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  • 1.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Species Richness and Assemblages in Landscapes of Different Farming Intensity - Time to Revise Conservation Strategies?2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 10, p. e109816-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Worldwide conservation goals to protect biodiversity emphasize the need to rethink which objectives are most suitable for different landscapes. Comparing two different Swedish farming landscapes, we used survey data on birds and vascular plants to test whether landscapes with large, intensively managed farms had lower richness and diversity of the two taxa than landscapes with less intensively managed small farms, and if they differed in species composition. Landscapes with large intensively managed farms did not have lower richness than smaller low intensively managed farms. The landscape types were also similar in that they had few red listed species, normally targeted in conservation. Differences in species composition demonstrate that by having both types of agricultural landscapes regional diversity is increased, which is seldom captured in the objectives for agro-environmental policies. Thus we argue that focus on species richness or red listed species would miss the actual diversity found in the two landscape types. Biodiversity conservation, especially in production landscapes, would therefore benefit from a hierarchy of local to regional objectives with explicit targets in terms of which aspects of biodiversity to focus on.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Nykvist, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Malinga, Rebecka
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Jaramillo, Fernando
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    A social-ecological analysis of ecosystem services in two different farming systems2015In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 44, p. 102-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this exploratory study we use existing in situ qualitative and quantitative data on biophysical and social indicators to compare two contrasting Swedish farming systems (low intensity and high intensity) with regard to ecosystem service supply and demand of a broad suite of services. We show that the value (demand) placed on a service is not necessarily connected to the quantity (supply) of the service, most clearly shown for the services recreation, biodiversity, esthetic experience, identity, and cultural heritage. To better capture this complexity we argue for the need to develop portfolios of indicators for different ecosystem services and to further investigate the different aspects of supply and demand. The study indicates that available data are often ill-suited to answer questions about local delivery of services. If ecosystem services are to be included in policy, planning, and management, census data need to be formatted and scaled appropriately.

  • 3. Beilin, R
    et al.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology (INK).
    Biodiversity and Land Abandonment:  Connecting Agriculture, Place and Nature in the Landscape2010In: Landscape, identities and development / [ed] Roca, Zoran, Springer , 2010Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper considers how cultural and social-centric norms influence the management and the meaning of land abandonment and biodiversity in rural landscapes. We describe historically, geologically, ecologically and socially diverse landscapes in three international case studies.  In Australia, rural land abandonment after only 150 years of European agriculture is associated biophysically with salinity, erosion and acidification.  It triggers a potential loss of place and identity for a nation still imagining a frontier past. Trading water away from the land and deregulation of production regimes due to WTO imperatives may create the opportunity for regeneration of indigenous flora and a new identity associated with conservation values.  In Sweden land abandonment reflects entrenched agricultural landscapes of over 1000 years.  Their landscape biodiversity is considered unique and in need of preservation in the face of aging farmer populations and the realities of food imports making production regimes non-viable. Sustainability appears to be associated with maintaining production regimes strongly linked to local cultural identity and sense of place.  In Portugal agricultural land abandonment in the north seems to offer a chance for oak forest regeneration and improved biodiversity outcomes. Identity here is associated with remembered landscapes prior to EU entry and re-imagining landscape connections built on previous cultural ties. In all three cases we consider what this interplay between natural and cultural landscapes will mean to their local communities; and using the historical and cultural lens, examine the theoretical ecological and sociological platforms surrounding the discourse on land use change.  We consider the benefits from interdisciplinary and international comparative research providing local-global insights that emerge to suggest common larger narratives of place and culture despite divergent histories of settlement and cultivation.

  • 4. Beilin, R.
    et al.
    Queiroz, Cibele
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Re-imagined and re-defined meanings: The complexity of land abandonment, identity and place in the quest for sustainable and biodivers rural and regional landscapes.2011In: Landscapes, Identities and Development / [ed] Zoran Roca, Paul Claval, John Agnew, Ashgate, 2011, p. 243-256Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bringing together theoretical and empirical research from 22 countries in Europe, North America, Australia, South America and Japan, this book offers a state-of-the-art survey of conceptual and methodological research and planning issues relating to landscape, heritage, and development. It has 30 chapters grouped in four main thematic sections: landscapes as a constitutive dimension of territorial identities; landscape history and landscape heritage; landscapes as development assets and resources; and landscape research and development planning. The contributors are scholars from a wide range of cultural and professional backgrounds, experienced in fundamental and applied research, planning and policy design. They were invited by the co-editors to write chapters for this book on the basis of the theoretical frameworks, case-study research findings and related policy concerns they presented at the 23rd Session of PECSRL - The Permanent European Conference for the Study of the Rural Landscape, organized by TERCUD - Territory, Culture and Development Research Centre, Universidade Lusofona, in Lisbon and Obidos, Portugal, 1 - 5 September 2008. With such broad inter-disciplinary relevance and international scope, this book provides a valuable overview, highlighting recent findings and interpretations on historical, current and prospective linkages between changing landscapes and natural, economic, cultural and other identity features of places and regions; landscape-related identities as local and regional development assets and resources in the era of globalized economy and culture; the role of landscape history and heritage as platforms of landscape research and management in European contexts, including the implementation of The European Landscape Convention; and, the strengthening of the landscape perspective as a constitutive element of sustainable development.

  • 5. Beilin, Ruth
    et al.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Stenseke, Marie
    Pereira, Henrique Miguel
    Llausas, Albert
    Slätmo, Elin
    Cerqueira, Yvonne
    Navarro, Laetitia
    Rodrigues, Patricia
    Reichelt, Nicole
    Munro, Nicola
    Queiroz, Cibele
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal.
    Analysing how drivers of agricultural land abandonment affect biodiversity and cultural landscapes using case studies from Scandinavia, Iberia and Oceania2014In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 36, p. 60-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Agricultural land abandonment (ALA) is widespread in many countries of the global north. It impacts rural communities, traditional landscapes, biodiversity and ecosystem services. It is an opportunity for ecosystem restoration or new landscape functions. We explored ALA in study areas in Australia, Portugal and Sweden. In each, we assessed plant species diversity, historical trajectories of land cover change; and the socioeconomic past, present and future in interviews with farmers. The ALA data was integrated and analysed by identifying the drivers of change. The relative importance of each driver and its scale of action was estimated, both in the past (1950-2010) and in the future (2010-2030). ALA has transformed rural landscapes in the study areas of Portugal and Sweden. It is at a much earlier stage with potential to increase in the Australian case. We identified a set of driving forces, classified into pressures, frictions and attractors that clarify why ALA, noting its temporal and spatial scale, occurs differently in each study area. The effect of the drivers is related to social and historical contexts. Pressures and attractors encouraging agricultural abandonment are strongest in Portugal and Sweden. Generally more (institutionalized) frictions are in place in these European sites, intended to prevent further change, based on the benefits assumed for biodiversity and aesthetics. In Australia, the stimulation of driving forces to promote a well-managed abandonment of some cleared areas could be highly beneficial for biodiversity, minimally disruptive for current dairy farming operations and would bring opportunities for alternative types of rural development.

  • 6.
    Berkström, Charlotte
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Gullström, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology. Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Mwandya, Augustine W.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Yahya, Saleh A. S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Kautsky, Nils
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Nyström, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Exploring 'knowns' and 'unknowns' in tropical seascape connectivity with insights from East African coral reefs2012In: Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, ISSN 0272-7714, E-ISSN 1096-0015, Vol. 107, p. 1-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Applying a broader landscape perspective to understand spatio-temporal changes in local populations and communities has been increasingly used in terrestrial systems to study effects of human impact and land use change. With today’s major declines in fishery stocks and rapid degradation of natural coastal habitats, the understanding of habitat configuration and connectivity over relevant temporal and spatial scales is critical for conservation and fisheries management of the seascape. Coral reefs, seagrass beds and mangroves are key-components of the tropical seascape. The spatial distribution of these habitat-types may have strong influences on cross-habitat migration and connectivity patterns among organisms. However, the consequences of seascape fragmentation and ecological connectivity are largely unknown. Here, we review the literature to provide an overview of current knowledge with regards to connectivity and food-web interactions within the tropical seascape. We show that information on fish acting as mobile links and being part of nutrient transfer and trophic interactions is scarce. We continue by making an in-depth analysis of the seascape around Zanzibar (Eastern Africa) to fill some of the knowledge gaps identified by the literature survey. Our analysis shows that (i) fifty percent of all fish species found within the Zanzibar seascape use two or multiple habitat-types, (ii) eighteen percent of all coral reef-associated fish species use mangrove and seagrass beds as juvenile habitat, and (iii) macrocarnivores and herbivores are highly represented among those coral reef fish species that use mangrove and seagrass beds as juvenile habitat. We argue that understanding the inter-linkages within and between habitat-types is essential for successful management of the tropical seascape.

  • 7.
    Berkström, Charlotte
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Thyresson, Matilda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Gullström, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Assessing connectivity in a tropical embayment: Fish migrations and seascape ecology2013In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 166, p. 43-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seascape connectivity and configuration of multiple habitats are important features to include in marine spatial planning, and protecting seascapes with high connectivity is recommended. The present study examines the potential connectivity of reef fish assemblages in a shallow-water conservation area in Zanzibar (Tanzania) by analysing relationships between a set of habitat variables and fish diversity and density for different functional groups (based on diet) and life stages of fish using PLS-analysis. We combined spatial pattern metrics (habitat type, patch size, distance to patch) and dispersal abilities of a number of fish species using buffer radius to answer the questions; (i) do coral reefs with high connectivity to seagrass habitats have higher abundances and higher species richness of fish that undertake routine migrations during their life-history? and (ii) do coral reefs closer to mangrove forest support higher abundances of nursery species (i.e., fish species that use mangrove and seagrass beds as juvenile habitat)? Habitat mosaics surrounding fish survey sites and within-patch measurements inside fish survey sites were quantified at multiple scales (meters to kilometers) using aerial photography and scuba. Fish data was collected using a standardized point census method. We found that both fine- and broad-scale variables were important in structuring fish communities and connectivity with surrounding habitats, where predominantly seagrass beds within a 750 m radius had a positive influence on fish abundances of invertebrate feeders/piscivores (especially for lutjanids and lethrinids). Additionally, fine-scale seagrass cover had a positive influence on nursery species. Depth also had a positive influence on total species richness and the abundance of invertebrate feeders/piscivores. This study highlights the importance of combining connectivity and habitat configuration at different scales to fully understand and manage the tropical seascape.

  • 8.
    Berkström, Charlotte
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Thyresson, Matilda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Gullström, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Seascape configuration influences connectivity of reef fish assemblagesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Shallow-water habitats within tropical seascapes are intimately connected through ontogenetic and/or feeding migrations of fish. Knowledge on connectivity in the Indo-Pacific region is however sparse. Landscape ecology has been suggested as a useful approach when studying seascape connectivity. In this study, we examine the influence of habitat connectivity on reef fish assemblages in shallow-water habitats surrounding Zanzibar (Tanzania), using a seascape approach. We tested the relationships between a set of landscape and habitat variables and fish diversity and density for different functional groups and life stages. Habitat data was collected at scales ranging from 1m to >2km using aerial photography and ground-truthing. Fish data was collected using a standardised point census method. Furthermore, semi-structured interviews with 127 fishers in the bay were conducted to account for different fishing activity. We show that coral reefs in a complex seascape of Zanzibar are connected to seagrass beds through migration of fish. Habitat connectivity of seagrass and seagrass/coral mix within a 750m radius of coral reefs had a positive influence on fish abundances in the functional group of invertebrate feeders/piscivores, especially within the family Lutjanidae and Lethrinidae. Within-patch seagrass cover had a positive influence on nursery species. Depth also had a positive influence on fish assemblages, highlighting the importance of considering a third dimension, not accounted for in terrestrial studies. Generally, fishing activity between sites did neither influence species richness nor abundance, except for the abundance of juvenile parrotfish. We demonstrate that a landscape ecology approach, combining connectivity and habitat variables, is important for understanding and managing the tropical seascape, although it must be applied at relevant scales, habitat metrics and seascape configurations to fully capture ecological connectivity.

  • 9. Birkhofer, Klaus
    et al.
    Andersson, Georg K. S.
    Bengtsson, Janne
    Bommarco, Riccardo
    Dänhardt, Juliana
    Ekbom, Barbara
    Ekroos, Johan
    Hahn, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Hedlund, Katarina
    Jönsson, Annelie M.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Olsson, Ola
    Rader, Romina
    Rusch, Adrien
    Stjernman, Martin
    Williams, Alwyn
    Smith, Henrik G.
    Relationships between multiple biodiversity components and ecosystem services along a landscape complexity gradient2018In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 218, p. 247-253Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The assessment of effects of anthropogenic disturbance on biodiversity (BD) and ecosystem services (ES) and their relationships are key priorities of the Intergovernmental Panel for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services. Agricultural landscapes and their associated BD provide multiple ES and it is crucial to understand how relationships between ES and BD components change along gradients of landscape complexity. In this study, we related eight ES potentials to the species richness of five invertebrate, vertebrate and plant taxonomic groups in cereal farming systems. The landscape complexity gradient ranged from areas dominated by annually tilled arable land to areas with high proportions of unfertilized, non-rotational pastures and uncultivated field borders. We show that after accounting for landscape complexity relationships between yield and bird richness or biological control became more positive, but relationships between bird richness and biological control became less positive. The relationship between bird and plant richness turned from positive to negative. Multidiversity (overall biodiversity), was positively related to landscape complexity, whereas multifunctionality (overall ES provision), was not significantly related to either one of these. Our results suggest that multidiversity can be promoted by increasing landscape complexity; however; we found no support for a simultaneous increase of several individual ES, BD components or multifunctionality. These results challenge the assumption that bio-diversity-friendly landscape management will always simultaneously promote multiple ES in agricultural landscapes. Future studies need to verify this pattern by using multi-year data, larger sets of ES and BD components and a study design that is appropriate to address larger spatial scales and relationships in several regions.

  • 10. Bommarco, Riccardo
    et al.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Marini, Lorenzo
    Öckinger, Erik
    Extinction debt for plants and flower-visiting insects in landscapes with contrasting land use history2014In: Diversity & distributions: A journal of biological invasions and biodiversity, ISSN 1366-9516, E-ISSN 1472-4642, Vol. 20, no 5, p. 591-599Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim Species are lost world-wide because of habitat destruction and fragmentation. Impacted communities can exhibit transient dynamics in response to such environmental changes, where slow extinctions and immigration delay the arrival to a new equilibrium. Life history traits such as generation time, resource use and dispersal capacity, as well as landscape history can be expected to affect possible extinction debt, but few have examined this for multiple taxa in the same study and particularly so for arthropods. The aim was to assess under which current and historical land use circumstances an extinction debt occurs for vascular plants and three insect taxa. Location South-eastern Sweden. Method We sampled current species richness of habitat specialist and generalist butterflies, bees, hoverflies, and vascular plants in 45 dry to mesic semi-natural grassland fragments of various size and degree of connectivity, and situated in landscapes with contrasting land use conversion history. Habitat loss was estimated in each landscape by comparing modern maps to ~45year old digitized aerial photographs. An extinction debt can be assumed if historical habitat size and connectivity better explain current species distribution than current habitat variables do. Results Bees responded rapidly to habitat loss possibly as a result of their primary nesting resource being destroyed. Interestingly, species richness of specialist plants was best explained by historical habitat connectivity, richness of hoverflies by historical habitat area, and richness of butterflies by both historical habitat area and connectivity, indicating extinction debt for these taxa. Habitat generalist butterflies and hoverflies, but not plants and bees, exhibited extinction debt mainly in relation to habitat area. No effect of landscape type was found on the observed extinction debt. Main conclusions Slow extinctions of persistent and long-lived plants might explain extinction debt for both plants and herbivorous insects linked to these plants.

  • 11.
    Borgström, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Cousins, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Outside the boundary - land use changes in the surroundings of urban nature reserves2012In: Applied Geography, ISSN 0143-6228, E-ISSN 1873-7730, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 350-359Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of the landscape surrounding a protected area for sustaining its values is frequently discussed in conservation literature. Studies on the interactions of urbanisation and nature conservation at the global scale suggest that protected nature attracts urbanisation, and that this in turn might negatively impact the area. However, studies specifically addressing such land use dynamics at city scale are largely missing. In this study we examine the change in proportion of built up area in two zones (500 m and 1000 m) surrounding 15 urban nature reserves in southern Sweden. By using comprehensive maps from the last 50 years, we compared the zones to the overall urbanisation in the cities to reveal discrepancies in land use surrounding the nature reserves. We found that the amount of built up area in the buffer zones surrounding nature reserves followed the same trend as the corresponding cities and this relation was stable over time, although the positive relationship was not significant. The establishment of nature reserves had no detectable effect on surrounding land use, however two distinguished groups of reserves were identified with either more or less built up area in buffers zones compared to cities. These differences were related to specific local drivers such as land ownership, land use history and nature reserve location. In contrast to earlier studies at global scale, our study did not show that nature reserves attract urbanisation. Instead, we stress that the great variety of contextual factors at the city scale makes quantitative analysis of this kind extremely difficult. However, a general neglect from planning and nature conservation agencies to recognise nature reserves’ dependence on the surrounding landscape configuration could be detrimental to sustain their values in the long-term. Hence we suggest that zones surrounding nature-protected areas should be planned and managed according to local land use history and current landscape conditions to enable and enhance necessary cross-boundary interactions.

  • 12.
    Borgström, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Nature conservation for what?: Analyses of urban and rural nature reserves in southern Sweden 1909-20062013In: Landscape and Urban Planning, ISSN 0169-2046, E-ISSN 1872-6062, Vol. 117, p. 66-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To effectively integrate nature conservation in sustainable landscape management, it isessential to deepen the understanding of why, what, where and for whom nature isprotected. This is especially important for nature conservation in human dominatedlandscapes such as cities, where the distance between built up and protected areas is inconstant decline due to urbanisation worldwide. In this study we use historical andcurrent data from Sweden to examine how urban compared to rural nature conservationhave been using formal nature reserve objectives. The focal nature conservationobjectives in our study area were preservation of biodiversity, restoration ofenvironments and outdoor recreation, as well as subdivision of those. The use of theseobjectives were analysed for 1869 nature reserves in relation to degree of urbanisation.We found that nature reserves in more urbanised landscapes were based on a highernumber of objectives. The urban reserves also had a different composition of objectives,where the objectives outdoor recreation and biodiversity preservation were morecommon in urban than in rural reserves. During the last decades we detected a shift inuse of objectives in urban areas, going from biodiversity preservation to a strongerfocus on outdoor recreation. National and global trends in the nature conservationdebate could also be seen as reflected in the use of objectives. To ensure its adaptivecapacity, we stress that urban nature conservation needs a more proactive strategy,where potential future social as well as ecological values must be embraced and notonly existing ones.

  • 13.
    Cousins, Sara A. O.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Kaligaric, Mitja
    Bakan, Branko
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Political Systems Affect Mobile and Sessile Species Diversity - A Legacy from the Post-WWII Period2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 8, p. e103367-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Political ideologies, policies and economy affect land use which in turn may affect biodiversity patterns and future conservation targets. However, few studies have investigated biodiversity in landscapes with similar physical properties but governed by different political systems. Here we investigate land use and biodiversity patterns, and number and composition of birds and plants, in the borderland of Austria, Slovenia and Hungary. It is a physically uniform landscape but managed differently during the last 70 years as a consequence of the political map of Europe after World War I and II. We used a historical map from 1910 and satellite data to delineate land use within three 10-kilometre transects starting from the point where the three countries meet. There was a clear difference between countries detectable in current biodiversity patterns, which relates to land use history. Mobile species richness was associated with current land use whereas diversity of sessile species was more associated with past land use. Heterogeneous landscapes were positively and forest cover was negatively correlated to bird species richness. Our results provide insights into why landscape history is important to understand present and future biodiversity patterns, which is crucial for designing policies and conservation strategies across the world.

  • 14.
    Cousins, Sara A. O.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Assessing changes in plant distribution patterns - indicator species versus plant functional types2004In: Ecological Indicators, ISSN 1470-160X, E-ISSN 1872-7034, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 17-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To meet conservation goals it is necessary to assess vegetation status and to be able to monitor effects of management and environmental change. In northern Europe grazed grasslands are one of the most threatened habitat in the rural landscape and thus in focus for conservation plans. At present managers use species indicator list to assess past and present management status of grassland and succession stages in particular, as well as effects of the environment. However, these indicators have rarely been scientifically tested. In this study we discuss if plant functional traits may be a key to select suitable indicator species for monitoring land-use change in Swedish rural landscape. The suitability of two possible monitoring tools: (i) plant species selected from functional traits (PFTs) and (ii) indicator species commonly used today to assess grassland management status, were tested along two gradients, a succession gradient and a wetness gradient. We found no association between successional change and plant functional traits, but a response in plant functional traits was found along the wetness gradient. However, the more common non-scientific indicator species responded fairly well to the varying gradient categories along both gradients. We believe that there is a need to further validate the ecological mechanisms behind the present-day indicators and to place them in a geographical context.

  • 15.
    Cousins, Sara A. O.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany. växtekologi.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Remnant grassland habitats as source communities for plant diversification in agricultural landscapes2008In: BIOLOGICAL CONSERVATION, Vol. 141, p. 233-240Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lately there has been a shift in Sweden from grazing species-rich semi-natural grasslands towards grazing ex-arable fields in the modern agricultural landscape. These fields normally contain a fraction of the plant species richness compared to semi-natural grasslands. However, small remnant habitats have been suggested as important for plant species diversity and conservation as they may function as refugia for grassland specialists in fragmented and highly modified agricultural landscapes. In this study, we examined whether plant communities on small remnant habitats, i.e. midfield islets, can function as sources for grassland species to disperse out into surrounding grazed ex-fields (former arable fields). We examined species richness and grassland specialists (species favoured by grazing) and their ability to colonize fields after 5 and 11 years of grazing. The fields that had been grazed for a shorter time were fairly species-poor with few grassland specialists. A longer period of grazing had a positive effect on total and small-scale species diversity in both islets and fields. Species composition became more similar with time, and the number of grassland specialists in both habitats increased. We found that grassland specialists dispersed step-wise into the fields, and the number of grassland specialists decreased with distance from the source. Our study suggests that remnant habitats, such as midfield islets, do function as a source community for grassland specialists and enhance diversification of grassland species when grazing is introduced. For long-term conservation of plant species, incorporating small refugia into larger grazing complexes may thus enhance species richness.

  • 16. Dahms, Henriette
    et al.
    Lenoir, Lisette
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology (INK).
    Wolters, Volkmar
    Dauber, Jens
    Restoration of Seminatural Grasslands: What is the Impact on Ants?2010In: Restoration Ecology, ISSN 1061-2971, E-ISSN 1526-100X, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 330-337Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of species-rich seminatural grasslands in Northern Europe has decreased significantly due to the abandonment of traditional land use practices. To preserve these habitats, an increasing number of abandoned and overgrown grasslands have been restored by cutting down trees and shrubs and reintroducing grazing. These practices are considered a useful tool to recover the species richness of vascular plants, but their impact on other taxa is hardly known. Here we studied ants as one important group of grassland insects. We investigated (1) the effects of restoration of nongrazed and afforested seminatural grasslands, compared to continuously managed reference sites; and (2) the modulating impacts of habitat characteristics and time elapsed since restoration. We found a total of 27 ant species, 11 of these were characteristic of open habitats and seven characteristic of forests. Neither species richness per site nor the number of open-habitat species, nor the number of forest species differed between restored and reference sites. Yet, within the restored sites, the total species richness and the number of open-habitat species was positively related to the time since restoration and the percentage of bare rock. High frequencies of most open-habitat species were associated with low vegetation, older restored sites, and reference sites. Most forest species showed their highest frequencies in tree- and shrub-dominated habitat. We conclude that restoration efforts have been successful in terms of retrieving species richness. A regular and moderate grazing regime subsequent to the restoration is suggested in order to support a high abundance of open-habitat species.

  • 17. Dainese, Matteo
    et al.
    Isaac, Nick J. B.
    Powney, Gary D.
    Bommarco, Riccardo
    Öckinger, Erik
    Kuussaari, Mikko
    Pöyry, Juha
    Benton, Tim G.
    Gabriel, Doreen
    Hodgson, Jenny A.
    Kunin, William E.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Sait, Steven M.
    Marini, Lorenzo
    Landscape simplification weakens the association between terrestrial producer and consumer diversity in Europe2017In: Global Change Biology, ISSN 1354-1013, E-ISSN 1365-2486, Vol. 23, no 8, p. 3040-3051Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Land-use change is one of the primary drivers of species loss, yet little is known about its effect on other components of biodiversity that may be at risk. Here, we ask whether, and to what extent, landscape simplification, measured as the percentage of arable land in the landscape, disrupts the functional and phylogenetic association between primary producers and consumers. Across seven European regions, we inferred the potential associations (functional and phylogenetic) between host plants and butterflies in 561 seminatural grasslands. Local plant diversity showed a strong bottom-up effect on butterfly diversity in the most complex landscapes, but this effect disappeared in simple landscapes. The functional associations between plant and butterflies are, therefore, the results of processes that act not only locally but are also dependent on the surrounding landscape context. Similarly, landscape simplification reduced the phylogenetic congruence among host plants and butterflies indicating that closely related butterflies become more generalist in the resources used. These processes occurred without any detectable change in species richness of plants or butterflies along the gradient of arable land. The structural properties of ecosystems are experiencing substantial erosion, with potentially pervasive effects on ecosystem functions and future evolutionary trajectories. Loss of interacting species might trigger cascading extinction events and reduce the stability of trophic interactions, as well as influence the longer term resilience of ecosystem functions. This underscores a growing realization that species richness is a crude and insensitive metric and that both functional and phylogenetic associations, measured across multiple trophic levels, are likely to provide additional and deeper insights into the resilience of ecosystems and the functions they provide.

  • 18.
    Elmhagen, Bodil
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Destouni, Georgia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Angerbjörn, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Borgström, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Boyd, Emily
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of Reading, England.
    Cousins, Sara A. O.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Dalen, Love
    Ehrlén, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Ermold, Matti
    Hambäck, Peter A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Hedlund, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Hylander, Kristoffer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Jaramillo, Fernando
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Lagerholm, Vendela K.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology. Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Lyon, Steve W.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Moor, Helen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Nykvist, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Pasanen-Mortensen, Marianne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Plue, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Prieto, Carmen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    van der Velde, Ype
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Wageningen University & Research Center, Netherlands.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Interacting effects of change in climate, human population, land use, and water use on biodiversity and ecosystem services2015In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 20, no 1, article id UNSP 23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human population growth and resource use, mediated by changes in climate, land use, and water use, increasingly impact biodiversity and ecosystem services provision. However, impacts of these drivers on biodiversity and ecosystem services are rarely analyzed simultaneously and remain largely unknown. An emerging question is how science can improve the understanding of change in biodiversity and ecosystem service delivery and of potential feedback mechanisms of adaptive governance. We analyzed past and future change in drivers in south-central Sweden. We used the analysis to identify main research challenges and outline important research tasks. Since the 19th century, our study area has experienced substantial and interlinked changes; a 1.6 degrees C temperature increase, rapid population growth, urbanization, and massive changes in land use and water use. Considerable future changes are also projected until the mid-21st century. However, little is known about the impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem services so far, and this in turn hampers future projections of such effects. Therefore, we urge scientists to explore interdisciplinary approaches designed to investigate change in multiple drivers, underlying mechanisms, and interactions over time, including assessment and analysis of matching-scale data from several disciplines. Such a perspective is needed for science to contribute to adaptive governance by constantly improving the understanding of linked change complexities and their impacts.

  • 19.
    Elmhagen, Bodil
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Eriksson, Ove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Implications of climate and land-use change for landscape processes, biodiversity, ecosystem services, and governance2015In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 44, p. s1-S5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This introduction to the Special Issue summarizes the results of 14 scientific articles from the interdisciplinary research program Ekoklim at Stockholm University, Sweden. In this program, we investigate effects of changing climate and land use on landscape processes, biodiversity, and ecosystem services, and analyze issues related to adaptive governance in the face of climate and land-use change. We not only have a research focus on the 22 650 km(2) Norrstrom catchment surrounding lake Malaren in south-central Sweden, but we also conduct research in other Swedish regions. The articles presented here show complex interactions between multiple drivers of change, as well as feedback processes at different spatiotemporal scales. Thus, the Ekoklim program highlights and deals with issues relevant for the future challenges society will face when land-use change interacts with climate change.

  • 20. Gotzenberger, Lars
    et al.
    de Bello, Francesco
    Brathen, Kari Anne
    Davison, John
    Dubuis, Anne
    Guisan, Antoine
    Leps, Jan
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Moora, Mari
    Partel, Meelis
    Pellissier, Loic
    Pottier, Julien
    Vittoz, Pascal
    Zobel, Kristjan
    Zobel, Martin
    Ecological assembly rules in plant communities-approaches, patterns and prospects2012In: Biological Reviews, ISSN 1464-7931, E-ISSN 1469-185X, Vol. 87, no 1, p. 111-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding how communities of living organisms assemble has been a central question in ecology since the early days of the discipline. Disentangling the different processes involved in community assembly is not only interesting in itself but also crucial for an understanding of how communities will behave under future environmental scenarios. The traditional concept of assembly rules reflects the notion that species do not co-occur randomly but are restricted in their co-occurrence by interspecific competition. This concept can be redefined in a more general framework where the co-occurrence of species is a product of chance, historical patterns of speciation and migration, dispersal, abiotic environmental factors, and biotic interactions, with none of these processes being mutually exclusive. Here we present a survey and meta-analyses of 59 papers that compare observed patterns in plant communities with null models simulating random patterns of species assembly. According to the type of data under study and the different methods that are applied to detect community assembly, we distinguish four main types of approach in the published literature: species co-occurrence, niche limitation, guild proportionality and limiting similarity. Results from our meta-analyses suggest that non-random co-occurrence of plant species is not a widespread phenomenon. However, whether this finding reflects the individualistic nature of plant communities or is caused by methodological shortcomings associated with the studies considered cannot be discerned from the available metadata. We advocate that more thorough surveys be conducted using a set of standardized methods to test for the existence of assembly rules in data sets spanning larger biological and geographical scales than have been considered until now. We underpin this general advice with guidelines that should be considered in future assembly rules research. This will enable us to draw more accurate and general conclusions about the non-random aspect of assembly in plant communities.

  • 21.
    Jakobsson, Simon
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Governing nature by numbers - EU subsidy regulations do not capture the unique values of woody pastures2015In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 191, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A vast majority of European farmers are dependent on EU subsidies, which makes subsidy regulations through the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) powerful tools in shaping agricultural landscapes. Unfortunately, steering recommendations are sometimes arbitrary, like in the case of pasture management, where 50 trees per hectare constitute an upper limit to qualify for subsidies. Although pasture biodiversity is well studied and the core of many CAP conservation programmes, it is seldom studied as direct effects of subsidy systems. In this paper, we examine plant diversity in relation to the impact of subsidy systems in Swedish woody pastures along a gradient from 3 to 214 trees per hectare. We selected 64 sites where we recorded vascular plants, soil properties and canopy cover. We found a general increase in γ- and β-diversity along the gradient, whereas α-diversity and the number of grassland specialists remained indifferent along the gradient. Additionally, tree density, organic content and C:N-ratio were the strongest predictors of species composition. Hence, when CAP regulations encourage tree cutting for pastures to qualify for subsidies there is risk of homogenisation of EU grasslands, leading to decreased γ- and β-diversity. If a general target for the subsidies is to increase biodiversity, there is need to scrutinise these regulation details to preserve the high values of woody pastures. We argue that habitat variation, species diversity and low intensity management, rather than a specific number of trees, should be the main incentives for financial support to preserve biodiversity.

  • 22.
    Jakobsson, Simon
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    The importance of trees for woody pasture bird diversity and effects of the European Union's tree density policy2017In: Journal of Applied Ecology, ISSN 0021-8901, E-ISSN 1365-2664, Vol. 54, no 6, p. 1638-1647Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Recent reforms in the Common Agricultural Policy aim for a greening of the subsidy system with potential improvements for biodiversity conservation. As part of that process, the tree density limit for pastures to qualify for European Union subsidies has been increased from 50 to 100 trees per hectare. However, recent studies show that the high biodiversity values of these habitats may be threatened by these limits, highlighting the need for policy improvements. Still, little is known about the direct effects of tree density limitations on bird communities in woody pastures. 2. We investigated how bird diversity and species composition are affected by tree density in 49 Swedish woody pastures along a gradient of 4-214 trees per hectare. We recorded bird communities, tree density and stand structure estimates in the field and estimated forest cover in the surrounding landscape from aerial photos. Using generalised additive models and redundancy analysis, we analysed how bird territorial species richness, bird abundance and species composition are affected by tree density, taking into account other local and landscape scale explanatory variables. 3. Tree density had a significant positive effect on bird species richness at low tree densities and species richness saturated at approximately 50 trees per hectare. Shrub density had a significant positive linear effect on both bird species richness and abundance. Tree and shrub density were also the major drivers of bird community composition, with secondary effects of tree species diversity and landscape forest cover. 4. Policy implications. Our results show that tree density is not the limiting factor, but rather a driver of bird diversity and species composition in woody pastures and that tree density limits may fail to capture the whole range of biological values. To improve policy recommendations, we therefore stress the importance of considering additional social-ecological drivers associated to management quality, e.g. taking into account moral and cultural motivations among farmers, to preserve biodiversity in woody pastures.

  • 23.
    Jakobsson, Simon
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Tree density limitations within EU overlook woody pasture bird diversityManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Jakobsson, Simon
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Plue, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Cousins, Sara A. O.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Exploring the effects of pasture trees on plant community patternsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Jakobsson, Simon
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Wood, Heather
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Ekroos, Johan
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Contrasting multi-taxa functional diversity patterns along vegetation structure gradients of woody pasturesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Jonason, Dennis
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Ekroos, Johan
    Öckinger, Erik
    Helenius, Juha
    Kuussaari, Mikko
    Tiainen, Juha
    Smith, Henrik G.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Weak functional response to agricultural landscape homogenisation among plants, butterflies and birds2017In: Ecography, ISSN 0906-7590, E-ISSN 1600-0587, Vol. 40, no 10, p. 1221-1230Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Measures of functional diversity are expected to predict community responses to land use and environmental change because, in contrast to taxonomic diversity, it is based on species traits rather than their identity. Here, we investigated the impact of landscape homogenisation on plants, butterflies and birds in terms of the proportion of arable field cover in southern Finland at local (0.25 km2) and regional (> 10 000 km2) scales using four functional diversity indices: functional richness, functional evenness, functional divergence and functional dispersion. No uniform response in functional diversity across taxa or scales was found. However, in all cases where we found a relationship between increasing arable field cover and any index of functional diversity, this relationship was negative. Butterfly functional richness decreased with increasing arable field cover, as did butterfly and bird functional evenness. For butterfly functional evenness, this was only evident in the most homogeneous regions. Butterfly and bird functional dispersion decreased in homogeneous regions regardless of the proportion of arable field cover locally. No effect of landscape heterogeneity on plant functional diversity was found at any spatial scale, but plant species richness decreased locally with increasing arable field cover. Overall, species richness responded more consistently to landscape homogenisation than did the functional diversity indices, with both positive and negative effects across species groups. Functional diversity indices are in theory valuable instruments for assessing effects of land use scenarios on ecosystem functioning. However, the applicability of empirical data requires deeper understanding of which traits reliably capture species’ vulnerability to environmental factors and of the ecological interpretation of the functional diversity indices. Our study provides novel insights into how the functional diversity of communities changes in response to agriculturally derived landscape homogenisation; however, the low explanatory power of the functional diversity indices hampers the ability to reliably anticipate impacts on ecosystem functioning.

  • 27. Knudby, Anders
    et al.
    Nordlund, Lina Mtwana
    Palmqvist, Gustav
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Wikström, Karolina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Koliji, Alan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Gullström, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Using multiple Landsat scenes in an ensemble classifier reduces classification error in a stable nearshore environment2014In: International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, ISSN 0303-2434, Vol. 28, p. 90-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Medium-scale land cover maps are traditionally created on the basis of a single cloud-free satellite scene, leaving information present in other scenes unused. Using 1309 field observations and 20 cloud- and error-affected Landsat scenes covering Zanzibar Island, this study demonstrates that the use of multiple scenes can both allow complete coverage of the study area in the absence of cloud-free scenes and obtain substantially improved classification accuracy. Automated processing of individual scenes includes derivation of spectral features for use in classification, identification of clouds, shadows and the land/water boundary, and random forest-based land cover classification. An ensemble classifier is then created from the single-scene classifications by voting. The accuracy achieved by the ensemble classifier is 70.4%, compared to an average of 62.9% for the individual scenes, and the ensemble classifier achieves complete coverage of the study area while the maximum coverage for a single scene is 1209 of the 1309 field sites. Given the free availability of Landsat data, these results should encourage increased use of multiple scenes in land cover classification and reduced reliance on the traditional single-scene methodology.

  • 28. Krauss, J
    et al.
    Bommarco, R
    Guardiola, M
    Heikkinen, R
    Helm, A
    Kuussaari, M
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology (INK).
    Habitat fragmentation, biodiversity loss and extinction debt2010In: Ecology LettersArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intensification or abandonment of agricultural land use has led to a severe decline of semi-natural habitats across Europe. This can cause immediate loss of species but also time-delayed extinctions, known as the extinction debt. In a pan-European study of 147 fragmented grassland remnants, we found differences in the extinction debt of species from different trophic levels. Present-day species richness of long-lived vascular plant specialists was better explained by past than current landscape patterns, indicating an extinction debt. In contrast, short-lived butterfly specialists showed no evidence for an extinction debt at a time scale of c. 40 years. Our results indicate that management strategies maintaining the status quo of fragmented habitats are insufficient, as time- delayed extinctions and associated co-extinctions will lead to further biodiversity loss in the future.

  • 29.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Effects of land abandonment and restoration on plant species richness in Scandinavian rural landscapes2007In: IALE (International Association for Landscape Ecology) World Conference, Wagenegen, 2007, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Evaluating the distribution of plant life-history traits in relation to current and historical landscape configurations2007In: Journal of Ecology, ISSN 0022-0477, Vol. 95, no 3, p. 555-564Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Recreating Grasslands in Swedish Rural Landscapes: Effects of Seed Sowing and Management History2006In: Biodiversity and Conservation, ISSN 0960-3115, E-ISSN 1572-9710, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 957-969Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent loss of plant species richness in Swedish semi-natural grasslands has led to an increase in grassland recreation and restoration. To increase the establishment of declining species favoured by grazing and to re-establish original species richness, seed sowing has been discussed as a conservation tool. In this study, I examined to what extent seed sowing in former arable fields increases species richness and generates a species composition typical of semi-natural grasslands. Six grassland species favoured by grazing (target species) and six generalist species favoured by ceased grazing, were studied in a seed-addition experiment. Four different seed densities were used on four different grassland categories, two grazed former arable fields, one continuously grazed grassland and one abandoned grassland. Target and generalist species emerged in all grassland categories, but seedling emergence was higher in the grazed than in the abandoned grassland. Target species had higher emergence in the two grasslands with the longest grazing continuity. Seedling emergence and frequency of established plants of each target species were positively associated. The largest fraction of seeds germinated at an intermediate sowing density, 20–50 seeds/dm2, suggesting that aggregation of seeds positively affects emergence up to a certain threshold. In conclusion, artificial seed sowing may induce the recreation of typical grassland communities on former arable fields, which may be an important contribution to increase the total grassland area and species richness in the landscape.

  • 32.
    Lindborg, Regina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Bengtsson, Jan
    Berg, Åke
    Cousins, Sara A.O.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Eriksson, Ove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Gustafsson, Tomas
    Hasund, Knut Per
    Lenoir, Lisette
    Pihlgren, Aina
    Sjödin, Erik
    Stenseke, Marie
    A landscape perspective on conservation of semi-natural grasslands.2008In: AGRICULTURE ECOSYSTEMS & ENVIRONMENT, ISSN 0167-8809, Vol. 125, no 1-4, p. 213-222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current agri-environmental schemes and subsidies for conservation and restoration of semi-natural grasslands do not explicitly assess land use changes affecting whole landscapes, but have so far focused on single objects and small areas. In this paper, we discuss a landscape perspective versus a "single object" perspective when conserving semi-natural grassland in agricultural landscapes. The focus is on the values biodiversity, cultural heritage, a vital countryside, and effects on economy when land use changes. We conclude that when land use change in the landscape surrounding an object, important additional effects on the different values are found. For example, a countryside where animals graze former arable fields and where marginal habitats are managed will have a positive effect, not only on the biodiversity associated to semi-natural grasslands, but also for the image of a vital and dynamic landscape. An increased number of roads, on the other hand, may negatively affect cultural heritage and decrease biodiversity in grasslands, leading to negative effects on the value of common goods through isolation. Placing objects in a larger spatial context and combining several different aspects into a landscape perspective, will improve long-term preservation of values associated to semi-natural grasslands.

  • 33.
    Lindborg, Regina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Cousins, Sara A. O.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Eriksson, Ove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Plant species response to land-use change - Campanula rotundifolia, Primula veris and Rhinanthus minor2005In: Ecography, ISSN 0906-7590, E-ISSN 1600-0587, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 29-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Land use change is a crucial driver behind species loss at the landscape scale. Hence, from a conservation perspective, species response to habitat degradation or improvement of habitat quality, is important to examine. By using indicator species it may be possible to monitor long-term survival of local populations associated with land use change. In this study we examined three potential indicator (response) species for species richness and composition in Scandinavian semi-natural grassland communities: Campanula rotundifolia, Primula veris and Rhinanthus minor. With field inventories and experiments we examined their response to present land use, habitat degradation and improvement of local habitat quality. At the time scale examined, C. rotundifolia was the only species responding to both habitat degradation and improvement of habitat quality. Neither R. minor nor P. veris responded positively to habitat improvements although both responded rapidly to direct negative changes in habitat quality. Even though C. rotundifolia responded quickly to habitat degradation, it did not disappear completely from the sites. Instead, the population structure changed in terms of decreased population size and flowering frequency. It also showed an ability to form remnant populations which may increase resilience of local habitats. Although P. veris and especially R. minor responded rapidly to negative environmental changes and may be useful as early indicators of land use change, it is desirable that indicators respond to both degradation and improvement of habitat quality. Thus, C. rotundifolia is a better response species for monitoring effects of land use change and conservation measures, provided that both local and regional population dynamics are monitored over a long time period.

  • 34.
    Lindborg, Regina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Ehrlén, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Evaluating the extinction risk of a perennial herb: demographic data versus historical records2002In: Conservation Biology, ISSN 0888-8892, E-ISSN 1523-1739, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 683-690Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Demographic information is frequently used to project the long-term extinction risk of endangered species, but the limitations of this approach have not been extensively discussed. We examined demographic data for the endangered perennial herb Primula farinosa with matrix models to assess population growth rates and extinction risks. The data came from six populations in contrasting habitats followed over a 4-year period. The results of these demographic models were compared to the results of experimental manipulations and to the actual change in occurrence of P. farinosa over a 70-year period in different habitat types. According to demographic models, all managed populations had a projected negative population growth rate and experienced a high extinction risk in 100 years, whereas unmanaged populations had increasing population sizes. In contrast, experiments and historical records suggested that continuous grazing is positively correlated with population persistence. Our results thus show that demographic studies done during a transient phase of population growth after management cessation may not capture the long-term changes. In such cases, projections of population growth rates may give misleading guidance for conservation. Short-term demographic studies are in many cases unlikely to correctly assess the survival probability of a species. We therefore argue that complementary information, such as long-term historical data or experimental manipulations of the environment, should be used whenever possible.

  • 35.
    Lindborg, Regina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Eriksson, O.
    Department of Botany.
    Effects of grassland restoration on plant species richness in Swedish agricultural landscapes.2008In: Biodiversity and animal feed - future challenges for grassland production, EGF Conference, Uppsala 2008., 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Lindborg, Regina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Eriksson, Ove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Effects of restoration on plant species richness and composition in Scandinavian semi-natural grasslands2004In: Restoration Ecology, ISSN 1061-2971, E-ISSN 1526-100X, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 318-326Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plant species richness in rural landscapes of northern Europe has been positively influenced by traditional management for millennia. Owing to abandonment of these practices, the number of species-rich semi-natural grasslands has decreased, and remaining habitats suffer from deterioration, fragmentation, and plant species decline. To prevent further extinctions, restoration efforts have increased during the last decades, by reintroducing grazing in former semi-natural grasslands. To assess the ecological factors that might influence the outcome of such restorations, we made a survey of semi-natural grasslands in Sweden that have been restored during the last decade. We investigated how plant species richness, species density, species composition, and abundance of 10 species that are indicators of grazing are affected by (1) the size of the restored site, (2) the time between abandonment of grazing and restoration, (3) the time elapsed since restoration, and (4) the abundance of trees and shrubs at the restored site. Only two factors, abundance of trees and shrubs and time since restoration, were positively associated with total species richness and species density per meter square at restored sites. Variation in species composition among restored sites was not related to any of the investigated factors. Species composition was relatively similar among sites, except in mesic/wet grasslands. The investigated factors had small effects on the abundance of the grazing-indicator species. Only Campanula rotundifolia responded to restoration with increasing abundance and may thus be a suitable indicator of improved habitat quality. In conclusion, positive effects on species richness may appear relatively soon after restoration, but rare, short-lived species are still absent. Therefore, remnant populations in surrounding areas may be important in fully recreating former species richness and composition.

  • 37.
    Lindborg, Regina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Eriksson, Ove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Historical landscape connectivity affects present plant species diversity2004In: Ecology, ISSN 0012-9658, E-ISSN 1939-9170, Vol. 85, no 7, p. 1840-1845Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transformation of landscapes is considered to be one of the main drivers behind species loss, regionally and globally. Theory and empirical studies suggest that landscape structure influences species diversity in many habitats. These effects may be manifested at different spatial scales depending on species response to landscape heterogeneity. A similar, but often neglected, scaling issue concerns the temporal scale of species response to landscape change. In this study, we found time lags of 50-100 years in the response of plant species diversity to changing configuration of habitats in the landscape. When analyzing remnants of traditionally managed seminatural grasslands in Sweden, we found that species diversity was not related to present-day connectivity of the investigated sites, irrespective of spatial scale (3.1-12.5 km(2)). However, when using maps depicting landscapes 50 and 100 years ago, respectively, strong positive effects of habitat connectivity appeared, at increasing spatial scale for the older landscapes. Thus, analyses of how species diversity relates to present-day landscapes may be misleading, and future species loss may be expected even if the present landscape is maint.

  • 38.
    Lindborg, Regina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Gordon, Line J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Malinga, Rebecka
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.
    Bengtsson, Jan
    Peterson, Garry
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Bommarco, Riccardo
    Deutsch, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Gren, Åsa
    Rundlöf, Maj
    Smith, Henrik G.
    How spatial scale shapes the generation and management of multiple ecosystem services2017In: Ecosphere, ISSN 2150-8925, E-ISSN 2150-8925, Vol. 8, no 4, article id e01741Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The spatial extent of ecological processes has consequences for the generation of ecosystem services related to them. However, management often fails to consider issues of scale when targeting ecological processes underpinning ecosystem services generation. Here, we present a framework for conceptualizing how the amount and spatial scale (here discussed in terms of extent) of management interventions alter interactions among multiple ecosystem services. First, we identify four types of responses of ecosystem service generation: linear, exponential, saturating, and sigmoid, and how these are related to the amount of management intervention at a particular spatial scale. Second, using examples from multiple ecosystem services in agricultural landscapes, we examine how the shape of these relationships can vary with the spatial scale at which the management interventions are implemented. Third, we examine the resulting scale-dependent consequences for trade-offs and synergies between ecosystem services as a consequence of interventions. Finally, to inform guidelines for management of multiple ecosystem services in real landscapes, we end with a discussion linking the theoretical relationships with how landscape configurations and placement of interventions can alter the scale at which synergies and trade-offs among services occur.

  • 39.
    Lindborg, Regina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Helm, Aveliina
    Bommarco, Riccardo
    Heikkinen, Risto K.
    Kuehn, Ingolf
    Pykala, Juha
    Paertel, Meelis
    Effect of habitat area and isolation on plant trait distribution in European forests and grasslands2012In: Ecography, ISSN 0906-7590, E-ISSN 1600-0587, Vol. 35, no 4, p. 356-363Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A number of studies show contrasting results in how plant species with specific life-history strategies respond to fragmentation, but a general analysis on whether traits affect plant species occurrences in relation to habitat area and isolation has not been performed. We used published data from forests and grasslands in north-central Europe to analyse if there are general patterns of sensitivity to isolation and dependency of area for species using three traits: life-span, clonality, and seed weight. We show that a larger share of all forest species was affected by habitat isolation and area as compared to grassland species. Persistence-related traits, life-span and clonality, were associated to habitat area and the dispersal and recruitment related trait, seed weight, to isolation in both forest and grassland patches. Occurrence of clonal plant species decreased with habitat area, opposite to non-clonal plant species, and long-lived plant species decreased with grassland area. The directions of these responses partly challenge some earlier views, suggesting that further decrease in habitat area will lead to a change in plant species community composition, towards relatively fewer clonal and long-lived plants with large seeds in small forest patches and fewer clonal plants with small seeds in small grassland patches. It is likely that this altered community has been reached in many fragmented European landscapes consisting of small and isolated natural and semi-natural patches, where many non-clonal and short-lived species have already disappeared. Our study based on a large-scale dataset reveals general and useful insights concerning area and isolation effects on plant species composition that can improve the outcome of conservation and restoration efforts of plant communities in rural landscapes.

  • 40.
    Lindborg, Regina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Plue, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Andersson, K.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Cousins, Sara A. O.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Function of small habitat elements for enhancing plant diversity in different agricultural landscapes2014In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 169, p. 206-213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The extensive transformation of agricultural landscapes worldwide has led to a decrease in grassland species related to traditional low-intensive farming. To properly manage and protect species, habitats and ecosystems in any of these landscapes requires a better understanding of direct and indirect effects of the processes driving biodiversity decline. In this study, we investigated how small habitat elements, represented by mid-field islets and road verges, in different types of agricultural landscapes can sustain a regional species pool for plant diversity otherwise associated to semi-natural grasslands. Although semi-natural grasslands had higher total and specialist richness, we found that small habitat elements harboured relatively high plant species richness, especially in a landscape with many semi-natural grasslands left. In the most intensively managed landscape, total richness declined as distance to the nearest semi-natural grassland increased. In contrast, beta-diversity was highest in these landscapes indicating that small habitats are also negatively affected by distance to grassland. We found that species trait composition varied depending on habitat and landscape. The results confirm that fragmentation shape trait composition within plant communities, e.g. plant size, clonality, longevity, and dispersal traits. We conclude that small habitat elements increase the total area available to grassland species present in the landscape, boosting the spatio-temporal dynamics of grassland communities. Small habitat elements may hence function as refugia or stepping stone habitats, especially in intensively utilized agricultural landscapes, and should be regarded as a functional part of a semi-natural grassland network, analogous to a meta-population.

  • 41. Lindborg, T
    et al.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Löfgren, A
    Söderbäck, B
    Bradshaw, Clare
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Kautsky, Ulrik
    A strategy for describing the biosphere at candidate sites for repositories of nuclear waste: Linking ecosystem and landscape modeling2006In: Ambio, Vol. 35, no 8, p. 418-424Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Lindgren, Jessica
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Cousins, Sara A. O.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Local conditions in small habitats and surrounding landscape are important for pollination services, biological pest control and seed predation2018In: Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, ISSN 0167-8809, E-ISSN 1873-2305, Vol. 251, p. 107-113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Small semi-natural and natural habitats in agricultural landscapes are important for biodiversity. With modern and more intensive agricultural practices they have become smaller (less than 1600 m2) and more isolated study which also affects ecosystem functions. Most ecosystem function studies using field experiments focus on a single function. Here, we investigate three functions in the same landscape at the same time. We investigated how local (trees, shrubs and grass-cover in small remnant habitats) and landscape factors (amount of and distance from key habitats i.e. forest and semi-natural grasslands) affect pollination, biological pest control and seed predation. We applied a multifunctional approach using different organisms to analyze pollination success (Primula veris), predation on aphid pests (Rhopalosiphum padi) and seed predation (of Helianthus annuus). A set-up of 3 different experiments were placed in situ on 12 midfield islets. Pollination was more affected by local factors than landscape factors, although pollination success was improved by a smaller proportions of surrounding crop fields. Seed predation was higher on islets with more surrounding forest and also with more trees on the habitat, especially close to shrubs, compared to more open areas of habitat. Predation on aphids decreased on midfield islets with a larger amount of nearby forest but was positively affected by increasing local tree cover on the habitat.

    We show that managing semi-open habitats that are connected to other natural or semi-natural habitats can improve pollination success and biological pest and weed control, thus potentially increasing yield in surrounding crop fields.

  • 43.
    Malinga, Rebecka
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Gordon, Line J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Jewitt, Graham
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Mapping ecosystem services across scales and continents - A review2015In: Ecosystem Services, ISSN 2212-0416, E-ISSN 2212-0416, Vol. 13, p. 57-63Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tremendous progress in ecosystem service mapping across the world has moved the concept of ecosystem services forward towards an increasingly useful tool for policy and decision making. There is a pressing need to analyse the various spatial approaches used for the mapping studies. We reviewed ecosystem services mapping literature in respect to spatial scale, world distribution, and types of ecosystem services considered. We found that most world regions were represented among ecosystem service mapping studies and that they included a diverse set of ecosystem services, relatively well distributed across different ecosystem service categories. A majority of the studies were presented at intermediary scales (municipal and provincial level), and 66% of the studies used a fine resolution of 1 ha or less. The intermediary scale of presentation is important for land use policy and management. The fact that studies are conducted at a fine resolution is important for informing land management practices that mostly takes place at the scale of fields to villages. Ecosystem service mapping could be substantially advanced by more systematic development of cross-case comparisons and methods.

  • 44.
    Malinga, Rebecka
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Gordon, Line J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Jewitt, Graham
    Using Participatory Scenario Planning to Identify Ecosystem Services in Changing Landscapes2013In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 18, no 4, article id UNSP 10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a growing interest in assessing ecosystem services to improve ecosystem management in landscapes containing a mix of different ecosystems. While methodologies for assessing ecosystem services are constantly improving, only little attention has been given to the identification of which ecosystem services to assess. Service selection is mostly based on current state of the landscape although many landscapes are both inherently complex and rapidly changing. In this study we examine whether scenario development, a tool for dealing with uncertainties and complexities of the future, gives important insights into the selection of ecosystem services in changing landscapes. Using an agricultural landscape in South Africa we compared different sets of services selected for an assessment by four different groups: stakeholders making the scenarios, experts who have read the scenarios, experts who had not read the scenarios, and services derived from literature. We found significant differences among the services selected by different groups, especially between the literature services and the other groups. Cultural services were least common in literature and that list was also most dissimilar in terms of identity, ranking, and numbers of services compared to the other three groups. The services selected by experts and the scenario stakeholders were relatively similar indicating that knowledge of a study area gained through the scenario exercise is not very different from that of experts actively working in the area. Although our results show limited value in using scenario development for improved ecosystem service selection per se, the scenario development process triggers important discussions with local and regional stakeholders about key issues of today, helping to more correctly assess changes in the future.

  • 45.
    Malinga, Rebecka
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Graham, Jewitt
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Andersson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Gordon, Line J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    On the other side of the ditch: The stark contrasts between smallholder and commercial farmers' contribution to multiple ecosystem servicesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 46. Marini, Lorenzo
    et al.
    Bruun, Hans Henrik
    Heikkinen, Risto K.
    Helm, Aveliina
    Honnay, Olivier
    Krauss, Jochen
    Kuehn, Ingolf
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Paertel, Meelis
    Bommarco, Riccardo
    Traits related to species persistence and dispersal explain changes in plant communities subjected to habitat loss2012In: Diversity & distributions: A journal of biological invasions and biodiversity, ISSN 1366-9516, E-ISSN 1472-4642, Vol. 18, no 9, p. 898-908Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim Habitat fragmentation is a major driver of biodiversity loss but it is insufficiently known how much its effects vary among species with different life-history traits; especially in plant communities, the understanding of the role of traits related to species persistence and dispersal in determining dynamics of species communities in fragmented landscapes is still limited. The primary aim of this study was to test how plant traits related to persistence and dispersal and their interactions modify plant species vulnerability to decreasing habitat area and increasing isolation. Location Five regions distributed over four countries in Central and Northern Europe. Methods Our dataset was composed of primary data from studies on the distribution of plant communities in 300 grassland fragments in five regions. The regional datasets were consolidated by standardizing nomenclature and species life-history traits and by recalculating standardized landscape measures from the original geographical data. We assessed the responses of plant species richness to habitat area, connectivity, plant life-history traits and their interactions using linear mixed models. Results We found that the negative effect of habitat loss on plant species richness was pervasive across different regions, whereas the effect of habitat isolation on species richness was not evident. This area effect was, however, not equal for all the species, and life-history traits related to both species persistence and dispersal modified plant sensitivity to habitat loss, indicating that both landscape and local processes determined large-scale dynamics of plant communities. High competitive ability for light, annual life cycle and animal dispersal emerged as traits enabling species to cope with habitat loss. Main conclusions In highly fragmented rural landscapes in NW Europe, mitigating the spatial isolation of remaining grasslands should be accompanied by restoration measures aimed at improving habitat quality for low competitors, abiotically dispersed and perennial, clonal species.

  • 47.
    Moor, Helen
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Rydin, Håkan
    Hylander, Kristoffer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Nilsson, Mats B.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Norberg, Jon
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Towards a trait-based ecology of wetland vegetation2017In: Journal of Ecology, ISSN 0022-0477, E-ISSN 1365-2745, Vol. 105, no 6, p. 1623-1635Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Functional traits mechanistically capture plant responses to environmental gradients as well as plant effects on ecosystem functioning. Yet most trait-based theory stems from terrestrial systems and extension to other habitats can provide new insights. 2. Wetlands differ from terrestrial systems in conditions (e.g. soil water saturation, anoxia, pH extremes), plant adaptations (e.g. aerenchyma, clonality, ubiquity of bryophytes) and important processes (e.g. denitrification, peat accumulation, methane emission). Wetland plant adaptations and trait (co-)variation can be situated along major plant trait trade-off axes (e.g. the resource economics spectrum), but soil saturation represents a complex stress gradient beyond a simple extension of commonly studied water availability gradients. 3. Traits that affect ecosystem functioning overlap with patterns in terrestrial systems. But wetland-specific traits that mediate plant effects on soil redox conditions, microbial communities and on water flow, as well as trait spectra of mosses, vary among wetland types. 4. Synthesis. With increasing availability of quantitative plant traits a trait-based ecology of wetlands is emerging, with the potential to advance process-based understanding and prediction. We provide an interactive cause-and-effect framework that may guide research efforts to disentangle the multiple interacting processes involved in scaling from environmental conditions to ecosystem functioning via plant communities.

  • 48.
    Moor, Helen
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Rydin, Håkan
    Hylander, Kristoffer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Nilsson, Mats B.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Norberg, Jon
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Towards a trait-based ecology of wetland vegetationManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Functional traits mechanistically capture plant responses to environmental gradients as well as plant effects on ecosystem functioning. Yet most trait-based theory stems from terrestrial systems and extension to other habitats can provide new insights.

    2. Wetlands differ from terrestrial systems in conditions (e.g. soil water saturation, anoxia, pH extremes), plant adaptations (e.g. aerenchyma, clonality, ubiquity of bryophytes) and important processes (e.g. denitrification, peat accumulation, methane emission). Wetland plant adaptations and trait (co-)variation can be situated along major plant trait trade-off axes (e.g. the resource economics spectrum), but soil saturation represents a complex stress gradient beyond a simple extension of commonly studied water availability gradients.

    3. Traits that affect ecosystem functioning overlap with patterns in terrestrial systems. But wetland-specific traits that mediate plant effects on soil redox conditions, microbial communities and on water flow, as well as trait spectra of mosses, vary among wetland types.

    4. Synthesis: With increasing availability of quantitative plant traits a trait-based ecology of wetlands is emerging, with the potential to advance process-based understanding and prediction. We provide an interactive cause-and-effect framework that may guide research efforts to disentangle the multiple interacting processes involved in scaling from environmental conditions to ecosystem functioning via plant communities. 

  • 49. Ockinger, Erik
    et al.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology. Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Sjödin, N. Erik
    Bommarco, Riccardo
    Landscape matrix modifies richness of plants and insects in grassland fragments2012In: Ecography, ISSN 0906-7590, E-ISSN 1600-0587, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 259-267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an increasing awareness that not only area and isolation, but also the characteristics of the landscape surrounding habitat patches influence population persistence and species diversity in fragmented landscapes. In this study, we examine the effects of grassland fragmentation and land use in the landscape matrix (on a 2 km scale) on species richness of plants, butterflies, bees and hoverflies. These organisms were studied in replicated remnant patches of different sizes and isolation, embedded in landscapes dominated either by forest, arable land or a mix of these. We found positive effects of patch area on species richness of the three insect taxa, but not of plants. Isolation had a negative effect only on hoverflies. Matrix type had contrasting effects on the studied taxa. Species richness of plants and butterflies was lowest in patches in landscapes dominated by arable land and highest in forest-dominated landscapes. For hoverflies, the negative effect of small patch area was strongest in forest-dominated landscapes, and there was a similar non-significant trend for bees. Our study shows the importance of considering matrix characteristics when studying responses to habitat fragmentation. Differences in matrix response among organism groups probably impinge on differing mechanisms. A forest matrix is likely to provide additional resources for butterflies but either constitute a barrier to dispersal or deprive resources as compared to an arable matrix for hoverflies. Enhanced plant diversity in grassland patches embedded in forested landscapes can be explained by habitat generalists more easily invading these patches, or by an unpaid extinction debt in these landscapes.

  • 50.
    Queiroz, Cibele
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of Lisbon, Portugal.
    Beilin, Ruth
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Farmland abandonment: Threat or opportunity for biodiversity conservation? A global review2014In: Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, ISSN 1540-9295, E-ISSN 1540-9309, Vol. 12, no 5, p. 288-296Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Farmland abandonment is changing rural landscapes worldwide, but its impacts on biodiversity are still being debated in the scientific literature. While some researchers see it as a threat to biodiversity, others view it as an opportunity for habitat regeneration. We reviewed 276 published studies describing various effects of farmland abandonment on biodiversity and found that a study's geographic region, selected metrics, assessed taxa, and conservation focus significantly affected how those impacts were reported. Countries in Eurasia and the New World reported mainly negative and positive effects of farmland abandonment on biodiversity, respectively. Notably, contrasting impacts were recorded in different agricultural regions of the world that were otherwise similar in land-use and biodiversity characteristics. We showed that the conservation focus (pre- or post-abandonment) in different regions is an important factor influencing how scientists address the abandonment issue, and this may affect how land-use policies are defined in agricultural landscapes.

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