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  • 1. Kröger, Markus
    et al.
    Lalander, Rickard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Ethno-territorial rights and the resource extraction boom in Latin America: do constitutions matter?2016In: Third World Quarterly, ISSN 0143-6597, E-ISSN 1360-2241, Vol. 37, no 4, p. 682-702Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent times a growing number of Latin American rural groups have achieved extended ethno-territorial rights, and large territories have been protected by progressive constitutions. These were the outcomes of extended cycles of national and transnational contentious politics and of social movement struggle, including collective South–South cooperation. However, the continent has simultaneously experienced a resource extraction boom. Frequently the extractivism takes place in protected areas and/or Indigenous territories. Consequently economic interests collide with the protection and recognition of constitutional rights. Through a review of selected demonstrative cases across Latin America, this article analyses the (de jure) rights on paper versus the (de facto) rights in practice.

  • 2.
    Lalander, Philip
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. SORAD.
    Lalander, Rickard
    Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies. Latinamerika-institutet.
    Klasstillhörigheten i flaskan?: Om alkohol- och drogvanorna i Venezuela2001In: NAT: Nordisk alkohol- & narkotikatidsskrift, ISSN 1455-0725, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 11-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 3.
    Lalander, Philip
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. SORAD.
    Lalander, Rickard
    Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies. Latinamerika-institutet.
    ¿La identidad de clase en la botella?: Reflexiones sobre costumbres del alcohol y la droga en Venezuela2006In: Espacio Abierto: Cuaderno Venezolano de Sociología, ISSN 1315-0006, Vol. Vol. 15, no 1-2, p. 20-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The consumption habits related to alcoholic beverages and drugs reflect social and cultural characteristics of a society. In these reflections the Venezuelan culture is analyzed through observations of individual and collective behaviour related to the consumption of alcohol (and to a lesser extent drugs). Without the ambition to carry through a detailed comparative study, the objective of the present project is rather to realize an analytical presentation of certain aspects of the Venezuelan situation, with certain illustrative comparisons with the Swedish culture. The document is a result of a research journey to Venezuela in 2000. With the focus on the Venezuelan culture we likewise aim at developing our analytical capacity and comprehension of the Swedish culture. In the light of a distinct culture the native society of the observer can emerge more clearly. The study is principally a reflection on traits of consumption and cultural habits in the context of alcohol and drugs in Venezuela.

  • 4.
    Lalander, Rickard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies, Institute of Latin American Studies.
    Algunas reflexiones sobre populismo, descentralización y Chavismo2004In: Provincia: Revista venezolana de estudios territoriales, ISSN 1317-9535, no 11, p. 36-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Venezuela, Hugo Chávez, populismo, descentralización, Chavismo, democracia, partidos políticos.

  • 5.
    Lalander, Rickard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies.
    Between Interculturalism and Ethnocentrism: Local Government and the Indigenous Movement in Otavalo-Ecuador2010In: Bulletin of Latin American Research, ISSN 0261-3050, E-ISSN 1470-9856, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 505-521Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To what extent might an indigenous mayor govern beyond ethnically defined grievances, without being labelled traitor by the indigenous organisation? This article deals with the challenges faced by the Ecuadorian indigenous movement when it attains power in local government. The issue will be explored through the case of Mario Conejo, who in 2000 became the first indigenous mayor of Otavalo representing the indigenous political movement Pachakutik. Although ethnically based tensions in the local indigenous movement were evident throughout the period, 2006 saw Conejo leave Pachakutik and create a new political movement. This rupture can be traced, I argue, to an intercultural dilemma and the difficulties of ethnically defined political movements.

  • 6.
    Lalander, Rickard
    University of Helsinki.
    Bolivia. Refounding the Nation: by Artaraz, Kepa2014In: Bulletin of Latin American Research, ISSN 0261-3050, E-ISSN 1470-9856, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 509-511Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Lalander, Rickard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies. Latinamerika-Institutet.
    De la exclusión al gobierno en Ecuador:: Las estrategias de los movimientos indígenas y las estructuras políticas y sociales en Otavalo y Cotacachi2007In: TALLER DE LA REALIDAD SOCIO POLÍTICA DE IMBABURA: FLACSO-Ecuador & ESCUELA DE GOBIERNO, Ibarra, Ecuador, 7 de julio de 2007, 2007Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 8.
    Lalander, Rickard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies. Latinamerika-institutet.
    Decentralization and the Party System in Venezuela2003In: Iberoamericana: Nordic Journal of Latin American and Caribbean Studies, ISSN 0046-8444, Vol. XXXIII, no 1, p. 26-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Lalander, Rickard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies, Institute of Latin American Studies.
    Derham, M. (2010), Politics in Venezuela: Explaining Hugo Chavez2012In: Bulletin of Latin American Research, ISSN 0261-3050, E-ISSN 1470-9856, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 532-534Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Lalander, Rickard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies. Latinamerika-institutet.
    Descentralización en América Latina: Venezuela y Bolivia2005In: Ecuador Debate, ISSN 1012-1498, no 65, p. 17-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Una onda de procesos de descentralización ha cruzado el continente latinoamericano desde finales de los 1980. Hoy día los ciudadanos eligen directamente sus líderes políticos locales (y en algunos países también regionales), en comparación con las tradiciones históricas de liderazgo político centralizado. Al mismo tiempo, la descentralización tambíen es una de las demandas y recomendaciones principales de las agencias internacionales de cooperación de desarrollo y de los bancos multilaterales, como vía para reducir la pobreza y combatir la corrupción y la ineficiencia institucional. El artículo enfoca unos aspectos teóricos e históricos de la descentralización, entre otros los principios democratizadores del proceso y sus implicaciones en forma de accesibilidad al Estado y las arenas políticas para actores/grupos sociales y políticos que anteriormente estaban excluidos. Este estudio resume el estado actual del proceso de la descentralización en Bolivia y Venezuela. Teóricamente se usará una aproximación integrada, combinando ideas de opciones racionales con aspectos estructurales y procesales, particularmente las ideas de estructuras de oportunidades políticas. La descentralización está íntimamente conectada a los procesos de democratización y en muchos casos se puede considerar como un tipo de democratización (en el caso de definir la democratización como un aumento en la igualdad política). La legitimidad de una sociedad democrática depende de los eslabones entre grupos de la sociedad civil y el Estado.

  • 11.
    Lalander, Rickard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies. Latinamerika-institutet.
    Descentralización, oportunidades políticas y tensiones intragubernamentales en Venezuela (1989-1998)1999In: Cuadernos del CENDES, ISSN 1012-2508, Vol. 16, no 40, p. 25-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Lalander, Rickard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    ¿Descentralización socialista?: Reflexiones sobre democracia radical, participación política y el neoconstitucionalismo del siglo xxi en Bolivia, Ecuador y Venezuela2011In: Politeia, ISSN 0303-9757, Vol. 34, no 47, p. 55-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is an analysis of the processes of neoconstitutionalism and participatory democracy in Bolivia, Ecuador and Venezuela. Since 2006, these three countries have led the alleged leftist transformation of Latin America and the 21st Century Socialism. This article shows how the ideas ofradical democracy laid down in the new Andean constitutions are reflected and the likely challenges,tensions and contradictions regarding the implementation of these measures to enhance local popular participation and social inclusion of previously marginalized groups. Additionally, this article aims is to apply a relatively novel concept for the academic debate on political development in Latin America: socialist decentralization. Therefore, the study will offer a problematization of the theoretical debateon decentralization and radical participatory democracyin the three Andean countries. Furthermore, certain challenges for the participatory political projects by Presidents Hugo Chávez, Evo Morales and Rafael Correa will be identified.

  • 13.
    Lalander, Rickard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies, Institute of Latin American Studies.
    Descentralización y democracia en Venezuela: Nuevas tensiones y oportunidades para los partidos políticos2002In: Cuadernos de Filosofía Política. Ética y Pensamiento Filosófico Latinoamericana, ISSN 1316-838X, Vol. 5, p. 175-198Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Lalander, Rickard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies. Latinamerika-Institutet.
    Descentralización y Participación Popular en los Paises Andinos:: Reflexiones sobre Ecuador, Venezuela y Bolivia2007In: Descentralización y Participación Popular en los Paises Andinos: Reflexiones sobre Ecuador, Venezuela y Bolivia: Fundatrabajo, Colegio de Abogados, Puerto Ordaz, Venezuela, 16 July, 2007., 2007Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 15.
    Lalander, Rickard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies, Institute of Latin American Studies.
    Descentralización y populismo: Desafíos teóricos y metodológicos en la investigación sobre las democracias representativas en América Latina2010In: Provincia. Revista venezolana de estudios territoriales, ISSN 1317-9535, no 23, p. 33-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this research advancement certain theoretical and methodological challenges in social scientific research on Latin America are presented. Through the thematic, conceptual and empirical focal points of decentralization and populism, and departing in the political party systems as the core of representative democracy, different –and at times contradictory- analytical perspectives are presented in order to exemplify the possible assignments in research on the complex Latin American societies. Furthermore, the usefulness of the political opportunity structures theoretical approach is emphasized in the context of political transformations and the perspectives of social movements and political parties. Likewise, the article contributes certain methodological suggestions for scholars dealing with issues of social and political processes in Latin America.

  • 16.
    Lalander, Rickard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies, Institute of Latin American Studies.
    Dilema intercultural y lucha indígena en Otavalo-Ecuador2010In: Anales Nueva Época, ISSN 1101-4148, Bicentenario de la independencia latinoamericana (1810-2010), ISSN 1101-4148, no 12, p. 107-134Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Lalander, Rickard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies, Institute of Latin American Studies.
    El contexto histórico del chavismo y los partidos políticos venezolanos de la izquierda2008In: Reflexión Política, ISSN 0124-0781, Vol. 10, no 19, p. 12-Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    En este artículo se analizan las raíces, así como el desarrollo y la situación actual del Movimiento político alrededor del Presidente venezolano Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías (Chavismo) a través de consideraciones históricas sobre los partidos políticos izquierdistas del país. Muchos académicos han ignorado la importancia de conexiones históricas entre, por ejemplo, el Chavismo y los partidos políticos más históricos de la izquierda. Se analizarán aspectos de conflicto y cambio por dentro y fuera del Chavismo en el contexto de la democracia venezolana y los actores políticos de izquierda, tanto los que han estado asociados al movimiento de Chávez, como los de la presente y reciente oposición política. Asimismo, se consideran el carácter personalista del Chavismo y sus posibles implicaciones para el sistema partidista y los partidos políticos individuales.

  • 18.
    Lalander, Rickard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies, Institute of Latin American Studies.
    El efecto Correa en el movimiento indígena de Cotacachi y Otavalo2009In: Revista Ciencias Sociales, ISSN ISBN 978-9978-22-838-8, no 31, p. 67-102Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of the political movement of Ecuadorian President Rafael Correa on the indigenous movement is analyzed with a focus on the municipalities of Cotacachi and Otavalo, both recognized strongholds of the Pachakutik movement. The Correa effect is examined from different perspectives at cantonal level, with a focal point on the local political actors and their perceptions of strategies, alliances and ruptures within the indigenous organizations. Before the elections of 2009 the indigenous movement is divided, with direct connections to the PAIS Movement of Correa. Contextual particularities related to the indigenous movement in the two localities are considered to achieve a better comprehension of the political scenarios in progress. The author emphasizes the importance of studying aspects of local political processes, social structures and organizational complexities more deeply and not merely consider the possible populist trait of the president.

     

  • 19.
    Lalander, Rickard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies. Latinamerika-Institutet.
    El matrimonio entre Pachakutik y la UNORCAC en Cotacachi:: ¿Una alianza rara?2007In: Ecuador Debtae, ISSN 1012-1498, no 72, p. 26-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Lalander, Rickard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies, Institute of Latin American Studies.
    El matrimonio entre Pachakutik y UNORCAC en Cotacachi : ¿una alianza rara?2008In: Kuri muyu – Revista del Arte y la Sabiduría de las Culturas Originarias, no 5, p. 29-52Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 21.
    Lalander, Rickard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies. Latinamerika-institutet.
    ?El suicidio de los elefantes?: La descentralización venezolana entre la partidocracia y el chavismo2002In: La transición venezolana: Aproximación al fenómeno Chávez, Centro de Investigación de Política Comparada/CIPCOM, Universidad de Los Andes, Mérida, Venezuela. , 2002, p. 268-Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Lalander, Rickard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Entre el ecocentrismo y el pragmatismo ambiental: Consideraciones inductivas sobre desarrollo, extractivismo y los derechos de la naturaleza en Bolivia y Ecuador2015In: Revista Chilena de Derecho y Ciencia Política, ISSN 0719-2150, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 109-152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The indigenous concept of Sumak Kawsay, in which human beings reside in harmony with each other and with the environment, is the principal framework for the new constitutions in Ecuador and Bolivia. These constitutional reforms strengthen the rights of the environment as well as the countries’ ethnically defined communities. Nevertheless, the same constitutions grant the State the right to exploit and commercialize natural resources, and extractivism has increased since the approval of these radical constitutions. This article examines the tensions between social welfare policies, extractivism, and the rights of the environment and indigenous peoples within the new constitutional contexts found in Bolivia and, especially, Ecuador. Is it possible to justify the extraction of natural resources for the provision of progressive welfare policies and still respect the constitutional rights of the environment? This article argues that the Sumak Kawsay philosophy challenges the dominant understanding of the concepts of well-being, common good, and development and that the governments of the two nations have applied a pragmatic, anthropocentric approach to the constitutional rights of nature in relation to other human values.

  • 23.
    Lalander, Rickard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Ethnic rights and the dilemma of extractive development in plurinational Bolivia2017In: International Journal of Human Rights, ISSN 1364-2987, E-ISSN 1744-053X, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 464-481Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Bolivian constitution of 2009 has been classified as one of the most progressive in the world regarding indigenous rights. The indigenous principles of Suma Qamaña/Vivir Bien/Good Living on the harmonious relationship between humans and nature are established in the constitution. Nonetheless, these rights clash with the constitutionally recognised rights of the nation state to extract and commercialise natural resources (mainly hydrocarbons and mining) under the banner of redistributive justice, welfare reforms and the common good, in this study labelled the dilemma of extractive development. The article is based on ethnographic fieldwork and combines a political economy perspective on the extractive dilemma, while similarly examining the tensions between ethnically defined rights in relation to broader human rights in terms of values and norms related to welfare and conditions of living. The ethnic identity is multifaceted in Bolivia. Large segments of the indigenous population prefer to identify in class terms. The class-ethnicity tensions have altered throughout history, according to changing socio-economic, cultural and political settings. A central argument is that, during Evo Morales' presidency, class-based human rights in practice tend to be superior to the ethnically defined rights, as a reflection of the dilemma of extractive development.

  • 24.
    Lalander, Rickard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Gendering Popular Participation: Identity-Politics and Radical Democracy in Bolivarian Venezuela2016In: Multidisciplinary Latin American Studies: Festschrift in Honor of Martti Pärssinen / [ed] Harri Kettunen, Antti Korpisaari, Helsinki: University of Helsinki, 2016, p. 149-173Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Lalander, Rickard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies, Institute of Latin American Studies.
    Has Venezuelan Decentralization survived Chavismo?2006In: Stockholm Review of Latin American Studies: Venezuelan Politics and Society in Times of Chavismo / Política y sociedad en la Venezuela del Chavismo, ISSN 1654-0204, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 13-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article analyzes the recent phase of Venezuelan democracy, with a particular focus on the transformations and challenges related to decentralization. The development and proceedings of the movement around Chávez (Chavismo) and its connections to the political process are discussed, as well as certain aspects of populist political leadership and how these elements are related to (and in conflict with) the decentralization process. The populism and power concentration of the Chávez movement constitute a source of conflict for certain democratization principles of decentralization. The decentralization process is emphasized as both a kind of historical context and a focus of analysis. The context of the article is the Venezuelan political party system whereas decentralization constitutes the independent variable. It will be demonstrated that the Venezuelan two-party system had been undermined by the decentralization process already before the rise of Chavismo. Both Chavismo and a majority of the political opposition movements and are thus partly rooted in the decentralization process itself.

  • 26.
    Lalander, Rickard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    La interseccionalidad en la política identitaria de los Indígenas Evangélicos Ecuatorianos2013In: Ecuador Debate, ISSN 1012-1498, no 90, p. 173-198Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [es]

    En este trabajo se analiza el movimiento indígena evangélico ecuatoriano con énfasis particular enlas tensiones entre etnicidad y religión en contextos de movilización política en la provincia deChimborazo. Una provincia que ha sido una fortaleza tradicional tanto de la Iglesia Católica comoposteriormente de las Iglesias Evangélicas, lo que ha contribuido a la excepcionalidad de la provinciay asimismo ha animado la formación de diferentes movimientos políticos. El enfoque principal de esteanálisis es la Federación Ecuatoriana de Indígenas Evangélicos/FEINE y su brazo electoral AmautaJatari, así como sus complejas relaciones con el más amplio movimiento indígena. Teórica ymetodológicamente, el artículo se apoya en ideas de Interseccionalidad, se integran dentro de unmarco analítico sociológico-politológico. Se justifica esta integración analítica por su valor para laapertura de posibilidades de problematización del tema, sino también para comprender la complejamezcla identitaria que influye en las lógicas colectivas e individuales en la sociedad.

  • 27.
    Lalander, Rickard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies. Latinamerika-Institutet.
    Les partis politiques vénézuéliens de gauche à l´époque de Hugo Chávez2007In: Problèmes d´Amérique Latine, no 66-67Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Lalander, Rickard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies, Institute of Latin American Studies. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies.
    Los Indígenas y la Revolución Ciudadana: Rupturas y alianzas en Cotacachi y Otavalo2009In: Ecuador Debate, no 77, p. 185-218Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Las victorias de Rafael Correa y su Movimiento PAIS (Patria Altiva y Soberana), en las elecciones presidenciales de 2006 y 2009, han afectado duramente tanto al movimiento indígena ecuatoriano como a sus principales organizaciones. Se analiza el “efecto” Correa en Otavalo y Cotacachi poniendo atención en los actores políticos locales  sus estrategias, alianzas y rupturas organizativas. Los procesos políticos locales tienen su propia dinámica, existen raíces y relaciones históricas entre los diferentes actores sociales y políticos que incluyen antiguos vínculos con la izquierda.

  • 29.
    Lalander, Rickard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies. Latinamerika-institutet.
    Molina V, José E. & Angel Alvarez: Los partidos políticos venezolanos en el siglo XXI: Review/recension/reseña2006In: Espacio Abierto: Cuaderno Venezolano de Sociología, Vol. 15, no 4Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 30.
    Lalander, Rickard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies. Latinamerika-institutet.
    Movimiento indígena, participación política y buen gobierno municipal en Ecuador: El Alcalde Mario Conejo de Otavalo2005In: Ecuador Debate, ISSN 10121498, no 66, p. 30-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecuador, Otavalo, movimiento indígena, participación popular, descentralización

    good governance, decentralization, popular participation, indigenous movement

  • 31.
    Lalander, Rickard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Neo-Constitutionalism in Twenty-First Century Venezuela: Participatory Democracy, Deconcentrated Decentralization or Centralized Populism?2012In: New Constitutionalism in Latin America: Promises and Practices / [ed] Detlef Nolte, Almut Schilling-Vacaflor, Farnham, Surrey: Ashgate, 2012, p. 163-182Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Lalander, Rickard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Pachakutik and the Rise and Decline of the Ecuadorian Indigenous Movement by Mijeski, Kenneth J. & Beck, Scott H. (2011): Book review2013In: Latin American Politics and Society, ISSN 1531-426X, E-ISSN 1548-2456, Vol. 55, no 2, p. 194-197Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Lalander, Rickard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies. Latinamerika-institutet.
    Pachakutik -bara för indianer?2008In: Tidsskriften Latinamerika, no 1, p. 4-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 34.
    Lalander, Rickard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies. Latinamerika-Institutet.
    ¿Proceso social o actores políticos?: Reflexiones sobre los liderazgos indígenas en Cotacachi y Otavalo2008In: Procesos sociales y actores políticos: ESCUELA DE GOBIERNO Y POLÍTICAS PÚBLICAS, Ibarra, Gobernación de Imbabura, Ministerio de Inclusión económica y social, Ecuador, 2008Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 35.
    Lalander, Rickard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies. Latinamerika-institutet.
    Reflexiones exploradoras sobre la descentralización en Bolivia y Venezuela2005In: Provincia: Revista venezolana de estudios territoriales, ISSN 1317-9535, no 14, p. 37-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A wave of decentralization processes has swept the Latin American continent since the late 1980´s. The citizens now directly elect their political leaders at the local (and in some countries also the regional/provincial) level, compared to traditional centralized political systems. Decentralization is likewise normally a key ingredient and requirement among international donors and multi-lateral banks when support is given for poverty reduction strategies. This article (re-) considers some theoretical and historical aspects of decentralization, among others the democratization principles and significances of the process, as well as its implications in form of accessibility to the State and political arenas for previously excluded social and political actors. Some of the experiences from Venezuela since 1989 and Bolivia from 1994 onwards are analyzed, including some of the “positive” achievements of decentralization and a few of the obstacles (e.g. corruption and violent protests) for the carrying through and continuation of the reform process. Decentralization can in many cases be considered a type of democratization (if defining democratization as an increase in political equality). The legitimacy of a democratic society depends on the linkages between civil society groups and the State.

  • 36.
    Lalander, Rickard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies, Institute of Latin American Studies.
    Reseña de Los Partidos Políticos Venezolanos de José E. Molina y Angel A. Álvarez: Book review / Reseña de libro2006In: Espacio Abierto, ISSN 1315-0006, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 825-832Article, book review (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Lalander, Rickard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Retorno de los Runakuna: Cotacachi y Otavalo2010 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [es]

    En 1996 el movimiento político Pachakutik –asociado a la confederación indígena CONAIE- participó electoralmente por primera vez y desde entonces el movimiento indígena se ha establecido como una importante fuerza a nivel local, entre otros, en Cotacachi y Otavalo. Estos dos cantones se identifican como la cuna intelectual del movimiento indígena ecuatoriano. En este libro se analiza el proceso político local desde las perspectivas indígenas, principalmente durante el período entre 1996 y 2010. Un enfoque principal está en lo que el autor denomina el dilema intercultural del movimiento indigena, es decir, los desafíos político-electorales asociados a la interculturalidad y las alianzas establecidas más allá de la definición étnica.  Igualmente se problematizan analíticamente las implicaciones de los avances del movimiento político del Presidente Rafael Correa a partir de 2006 dentro del movimiento indígena. Asimismo, se examina el faccionalismo dentro de las organizaciones indígenas en Cotacachi y Otavalo. A través del análisis de las percepciones e interpretaciones por parte de los actores indígenas, se intenta captar la dinámica y las tensiones dentro de esta complejidad al nivel cantonal. Es extremadamente importante ofrecer espacio académico a los protagonistas políticos. Por ende, metodológicamente, se incluye una gran cantidad de entrevistas con los actores. La segunda parte del libro consiste en una selección de 16 conversaciones entre el autor y destacados personajes indígenas, entre otros, los tres alcaldes protagonistas del estudio; Auki Tituaña y Alberto Anrango en Cotacachi, así como Mario Conejo en Otavalo, lo que por sí contribuye a llenar un vacío de documentación académica del movimiento indígena ecuatoriano y la historia política local.

    Rickard Lalander es politólogo, Doctor y Catedrático en Estudios Latinoamericanos, investigador y profesor en las universidades de Helsinki y  Estocolmo. Es investigador asociado de la Universidad Andina Simón Bolívar, Quito. En Ecuador ha colaborado con la FLACSO, el Centro Andino de Acción Popular/CAAP y la Escuela de Gobierno y Políticas Públicas para las Nacionalidades y Pueblos del Ecuador/ESGOPP. Es autor de Suicide of the Elephants? Venezuelan Decentralization between Partyarchy and Chavismo (2004), editor y co-autor de Política y Sociedad en la Venezuela del Chavismo (2006) y ha publicado ampliamente sobre la democracia en los países andinos, inclusive varios artículos sobre el movimiento indígena ecuatoriano.

  • 38.
    Lalander, Rickard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Rights of nature and the indigenous peoples in Bolivia and Ecuador: A Straitjacket for Progressive Development Politics?2014In: Revista iberoamericana de estudios de desarrollo / Iberoamerican Journal of Development Studies, E-ISSN 2254-2035, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 148-173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Is it possible to justify resource extractivism to provide progressive welfare politics and still respect the constitutional rights of nature? The Indigenous concept of Sumak Kawsay on human beings living in harmony with each other and the environment is the fundamental framing of the new constitutions of Ecuador and Bolivia. These constitutional reforms embrace strengthened proper rights of nature and similarly of ethnic rights. However, the same constitutions grant the State the right to exploit and commercialize natural resources and extractivism has increased. This study revises the tensions between welfare politics, extractivism and the rights of nature and the Indigenous peoples in the new constitutional settings of Bolivia and, particularly, Ecuador. The article argues that Sumak Kawsay challenges dominating understandings of theconcepts of welfare, common good and development, and likewise that a pragmatic approach is applied by national governments towards the constitutional rights of nature amidst other human values.

  • 39.
    Lalander, Rickard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies. Latinamerika-institutet.
    Sistema partidista y descentralización en la Venezuela del Chavismo2004In: Revista Venezolana de Ciencia Política, no 26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article launches some reflections on the present state of the Venezuelan decentralization process in the context of the political movement around current Venezuelan president Hugo Chávez, el chavismo. The main objective of the article is to analyze a few aspects of Venezuela´s democracy with a special focus on the political changes related to decentralization, and with the main political parties(and their principal leaders) playing the protogonic roles. From certain perspectives, the populism and power concentration of the Chávez movement constitutes a source of conflict for the democratization principles of decentralization. The links between chavismo and the Venezuelan decentralization process will be analyzed, through an historical analytical journey through the political development since 1989 and decentralization. Decentralization can in many cases be considered a type of democratization (if defining democratization as an increase in political equality). Theoretically, a mixed/integrated approach will be used, combining actors´ rational choice with more process-structural approaches, particularly the political opportunity structures theories. The legitimacy of a democratic society depends on the linkages between civil society groups and the State.

  • 40.
    Lalander, Rickard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies, Institute of Latin American Studies.
    Socialist Decentralization in the Andes? Explorative Reflections on Radical Democracy and 21st Century Neo-Constitutionalism2011In: Independence and Dependence in Latina America, 200 years later : International Symposium October 27-29, 2010 Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies. / [ed] Alejandro González & Sergio Infante, Stockholm: ISPLA , 2011, p. 7-24Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study the processes of neo-constitutionalism and participatory democracy in Bolivia, Ecuador and Venezuela are analyzed. Since 2006, these three countries spearhead the alleged leftist transformation of Latin America and the 21st Century Socialism. How are ideas of radical democracy reflected in the new Andean constitutions and which are the likely challenges, tensions and contradictions regarding the implementation of these measures to enhance local popular participation and social inclusion of previously marginalized groups? Additionally, an aim of this essay is to applicate a relatively novel concept for the academic debate on political development in Latin America: socialist decentralization. Therefore, the study will offer a problematization of the theoretical debate on decentralization and radical participatory democracy in the three Andean countries. Furthermore, certain challenges for the participatory political projects around presidents Hugo Chávez, Evo Morales and Rafael Correa will be identified.

  • 41.
    Lalander, Rickard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    The Ecuadorian Resource Dilemma: Sumak Kawsay or Development?2016In: Critical Sociology, ISSN 0896-9205, E-ISSN 1569-1632, Vol. 42, no 4-5, p. 623-642Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the tensions between constitutional rights, welfare politics and extractivism in Ecuador. In practice, the rights of nature risk being subordinated to other human values amidst strategic State interests in economic development and social programs, due to the government’s pragmatic approach toward environmental rights. The Ecuadorian Constitution of 2008 has been celebrated for being the most radical in the world regarding the specific rights of nature and the indigenous peoples. The central framing of the Constitution is the indigenous concept of Sumak Kawsay regarding humans being in harmony with nature. The Rafael Correa government launched a groundbreaking initiative to protect biodiversity and indigenous peoples in the oil rich national park of Yasuní, adding to the image of Ecuador as an ecological alternative to follow and a challenge to global capitalism. Far-reaching welfare programs have been implemented during the Correa administration, but resource extraction has increased. In light of the Ecuadoran experience, substantial questions remain as to whether Sumak Kawsay can be a path for socialist transformation and ecologically solvent development.

  • 42.
    Lalander, Rickard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies, Institute of Latin American Studies.
    The Impeachment of Carlos Andrés Pérez and the Collapse of Venezuelan Partyarchy2010In: Presidential Breakdowns in Latin America: Causes and Outcomes of Executive Instability in Developing Democracies / [ed] Mariana Llanos & Leiv Marsteintredet, New York: Palgrave Macmillan , 2010, p. 129-146Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter outlines the probable causes of the impeachment of Venezuelan president Carlos Andrés Pérez (CAP) in 1993 by examining the role of the political actors involved in the process. Particular emphasis has been placed on the collapse of the dominant two-party system, the AD-COPEI partyarchic model. Partyarchy once guaranteed the Venezuelan political system relative stability, but it also provoked its own demise. It hindered the institutionalization of political accountability between the electorate and political leaders. There was no really effective opposition and the two dominant parties efficiently obstructed access to political society for alternative actors, which resulted in a loss of legitimacy for the system and of credibility for traditional political leaders.

    It is important to look for the deeper causes of presidential breakdowns, impeachments and even political scandals. The presidential breakdown in Venezuela was the result of complex causes. After the oil bonanza years in the 1970s, the economic situation worsened throughout the 1980s, with negative social and political repercussions. From the late 1980s onwards, the hegemonic bipartisan system was undermined and challenged by new political actors, some emerging from the decentralization after 1989. The Caracazo riots of 1989, the two military coup attempts of 1992 and the popular sympathy elicited by the rebels or coup leaders provide evidence of widespread social and political discontent.

    In a continental comparison, the case of Venezuela is not that typical, since the impeachment was not the direct result of a scandal. Corruption charges against CAP in 1993 (the scandal) functioned rather as an emergency exit from the acute regime crisis. The scandal helped the actors who wished to remove CAP and was an excuse to proceed with impeachment, probably much more so than in the cases of presidential breakdowns in Brazil and Paraguay. Further, officially Pérez had strong parliamentary representation, but AD chose not to support the president’s reform policies. President Pérez thus lacked party and grassroots support and suffered from the hostile relationship between the executive power and the ruling party that facilitated the judicial process. The impeachment procedures are reviewed, as some of the political consequences of presidential breakdown.

  • 43.
    Lalander, Rickard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies, Institute of Latin American Studies.
    The Intersecting Identity Politics of the Ecuadorian Evangelical Indians2012In: Ibero-Americana, Nordic Journal of Latin American Studies, ISSN 0046-8444, Vol. 42, no 1-2, p. 135-158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyses the Ecuadorian Evangelical Indigenous movement with a particular focus on the tensions between ethnicity and religion in political mobilization processes in the Chimborazo province. Chimborazo has been a traditional stronghold both of the Catholic Church and later of Evangelical churches, which makes the province exceptional and has triggered the formation of different political movements. The focus is placed on the social movement Ecuadorian Federation of Evangelical Indians (FEINE) and its political-electoral movement Amauta Jatari, as well as their complex relationships to the broader Indigenous movement. As for the theoretical-methodological approach, the article leans on ideas on Intersectionality – originally emerging from women´s studies – on relationships between socio-cultural identities and categories, which will be integrated into a sociological-political scientific analytical framework. This approach is valuable for problematizing, as well as better comprehending the complex mixture of identities that influence collective and individual behavior in society. Is there a certain hierarchic order between ethnic and religious identification among ethnically defined peoples with specific religious beliefs? Is this imaginable hierarchy persistent, or does it change according to differing social and political contexts?

  • 44.
    Lalander, Rickard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    VENEZUELA 2010-2011: POLARIZACIÓN Y RADICALIZACIÓN DEL PROYECTO SOCIALISTA2012In: Revista de Ciencia Política, ISSN 0718-090X, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 293-313Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Venezuela 2010-2011: Polarization and Radicalization of the socialist project

    The years of 2010 and 2011 were characterized by political and social polarization and similarly by a radicalization of the socialist government of Hugo Chávez Frías, with the establishment of new laws to expand the model of radical participatory democracy. The period however also witnessed the return of the opposition to the National Assembly in 2010. In 2011, the already existing crisis within the Chavismo was hit by the health problems of the President, which added to uncertainty regarding the leadership of a movement that hitherto has been characterized by a high degree of personalism and power concentration in Chávez. In the social field, the government has maintained its progressive (and/or paternalist) policies of different State Social Missions (Misiones), since 2011 mainly to confront housing shortages. Already in 2011, the beginning of a pre-campaign before the presidential elections of 2012 can be observed. This study provides a political summary of Venezuela in 2010 and 2011, and there will be special analytical attention paid to the parliamentary elections of 2010, and –particularly- the tensions between two different democratic schemes: a liberal representative model and a more radical and participatory type of democracy. As for the second type there will be special attention to the Community Councils and their implications for Venezuelan democracy.

  • 45.
    Lalander, Rickard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies, Institute of Latin American Studies.
    Venezuelan Leftist Parties in the Era of Hugo Chávez2008In: Stockholm Review of Latin American Studies, ISSN 1654-0204, no 3, p. 131-142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article the roots, development and the current situation of the political movement around Venezuelan President Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías (Chavismo) are analyzed through historical reconsiderations regarding the main Leftist political parties of the country. Many scholars have tended to neglect important historical connections between, for instance, Chavismo and Venezuelan historical Leftist parties. Conflict and change in and around Chavismo principally from the early 1990´s onwards are factors to be explored in a context of Venezuelan democracy and leftist political actors, both those associated with Chávez and those actors of the present and recent political opposition. Likewise, the personalistic character of Chavismo and its possible implications for the party system and individual parties are considered.

  • 46.
    Lalander, Rickard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies.
    Venezuelan Politics and Society in Times of Chavismo:: Perspectives on Decentralization and Party System Transformations2007In: Venezuelan Politics and Society in Times of Chavismo: Perspectives on Decentralization and Party System Transformations: Centre of Development and Environment, University of Oslo, 21 August, 2007., 2007Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 47.
    Lalander, Rickard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies. Latinamerika-institutet.
    Venezuelan Politics and Society in times of Chavismo: Política y sociedad en la Venezuela del Chavismo2006Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez Frías is probably the most controversial among the Latin American political leaders of the recent decade(s). The former coup-leader (or military rebel, depending on the interpretation by the analyst), who was democratically elected President of the Republic in 1998, is likewise a forefront figure of the current wave of Leftist transformations on the continent. This first edition of the Stockholm Review of Latin American Studies is dedicated to the topic of Venezuelan politics and society in times of Chavismo. A rather broad range of researchers from three continents have contributed with distinct points of departure and scopes of focus, with the first three articles in English and the five subsequent ones in Spanish. In the first, Daniel Hellinger employs the concept of tercermundismo to approach Venezuelan politics and society in the context of rising and developing Chavismo. Aspects of social and political inclusion and exclusion are analytically revised, as well as other relevant factors behind the popularity (and the rejection) of Chávez. Thereafter, Angel Alvarez presents a series of analytical arguments regarding social cleavages and political polarization in the context of the break-down of the ancient regime and its consequences for democracy. Rickard Lalander then emphasizes the destiny of Venezuelan decentralization since Hugo Chávez came to power. José Vicente Carrasquero addresses certain aspects of participatory democracy and social and political inclusion and exclusion respectively, and offers a balance of accounts of the first seven years of the Chávez government. José Antonio Rivas Leone contributes with an historical analysis of the crises and process of de-institutionalization of the Venezuelan party system, considering both internal factors, as the exhaustion of the traditional parties, and external, like the decentralization process since 1989. In their qualitative study, Friedrich Welsch and Gabriel Reyes approach the possible social, class and ethnical differences between the supporters and the opponents of the Chávez movement, also taking into consideration citizens auto-classified as independent. The study by Carlos Blanco constitutes a critical analysis of whether the regime as officially declared is to be considered revolutionary, or, as the author argues, rather a type of neo-authoritarianism. Likewise, both the behaviour of the government and the political opposition are reviewed by Blanco, as well as Venezuela’s relationship with the United States during the Chávez government. Finally, in the contribution presented by Oscar Reyes, the main focus is the concept of 21st Century Socialism, which in recent years has been used by analysts and by Chávez himself as an umbrella term for the present Venezuelan government.

  • 48.
    Lalander, Rickard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies, Institute of Latin American Studies.
    Venezuelas ofullbordade demokrati2010In: Prometokrati: mellan diktatur och demokrati / [ed] Sten Widmalm & Sven Oskarsson, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2010, 1, p. 197-238Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Lalander, Rickard
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies, Institute of Latin American Studies.
    Altman, David
    Bolivia's Popular Participation Law: An Undemocratic Democratisation Process?2003In: Decentralisation and Democratic Governance: Experiences from India, Bolivia and South Africa / [ed] Axel Hadenius, Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell, 2003, p. 63-104Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Lalander, Rickard
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies. Latinamerika-institutet.
    García Samaniego, Fransisco Roberto
    Centro de Investigación de Política Comparada/CIPCOM.
    Chavismo y Oposición en Venezuela: Exploraciones críticas sobre democracia, descentralización y populismo2005In: Ciudad Política.: Praxis y Ciencia SocialArticle in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of the article is to analyze a few aspects of the Venezuelan democracy, with a particular focus on on the party system transformations related to decentralization, and the strategies by the political opposition and government respectively. The political parties (and their principal leaders) play the protogonic roles (as also to a certain limited extent the mass-media). The proceedings of the movement around current President Hugo Chávez (the Chavismo) and its connections to the political process since 1998 are worth a closer analysis, as well as certain aspects of populistic political leadership. The decentralization process is emphasized as a kind of historical context and a limitation of the focus. A mayority of the political opposition movements (and Chavismo) are rooted in the decentralization process. The contextual focus is the Venezuelan political party system and decentralization constitutes the independent variable. The study will reveal that the traditional two-party-system was undermined by decentralization. From some perspectives, the populism and power concentration of the Chávez movement constitutes a source of conflict for certain democratization principles of decentralization. Theoretically, a mixed/integrated approach will be used, combining actors´ rational choice with more process-structural approaches, particularly the political opportunity structures theories.

12 1 - 50 of 61
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