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  • 1. Anderson, Peter
    et al.
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Addictions and European policy: Has the 'European project' stifled science-led policy?2011In: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 117-118Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2. Atkinson, Jo-An
    et al.
    Knowles, Dylan
    Wiggers, John
    Livingston, Michael
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). La Trobe University, Australia.
    Prodan, Ante
    McDonnell, Geoff
    O'Donnell, Eloise
    Jones, Sandra
    Haber, Paul S.
    Muscatello, David
    Ezard, Nadine
    Phung, Nghi
    Freebairn, Louise
    Indig, Devon
    Rychetnik, Lucie
    Ananthapavan, Jaithri
    Wutzke, Sonia
    Harnessing advances in computer simulation to inform policy and planning to reduce alcohol-related harms2018In: International Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1661-8556, E-ISSN 1661-8564, Vol. 63, no 4, p. 537-546Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alcohol misuse is a complex systemic problem. The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility of using a transparent and participatory agent-based modelling approach to develop a robust decision support tool to test alcohol policy scenarios before they are implemented in the real world. A consortium of Australia's leading alcohol experts was engaged to collaboratively develop an agent-based model of alcohol consumption behaviour and related harms. As a case study, four policy scenarios were examined. A 19.5 +/- 2.5% reduction in acute alcohol-related harms was estimated with the implementation of a 3 a.m. licensed venue closing time plus 1 a.m. lockout; and a 9 +/- 2.6% reduction in incidence was estimated with expansion of treatment services to reach 20% of heavy drinkers. Combining the two scenarios produced a 33.3 +/- 2.7% reduction in the incidence of acute alcohol-related harms, suggesting a synergistic effect. This study demonstrates the feasibility of participatory development of a contextually relevant computer simulation model of alcohol-related harms and highlights the value of the approach in identifying potential policy responses that best leverage limited resources.

  • 3. Azar, Denise
    et al.
    White, Victoria
    Bland, Stephanie
    Livingston, Michael
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Chikritzhs, Tanya
    Durkin, Sarah
    Gilmore, William
    Wakefield, Melanie
    ‘Something's Brewing’: the changing trends in alcohol coverage in Australian newspapers 2000–20112014In: Alcohol and Alcoholism, ISSN 0735-0414, E-ISSN 1464-3502, Vol. 49, no 3, p. 336-342Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: The portrayal of alcohol in the news media, including newspapers, plays an important role in influencing societalnorms and setting public agendas. We present the first large-scale examination of news coverage of alcohol-related issues in Australiannewspapers.

    Method: Content analysis was performed on a sample of alcohol-related newspaper articles (n = 4217) published acrossAustralia from 2000 to 2011. Articles were coded for type, theme, prominence, topic slant, opinion slant and sources/spokesperson.

    Results: Across the period, the most common themes were promotion (21%), drink-driving (16%) and restrictions/policy (16%).Themes of restrictions/policy and responsible beverage services became more common over time. Promotion and business-related articlessignificantly declined over time. Overall, the topic slant of the majority of news related articles disapproved of alcohol use. Disapproval increased over time while approval of alcohol use decreased. While the slant of opinion pieces was predominantly approvingof alcohol, this decreased over time. Presence of an alcohol industry representative in articles declined over time.

    Conclusion: Thepresentation of alcohol use in Australian newspapers became more disapproving over time, which may suggest that harmful alcohol usehas become less acceptable among the broader Australian community.

  • 4. Babor, T.
    et al.
    Caetano, R.
    Casswell, S.
    Edwards, G.
    Giesbrecht, N.
    Graham, K.
    Grube, J.
    Hill, L.
    Holder, H.
    Homel, R.
    Livingston, M.
    Rehm, J.
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Rossow, I.
    Österberg, E.
    Alcohol: No Ordinary Commodity – a summary of the second edition2010In: Addiction, ISSN 0965-2140, E-ISSN 1360-0443, Vol. 105, no 5, p. 769-779Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article summarizes the contents of Alcohol: No Ordinary Commodity (2nd edn). The first part of the book describes why alcohol is not an ordinary commodity, and reviews epidemiological data that establish alcohol as a major contributor to the global burden of disease, disability and death in high-, middle- and low-income countries. This section also documents how international beer and spirits production has been consolidated recently by a small number of global corporations that are expanding their operations in Eastern Europe, Asia, Africa and Latin America. In the second part of the book, the scientific evidence for strategies and interventions that can prevent or minimize alcohol-related harm is reviewed critically in seven key areas: pricing and taxation, regulating the physical availability of alcohol, modifying the drinking context, drink-driving countermeasures, restrictions on marketing, education and persuasion strategies, and treatment and early intervention services. Finally, the book addresses the policy-making process at the local, national and international levels and provides ratings of the effectiveness of strategies and interventions from a public health perspective. Overall, the strongest, most cost-effective strategies include taxation that increases prices, restrictions on the physical availability of alcohol, drink-driving countermeasures, brief interventions with at risk drinkers and treatment of drinkers with alcohol dependence.

  • 5. Babor, T.
    et al.
    Caetano, R.
    Casswell, S.
    Edwards, G.
    Giesbrecht, N.
    Graham, K.
    Grube, J.
    Hill, L.
    Holder, H.
    Homel, R.
    Livingston, M.
    Rehm, J.
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Rossow, I.
    Österberg, E.
    Alcohol, no ordinary commodity: Research and public policy2010 (ed. 2)Book (Other academic)
  • 6. Babor, T.
    et al.
    Caulkins, J.
    Edwards, G.
    Fischer, B.
    Foxcroft, D.
    Humphreys, K.
    Obot, I.
    Rehm, J.
    Reuter, P.
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Rossow, I.
    Strang, J.
    Drug Policy and the Public Good2010Book (Other academic)
  • 7. Babor, Thomas F.
    et al.
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Strang, John
    Drug Policy and the Public Good: a summary of the book2010In: Addiction, ISSN 0965-2140, E-ISSN 1360-0443, Vol. 105, no 7, p. 1137-1145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drug Policy and the Public Good was written by an international group of scientists from the fields of addiction, public health, criminology and policy studies to improve the linkages between drug research and drug policy. The book provides a conceptual basis for evidence-informed drug policy and describes epidemiological data on the global dimensions of drug misuse. The core of the book is a critical review of the cumulative scientific evidence in five general areas of drug policy: primary prevention programmes in schools and other settings; health and social services for drug users; attempts to control the supply of drugs, including the international treaty system; law enforcement and ventures into decriminalization; and control of the psychotropic substance market through prescription drug regimes. The final chapters discuss the current state of drug policies in different parts of the world and describe the need for future approaches to drug policy that are coordinated and informed by evidence.

  • 8.
    Bloomfield, Kim
    et al.
    Centre for Alcohol and Drug Research, Copenhagen Division, Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Wicki, Matthias
    the Swiss Institute for the prevention of Alcohol and other Drug Problems (SIPA), Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Gustafsson, Nina-Katri
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Mäkelä, Pia
    National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL), Helsinki, Finland.
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Changes in Alcohol-Related Problems After Alcohol Policy Changes in Denmark, Finland, and Sweden2010In: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1937-1888, Vol. 71, no 1, p. 32-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: European Union travelers' allowances for alcohol import to Denmark, Sweden, and Finland were abolished in 2004. In addition, excise taxes on alcohol were lowered in 2003 and 2005 in Denmark, and in 2004 in Finland. Using northern Sweden as a control site, this study examines whether levels of reported alcohol problems have changed in Denmark, Finland, and southern Sweden as a consequence of these policy changes. Method: Annual cross-sectional surveys were conducted in Denmark, Finland, and Sweden from 2003 to 2006. Five dependency items and seven extrinsic alcohol-related problems were examined. Changes were analyzed within each country/region with logistic regressions and tested for short- and long-term changes. Differential change was also tested between each country and the control site, northern Sweden. Results: Prevalence of alcohol problems decreased over the study period. Only in selected subgroups did problems increase. This mainly occurred in the samples for northern Sweden and Finland, and mostly among older age groups and men. In relation to the control site, however, no increases in problem prevalence were found. Conclusions: Our findings on a decline in reported alcohol problems largely agree with published reports on alcohol consumption over the same period in the study countries. They do not agree, however, with findings on changes in health and social statistics in Finland and Denmark, where some significant increases in alcohol-related harm have been found.

  • 9. Bobak, M.
    et al.
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Pikhart, H
    Kubinova, R.
    Malyutine, S.
    Pajak, A.
    Kurilovitch, S.
    Topor, R.
    Nikitin, Y.
    Marmot, M.
    Contributions of drinking patterns to differences in rates of alcohol related problems between three urban populations2004In: Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0917-5040, E-ISSN 1349-9092, Vol. 58, no 3, p. 238-242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To examine, on empirical data, whether drinking patterns, in addition to overall alcohol consumption, contribute to differences in rates of alcohol related problems between populations. Design: Cross sectional survey. Settings: One Russian, one Polish, and one Czech city. Participants: 1118 men and 1125 women randomly selected from population registers. Main outcome measures: Problem drinking; negative social consequences of drinking; alcohol consumption and drinking pattern. Results: Rates of problem drinking and of negative consequences of drinking were much higher in Russian men (35% and 18%, respectively) than in Czechs (19% and 10%) or Poles (14% and 8%). This contrasts with substantially lower mean annual intake of alcohol reported by Russian men (4.6 litres) than by Czech men (8.5 litres), and with low mean drinking frequency in Russia (67 drinking sessions per year, compared with 179 sessions among Czech men). However, Russians consumed the highest dose of alcohol per drinking session (means 71 g in Russians, 46 g in Czechs, and 45 g in Poles), and had the highest prevalence of binge drinking. In women, the levels of alcohol related problems and of drinking were low in all countries. In ecological and individual level analyses, indicators of binge drinking explained a substantial part of differences in rates of problem drinking and negative consequences of drinking between the three countries. Conclusions: These empirical data confirm high levels of alcohol related problems in Russia despite low volume of drinking. The binge drinking pattern partly explains this paradoxical finding. Overall alcohol consumption does not suffice as an estimate of alcohol related problems at the population level.

  • 10. Bodin, M.
    et al.
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Predictors of abstinence and nonproblem drinking after 12-step treatment in Sweden2006In: Journal of Studies on Alcohol, ISSN 0096-882X, E-ISSN 1934-2683, Vol. 67, no 1, p. 139-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE:

    The aims of this study were to identify individual predictors of 12 months continuous abstinence and nonproblem drinking after Swedish inpatient Minnesota Model treatment and to evaluate the outcome variance explained by pretreatment, within-treatment, and posttreatment factors for each outcome, separately and in conjunction.

    METHOD:

    One-hundred and twenty-nine men and 47 women were interviewed on admission to Swedish Minnesota Model treatment and after 12 months. Two interviewers who were not involved in treatment delivery performed structured interviews. Statistical analyses included bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models applied to pair-wise contrasts of three types of treatment outcome.

    RESULTS:

    The final multivariate models for the three pair-wise contrasts explained 71% (abstinence vs problem drinking), 44% (nonproblem drinking vs problem drinking), and 25% (abstinence vs. nonproblem drinking) of outcome variance. Abstention and nonproblem drinking were both differentiated from problem drinking by the completion of aftercare, satisfaction with treatment, and number of public addiction care contacts. When contrasted with nonproblem drinking, abstention was predicted by the endorsement of a baseline goal to stop drinking and a higher degree of posttreatment affiliation with mutual-help groups.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Results from this study support the fact that treatment is only one of many factors that contributes to an outcome and suggests issues that may need consideration in similar treatment settings.

  • 11. Bond, J.
    et al.
    Borges, G.
    Cherpitel, C.
    Greenfield, T.
    Irving, H.M.
    Kanteres, F.
    Rehm, J.
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Taylor, B.
    The more you drink, the harder you fall: a systematic review and meta-analysis of how acute alcohol consumption and injury or collision risk increase together2010In: Drug and Alcohol Dependence, ISSN 0376-8716, Vol. 110, no 1-2, p. 108-116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    

    Alcohol consumption causes injury in a dose-response manner. The most common mode of sustaining an alcohol-attributable injury is from a single occasion of acute alcohol consumption, but much of the injury literature employs usual consumption habits to assess risk instead. An analysis of the acute dose-response relationship between alcohol and injury is warranted to generate single occasion- and dose-specific relative risks. A systematic literature review and meta-analysis was conducted to fill this gap. Linear and best-fit first-order model were used to model the data. Usual tests of heterogeneity and publication bias were run. Separate meta-analyses were run for motor vehicle and non-motor vehicle injuries, as well as case-control and case-crossover studies. The risk of injury increases non-linearly with increasing alcohol consumption. For motor vehicle accidents, the odds ratio increases by 1.24 (95% CI: 1.18-1.31) per 10-g in pure alcohol increase to 52.0 (95% CI: 34.50-78.28) at 120 g. For non-motor vehicle injury, the OR increases by 1.30 (95% CI: 1.26-1.34) to an OR of 24.2 at 140 g (95% CI: 16.2-36.2). Case-crossover studies of non-MVA injury result in overall higher risks than case-control studies and the per-drink increase in odds of injury was highest for intentional injury, at 1.38 (95% CI: 1.22-1.55). Efforts to reduce drinking both on an individual level and a population level are important. No level of consumption is safe when driving and less than 2 drinks per occasion should be encouraged to reduce the risk of injury.

  • 12. Bond, Jason
    et al.
    Witbrodt, Jane
    Ye, Yu
    Cherpitel, Cheryl J.
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). University of Melbourne, Australia; Turning Point Alcohol and Drug Centre, Australia.
    Monteiro, Maristela G.
    Exploring Structural Relationships Between Blood Alcohol Concentration and Signs and Clinical Assessment of Intoxication in Alcohol-Involved Injury Cases2014In: Alcohol and Alcoholism, ISSN 0735-0414, E-ISSN 1464-3502, Vol. 49, no 4, p. 417-422Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: Although the relationship between the Y90 (blood alcohol concentration, BAC) and Y91 (clinician intoxication assessment) ICD-10 codes has received attention recently, the role of 10 signs of intoxication in the Y91-Y90 relationship has not been studied yet. This work examines these signs in the estimation of alcohol intoxication levels of patients in medical settings. Methods: Collected and analyzed were data on 1997 injured emergency room patients from 17 countries worldwide reporting drinking prior to injury or presenting with a non-zero BAC from 17 countries worldwide. A model is estimated describing how the 10 signs inform the Y91, Y90 prediction with the goal of the use of observations on patients in place of a biological measure. Results: Signs were consistent with a single underlying construct that strongly predicted Y91. Smell of alcohol on breath predicted Y91 above its contribution through the construct and was stronger for those with tolerance to alcohol than for those without. Controlling for Y91, no sign further contributed to prediction of Y90 indicating that Y91 incorporated all intoxication sign information in predicting Y90. Variance explained was high for Y91 (R-2 = 0.84) and intoxication signs (above 0.72 for all but smell on the breath, 0.57) and lower for Y90 (0.38). Conclusion: Intoxication assessments are well predicted by overall intoxication severity, which itself is well represented by intoxication signs along with differential emphasis on smell of alcohol on breath, especially for those with alcohol tolerance. However, BAC levels remain largely unexplained by intoxication signs with a clinician's assessment serving as the primary predictive measure.

  • 13. Bowden, Jacqueline A.
    et al.
    Delfabbro, Paul
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Miller, Caroline L.
    Wilson, Carlene
    Alcohol consumption and NHMRC Guidelines: has the message got out, are people conforming and are they aware that acohol causes cancer?2014In: Australian and New Zealand journal of public health, ISSN 1326-0200, E-ISSN 1753-6405, Vol. 38, no 1, p. 66-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To examine self-reported alcohol consumption and relationships betweenconsumption, awareness of the 2009 NHMRC guidelines of no more than two standard drinksper day, drinking in excess of the guideline threshold and perceptions of alcohol as a risk factorfor cancer.

    Methods: Questions were included in annual, cross-sectional surveys of about 2,700 SouthAustralians aged 18 years and over from 2004 to 2012. Consumption data for 2011 and 2012were merged for the majority of analyses.

    Results: In 2011 and 2012, 21.6% of adults drank in excess of the guideline threshold (33.0%males; 10.7% females). While 53.5% correctly identified the NHMRC consumption thresholdfor women, only 20.3% did so for men (39.0% nominated a higher amount). A large minoritysaid they did not know the consumption threshold for women (39.2%) or men (40.4%). In2012, only 36.6% saw alcohol as an important risk factor for cancer. Important predictors ofexcess consumption for men were: higher household income; and not perceiving alcohol as animportant risk factor for cancer. Predictors for women were similar but the role of householdincome was even more prominent.

    Conclusions: Men were nearly three times as likely to drink in excess of the guidelines aswomen. The majority of the population did not see an important link between alcoholand cancer. Awareness of the latest NHMRC guidelines consumption threshold is still low,particularly for men.

    Implications: A strategy to raise awareness of the NHMRC guidelines and the link betweenalcohol and cancer is warranted.

  • 14. Bowden, Jacqueline A.
    et al.
    Delfabbro, Paul
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). La Trobe University, Australia.
    Miller, Caroline L.
    Wilson, Carlene
    Prevalence, perceptions and predictors of alcohol consumption and abstinence among South Australian school students: a cross-sectional analysis2017In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 17, article id 549Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Alcohol consumption by young people (particularly early initiation) is a predictor for poorer health in later life. In addition, evidence now clearly shows a causal link between alcohol and cancer. This study investigated prevalence, predictors of alcohol consumption among adolescents including perceptions of the link between alcohol and cancer, and the role of parents and peers. Methods: A sample of Australian school students aged 12-17 years participated in a survey (n = 2885). Logistic regression analysis was undertaken to determine predictors. Results: Alcohol use increased with age and by 16, most had tried alcohol with 33.1% of students aged 12-17 reporting that they drank at least occasionally (95% CI = 31.0-35.2). Awareness of the link between alcohol and cancer was low (28.5%). Smoking status and friends' approval were predictive of drinking, whereas parental disapproval was protective. Those aged 14-17 who did not think the link between alcohol and cancer was important were more likely to drink, as were those living in areas of least disadvantage. The only factors that predicted recent drinking were smoking and the perception that alcohol was easy to purchase. Conclusions: An education campaign highlighting the link between alcohol and cancer may have positive flow-on effects for young people, and schools should incorporate this messaging into any alcohol education programs. Consideration should be given to factors that serve to regulate under-aged accessibility of alcohol.

  • 15. Bullock, S.
    et al.
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Drinking behaviour, coming of age and risk2006In: Sex, drugs and young people: international perspectives / [ed] P. Aggleton, A. Ball & P. Mane, London & New York: Routledge , 2006, p. 120-138Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 16. Callina, Sarah
    et al.
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). Centre for Alcohol Policy Research, Australia; Monash University, Australia.
    Harm, tangible or feared: Young Victorians' adverse experiences from others' drinking or drug use2014In: International journal on drug policy, ISSN 0955-3959, E-ISSN 1873-4758, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 401-406Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Harms from alcohol experienced by someone other than the drinker have received increasing attention of late, but have not been compared to harms from others' drug use. The aim of the current study is to compare the reported harms that are attributable to the alcohol use of others to those attributable to drugs, distinguishing between different types of harm in order to highlight how reported harms may be influenced by perception and social standing of use of the substance. Method: Respondents aged 16-24 from Victoria, Australia, completed the Victorian Youth Alcohol and Drug Survey (n = 5001), including questions on demographics, drug and alcohol consumption, on the types of harms they experienced attributable to drugs and alcohol, as well as harms they perpetrated after using drugs or alcohol. Results: For both drug and alcohol related harms, reports of harms loaded into two groups using multiple correspondence analysis: tangible harms such as assault, and amenity impacts such as being annoyed by people under the influence. Amenity impacts attributed to alcohol were more likely to be experienced by those who reported drug use and vice versa, while the tangible impacts were more likely to be reported by those who used both drugs and alcohol. Conclusions: Reports of amenity impacts from others appear to be influenced by the perception of the drug in question more than tangible impacts such as assault. Particularly for amenity impacts, the greater stigma attached to drug use may make respondents more likely to consider themselves harmed by drugs than they would when compared to alcohol, something that needs to be taken into account when assessing harms by either alcohol or drugs.

  • 17. Callinan, Sarah
    et al.
    Laslett, Anne-Marie
    Rekve, Dag
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). La Trobe University, Australia.
    Waleewong, Orratai
    Benegal, Vivek
    Casswell, Sally
    Florenzano, Ramon
    Hoang, Thi
    Vu, Thi
    Hettige, Siri
    Huckle, Taisia
    Ibanga, Akanidomo
    Obot, Isidore
    Rao, Girish
    Siengsounthone, Latsamy
    Rankin, Georgia
    Thamarangsi, Thaksaphon
    Alcohol's harm to others: An international collaborative project2016In: The international journal of alcohol and drug research, ISSN 1925-7066, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 25-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: This paper outlines the methods of a collaborative population survey project measuring the range and magnitude of alcohol's harm to others internationally. Setting: Seven countries participating in the World Health Organization (WHO) and ThaiHealth Promotion Foundation (ThaiHealth) research project titled The Harm to Others from Drinking, along with two other countries with similar studies, will form the core of a database which will incorporate data from other countries in the future. Measures: The WHO-ThaiHealth research project developed two comparable versions of a survey instrument, both measuring harm from others' drinking to the respondent and the respondent's children. Design: Surveys were administered via face-to-face methods in seven countries, while similar surveys were administered via computer-assisted telephone interviews in two additional countries. Responses from all surveys will be compiled in an international database for the purpose of international comparisons. Discussion: Harms from the alcohol consumption of others are intertwined with the cultural norms where consumption occurs. The development of this database will make it possible to look beyond reports and analyses at national levels, and illuminate the relationships between consumption, harms, and culture. Conclusions: This database will facilitate work describing the prevalence, patterning, and predictors of personal reports of harm from others' drinking cross-nationally.

  • 18. Callinan, Sarah
    et al.
    Livingston, Michael
    Dietze, Paul
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). Turning Point Alcohol & Drug Centre, Australia; University of Melbourne, Australia.
    Heavy drinking occasions in Australia: Do context and beverage choice differ from low-risk drinking occasions?2014In: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 354-357Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction and Aims. The aim of the current study is to look for differences in drink choice and drinking location between a recent heavy drinking occasion (RHDO) and usual low-risk occasions among those that recently had both types of drinking occasion. Design and Methods. Seven hundred and seventy-four respondents to a population-based survey reported having a RHDO [8 + Australian standard drinks (ASD) for females, 11 + ASD for males] in the past six months also reported that their usual drinking occasion in at least one location involved less than five ASD. Drink choice and drinking locations for the RHDO and usual low-risk occasions were compared using confidence intervals. Results. The RHDO was more likely than usual low-risk occasions to occur away from licensed premises (59%), despite a higher percentage of respondents reporting drinking at a pub, bar or nightclub on a RHDO (28%) than on a usual low-risk night (12%). A higher percentage of respondents nominated bottled spirits (33%) as their main drink for their RHDO, with 11% primarily drinking bottled spirits on a usual low-risk occasion; the converse was true for bottled wine (20% and 33%, respectively). Discussion and Conclusions. While the high proportion of RHDOs that occurred at least in part at pubs or nightclubs was not surprising, a high proportion also occur in private homes. Previously found links between heavy drinking and beer may be a reflection of the usual drink choice of heavier drinkers, rather a choice specific to a particularly heavy occasion.

  • 19. Callinan, Sarah
    et al.
    Livingston, Michael
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). La Trobe University, Australia; University of Melbourne, Australia.
    Dietze, Paul
    Drinking Contexts and Alcohol Consumption: How Much Alcohol Is Consumed in Different Australian Locations?2016In: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1937-1888, E-ISSN 1938-4114, Vol. 77, no 4, p. 612-619Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine where Australians in different demographic groups and drinker categories consume their alcohol. Method: Results were taken from the Australian arm of the International Alcohol Control study, a telephone survey of 2,020 Australian adults with an oversample of risky drinkers. The 1,789 respondents who reported consuming alcohol in the past 6 months were asked detailed questions about the location of their alcohol consumption and how much alcohol they consumed at each place. Results: Sixty-three percent of all alcohol consumption reported by respondents was consumed in the drinker's own home, with much less consumed at pubs, bars, and nightclubs (12%). This is driven primarily by the number of people who drink in the home and the frequency of these events, with the amount consumed per occasion at home no more than in other people's homes or pubs, and significantly less than at special events. The average consumption on a usual occasion at each of these locations was more than five Australian standard drinks (above the Australian low-risk guideline for episodic drinking). Short-term risky drinkers had the highest proportion of consumption in pubs (19%), but they still consumed 41% of their units in their own home. Conclusions: The majority of alcohol consumed in Australia is consumed in the drinker's own home. Efforts to reduce long-term harms from drinking need to address off-premise drinking and, in particular, drinking in the home.

  • 20. Callinan, Sarah
    et al.
    Livingston, Michael
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). La Trobe University, Australia; University of Melbourne, Australia.
    Dietze, Paul M.
    How much alcohol is consumed outside of the lifetime risk guidelines in Australia?2018In: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 42-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction and Aims. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of long-term risky drinking within the Australian population and the proportion of standard drinks that is consumed outside of the long-term risk (LTR) guidelines of two Australian standard drinks (ASD) per day.

    Design and Methods. Recruited by phone, 2020 Australian adults with an oversampling of risky drinkers were asked detailed questions about how much alcohol they consumed at a range of locations in 2013. Descriptive statistical analyses of data weighted to be representative of the Australian adult population were undertaken, with a focus on the ASD consumed above the LTR guidelines.

    Results. Although 28% of respondents drink at levels above the LTR drinking guidelines, 56% of all ASD consumed are above the two per day recommended to reduce LTR. Three-quarters of cask wine and liqueurs were consumed outside of the LTR guidelines, as were 58% of all ASD consumed in the home, similar to the proportion of ASD consumed above the guidelines in pubs (55%).

    Discussion and Conclusions. While the minority of Australians drink to LTR levels, the majority of alcohol is consumed by long-term risky drinkers. More research and policy focus on the patterns of alcohol consumption that lead to long-term risk, particularly outside of licensed premises, is required.

  • 21.
    Callinan, Sarah
    et al.
    Centre for Alcohol Policy Research (CAPR), Melbourne.
    Room, Robin
    Centre for Alcohol Policy Research (CAPR), Melbourne.
    Alcohol Consumption During Pregnancy: Results From the 2010 National Drug Strategy Household Survey2012Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The primary purpose of this report was to examine the rate of, and develop predictors for, alcohol consumption during pregnancy.  In order to do this, data from the 2010 National Drug Strategy Household Survey was used.  Of those who completed the survey, 819 women had been pregnant in the twelve months prior to completing the survey.  Within this sample, 47.3% consumed alcohol while pregnant, before knowledge of their pregnancy and 19.5% consumed alcohol while pregnant, after knowledge of their pregnancy. While no steady relationship between socioeconomic factors and drinking before knowledge of pregnancy was found, women who were older and with a higher household income were more likely to continue to drink after learning of their pregnancy.  Age is thought to be particularly important when examining the percentage of women who chose to stop drinking once they became aware of their pregnancy.  While 90% of drinkers under 25 stopped drinking once they learned of their pregnancy, only half of those who already drinking who were aged 36 or older did the same. It is important to keep in mind when interpreting these results that many studies have found that the majority of women who consume alcohol during pregnancy do so at low levels (e.g., Powers, et al., 2010).  Therefore more research is needed on how much women are drinking during pregnancy and the outcomes of different levels of consumption.  These results could be interpreted as a reflection of education and awareness programs aimed at reducing drinking rates during pregnancy, especially in younger mothers.  However more focus is needed on raising awareness for women who are planning on getting pregnant.  This is because much of the alcohol consumption during pregnancy is occurring before the woman is aware of the pregnancy. 

  • 22. Callinan, Sarah
    et al.
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). University of Melbourne, Australia; Turning Point Alcohol & Drug Centre, Australia.
    Livingston, Michael
    Changes in Australian attitudes to alcohol policy: 1995–20102014In: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 227-234Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction and Aims

    In 2009 Wilkinson and colleagues reported a downward trend in support for alcohol policyrestrictions in Australia between 1995 and 2004. The aim of the current study is to examine more recent data on policy supportin Australia, specifically for policies covering alcohol availability up to 2010, and to examine specific demographic shifts insupport.

    Design and Methods

    Data was taken from the National Drug Strategy Household Surveys from 1995, 1998,2001, 2004, 2007 and 2010 (n = 80 846), primarily responses to attitude items on policy restriction and demographicquestions. The effects of age, sex, drinking patterns and income over time on three items addressing restriction of alcoholavailability were assessed using a factorial analysis of variance.

    Results

    Although availability items are among the lesspopular policy restrictions put forward in the National Drug Strategy Household Surveys, 2004 actually represented a turningpoint in the decrease in popularity, with an increase in support since then.Though some groups show consistently higher ratesof support than others for policy restrictions, the rate of change in support was fairly uniform across demographic and drinkinggroups.

    Discussion and Conclusions

    Despite the lack of an obvious catalyst, there has been an increase in support foralcohol policy restriction as it relates to general availability and accessibility since 2004. Furthermore, this increase does notappear to be a reflection of a change in a specific group of people, but appears to be occurring across the Australian population.

  • 23. Callinan, Sarah
    et al.
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). Centre for Alcohol Policy Research, Turning Point, Australia; University of Melbourne, Australia.
    Livingston, Michael
    Jiang, Heng
    Who Purchases Low-Cost Alcohol in Australia?2015In: Alcohol and Alcoholism, ISSN 0735-0414, E-ISSN 1464-3502, Vol. 50, no 6, p. 647-653Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Debates surrounding potential price-based polices aimed at reducing alcohol-related harms tend to focus on the debate concerning who would be most affected-harmful or low-income drinkers. This study will investigate the characteristics of people who purchase low-cost alcohol using data from the Australian arm of the International Alcohol Control study. 1681 Australians aged 16 and over who had consumed alcohol and purchased it in off-licence premises were asked detailed questions about both practices. Low-cost alcohol was defined using cut-points of 80A cent, $1.00 or $1.25 per Australian standard drink. With a $1.00 cut-off low income (OR = 2.1) and heavy drinkers (OR = 1.7) were more likely to purchase any low-cost alcohol. Harmful drinkers purchased more, and low-income drinkers less, alcohol priced at less than $1.00 per drink than high income and moderate drinkers respectively. The relationship between the proportion of units purchased at low cost and both drinker category and income is less clear, with hazardous, but not harmful, drinkers purchasing a lower proportion of units at low cost than moderate drinkers. The impact of minimum pricing on low income and harmful drinkers will depend on whether the proportion or total quantity of all alcohol purchased at low cost is considered. Based on absolute units of alcohol, minimum unit pricing could be differentially effective for heavier drinkers compared to other drinkers, particularly for young males.

  • 24. Cherpitel, C.
    et al.
    Bond, J.
    Ye, Y.
    Borges, G.
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Poznyak, V.
    Hao, W.
    Multi-level analysis of causal attribution of injury to alcohol and modifiying effects: data from two international emerency room projects2006In: Drug And Alcohol Dependence, ISSN 0376-8716, E-ISSN 1879-0046, Vol. 82, no 3, p. 258-268Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although alcohol consumption and injury has received a great deal of attention in the literature, less is known about patient's causal attribution of the injury event to their drinking or factors which modify attribution. Hierarchical linear modeling is used to analyze the relationships of the volume of alcohol consumed prior to injury and feeling drunk at the time of the event with causal attribution, as well as the association of aggregate individual-level and socio-cultural variables on these relationships. Data analyzed are from 1955 ER patients who reported drinking prior to injury included in 35 ERs from 24 studies covering 15 countries from the combined Emergency Room Collaborative Alcohol Analysis Project (ERCAAP) and the WHO Collaborative Study on Alcohol and Injuries. Half of those patients drinking prior to injury attributed a causal association of their injury with alcohol consumption, but the rate of causal attribution varied significantly across studies. When controlling for gender and age, the volume of alcohol consumed and feeling drunk (controlling for volume) were both significantly predictive of attribution and this did not vary across studies. Those who drink at least weekly were less likely to attribute causality at a low volume level, but more likely at high volume levels than less frequent drinkers. Attribution of causality was also less likely at low volume levels in those societies with low detrimental drinking patterns, but more likely at high volume levels or when feeling drunk compared to societies with high detrimental drinking patterns. These findings have important implications for brief intervention in the ER if motivation to change drinking behavior is greater among those attributing a causal association of their drinking with injury.

  • 25. Cherpitel, C.
    et al.
    Bond, J.
    Ye, Y.
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Poznyak, V.
    Rehm, J.
    Peden, M.
    Clinical assessment compared with breathalyser readings in the ER: concordance of ICD-10 Y90 and Y91 codes2005In: Emergency Medicine Journal, ISSN 1472-0205, E-ISSN 1472-0213, Vol. 22, no 10, p. 689-695Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES:

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the validity of clinical assessment of alcohol intoxication (ICD-10 Y91) compared with estimated blood alcohol concentration (BAC) using a breath analyser (ICD-10 Y90) among patients in the emergency room (ER).

    METHODS:

    Representative samples of ER patients reporting within six hours of injury (n = 4798) from 12 countries comprising the WHO Collaborative Study on Alcohol and Injuries were breath analysed and assessed blindly for alcohol intoxication at the time of ER admission. Data were analysed using Kendall's Tau-B to measure concordance of clinical assessment and BAC, and meta analysis to determine heterogeneity of effect size.

    RESULTS:

    Raw agreement between the two measures was 86% (Tau-B 0.68), but was lower among those reporting drinking in the six hours prior to injury (raw agreement 39%; Tau-B 0.32). No difference was found by gender or for timing of clinical assessment in relation to breath analysis. Patients positive for tolerance or dependence were more likely to be assessed as intoxicated at low levels of BAC. Estimates were homogeneous across countries only for females and for those negative for alcohol dependence.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Clinical assessment is moderately concordant with level of BAC, but in those patients who have actually been drinking within the last six hours the concordance was much less, possibly because, in part, of a tendency on the part of clinicians to assign some level of intoxication to anyone who appeared to have been drinking.

  • 26. Cherpitel, C. J.
    et al.
    Ye, Y.
    Bond, J.
    Room, Robin
    Turning Point Alcohol and Drug Centre, AER Centre for Alcohol Policy Research; and University of Melbourne, School of Population Health.
    Borges, G.
    Attribution of alcohol to violence-related injury: self and other's drinking in the event2012In: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1937-1888, E-ISSN 1938-4114, Vol. 73, no 2, p. 277-284Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Alcohol can result in harm (including injury) not only to the drinker but also to others; however, little research exists on the additional proportion of violence-related injuries that can be attributed to the perpetrator. Method: Data are reported from emergency department studies in 14 countries on the prevalence of patients' self-report of drinking within the 6 hours before the violence-related injury event, patients' belief that the event would not have happened if they had not been drinking at the time, and patients' perception that the perpetrator had been drinking. Alcohol-attributable fraction was calculated based on the patients' perception that their own drinking was causally related to the event and on their perception that the perpetrator had been drinking. Results: Across all countries, 62.9% of the violence-related injuries involved alcohol use on the part of the victim, the perpetrator, or both. Rates of others definitely drinking, as perceived by the victim, ranged from 14% to 73% across countries and was positively associated with patients' own drinking in the event and with attributing a causal association between their drinking and the event. Estimates of alcohol-attributable fraction were 38.8% when the victim and perpetrator were considered together compared with 23.9% when only the patient was considered and varied by country-level drinking pattern. Conclusions: These findings suggest adjustments that could be made to global burden of disease estimates because of violence-related injury morbidity to better reflect alcohol-attributable fraction when drinking by others and country-level drinking patterns are taken into account.

  • 27. Cherpitel, Cheryl J.
    et al.
    Ye, Yu
    Bond, Jason
    Borges, Guilherme
    Macdonald, Scott
    Stockwell, Tim
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Sovinova, Hana
    Marais, Sandra
    Giesbrecht, Norman
    Validity of self-reported drinking before injury compared with a physiological measure: Cross-national analysis of emergency-department data from 16 countries2007In: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1937-1888, Vol. 68, no 2, p. 296-302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Self-reports of alcohol consumption among patients visiting an emergency department (ED) have been used extensively in the investigation of the relationship between drinking and injury. Little is known, however, about the associations between validity of self-reports with patient and injury characteristics and whether these relationships vary across regions or countries. Both of these issues are explored in this article. Method: In the construct of a multilevel logistical model, validity of self-reports was estimated as the probability of a positive self-report given a positive blood alcohol concentration (BAC). The setting included 44 EDs across 28 studies in 16 countries. Participants included 10,741 injury patients from the combined Emergency Room Collaborative Alcohol Analysis Project (ERCAAP) and the World Health Organization Collaborative Study of Alcohol and Injuries. Data were analyzed on self-reported drinking within 6 hours before injury compared with BAC results obtained from breath-analyzer readings in all but two studies, which used urine screens. Covariates included demographic, drinking, and injury characteristics and aggregate-level contextual variables. Results: At the individual level, a higher BAC measurement was associated with a higher probability of reporting drinking, as was heavy drinking and sustaining injuries in traffic accidents or violence-related events. At the study level, neither aggregate BAC nor other sociocultural variables affected the validity of self-reported drinking. Conclusions: This study provides further evidence of the validity of self-reported drinking measures in crossnational ED studies based on the objective criterion of BAC estimates.

  • 28.
    Cisneros Örnberg, Jenny
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Impacts of Tourism on Drinking and Alcohol Policy in Low-And Middle-Income Countries: A Selective Thematic Review2014In: Contemporary Drug Problems, ISSN 0091-4509, E-ISSN 2163-1808, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 145-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article considers impacts of the drinking patterns of tourists from high-consumption, high-income societies on low- and middle-income societies, thematically reviewing a rather sparse literature. Drinking — indeed, drinking more than at home — fits well into the context of tourism. Heavy drinking by tourists has a substantial impact on many elements in the host society, increasing consumption levels particularly among young people working within the tourism sector. Tourist industry interests have often successfully argued for policies that result in a wider general availability of alcohol in the society, and provision for tourists has often served as an entry point in the society for the global alcohol industry. National and international consideration of policies to reduce alcohol problems should take into consideration the potential adverse influences on national alcohol policies arising from tourism.

  • 29. Dawson, D.A.
    et al.
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Towards agreement on ways to measure and report drinking patterns and alcohol-related problems in adult general population surveys2000In: Journal of Substance Abuse, ISSN 0899-3289, E-ISSN 1873-6491, Vol. 12, no 1-2, p. 1-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A thematic conference of the Kettil Bruun Society (KBS) for Social and Epidemiological Research on Alcohol was held in Skarpö, near Stockholm, on April 3–7, 2000. The goals of the meeting were to develop consensus sets of questionnaire items for measuring alcohol consumption and social harm, to delineate statistical and practical concerns related to the aggregation of consumption and harm data and to identify summary measures to be used for descriptive purposes and in analyses of the association between alcohol intake and alcohol-related outcomes. The results of the conference discussions are summarized below, with emphasis on both areas where the conference yielded recommendations for measures and methods of aggregation for analysis, and on areas where consensus could not be obtained and/or where additional research is needed.

  • 30. Demers, A.
    et al.
    Gerretsen, H.
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Rossow, I.
    Ugland, T.
    The Kettil Bruun Society for Social and Epidemiological Research on Alcohol2004In: Addiction, ISSN 0965-2140, E-ISSN 1360-0443, Vol. 99, no 2, p. 161-164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Kettil Bruun Society for Social and Epidemiological Research on Alcohol (KBS) was established in 1987 and is an independent organization open to all scientists working on problems related to social and epidemiological research on alcohol. The aim of the Society is to promote social and epidemiological research which fosters a comparative understanding of the social aspects of alcohol use and alcohol problems. In line with this the Society also aims at promoting a spirit of international collaboration. The Kettil Bruun Society is based on individual membership and, by 2003, has 197 fully paid-up members, representing 34 different countries over five continents. The main activities include an annual meeting as well as thematic meetings. In these meetings, discussions are emphasized by having precirculated papers and assigned discussants. The KBS also serves as a basis for organizing international collaborative projects. Project meetings or work-shops are often organized around the annual meetings, and the projects tend to run over several years. The Society's primary influence is through the mutual influence of its members on each others' thinking, the work of the projects that KBS sponsors and the influence its members have collectively on the development of the field.

  • 31. Demers, Andree
    et al.
    Room, RobinStockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).Bourgault, Chantal
    Surveys of Drinking Patterns and Problems in Seven Developing Countries2000Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 32. Dietze, P.
    et al.
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Jolley, D.
    Matthews, S.
    Chikritzhs, T.
    The adverse consequences of drinking in a sample of Australian adults2011In: Journal of Substance Use, ISSN 1465-9891, E-ISSN 1475-9942, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 116-126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To examine the adverse consequences of drinking reported by a subsample of participants in the Australian arm of the GenACIS (Gender Alcohol and Culture: an International Study). Design and method: A random sample of adults (18+, N = 1,608) was interviewed by telephone for self-reported experience of adverse consequences of alcohol consumption. Results: Ten per cent reported experiencing either alcohol related life-area problems and/or physical/emotional/legal problems as a result of their drinking in the previous year. Around 4% reported getting into a fight after they had been drinking and 6% reported adverse effects of alcohol on their physical health. There were variations by age, and other correlates, such as drinking patterns, but not by gender. For example, while only 4% of the sample aged 35–44 reported being injured or injuring someone else, 17% of the sample aged under 25 reported being injured or injuring another. Conclusions: Young Victorians and those who reported riskier drinking were generally more likely to report experiencing adverse consequences than older Victorians and those who reported less risky drinking. This is important in the Australian context, with a focus on the harms associated with young people’s drinking the subject of much recent public debate.

  • 33. Dietze, Paul
    et al.
    Agius, Paul A.
    Livingston, Michael
    Callinan, Sarah
    Jenkinson, Rebecca
    Lim, Megan S. C.
    Wright, Cassandra J. C.
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). La Trobe University, Australia.
    Correlates of alcohol consumption on heavy drinking occasions of young risky drinkers: event versus personal characteristics2017In: Addiction, ISSN 0965-2140, E-ISSN 1360-0443, Vol. 112, no 8, p. 1369-1377Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims Risky single-occasion drinking (RSOD) by young people is a serious public health issue, yet little is known about the specific circumstances of risky drinking occasions. This study examined the independent effects of event- and individual-specific variables on RSOD. Design Longitudinal cohort study measuring self-reported RSOD and event- and individual-specific variables across two drinking occasions approximately 1 year apart. Setting Metropolitan Melbourne, Australia. Participants A sample of 710 young risky drinkers aged between 18 and 25years and defined as engaging in risky drinking practices (males: consumed alcohol in excess of 10 Australian Standard Drinks (ASD: 10g ethanol) in a single occasion in the previous year; females: consumed alcohol in excess of seven ASD for females in a single occasion in the previous year). Measurements Random digit-dial telephone landline survey of the most recent heavy drinking occasion and socio-demographic variables. The primary outcome was the log of the total drinks consumed in the most recent heavy drinking occasion. Event-specific (e.g. number of drinking locations) and time-varying (e.g. weekly income) and time-invariant (e.g. sex) individual-specific variables were examined as correlates of total drinks consumed. Findings Changes in event-specific characteristics including the length of the drinking occasion (Likelihood Ratio (2)(2)=24.4, P<0.001), the number of drinking locations (Wald (2)((1))=7.6, P=0.006) and the number of different drink types (Wald (2)((1))=13.6, P<0.001) were associated with increases in total drinks consumed, after adjustment for time-invariant and time-variant individual-specific variables such as gender, income level and weekly consumption. Few other effects were noted. Conclusions Event-specific characteristics are important predictors of the number of drinks consumed during risky single occasion drinking (RSOD) and illustrate the importance of event contexts when considering interventions targeting RSOD. The total number of drinks consumed in a RSOD session appears to rise independently with the duration of the drinking event, the number of drinking locations and the number of different types of beverage consumed.

  • 34. Dietze, Paul
    et al.
    Ferris, Jason
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). Turning Point Alcohol and Drug Centre, Australia; University of Melbourne, Australia.
    Who Suggests Drinking Less?: Demographic and National Differences in Informal Social Controls on Drinking2013In: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1937-1888, E-ISSN 1938-4114, Vol. 74, no 6, p. 859-866Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine variation in reports of pressuring others to drink less, as a form of informal social control of drinking, across countries and different types of relationship to the respondent. Method: A cross-sectional survey was administered to 19,945 respondents ages 18-69 years in 14 countries included in the data set of the Gender, Alcohol and Culture: An International Study (GENACIS). Outcome variables were respondents' reports of pressuring others to drink less (yes/no) across a variety of relationships (their partners, other family members, workmates, or friends). Multilevel, multivariable logistic regression analysis was carried out on each outcome variable. The fixed-effects components included the Level 1 (individual) covariates of respondent age, gender, drinking status, and education level as well as the Level 2 (country level) covariates of percentage female drinkers and purchasing power parity. The random-effects components included country and current drinking status. Results: Respondents most frequently reported pressuring male friends to drink less (18%), followed by male family members (other than partners, 15%), partners (15%), work colleagues (12%), female friends (9%), female family members (other than partners, 6%), and children (5%). There was marked variation across countries, with pressuring frequently reported in Uganda, Costa Rica, and Nicaragua across most relationship types. Multivariable logistic regression revealed consistent effects of gender, with women more likely than men to report pressuring others to drink less across most relationship types. The patterns in relation to education status and age were less consistent and varied across relationship type. Conclusions: Informal social control of drinking varies dramatically according to whom is most likely to pressure whom to drink less as well as the country in which people live.

  • 35. Dietze, Paul M.
    et al.
    Livingston, Michael
    Callinan, Sarah
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    The big night out: what happens on the most recent heavy drinking occasion among young Victorian risky drinkers?2014In: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 346-353Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction and Aims. In spite of the major focus on risky, single-occasion drinking by young people in Australia, littleis known about the specific circumstances of risky drinking occasions.This study examines drinking behaviours and drinkingcontexts for the most recent risky, single-occasion drinking episode in a representative sample of young risky drinkers in Victoria,Australia. Design and Methods. A representative sample of 802 young risky drinkers was recruited across metropolitanMelbourne and surveyed about their drinking and related behaviours. Specific questions focused on participants’ most recenthigh-risk (>10 Australian standard drinks for males, >7 Australian standard drinks for females) drinking occasion in termsof self-reported amount drunk, alcohol expenditure (including buying rounds) and drinking partners for up to 10 differentdrinking settings. Results. Participants reported drinking a mean of 13 Australian standard drinks on their last episode ofrisky, single-occasion drinking; for half of the participants, this occurred less than 20 days prior to being surveyed.The majority(62%) of risky single occasion drinking sessions commenced at private homes in the company of close friends (81%). Around40% of the sample reported going to one (42%) or two (37%) drinking locations, and only 5% reported going to more thanthree drinking locations. Discussion and Conclusions. Contrary to public portrayals, a significant amount of riskydrinking by young people occurs in private settings.These contexts are rarely mentioned except in relation to underage drinking.Further work is needed to understand how these drinking behaviours and contexts link to harm.

  • 36. Ellström, E.
    et al.
    Romelsjö, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Är alkoholberoende en mellankommande faktor mellan alkoholkonsumtion och alkoholrelaterade problem?: En studie av en klinisk population i Stockholms län2003In: Nordisk Alkohol- og narkotikatidsskrift (NAT), ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 20, no 2-3, p. 101-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Is alcohol dependence a mediator between alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems? A study from a clinical population in Stockholm County

    Several studies have been done on the prevalence of the alcohol dependence syndrome, while other studies have focused on whether the dependence syndrome can be seen as a unity, or not. Few studies have analysed the association between alcohol consumption, the alcohol dependence syndrome (ADS) and alcohol-related problems. A main issue is to what extent an association between alcohol consumption and problems is explained by the dependence syndrome or by its sub-components (drinking despite a health problem, craving, impaired control, preoccupation with alcohol, withdrawal symptoms and increased tolerance). The purpose in this paper is to elucidate this issue in analyses of data from the health care-based clinical sample of the study “Women and Men in Swedish Addiction Treatment”, comprising comprehensive interviews of almost 1000 inpatients and outpatients in Stockholm County. These data cover e.g. alcohol and drug use, alcohol dependence (ICD-10) measured by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI), the composite-scores part of the Addiction Severity Index (ASI), sociodemographics and alcohol-related problems. Three measures of alcohol-related problems were constructed covering health and psychological problems, self-defined social problems, and social problems defined by others. In these exploratory analyses of patients with alcohol dependence as a dominating problem, a series of logistic regression analyses were done. A substantial part of the association between the consumption measures and the three outcomes could be accounted for by measures of the ADS. The predictive power of the six criteria composing the ADS varied considerably for the different outcomes. The interpretation is not straightforward, not least as the alcohol dependence syndrome also includes items of alcoholrelated problems.

  • 37. Ferrence, R.
    et al.
    Slade, J.Room, RobinStockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).Pope, M.
    Nicotine and Public Health2000Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book is the result of discussions of alternative nicotine delivery systems and the associated medical risks. The 1st section on nicotine in context includes 3 chapters relating to the origins of nicotine use, history of American tobacco advertising and control systems for psychoactive substances. The next section includes 3 chapters on nicotine toxicity, effects during pregnancy and cognitive and behavioural effects. The 3rd section is concerned with nicotine dependence and delivery, with reference to nicotine as an addictive substance, reducing the health impact of nicotine, alternative nicotine delivery systems, traditional tobacco products, nicotine-replacement therapies, nicotine threshold for addiction, and public health and levels of nicotine. Current and potential patterns of use are discussed in the 4th section. Policy and health issues are considered in the next section, with reference to regulatory mechanisms, clinical implications of long-term nicotine use, market for long-term nicotine maintenance and the public health implications of adopting a harm-reduction approach to nicotine. Implications for research and policy are outlined in 2 chapters in the next section. In the final section, the role of managing nicotine in controlling the tobacco epidemic is discussed.

  • 38. Ferris, J.
    et al.
    Laslett, A.-M.
    Livingston, M.
    Mugavin, J.
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Wilkinson, C.
    The drinker’s effect on the social environment: A conceptual framework for studying alcohol’s harm to others2010In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 1855-1871Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper considers conceptual and methodological issues in studying the scope of alcohol’s harm to others. Reasons are suggested for the relative neglect of the topic. The approaches in two relevant research traditions are considered: population surveys on alcohol problems, and economic cost of alcohol studies. Ways of conceptualizing and measuring aspects of the drinker’s effects on others are considered, in terms of main types of relationship with the other, and in terms of major societal response institutions. The main types of data tend to measure different levels of severity, with population survey data dominated by less severe problems, and response institution data by more severe problems; so both are needed for a three-dimensional view. Research questions for the field and its policy significance are noted.

  • 39. Ferris, J.A.
    et al.
    Laslett, A-M.
    Livingston, M.
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Wilkinson, C.
    The impacts of others' drinking on mental health2011In: Medical Journal of Australia, ISSN 0025-729X, E-ISSN 1326-5377, Vol. 195, no 3, p. 22-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE:

    To analyse the links between other people's drinking and mental health and to explore the effects on mental health of heavy and problematic drinkers both within and outside spousal relationships.

    DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS:

    A secondary analysis of data obtained as part of the Alcohol's Harm to Others survey from 2622 randomly sampled Australian adults interviewed by telephone between October and December 2008.

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:

    Self-reported anxiety or depression and satisfaction with mental wellbeing; the presence of heavy and problematic drinkers in respondents' lives.

    RESULTS:

    Identification of at least one heavy drinker in the respondents' social network of friends, family and co-workers was significantly negatively associated with self-reported mental wellbeing and anxiety or depression. If the heavy drinker was identified by the respondent as someone whose drinking had had a negative impact on their life in the past year, the adverse effect on mental wellbeing and anxiety was much greater.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Our findings support a causal pathway between alcohol use and mental health problems by way of someone else's drinking. The association with adverse mental health is substantial regardless of the type of relationship an individual has with the heavy drinker whose drinking has had an adverse effect on them.

  • 40. Fischer, B.
    et al.
    Hall, W.
    Lenton, S.
    Reuter, P.
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Cannabis Policy: Moving beyond Stalemate2010Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    "Cannabis, marijuana, pot, ganja - it goes by many names -- is by far the most widely used illegal substance, and accounts for more arrests than any other drug. Barely a week goes by without this drug appearing in the newpapers, and politicians have famously tied themselve in knots, trying to decide just how to deal with this recreational drug. While there have been many drug policy books on other substances - both legal and illegal, few have focused on this drug. Cannabis Policy: Moving beyond Stalemate is unique in providing the materials needed for deciding on policy about cannabis in its various forms. It reviews the state of knowledge on the health and psychological effects of cannabis, and its dangerousness relative to other drugs. It considers patterns and trends in use, the size and character of illicit markets, and the administration of current policies, including arrests and diversion to treatment, under the global prohibition regime. It looks at the experience of a number of countries which have tried reforming their regimes and softening prohibition, exploring the kinds of changes or penalties for use for possession: including depenalization, decriminalization, medical control, and different types of legalization. It evaluates such changes and draws on them to assess the effects on levels and patterns of use, on the market, and on adverse consequences of prohibition. For policymakers willing to look outside the box of the global prohibition regime, the book examines the options and possibilities for a country or group of countries to bring about change in, or opt out of, the global control system. Throughout, the book examines cannabis within a global frame, and provides in accessible form information which anyone considering reform will need in order to make decisions on cannabis policy (much of which is new or has not been readily available). This book will be essential for those involved in policymaking and be of interest to a wide range of readers interested in drugs and drug policy, as well as being an excellent supplementary text for university courses in criminology, policy science, social science, or public health"

  • 41. Fischer, B.
    et al.
    Jeffries, V.
    Hall, W.
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Goldner, E.
    Rehm, J.
    Lower Risk Cannabis Use Guidelines for Canada (LRCUG): A Narrative Review of Evidence and Recommendations2011In: Canadian journal of public health, ISSN 0008-4263, E-ISSN 1920-7476, Vol. 102, no 5, p. 324-327Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: More than one in ten adults – and about one in three young adults – report past year cannabis use in Canada. While cannabis use is associated with a variety of health risks, current policy prohibits all use, rather than adopting a public health approach focusing on interventions to address specific risks and harms as do policies for alcohol. The objective of this paper was to develop ‘Lower Risk Cannabis Use Guidelines’ (LRCUG) based on research evidence on the adverse health effects of cannabis and factors that appear to modify the risk of these harms.

    Methods: Relevant English-language peer-reviewed publications on health harms of cannabis use were reviewed and LRCUG were drafted by the authors on the basis of a consensus process.

    Synthesis: The review suggested that health harms related to cannabis use increase with intensity of use although the risk curve is not well characterized. These harms are associated with a number of potentially modifiable factors related to: frequency of use; early onset of use; driving after using cannabis; methods and practices of use and substance potency; and characteristics of specific populations. LRCUG recommending ways to reduce risks related to cannabis use on an individual and population level – analogous to ‘Low Risk Drinking Guidelines’ for alcohol – are presented.

    Conclusions: Given the prevalence and age distribution of cannabis use in Canada, a public health approach to cannabis use is overdue. LRCUG constitute a potentially valuable tool in facilitating a reduction of health harms from cannabis use on a population level.

  • 42. Fischer, Benedikt
    et al.
    Kuganesan, Sharan
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Medical marijuana programs: implications for control policy – observations from Canada2015In: International Journal of Drug Policy, ISSN 0955-3959, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 15-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While prohibition has been the dominant regime of cannabis control in most countries for decades, anincreasing number of countries have been implementing cannabis control reforms recently, includingdecriminalization or even legalization frameworks. Canada has held out from this trend, although ithas among the highest cannabis use rates in the world. Cannabis use is universally criminalized, and thecurrent (conservative) federal government has vowed not to implement any softening reforms to cannabiscontrol. As a result of several higher court decisions, the then federal government was forced to implementa ‘medical marijuana access regulations’ program in 2001 to allow severely ill patients therapeutic useand access to therapeutic cannabis while shielding them from prosecution. The program’s regulationsand approval processes were complex and subject to extensive criticism; initial uptake was low andmost medical marijuana users continued their use and supply outside the program’s auspices. This year,the government introduced new ‘marijuana for medical purposes regulations’, which allow physicians to‘authorize’ medical marijuana use for virtually any health condition for which this is considered beneficial;supply is facilitated by licensed commercial producers. It is expected that some 500,000 users, and dozensof commercial producers will soon be approved under the program, arguably constituting – as withmedical marijuana schemes elsewhere, e.g. in California – de facto ‘legalization’. We discuss the questionwhether the evolving scope and realities of ‘medical cannabis’ provisions in Canada offer a ‘sneaky sidedoor’ or a ‘better third way’ to cannabis control reform, and what the potential wider implications are ofthese developments.

  • 43. Frick, Ulrich
    et al.
    Gmel, Gerhard
    Rehm, Jürgen
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Average volume of alcohol consumption, drinking patterns and related burden of mortality in young people in established market economies in Europe2001In: European Addiction Research, ISSN 1022-6877, E-ISSN 1421-9891, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 148-151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the burden of mortality in young people (age 15-29) in established market economies in Europe in 1999, which is attributable to alcohol consumption. Two dimensions of alcohol consumption were considered: average volume of consumption, and patterns of drinking.

    METHODS:Mortality data were obtained from the WHO EIP data bank, average volume data from the WHO global databank on alcohol, pattern of drinking data from a questionnaire sent out to experts, from the published literature and from the WHO global databank. Methods are explained and discussed in detail in two other contributions to this volume.

    RESULTS:More than 8,000 deaths of people aged 15-29 in Europe in 1999 were attributable to alcohol. Young males show a higher proportion of alcohol-attributable deaths (12.8%) than females (8.3%). Both average volume and patterns of drinking contribute to alcohol-related death.

    CONCLUSIONS:Alcohol-related deaths constitute a considerable burden in young people in Europe.

  • 44. Giesbrecht, N.
    et al.
    Demers, A.
    Ogborne, A.
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Stoduto, G.
    Lindquist, E.
    Introduction2006In: Sober Reflections: Commerce, Public Health, and the Evolution of Alcohol Policy in Canada, 1980-2000 / [ed] N. Giesbrecht, A. Demers, A. Ogborne, R. Room, G. Stoduto & E. Lindquist, Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queen's University Press , 2006, p. 1-13Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 45. Giesbrecht, N.
    et al.
    Demers, A.Ogborne, A.Room, RobinStockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).Stoduto, G.Lindquist, E.
    Sober Reflections: Commerce, Public Health, and the Evolution of Alcohol Policy in Canada, 1980-20002006Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 46. Giesbrecht, N.
    et al.
    Ialomiteanu, A.
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Anglin, L.
    Trends in public opinion on alcohol policy measures: Ontario 1989-19982001In: Journal of Studies on Alcohol, ISSN 0096-882X, E-ISSN 1934-2683, Vol. 62, no 2, p. 142-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE:This article presents trend data concerning public opinion on alcohol policy in the Canadian province of Ontario over a 10-year period (1989-98), highlights the currently debated issue of private venues for retail alcohol sales and assesses correspondence between public opinion and actual and proposed policy decisions.

    METHOD:Selected policy-related items from nine probability surveys on representative samples of male and female Ontario adults (range of unweighted n 's: 953 to 1,947) were analyzed by means of logistic regression.

    RESULTS:

    We found strong support for the status quo for a number of items, including beer and liquor store hours, corner store sales and taxes. Across all years, less than 6% of the total sample wanted to lower the legal drinking age. Over time, a linear trend showed a gradual but not entirely consistent development of attitudes among the Ontario public, favoring relaxation of some controls. However, contrary to this trend, disapproval of retail sales in corner stores increased significantly from 1992 to 1996. Demographic breakdown shows that relaxation of controls is most favored by those who report consumption of five or more drinks per occasion at least weekly over the past 12 months, and most strongly opposed by women and nondrinkers. Of those who seldom or never consume five or more drinks per occasion, the majority express satisfaction with the status quo.

    CONCLUSIONS:These data call into question the suitability of changes in alcohol policy that would diminish controls. It is of particular interest that there seems to be little public support for privatization proposals in the province. Public opinion against comer store sales of alcoholic beverages increased over time.

  • 47. Giesbrecht, N.
    et al.
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Demers, A.
    Lindquist, E.
    Ogborne, A.
    Bondy, S.
    Stoduto, G.
    Alcohol policies: is there a future for public health considerations in a commerce-orineted environment?2006In: Sober Reflections: Commerce, Public Health, and the Evolution of Alcohol Policy in Canada, 1980-2000 / [ed] N. Giesbrecht, A. Demers, A. Ogborne, R. Room, G. Stoduto & E. Lindquist, Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queen's University Press. , 2006, p. 289-320Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 48. Gmel, G.
    et al.
    Rehm, J.
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Contrasting individual and aggregate studies in alcohol research? Combining them is the answer!2004In: Addiction Research and Theory, ISSN 1058-6989, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The reprint of Rose's (1985) seminal paper reiterated the distinction between two etiological questions: What are the causes of individual cases, and what are the causes of population incidence? The first question deals with within-population variability and the second with between-population variability, suggesting that individual level studies should be used to answer the first question and aggregate level studies to answer the second. What findings should be trusted, however, when the results from aggregate and individual level studies on the same topic diverge? One example of the divergence of findings in the alcohol field is that of studies on coronary heart disease. The overwhelming majority of individual level studies have shown the protective effect of moderate alcohol consumption for coronary heart disease, however aggregate level studies have failed to corroborate this finding. This discrepancy has been taken by some as evidence that the aggregate level disproved a causal relation at the individual level. This implies that the same hypothesis could be tested at both levels. The present editorial will reiterate the notion of Rose (1985) that both types of analyses answer different questions and cannot be expected to coincide in results.

  • 49. Gmel, Gerhard
    et al.
    Rehm, Jürgen
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Greenfield, Thomas K.
    Dimensions of alcohol-related social and health consequences in survey research2000In: Journal of Substance Abuse, ISSN 0899-3289, E-ISSN 1873-6491, Vol. 12, no 1-2, p. 113-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dimensions of alcohol-related social and health consequences are approached from two different perspectives. First, classical approaches with factor analytic techniques are used to empirically determine the dimensionality of item batteries intended to measure harm. Second, a closer look is taken at theoretically underlying dimensions of social and health consequences and their association with alcohol consumption. Using as empirical material data from the US national survey of males aged 21–59 (N3) conducted in 1969, the following specific questions are discussed: (1) What are the underlying dimensions of alcohol-related social and health consequences? (2) How should the relation between alcohol consumption and consequences best be assessed (in terms of epidemiological traditions or social constructivist traditions)? (3) How can we best incorporate the time perspective into modeling the relationship between alcohol consumption and consequences? A first attempt is made to develop practical guidelines for future research on handling these problems.

  • 50. Hall, W.
    et al.
    Fischer, B.
    Lenton, S.
    Reuter, P.
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Making space for cannabis policy experiments2011In: Addiction, ISSN 0965-2140, E-ISSN 1360-0443, Vol. 106, no 6, p. 1192-1193Article in journal (Refereed)
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