1 general factor at the school level. Factor loadings and composite reliability estimates were acceptable at both levels. The school-level factor was moderately and positively correlated with school-level academic achievement. The student PESOC is a promising instrument for studying school climate.

  • 41. Kosic, Marianna
    et al.
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology. Hiroshima Univesity, Japan.
    Collective identity assets for psychological well-being in Slovene minority and Italian majority adolescents in Italy2017In: Current Issues in Personality Psychology, ISSN 2353-4192, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 53-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    We examined core assets of collective identity for enhanced psychological well-being among hardly investigated Slovene ethnic minority and Italian majority youth in Italy. The Slovene minority is an autochthonous minority living in Italy since the 6th century.

    Participants and procedure

    We tested a model based on the notion that collective identity derives from familial, ethnic and religious identities as important sources of identification for youth in line with prior work on the salience and relations among these sources. Participants were 114 Slovene and 144 Italian adolescents (aged 14 to 18 years old) living in the North-East of Italy. They filled in standardized measures on ethnic, national, familial and religious identity, the Satisfaction with Life Scale and the Positive Affective Schedule.

    Results

    Path models showed that stronger collective identity was related to higher scores of perceived psychological well-being. Interestingly, for the Slovene minority youth, ethnic Slovenian identity was unrelated to collective identity. Overall, among all youth, all identity components loaded into a single factor of collective identity, confirming previous studies with bicultural minority youth.

    Conclusions

    The findings shed light on the path linking multiple aspects of collective identities together to adolescents' well-being and are useful in pragmatic terms for improving and facilitating assets of individual and social/ collective well-being and functioning of youth.

  • 42. Landberg, Monique
    et al.
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Syed, Moin
    International Perspectives on Identity and Acculturation in Emerging Adulthood: Introduction to the Special Issue2018In: Emerging Adulthood, ISSN 2167-6968, E-ISSN 2167-6984, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 3-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article introduces the special issue, International Perspectives on Identity and Acculturation in Emerging Adulthood. The idea for this issue was put forward by emerging scholars at the 7th Biennial Conference of the Society for the Study of Emerging Adulthood in Miami, FL, in October 2015. This special issue gathers qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods studies from North America, Europe, and South Africa on identity and acculturation in diverse samples. The five papers seek to shed light on the interplay of ethnicity, identity, and acculturation processes in underresearched contexts, in terms of either country or subpopulations within a country.

  • 43. Lebedeva, Nadezhda
    et al.
    Dimitrova, RadosvetaStockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.Berry, John
    Changing Values and Identities in the Post-Communist World2018Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This book offers a comparative analysis of value and identity changes in several post-Soviet countries. In light of the tremendous economic, social and political changes in former communist states, the authors compare the values, attitudes and identities of different generations and cultural groups. Based on extensive empirical data, using quantitative and qualitative methods to study complex social identities, this book examines how intergenerational value and identity changes are linked to socio-economic and political development. Topics include the rise of nationalist sentiments, identity formation of ethnic and religious groups and minorities, youth identity formation and intergenerational value conflicts.

  • 44. Lebedeva, Nadezhda
    et al.
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Berry, John W.
    Boehnke, Klaus
    Introduction2018In: Changing Values and Identities in the Post-Communist World / [ed] Nadezhda Lebedeva, Radosveta Dimitrova, John Berry, Springer, 2018, p. 1-24Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A quarter of a century has passed since the dissolution of the Soviet Union. A whole generation has been raised during this time in all the states belonging to the former USSR or the Eastern European ‘real socialist’ bloc. Tremendous social change has taken place in economic systems and in political governance in these states. The daily lives of ordinary people have changed rapidly in these countries during this period. We consider that individuals have changed psychologically in response to these social and cultural changes (Berry, 1980). In particular, we can assume that the values and identities of individuals in these countries have changed dramatically during this period.

  • 45. Neto, Fèlix
    et al.
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology. Hiroshima University, Japan.
    Measurement Invariance of the Satisfaction with Love Life Scale Among Emerging Adults in Angola, Brazil, East Timor, Macao, and Portugal2017In: Well-Being of Youth and Emerging Adults across Cultures: Novel Approaches and Findings from Europe, Asia, Africa and America / [ed] Radosveta Dimitrova, Springer, 2017, p. 249-260Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The current chapter evaluates the measurement invariance of a recently developed instrument, the Satisfaction with Love Life Scale (SWLLS, Neto. Meas Eval Couns Dev 38:2-13, 2005) in a cross-sectional study sampling 1113 emerging adults from Angola, Brazil, East Timor, Macao, and Portugal. A multigroup confirmatory factor analysis showed a good fit of a configural, measurement weights and partial scalar invariance model, indicating similar patterns and strengths in factor loadings, means and intercepts across samples. We conclude that the SWLLS shows brief and valid test scores of love life satisfaction that is suitable for use in cross-cultural survey with emerging adults.

  • 46. Taušová, Jitka
    et al.
    Bender, Michael
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    van de Vijver, Fons
    The role of perceived cultural distance, personal growth initiative, language proficiencies, and tridimensional acculturation orientations for psychological adjustment among international students2019In: International Journal of Intercultural Relations, ISSN 0147-1767, E-ISSN 1873-7552, Vol. 69, p. 11-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the acculturation process of international students (N = 319, 162 female) from 62 countries who were residing in the Netherlands, using the acculturation framework by Arends-Toth and Van de Vijver (2007). We applied SEM to test the model that acculturation conditions (perceived cultural distance (PCD], personal growth initiative [PGI], proficiency in English and the host language, and length of residence) in conjunction with acculturation orientations as mediators (host, heritage, expatriate) predict psychological adjustment as acculturation outcome (acculturative stress, satisfaction with life, mental health problems). We found direct and indirect effects of acculturation conditions on adjustment; high PGI, high English and Dutch proficiencies, and low PCD were associated with better adjustment Host orientation (predicted by high PGI, Dutch proficiency, and low PCD) was positively associated with adjustment. Heritage orientation (predicted by low English proficiency) was negatively associated with adjustment. As a novel aspect, we included expatriate orientation - an orientation towards other expatriates in the host community. Expatriate orientation was predicted by low Dutch proficiency and was positively associated with adjustment. We also observed direct links between acculturation conditions and outcomes: positive associations between PCD and acculturative stress and between length of residence and acculturative stress; and negative associations between PGI and mental health problems and between English proficiency and acculturative stress. We provide evidence that including expatriate orientation is relevant among international students: It is stronger than both host and heritage orientations, thereby underlining the importance of studying acculturation in a contextualized way.

  • 47. Titzmann, Peter F.
    et al.
    Ferrer-Wreder, Laura
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Introduction to a special section on Explaining Positive Adaptation of Immigrant and Minority Youth across Cultures2018In: Journal of Adolescence, ISSN 0140-1971, E-ISSN 1095-9254, Vol. 62, p. 171-174Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This special section on “Explaining Positive Adaptation of Immigrant and Minority Youth across Cultures” is the result of an expert meeting organized by the Society for Research in Child Development (SRCD), the European Association of Developmental Psychology (EADP), and the European Association for Research on Adolescence (EARA). The aim of this special section was to bring together empirical studies and expert commentaries on a pressing topic of global importance, and to explore intersections between the fields of acculturation and positive youth development. From these contributions, several major challenges were identified. These included the need for greater attention to the strengths and adaptation of immigrant adolescents (i.e., to include a positive youth development framework in acculturation research and theory), the differentiation and intersections between acculturative processes and normative developmental challenges, the evolution acculturation theory, the need to better understand contact between multiple groups, the consideration of context-dependency and dynamic nature of acculturative processes.

  • 48. van der Shans, Sarah
    et al.
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Parent-Child Representations in Children’s Family Drawings in Bulgaria, Italy and the Netherlands2016In: International Psychology Bulletin, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 34-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated cultural variations in parent-child representations of Dutch (n = 112), Italian (n = 82), and Bul- garian (n = 121) children’s family drawings. The drawings were selected to represent highly individualistic (Dutch), individualistic (Italian), and collectivistic (Bulgarian) cul- tures. Using the Pictorial Assessment of Interpersonal Rela- tionships (PAIR, Bombi, Pinto, & Cannoni, 2007), all draw- ings were coded with regard to Cohesion, Distancing, Simi- larity, and Value in parent-child representations. Dutch chil- dren scored higher on Distancing and lower on Cohesion, compared to the Italian and Bulgarian children, whereas Bul- garian children scored higher on Cohesion and lower on Dis- tancing compared to the other two samples. We conclude that children’s drawings represent individualistic and collectivistic traits in the relationship between self and parental figures.

  • 49. Wiium, Nora
    et al.
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. University of Bergen, Norway.
    Positive Youth Development Across Cultures: Introduction to the Special Issue2019In: Child and Youth Care Forum, ISSN 1053-1890, E-ISSN 1573-3319, Vol. 48, no 2, p. 147-153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Promoting well-being of young people within the positive youth development (PYD) framework has been found to be promising. The basic models of PYD—the 5C’s (competence, confidence, character, connection, and caring) and developmental assets (significant relationships, skills, opportunities and values that promote thriving exemplified by external assets or environmental resources and internal assets or interpersonal strengths), have been largely shown to promote positive aspects of development among diverse samples of young people. However, PYD research has mainly been conducted within the US context.

    Objectives Explore the generalizability of the PYD framework to understand and promote positive aspects of development in young people beyond the US context.

    Method Six papers using cross-sectional methods reported data on adolescents and/or emerging adults (N = 6820) with diverse cultural backgrounds from ten countries (Brazil, China, El Salvador, Ghana, Italy, Kenya, Norway, Slovenia, South-Africa, Turkey) in four continents (Africa, Asia, Europe and Latin America). Widely applied PYD scales developed within the US and adequately adapted in each cultural context were used for data collection.

    Results The generalizability of the PYD framework (the presence and positive relations between the 5Cs and developmental assets in promoting optimal development) was largely confirmed among culturally diverse samples of young people investigated in the papers.

    Conclusion While the findings of the current special issue extend the generalizability of the PYD framework beyond the US context, more research is needed to ascertain appropriate developmental assets to facilitate PYD, as defined by the specific context where young people are embedded.

  • 50. Wiium, Nora
    et al.
    Ferrer Wreder, Laura
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Chen, Bin-Bin
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. University of Bergen, Norway.
    Gender and Positive Youth Development Advancing Sustainable Development Goals in Ghana2019In: Zeitschrift fur Psychologie mit Zeitschrift fur angewandte Psychologie, ISSN 2190-8370, E-ISSN 2151-2604, Vol. 227, no 2, p. 134-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The positive youth development (PYD) perspective suggests that thriving leads to participation and contribution. All nations working to achieve the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), including Ghana, face challenges in their efforts to ensure that all youth have equal opportunities to thrive. The study design was cross-sectional and participants were 858 Ghanaian adolescents attending senior high school (44% girls). We explored thriving indicators as reflected by the 5Cs of PYD (i.e., confidence, competence, connection, character, and caring) in light of the adolescents' gender and socio-economic background. Results indicated that boys scored higher on competence relative to girls and that girls scored higher on caring relative to boys. No significant differences were found for socio-economic background. Cultural norms and socialization processes that perpetuate gender inequality may be important to understanding the observed gender differences. Implications of these results are considered in light of efforts to achieve SDGs in Ghana.

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