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  • 1.
    Almquist, Ylva B.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Edling, Christofer
    Rydgren, Jens
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Friendship network characteristics and psychological well-being in late adolescence: Exploring differences by gender and gender composition2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 146-154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: The aim of the present study was to examine the association between friendship networks and psychological well-being among 19-year-olds. Methods: The data used was a random sample of Swedish individuals born in 1990 who answered a questionnaire in 2009-2010. Friendship networks were considered in terms of three measures of emotional support. Six statements about the individual's emotional state were used to create a summary measure of psychological well-being. Gender and gender composition were included as potentially moderating factors. The association between friendship networks and psychological well-being was analysed by means of linear regression analysis (n = 1289). Results: The results indicate that males' and females' friendship networks were similar with regard to quality and trust, whereas males' networks were characterized by less self-disclosure and a stronger preference for same-gender friendships. Gender composition did not matter for the support levels. Emotional support was associated with psychological well-being but there were gender differences: females seemed to benefit more health-wise from having high-quality (and trusting) networks. Moreover, whereas self-disclosure among males was positively linked to well-being, this was not the case among females. None of these associations were moderated by gender composition. Conclusions: In sum, friendship networks are beneficial for the psychological well-being among late adolescents, but there are some important differences according to gender.

  • 2. Auguer, Nathalie
    et al.
    Le Serbon, Emelie
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Leaving Sweden behind: gains in life expectancy in Canada2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 43, no 4, p. 340-347Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: Sweden and Canada are known for quality of living and exceedingly high life expectancy, but recent data on how these countries compare are lacking. We measured life expectancy in Canada and Sweden during the past decade, and identified factors responsible for changes over time. Methods: We calculated life expectancy at birth for Canada and Sweden annually from 2000 to 2010, and determined the ages and causes of death responsible for the gap between the two countries using Arriaga's method. We determined how population growth, ageing, and mortality influenced the number of deaths over time. Results: During 2000-2010, life expectancy in Canada caught up with Sweden for men, and surpassed Sweden by 0.4 years for women. Sweden lost ground owing to a slower reduction in circulatory and tumour mortality after age 65 years compared with Canada. Nonetheless, population ageing increased the number of deaths in Canada, especially for mental and nervous system disorders. In Sweden, the number of deaths decreased. Conclusions: In only one decade, life expectancy in Canada caught up and surpassed Sweden due to rapid improvements in circulatory and tumour mortality. Population ageing increased the number of deaths in Canada, potentially stressing the health care system more than in Sweden.

  • 3.
    Berg, Lisa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Parental death during childhood and depression in young adults – a national cohort study2016In: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, ISSN 0021-9630, E-ISSN 1469-7610, Vol. 57, no 9, p. 1092-1098Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    There are few prospective, population-based studies on childhood parental death and psychiatric disorders in adulthood, and previous findings are inconclusive. This study investigated the association between parental death from natural and external (suicides, accidents or homicides) causes before 18 years and the risk of clinical depression in young adults, in relation to age at loss and gender of both child and parent.

    Methods

    In this register-based study, a national cohort born in Sweden during 1973–1982 (n = 862,554) was followed with regard to hospital admissions and outpatient care for depression during 2006–2013. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the impact of parental death, taking sociodemographic and parental psychosocial covariates into account.

    Results

    Maternal death from natural causes was associated with a hazard ratio (HR) of outpatient care for depression of 1.19 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.02–1.40] in men and 1.15 (1.01–1.31) in women, after adjustment for sociodemographic confounders, with similar effect sizes for paternal natural death. Death from external causes consistently had higher effect size compared with natural deaths, in particular in relation to risk of hospital admissions for depression where they were as high as HR 3.23 (2.38–4.38) for men, and 1.79 (1.30–2.47) for women after a loss of a mother. Losing a parent in preschool age, compared with losing a parent as a teenager, was associated with higher risks of both hospitalization (p = .006) and outpatient care (p = .001) for depression.

    Conclusions

    This study indicates that parental loss to death from natural causes during childhood is associated with a small increased risk of long-term consequences for psychological health. Children who lose their parents to death from external causes, that is suicides, accidents or homicides, and children losing a parent in young ages are, however, at particular risk and should be given priority in preventive interventions after parental loss.

  • 4.
    Berg, Lisa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Saarela, Jan
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Parental Death During Childhood and Subsequent School Performance2014In: Pediatrics, ISSN 0031-4005, E-ISSN 1098-4275, Vol. 133, no 4, p. 682-689Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: Parental death during childhood has been linked to increased mortality and mental health problems in adulthood. School failure may be an important mediator in this trajectory. We investigated the association between parental death before age 15 years and school performance at age 15 to 16 years, taking into account potentially contributing factors such as family socioeconomic position (SEP) and parental substance abuse, mental health problems, and criminality.

    METHODS: This was a register-based national cohort study of 772117 subjects born in Sweden between 1973 and 1981. Linear and logistic regression models were used to analyze school performance as mean grades (scale: 1-5; SD: 0.70) and school failure (finished school with incomplete grades). Results are presented as -coefficients and odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs).

    RESULTS: Parental death was associated with lower grades (ORs: -0.21 [95% CI: -0.23 to -0.20] and -0.17 [95% CI: -0.19 to -0.15]) for paternal and maternal deaths, respectively. Adjustment for SEP and parental psychosocial factors weakened the associations, but the results remained statistically significant. Unadjusted ORs of school failure were 2.04 (95% CI: 1.92 to 2.17) and 1.51 (95% CI: 1.35 to 1.69) for paternal and maternal deaths. In fully adjusted models, ORs were 1.40 (95% CI: 1.31 to 1.49) and 1.18 (95% CI: 1.05 to 1.32). The higher crude impact of death due to external causes (ie, accident, violence, suicide) (OR: -0.27 [90% CI: -0.28 to -0.26]), compared with natural deaths (OR: -0.16 [95% CI: -0.17 to -0.15]), was not seen after adjustment for SEP and psychosocial situation of the family.

    CONCLUSIONS: Parental death during childhood was associated with lower grades and school failure. Much of the effect, especially for deaths by external causes, was associated with socially adverse childhood exposures.

  • 5. Bergh Johannesson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Bondjers, Kristina
    Arnberg, Filip
    Nilsson, Doris
    Ängarne-Lindberg, Teresia
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Utvärdering av Barntraumateamet i Norrköping2014Report (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Dunlavy, Andrea C.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Garcy, Anthony M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Educational mismatch and health status among foreign-born workers in Sweden2016In: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 154, p. 36-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Foreign-born workers have been shown to experience poorer working conditions than native-born workers. Yet relationships between health and educational mismatch have been largely overlooked among foreign-born workers. This study uses objective and self-reported measures of educational mismatch to compare the prevalence of educational mismatch among native (n = 2359) and foreign born (n = 1789) workers in Sweden and to examine associations between educational mismatch and poor self-rated health. Findings from weighted multivariate logistic regression which controlled for social position and individual-level demographic characteristics suggested that over-educated foreign-born workers had greater odds ratios for poor-self rated health compared to native-born matched workers. This association was particularly evident among men (OR = 2.14, 95% CI: 1.04-4.39) and women (OR = 2.13, 95% CI: 1.12-4.03) from countries outside of Western Europe, North America, and Australia/New Zealand. Associations between under-education and poor-self rated health were also found among women from countries outside of Western Europe, North America, and Australia/New Zealand (OR = 2.02, 95% CI: 1.27-3.18). These findings suggest that educational mismatch may be an important work-related social determinant of health among foreign-born workers. Future studies are needed to examine the effects of long-term versus short-term states of educational mismatch on health and to study relationships over time.

  • 7.
    Dunlavy, Andrea C.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Health Inequalities among Workers with a Foreign Background in Sweden: Do Working Conditions Matter?2013In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 10, no 7, p. 2871-2887Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Employment and working conditions are key social determinants of health, yet current information is lacking regarding relationships between foreign background status, working conditions and health among workers in Sweden. This study utilized cross-sectional data from the 2010 Swedish Level of Living Survey (LNU) and the Level of Living Survey for Foreign Born Persons and their Children (LNU-UFB) to assess whether or not health inequalities exist between native Swedish and foreign background workers and if exposure to adverse psychosocial and physical working conditions contributes to the risk for poor health among foreign background workers. A sub-sample of 4,021 employed individuals aged 18–65 was analyzed using logistic regression. Eastern European, Latin American and Other Non-Western workers had an increased risk of both poor self-rated health and mental distress compared to native Swedish workers. Exposure to adverse working conditions only minimally influenced the risk of poor health. Further research should examine workers who are less integrated or who have less secure labor market attachments and also investigate how additional working conditions may influence associations between health and foreign background status.

  • 8.
    Dunlavy, Andrea
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Juarez, Sol
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Unemployment status and risk of all-cause mortality among native- and foreign-origin persons in Sweden: An open cohort study from 1993-2008Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The association between exposure to unemployment and increased risk of mortality is well established. Yet migrants and their children often experience a number of stressors in the country of residence which could exacerbate the negative effects of job loss or unemployment. This study examined the extent to which region of origin and generational status modified associations between employment status and risk of all-cause mortality.

    Methods: Using population-based registers, an open cohort study of 2,178,321 individuals aged 25-64 was followed from 1993-2008. Hazard ratios for mortality were calculated using Cox regression. Employment status and socio-demographic covariates were included as time-varying variables in all models.

    Results: Relative to employed native-origin Swedes, excess risk of mortality was found among most groups of foreign-origin persons exposed to unemployment. The excess risk of mortality found among African women exposed to long-term unemployment (HR=3.26, 95% CI: 2.30-4.63),  Finnish men exposed to short-and long-term unemployment (HR=2.74, 95% CI: 2.32-3.24 and HR=2.39, 95% CI: 2.12-2.69), and  second generation Swedish men exposed to short-term unemployment (HR=2.34, 95% CI: 2.06-2.64) was significantly greater (p<0.05) than that found among their unemployed native-origin counterparts. Decreased risk of mortality was observed among the employed in nearly all foreign-origin groups.

    Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the mortality health advantage often observed among foreign-origin groups is most evident among the employed, while the magnitude of excess risk for mortality in the foreign-origin exposed to unemployment varies by generational status and region of origin.

  • 9.
    Dunlavy, Andrea
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Juárez, Sol
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Toivanen, Susanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Migration background characteristics and the association between unemployment and suicide2017In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 27, no Suppl. 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Persons of foreign-origin have higher rates of unemployment compared to those of native-origin, yet few studies have assessed relationships between unemployment and mental health in persons of foreign-origin relative to the native-origin. This study aims to examine the extent to which generational status, region of origin, age at arrival, and duration of residence modify the relationship between employment status and suicide risk.

    Methods

    Population-based registers were used to conduct a longitudinal, open cohort study of native-origin and foreign-origin Swedish residents of working age (25-64 years) from 1993-2008. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for suicide mortality were estimated using gender-stratified Cox proportional hazards models.

    Results

    Elevated hazard ratios for suicide were observed among the majority of foreign-origin persons exposed to unemployment. Second generation Swedish men exposed to unemployment demonstrated significantly greater (p < 0.05) excess risk of suicide (HR = 3.63, 95% CI: 2.90-4.54) than that observed among native-origin Swedish men exposed to unemployment (HR = 1.67, 95% CI: 1.29-2.16). In unemployed foreign-born men, younger age at arrival and longer duration of residence were associated with increased risk of suicide, whereas unemployed foreign-born men who arrived as adults and had a shorter duration of residence did not demonstrate excess suicide risk.

    Conclusions

    Analyses indicated that the majority of the foreign-origin exposed to unemployment demonstrated excess risk of suicide that was of a similar magnitude to that observed among their native-origin counterparts. Yet there were notable differences in patterns of association by generational status, region of origin, age at arrival, and duration of residence. The high excess risk observed in unemployed second generation men suggests that ensuring employment among this group may be of particular public health importance.

  • 10.
    Dunlavy, Andrea
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Arbetsmiljön bland utrikesfödda anställda i Sverige2017In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 46-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna artikel syftar till att utöka kunskapen kring arbetsmiljöförhållanden bland utlandsfödda på den svenska arbetsmarknaden. Studien undersöker hur exponering för bristfälliga psykosociala, strukturella och fysiska arbetsmiljöförhållanden varierar mellan olika grupper av anställda kvinnor och män beroende på födelseland. Resultaten visar skillnader när det gäller exponering för bristfälliga arbetsmiljöförhållanden mellan utlandsfödda och inrikes födda anställda på den svenska arbetsmarknaden. Dessa skillnader beror på den grupp som undersöks och det arbetsmiljöproblem som studeras.

  • 11. Engström, K
    et al.
    Johnson, C
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Can social capital explain mental health inequalities between immigrant groups?2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 12. Finnas, Fjalar
    et al.
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Saarela, Jan
    Divorce and parity progression following the death of a child: A register-based study from Finland2018In: Population Studies, ISSN 0032-4728, E-ISSN 1477-4747, Vol. 72, no 1, p. 41-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most studies that have examined whether a child's death influences parental relationship stability have used small-scale data sets and their results are inconclusive. A likely reason is that child loss affects not only the risk of parental separation, but also the risk of having another child. Hence parity progression and separation must be treated as two competing events in relation to child loss. The analysis in this paper used Finnish register data from 1971 to 2003, covering over 100,000 married couples whose durations of both first marriage and parenthood could be observed. We ran parity-specific Cox regressions in which process time started from the birth of each additional child. All marriages included women of childbearing age, none of whom had experienced any child death on entering the analysis. We find that child loss only modestly influences the divorce risk, whereas its effect on the risk of parity progression is considerable.

  • 13. Finnäs, Fjalar
    et al.
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Saarela, Jan
    Separation and reproduction following the death of a child: a nationwide follow-up study from Finland2015Report (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Hjern, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Berg, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Arat, Arzu
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Klöfvermark, Josefin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Manhica, Hélio
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Vinnerljung, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Children as next of kin in Sweden2017Report (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Hjern, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Berg, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Vinnerljung, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Barn som anhöriga: hur går det i skolan?2015In: Att se barn som anhöriga: om relationer, interventioner och omsorgsansvar / [ed] Ulrika Järkestig Berggren, Lennart Magnusson, Elizabeth Hanson, Kalmar: NKA och Linnéuniversitetet , 2015, p. 117-132Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Hjern, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Berg, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Vinnerljung, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Barn som anhöriga: hur går det i skolan?2013Report (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Honkaniemi, Helena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Bacchus-Hertzman, Jennie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Fritzell, Johan
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Mortality by country of birth in the Nordic countries – a systematic review of the literature2017In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 17, article id 511Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Immigration to the Nordic countries has increased in the last decades and foreign-born inhabitants now constitute a considerable part of the region’s population. Several studies suggest poorer self-reported health among foreign-born compared to natives, while results on mortality and life expectancy are inconclusive. To date, few studies have summarized knowledge on mortality differentials by country of birth. This article aims to systematically review previous results on all-cause and cause-specific mortality by country of birth in the Nordic countries.

    Methods

    The methodology was conducted and documented systematically and transparently using a narrative approach. We identified 43 relevant studies out of 6059 potentially relevant studies in August 2016, 35 of which used Swedish data, 8 Danish and 1 Norwegian.

    Results

    Our findings from fully-adjusted models on Swedish data support claims of excess mortality risks in specific categories of foreign-born. Most notably, immigrants from other Nordic countries, especially Finland, experience increased risk of mortality from all causes, and specifically by suicide, breast and gynaecological cancers, and circulatory diseases. Increased risks in people from Central and Eastern Europe can also be found. On the contrary, decreased risks for people with Southern European and Middle Eastern origins are found for all-cause, suicide, and breast and gynaecological cancer mortality. The few Danish studies are more difficult to compare, with conflicting results arising in the analysis. Finally, results from the one Norwegian study suggest significantly decreased mortality risks among foreign-born, to be explored in further research.

    Conclusions

    With new studies being published on mortality differentials between native and foreign-born populations in the Nordic countries, specific risk patterns have begun to arise. Regardless, data from most Nordic countries remains limited, as does the information on specific causes of death. The literature should be expanded in upcoming years to capture associations between country of birth and mortality more clearly.

  • 18.
    Honkaniemi, Helena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Wimark, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Sol Pia, Juarez
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Lagerqvist, Maja
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Social hållbarhet i kollektivtrafiken2017In: Metoder och verktyg för sociala nyttoberäkningar i kollektivtrafiken / [ed] Thomas Wimark, Stockholm: Kulturgeografiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet , 2017, p. 9-53Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Med skärpt fokusering på hållbar utveckling blir såväl politiskt ansvariga som akademiker allt mer sysselsatta inte enbart med infrastrukturens inverkan på ekonomi och miljö utan även dess sociala inverkan. Denna breda litteraturstudie har undersökt den sociala hållbarhetens roll i kollektivtrafikens infrastruktur. Den har siktat på att urskilja de olika komponenter i social hållbarhet som ingår i denna kontext, kvalitativa respektive kvantitativa analytiska metoder och deras krav på data samt tillämpbarheten av dessa rön i den svenska kontexten. Översikten utfördes med hjälp av indexeringstjänsten Web of Science, en kombinerad snöbollsmetod samt interna rekommendationer och analyser med hjälp av ett teoretiskt ramverk för hållbarhet anpassat från United Nations Environment Programme. Rönen ådagalade många kvantitativa tillvägagångssätt, däribland kostnads-/nyttoanalys [cost-benefit analyses (CBA)], tillämpningar av geografiska informationssystem (GIS), och jämlikhetsanalyser m.fl. Variabler för kollektivtrafik såsom tillgänglighet och rörlighet behandlades oftast tillsammans med sociala bestämningsfaktorer, liksom sociala utfallsvariabler däribland socialt utanförskap och socialt kapital. Kvalitativa infallsvinklar används däremot mer sällan i den här kontexten trots deras betydelse för att hjälpa till att fånga in användares erfarenheter och att urskilja nya sociala variabler. Utifrån dessa resultat och den rådande preferensen för kvantitativa metoder i svenska analyser av kollektivtrafik rekommenderar författarna mera fokus på de sociala utfallen av kollektivtrafikens infrastruktur genom att använda en blandning av kvantitativa och kvalitativa infallsvinklar.

  • 19.
    Hélio, Manhica
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Toivanen, Susanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Mortality in adult offspring of immigrants: a Swedish national cohort study2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 2, article id e0116999.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20. Johnson, Charisse M.
    et al.
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Svensson, Anna C.
    Engström, Karin
    The role of social capital in explaining mental health inequalities between immigrants and Swedish-born: a population-based cross-sectional study2017In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 17, article id 117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Social capital may theoretically explain health inequalities between social groups, but empirical evidence is lacking. Some studies indicate that social capital may be particularly important for immigrant health. Nearly 16% of Sweden's population are foreign-born immigrants and research has shown them to be susceptible to psychological distress, though significant variation has been found between groups. In this study, we investigate the following hypotheses: 1) if non-refugees have better mental health than Swedish-born, and refugees experience worse mental health than Swedish-born; 2) if mental health status converges with that of Swedish-born with longer duration of residence; and 3) if social capital mediates the effect of immigrant status on psychological distress for different immigrant groups as compared to Swedish-born.

    Methods

    This cross-sectional study uses baseline data from the Stockholm Public Health Cohort and includes 50,498 randomly-selected individuals from Stockholm County in 2002, 2006, and 2010. Mental health was measured as psychological distress, using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. Social capital was measured using indicators of bonding, bridging, and linking social capital. Both cognitive and structural aspects were measured for the latter two indicators. Mediation was tested using logistic regression and the Sobel test.

    Results

    The results show that refugees generally had greater odds of psychological distress than non-refugees compared to their respective Swedish-born counterparts. Among immigrant men, both refugees and non-refugees had significantly greater odds of psychological distress than Swedish-born men. Only refugee women in Sweden 10 years or more had significantly greater odds of psychological distress compared to Swedish-born women. The mediation analysis demonstrated that indicators of social capital mediated the association for all immigrant men (except non-refugees in Sweden 3-9 years) and for refugee women in Sweden 10 years or more. While bonding social capital showed the greatest mediatory role among the three social capital types, adding them together had the strongest explanatory effect.

    Conclusions

    Social capital explains differences in mental health for some immigrant groups, highlighting its role as a potentially important post-migration factor. Increased investment from policy-makers regarding how social capital can be promoted among new arrivals may be important for preventing psychological distress.

  • 21.
    Juarez, Sol
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Non-European migrants often have similar or better health than natives2017In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 54, no 4, p. 323-327Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has experienced a sharp increase in migration flows in the last decades. Projections estimate that the migrant population rate will continue to grow in the near future. Given the centrality of health for the successful engagement of individuals in society, health aspects of migration have emerged as an important area of study. In this research note, we present a brief overview of current knowledge and argue in favour of developing a social determinants perspective on health in future research.

  • 22. Kondo, N.
    et al.
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Åberg Yngwe, Monica
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Rising inequality in mortality among working-age men and women in Sweden: a national registry-based repeated cohort study, 1990-20072014In: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 68, no 12, p. 1145-1150Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Manhica, Hélio
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Almquist B., Ylva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    The use of psychiatric services by young adults who came to Sweden as teenage refugees: a national cohort study2017In: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences, ISSN 2045-7960, E-ISSN 1827-4331, Vol. 26, no 5, p. 526-534Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims. To investigate the patterns of use of different forms of psychiatric care in refugees who settled in Sweden as teenagers.

    Method. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the use of different forms of psychiatric care from 2009 to 2012 in a population of 35 457 refugees, aged from 20 to 36, who had settled in Sweden as teenagers between 1989 and 2004. These findings were compared with 1.26 million peers from the same birth cohorts in the general Swedish population.

    Results. Unaccompanied and accompanied refugees were more likely to experience compulsory admission to a psychiatric hospital compared with the native Swedish population, with hazard ratios (HRs) of 2.76 (1.86–4.10) and 1.89 (1.53–2.34), respectively, as well as psychiatric inpatient care, with HRs of 1.62 (1.34–1.94) and 1.37 (1.25–1.50). Outpatient care visits by the young refugees were similar to the native Swedish population. The longer the refugees had residency in Sweden, the more they used outpatient psychiatric care. Refugees born in the Horn of Africa and Iran were most likely to undergo compulsory admission, with HRs of 3.98 (2.12–7.46) and 3.07 (1.52–6.19), respectively. They were also the groups who were most likely to receive inpatient care, with HRs of 1.55 (1.17–2.06) and 1.84 (1.37–2.47), respectively. Our results also indicated that the use of psychiatric care services increased with the level of education in the refugee population, while the opposite was true for the native Swedish population. In fact, the risks of compulsory admissions were particularly higher among refugees who had received a secondary education, compared with native Swedish residents, with HRs of 4.72 (3.06–7.29) for unaccompanied refugees and 2.04 (1.51–2.73) for accompanied refugees.

    Conclusions. Young refugees received more psychiatric inpatient care than the native Swedish population, with the highest rates seen in refugees who were not accompanied by their parents. The discrepancy between the use of inpatient and outpatient care by young refugees suggests that there are barriers to outpatient care, but we did note that living in Sweden longer increased the use of outpatient services. Further research is needed to clarify the role that education levels among Sweden's refugee populations have on their mental health and health-seeking behaviour.

  • 24.
    Manhica, Hélio
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Berg, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Almquist, Ylva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Labour market participation among young refugees in Sweden and the potential of education: a national cohort studyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Manhica, Hélio
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Gauffin, Karl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Almquist B., Ylva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Berg, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Rodríguez García de Cortázar, Ainhoa
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Hospital admissions due to alcohol related disorders among young adult refugees who arrived in Sweden as teenagers: A national cohort study2017In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 17, article id 644Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Psychological distress and lack of family support may explain the mental health problems that are consistently found in young unaccompanied refugees in Western countries. Given the strong relationship between poor mental health and alcohol misuse, this study investigated hospital admissions due to alcohol related disorders among accompanied and unaccompanied young refugees who settled in Sweden as teenagers.

    Methods

    The dataset used in this study was derived from a combination of different registers. Cox regression models were used to estimate the risks of hospital care due to alcohol related disorders in 15,834 accompanied and 4376 unaccompanied young refugees (2005–2012), aged 13 to 19 years old when settling in Sweden and 19 to 32 years old in December 2004. These young refugees were divided into regions with largely similar attitudes toward alcohol: the former Yugoslavian republics, Somalia, and the Middle East. The findings were compared with one million peers in the native Swedish population.

    Results

    Compared to native Swedes, hospital admissions due to alcohol related disorders were less common in young refugees, with a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.65 and 95% confidence interval (CI) between 0.56 and 0.77. These risks were particularly lower among young female refugees. However, there were some differences across the refugee population. For example, the risks were higher in unaccompanied (male) refugees than accompanied ones (HR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.00–2.19), also when adjusted for age, domicile and income. While the risks were lower in young refugees from Former Yugoslavia and the Middle East relative to native Swedes, independent of their length of residence in Sweden, refugees from Somalia who had lived in Sweden for more than ten years showed increased risks (HR = 2.54, 95% CI = 1.71–3.76), after adjustments of age and domicile. These risks decreased considerably when income was adjusted for.

    Conclusion

    Young refugees have lower risks of alcohol disorders compared with native Swedes. The risks were higher in unaccompanied young (male) refugees compared to the accompanied ones. Moreover, Somalian refugees who had lived in Sweden for more than ten years seems to be particularly vulnerable to alcohol related disorders.

  • 26.
    Manhica, Hélio
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Gauffin, Karl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Almquist B., Ylva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Hospital admission and criminality associated with substance misuse in young refugees – a Swedish national cohort study2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 11, article id e0166066Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    High rates of mental health problems have been described in young refugees, but few studies have been conducted on substance misuse. This study aimed to investigate the patterns of hospital care and criminality associated with substance misuse in refugees who settled in Sweden as teenagers.

    Methods

    Gender stratified Cox regression models were used to estimate the risks of criminal convictions and hospital care associated with substance misuse from national Swedish data for 2005–2012. We focused on 22,992 accompanied and 5,686 unaccompanied refugees who were aged 13–19 years when they settled in Sweden and compared them with 1 million native Swedish youths from the same birth cohort.

    Results

    The risks of criminal conviction associated with substance misuse increased with the length of residency in male refugees, after adjustment for age and domicile. The hazard ratios (HRs) were 5.21 (4.39–6.19) for unaccompanied and 3.85 (3.42–4.18) for accompanied refugees after more than 10 years of residency, compared with the native population. The risks were slightly lower for hospital care, at 2.88 (2.18–3.79) and 2.52(2.01–3.01) respectively. Risks were particularly pronounced for male refugees from the Horn of Africa and Iran. The risks for all male refugees decreased substantially when income was adjusted for. Young female refugees had similar risks to the general population.

    Conclusion

    The risks of criminality and hospital care associated with substance misuse in young male refugees increased with time of residency in Sweden and were associated with a low level of income compared with the native Swedish population. Risks were similar in accompanied and unaccompanied refugees.

  • 27.
    Manhica, Hélio
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Gauffin, Karl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Almquist, Ylva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Berg, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Ainhoa, Rodríguez García de Cortázar
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Alcohol related disorders among young adult refugees who arrived in Sweden asteenagers - a national cohort studyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Manhica, Hélio
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Hollander, Anna-Clara
    Almquist, Ylva B.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Origin and schizophrenia in young refugees and inter-country adoptees from Latin America and East Africa in Sweden: a comparative study2016In: British Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0007-1250, E-ISSN 1472-1465, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 6-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Migrants’ socioeconomic adversity has been linked to schizophrenia.

    Aims To investigate whether the more favourable socioeconomic situation of adoptees prevents them from the high risk of schizophrenia found in other migrants.

    Method Register study in a cohort of refugees and inter-country adoptees aged 16–40 years, born in East Africa (n=8389), Latin America (n=11 572) and 1.2 million native Swedes. Cox-regression models estimated hazard ratios (HRs) of schizophrenia in data from psychiatric care.

    Results Despite diverse income levels, HRs for schizophrenia were similar for refugees and adoptees, with East Africans having the highest HRs: 5.83 (3.30–10.27) and 5.80 (5.03–6.70), followed by Latin Americans: HRs 3.09 (2.49–3.83) and 2.31 (1.79–2.97), compared with native Swedes. Adjustment for income decreased these risks slightly for refugees, but not for adoptees.

    Conclusions This study suggests that risk factors associated with origin are more important determinants of schizophrenia than socioeconomic adversity in the country of settlement.

  • 29.
    Miething, Alexander
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Almquist B., Ylva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Edling, Christofer
    Rydgren, Jens
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Friendship trust and psychological well-being from late adolescence to early adulthood: A structural equation modeling approach2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 45, no 3, p. 244-252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: This study explored the sex-specific associations between friendship trust and the psychological well-being of young Swedes from late adolescence to early adulthood. Methods: A random sample of native Swedes born in 1990 was surveyed at age 19 years and again at age 23 years regarding their own well-being and their relationships with a maximum of five self-named peers. The response rate was 31.3%, resulting in 782 cases to be analysed. We used sex-stratified structural equation models to explore the associations between trust and well-being. Psychological well-being was constructed as the latent variable in the measurement part. The structural part accounted for the autocorrelation of trust with respect to well-being over time and incorporated the cross-lagged effects between late adolescence and early adulthood. Results: It was found that trust increased while well-being decreased for young men and remained stable for young women from 19 to 23 years of age. The young women reported lower well-being at both time points, whereas no sex difference was found for trust. Based on model fit comparisons, a simple model without forward or reward causation was accepted for young men, whereas reversed causation from well-being to trust was suggested for young women. Subsequent analysis based on these assumptions confirmed the reversed effect for young women. Conclusions: The findings suggest that young people do not benefit from trustful social relations to the same extent as adult populations. Young women who express impaired well-being run a greater risk of being members of networks characterized by low friendship trust over time.

  • 30.
    Miething, Alexander
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Almquist, Ylva B.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Edling, Christofer
    Rydgren, Jens
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Friendship networks and psychological well-being from late adolescence to young adulthood: A gender-specific structural equation modeling approach2016In: BMC Psychology, E-ISSN 2050-7283, Vol. 4, article id 34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The importance of supportive social relationships for psychological well-being has been previously recognized, but the direction of associations between both dimensions and how they evolve when adolescents enter adulthood have scarcely been addressed. The present study aims to examine the gender-specific associations between self-reported friendship network quality and psychological well-being of young people during the transition from late adolescence to young adulthood by taking into account the direction of association.

    Methods

    A random sample of Swedes born in 1990 were surveyed at age 19 and again at age 23 regarding their own health and their relationships with a maximum of five self-nominated friends. The response rate was 55.3 % at baseline and 43.7 % at follow-up, resulting in 772 cases eligible for analysis. Gender-specific structural equation modeling was conducted to explore the associations between network quality and well-being. The measurement part included a latent measure of well-being, whereas the structural part accounted for autocorrelation for network quality and for well-being over time and further examined the cross-lagged associations.

    Results

    The results show that network quality increased while well-being decreased from age 19 to age 23. Females reported worse well-being at both time points, whereas no gender differences were found for network quality. Network quality at age 19 predicted network quality at age 23, and well-being at age 19 predicted well-being at age 23. The results further show positive correlations between network quality and well-being for males and females alike. The strength of the correlations diminished over time but remained significant at age 23. Simultaneously testing social causation and social selection in a series of competing models indicates that while there were no cross-lagged associations among males, there was a weak reverse association between well-being at age 19 and network quality at age 23 among females.

    Conclusions

    The study contributes to the understanding of the direction of associations between friendship networks and psychological well-being from late adolescence to young adulthood by showing that while these dimensions are closely intertwined among males and females alike, females’ social relationships seem to be more vulnerable to changes in health status.

  • 31.
    Miething, Alexander
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Edling, Christofer
    Rydgren, Jens
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    The influence of social network characteristics on peer clustering in smoking: A two-wave panel study of 19- and 23-year-old Swedes2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 10, article id e0164611Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives

    The present study examines how the composition of social networks and perceived relationship content influence peer clustering in smoking, and how the association changes during the transition from late adolescence to early adulthood.

    Methods

    The analysis was based on a Swedish two-wave survey sample comprising ego-centric network data. Respondents were 19 years old in the initial wave, and 23 when the follow-up sample was conducted. 17,227 ego-alter dyads were included in the analyses, which corresponds to an average response rate of 48.7 percent. Random effects logistic regression models were performed to calculate gender-specific average marginal effects of social network characteristics on smoking.

    Results

    The association of egos’ and alters’ smoking behavior was confirmed and found to be stronger when correlated in the female sample. For females, the associations decreased between age 19 and 23. Interactions between network characteristics and peer clustering in smoking showed that intense social interactions with smokers increase egos’ smoking probability. The influence of network structures on peer clustering in smoking decreased during the transition from late adolescence to early adulthood.

    Conclusions

    The study confirmed peer clustering in smoking and revealed that females’ smoking behavior in particular is determined by social interactions. Female smokers’ propensity to interact with other smokers was found to be associated with the quality of peer relationships, frequent social interactions, and network density. The influence of social networks on peer clustering in smoking decreased during the transition from late adolescence to early adulthood.

  • 32.
    Miething, Alexander
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Rydgren, Jens
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Access to occupational networks and ethnic variation of depressive symptoms in young adults in Sweden2017In: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 190, p. 207-216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social capital research has recognized the relevance of occupational network contacts for individuals’ life chances and status attainment, and found distinct associations dependent on ethnic background. A still fairly unexplored area is the health implications of occupational networks. The current approach thus seeks to study the relationship between access to occupational social capital and depressive symptoms in early adulthood, and to examine whether the associations differ between persons with native Swedish parents and those with parents born in Iran and the former Yugoslavia.

    The two-wave panel comprised 19- and 23-year-old Swedish citizens whose parents were born in either Sweden, Iran or the former Yugoslavia. The composition of respondents’ occupational networks contacts was measured with a so-called position generator. Depressive symptoms were assessed with a two-item depression screener. A population-averaged model was used to estimate the associations between depressive symptoms and access to occupational contact networks.

    Similar levels of depressive symptoms in respondents with parents born in Sweden and Yugoslavia were contrasted by a notably higher prevalence of these conditions in those with an Iranian background. After socioeconomic conditions were adjusted for, regression analysis showed that the propensity for depressive symptoms in women with an Iranian background increased with a higher number of manual class contacts, and decreased for men and women with Iranian parents with a higher number of prestigious occupational connections. The respective associations in persons with native Swedish parents and parents from the former Yugoslavia are partly reversed.

    Access to occupational contact networks, but also perceived ethnic identity, explained a large portion of the ethnic variation in depression. Mainly the group with an Iranian background seems to benefit from prestigious occupational contacts. Among those with an Iranian background, social status concerns and expected marginalization in manual class occupations may have contributed to their propensity for depressive symptoms.

  • 33. Oliveira, A.J.
    et al.
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Lopes, C.S.
    Monteiro Ponce de Leon, A.
    The influence of social relationships on obesity: sex differences in a longitudinal study2013In: Obesity, ISSN 1930-7381, E-ISSN 1930-739X, Vol. 21, no 8, p. 1540-1547Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To investigate the effect of five dimensions of social relationships on obesity and potential sex differences in these associations.

    Design and Methods: This study used longitudinal data from the Swedish Level of Living Surveys (LNU) in 1991 and 2000. The sample included 3,586 individuals. The dimensions of social relationships examined in this study include emotional support, frequency of visiting friends, marital status, marital status changes, and a Social Relationships Index (SRI). Obesity status was based on BMI (kg/m(2)) and calculated with self-reported measurements. The association between social relationships and the incidence of obesity after 9 years of follow-up was evaluated through Poisson regressions.Results: After controlling for confounders, we found that the lack of emotional support (RR = 1.98; 95% CI, 1.1-4.6) influenced the incidence of obesity among men. In addition, men with the lowest levels of SRI (RR = 2.22; 95% CI, 1.1-4.4) had an increased risk of being obese. Among women, SRI was not significantly associated with obesity. Women who changed their marital status from married to unmarried had lower risk of obesity (RR = 0.39; 95% CI, 0.2-0.9).

    Conclusions: This study provides evidence for the effect of social relationships on the incidence of obesity, with significant differences by sex.

  • 34. Oliveira, Aldair J.
    et al.
    Lopes, Claudia S.
    Ponce de Leon, Antonio C.
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Griep, Rosane H.
    Werneck, Guilherme L.
    Faerstein, Eduardo
    Social support and leisure-time physical activity: longitudinal evidence from the Brazilian Pro-Saude cohort study2011In: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, ISSN 1479-5868, E-ISSN 1479-5868, Vol. 8, p. 77-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Although social support has been observed to exert a beneficial influence on leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), multidimensional approaches examining social support and prospective evidence of its importance are scarce. The purpose of this study was to investigate how four dimensions of social support affect LTPA engagement, maintenance, type, and time spent by adults during a two-year follow-up. Methods: This paper reports on a longitudinal study of 3,253 non-faculty public employees at a university in Rio de Janeiro (the Pro-Saude study). LTPA was evaluated using a dichotomous question with a two-week reference period, and further questions concerning LTPA type (individual or group) and time spent on the activity. Social support was measured by the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Scale (MOS-SSS). To assess the association between social support and LTPA, two different statistical models were used: binary and multinomial logistic regression models for dichotomous and polytomous outcomes, respectively. Models were adjusted separately for those who began LTPA in the middle of the follow up (engagement group) and for those who had maintained LTPA since the beginning of the follow up (maintenance group). Results: After adjusting for confounders, statistically significant associations (p < 0.05) between dimensions of social support and group LTPA were found in the engagement group. Also, the emotional/information dimension was associated with time spent on LTPA (OR = 2.01; 95% CI 1.2-3.9). In the maintenance group, material support was associated with group LTPA (OR = 1.80; 95% CI; 1.1-3.1) and the positive social interaction dimension was associated with time spent on LTPA (OR = 1.65; 95% CI; 1.1-2.7). Conclusions: All dimensions of social support influenced LTPA type or the time spent on the activity. However, our findings suggest that social support is more important in engagement than in maintenance. This finding is important, because it suggests that maintenance of LTPA must be associated with other factors beyond the individual's level of social support, such as a suitable environment and social/health policies directed towards the practice of LTPA.

  • 35. Oliveira, Aldair J.
    et al.
    Lopes, Claudia S.
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Werneck, Guilherme Loureiro
    Griep, Rosane Härter
    Monteiro Ponce de Leon, Antonio Carlos
    Faerstein, Eduardo
    Gender differences in social support and leisure-time physical activity2014In: Revista de Saude Publica, ISSN 0034-8910, E-ISSN 1518-8787, Vol. 48, no 4, p. 602-612Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To identify gender differences in social support dimensions' effect on adults' leisure-time physical activity maintenance, type, and time. METHODS: Longitudinal study of 1,278 non-faculty public employees at a university in Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Southeastern Brazil. Physical activity was evaluated using a dichotomous question with a two-week reference period, and further questions concerning leisure-time physical activity type (individual or group) and time spent on the activity. Social support was measured with the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Scale. For the analysis, logistic regression models were adjusted separately by gender. RESULTS: A multinomial logistic regression showed an association between material support and individual activities among women (OR = 2.76; 95% CI 1.2; 6.5). Affective support was associated with time spent on leisure-time physical activity only among men (OR = 1.80; 95% CI 1.1; 3.2). CONCLUSIONS: All dimensions of social support that were examined influenced either the type of, or the time spent on, leisure-time physical activity. In some social support dimensions, the associations detected varied by gender. Future studies should attempt to elucidate the mechanisms involved in these gender differences.

  • 36. Oliveira, Aldair J.
    et al.
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Saarela, Jan
    Lopes, Claudia S.
    The influence of bereavement on body mass index: results from a national Swedish survey2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 4, p. e95201-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Previous findings suggest that the loss of a family member is associated with health and mortality. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between bereavement experiences and BMI, and whether there are socio-demographic differences in this association.

    Objective: To investigate the association between bereavement experiences and BMI, and whether there are sociodemographic differences in this association.

    Methods: We used cross-sectional data with retrospective questions from the Swedish Level of Living Survey (LNU) of 2000, including 5,142 individuals. The bereavement experiences examined in the study include the loss of a sibling, a parent or a spouse, and time since the death of a parent. BMI (kg/m2) was calculated using self-reported measurements of weight and height. The association between bereavement and BMI was evaluated through linear regressions.

    Results:  After controlling for possible confounders, most of the models detected an association between bereavement and BMI. The fully-adjusted model showed that loss of parents was associated with a 0.45 increase in BMI (SE = 0.20). The effect also seemed to be dependent on time since the loss and social class position.

    Conclusions: The present study is the first to examine associations between different types of familial losses and BMI. We find an association between the death of a family member and BMI, but it appears to be related to time since the death, type of bereavement experience and social class.

  • 37.
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    A resource-based theory of social capital for health research:  Can it help us bridge the individual and collective facets of the concept?2011In: Social Theory & Health, ISSN 1477-8211, E-ISSN 1477-822X, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 109-129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this article is to present a resource-based definition of social capital for health research that bridges the two notions of the concept the individual and the collective. Initially, the article reviews some of the most important theoretical definitions of social capital and discusses the development of the concept in health research. Furthermore, a model is presented that bridges the two facets of social capital. The model also suggests that the negative externalities of social capital chiefly arise when social networks and social structures are characterized by closure. The definition of social capital derived from the model claims that it comprises social resources that evolve in accessible social networks or social structures characterized by mutual trust. This definition may not definitively address the theoretical uncertainties in the health field; however, it could inspire the use of a resource-oriented theory of social capital in health research that more explicitly stresses the core of the concept: social resources. It may be relevant for health research, as it facilitates the formation of more specific mechanisms that link social capital and health, guide operationalization of social capital and specify the circumstances in which the negative health externalities of social capital arise.

  • 38.
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Barn som förlorar en förälder: konsekvenser för hälsa och dödlighet2015In: Att se barn som anhöriga: om relationer, interventioner och omsorgsansvar / [ed] Ulrika Järkestig Berggren, Lennart Magnusson, Elizabeth Hanson, Kalmar: NKA Linnéuniversitetet , 2015, p. 135-155Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Birds of Feather Flock Together – and Fall Ill?: Migrant Homophily and Health in Sweden2010In: Sociology of Health and Illness, ISSN 0141-9889, E-ISSN 1467-9566, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 382-399Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although studies show that health inequities between ethnic groups exist, few have expressed interest in the origins of these disparities. As homophily (the phenomenon that people principally form relationships with those who are similar to them) influences people’s norms and interactions, it might be an important property of migrants’ networks, and have implications on their health. The aim of this study is to examine health inequities between natives and immigrants in Sweden and the health consequences arising from participation in homogenous migrant networks. Using total population registers and representative survey data initial analyses show that migrants experience poorer health than native Swedes. The findings further suggest that homophily is a prominent feature of migrant social networks and that migrants in networks with a high proportion of other migrants experience poorer health than those who include a high proportion of natives in their networks. However, unhealthy behaviour and disadvantaged social conditions may account for a considerable share of their excess risk. Hence, network closure may reinforce and maintain norms leading to negative behaviour and social conditions in such networks.

  • 40.
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Bättre sociala relationer i socialdemokratiska samhällen2013In: Svenska Dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 41.
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Commentary: Childhood parental loss and adulthood health: Discussing the role of parental cause of death, child's age at death and historical context2015In: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 131, p. 190-192Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Gøsta Esping-Andersen: Welfare regimes and social inequalities in health2015In: The Palgrave Handbook of Social Theory in Health, Illness and Medicine / [ed] Fran Collyer, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015, p. 644-659Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter focuses on Esping-Andersen’s theory of ‘the three worlds of welfare capitalism’ and its contribution to the understanding of population health and health inequalities. Although several recent empirical studies have examined how population health and health inequalities vary within welfare states, it seems important to thoroughly discuss these issues from a theoretical point of view This chapter starts with a discussion of some central aspects of Esping- Andersen’s theory. Recent modifications/additions to Esping-Andersen’s welfare regime theory will also be touched upon, together with some critiques of his ideas. Furthermore, some of the potential pathways through which welfare states can influence health and health inequality are discussed, and some empirical studies that have examined such relationships are presented. Finally, some concluding remarks on the usefulness of including Esping-Andersen’s theory within health research are provided.

  • 43.
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Social capital and health inequality in European welfare states2013Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This book sets out unique findings on whether social capital influences health and health inequalities in European welfare states. Drawing on cross-national data from the European Social Survey (ESS) as well as Swedish national survey data and registers, the book develops a new theoretical definition of social capital that guides the books empirical studies. The findings suggest that welfare state generosity is a decisive factor for social capital and that social capital is of significance for health inequalities both between and within European welfare states. The book also discusses the potential dark sides of social capital and examines evidence of circumstances in which social capital has negative health externalities.

  • 44.
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Sociala nätverk, socialt kapital och ojämlikhet i hälsa2012In: Den orättvisa hälsan: Om socioekonomiska skillnader i hälsa och livslängd / [ed] Rostila, M.; Toivanen, S., Liber, 2012Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Sociala relationer är inte bara allmän tillit2013In: Svenska dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412, no 14 marsArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 46.
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    The social capital of welfare states and its significance for population health2013In: Global perspectives on social capital and health / [ed] Ichiro Kawachi, Soshi Takao, S.V. Subramanian, New York: Springer, 2013, p. 277-305Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    The two facets of social capital2011In: Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, ISSN 0021-8308, E-ISSN 1468-5914, Vol. 41, no 3, p. 308-326Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The emergence of the two facets of social capital, the individual and the collective, has contributed to much of the confusion in the field of social capital. The overall objective of this article is to elaborate on a theoretical model aiming at clarifying some bridges between the facets and dimensions of social capital previously suggested in the literature. Initially, the article shortly presents and discusses some important definitions of social capital. Furthermore, limitations and shortcomings of previous definitions are discussed. Moreover, a theoretical model is elaborated on suggesting that social capital comprises social resources that evolve in accessible social networks or social structures characterized by mutual trust. This model also emphasises some of the potential dark sides of social capital. The presented definition does not definitively address the theoretical uncertainties in the field; however, it suggests that a resource-oriented notion of social capital could be useful in bridging the facets of social capital.

  • 48.
    Rostila, Mikael
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Almquist, Ylva B.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Edling, Christofer
    Rydgren, Jens
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Social Network Characteristics and Daily Smoking among Young Adults in Sweden2013In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 10, no 12, p. 6517-6533Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A large number of studies have shown that friends’ smoking behavior is strongly associated with an individual’s own risk for smoking. However, few studies have examined whether other features of social networks, independently or conjointly with friends’ smoking behavior, may influence the risk for smoking. Because it is characterized by the growing importance of friendship networks, the transition from adolescence to young adulthood may constitute a particularly relevant period on which to focus our investigation of network influences on smoking behavior. The aim of this study was therefore to examine the consequences of peer smoking as well as other network characteristics (friends’ other health behaviors, relationship content, and structural aspects of the network) on the risk for smoking among young adults. The data was based on a cross-sectional survey of Swedish 19-year-olds carried out in 2009 (n = 5,695) with a response rate of 51.6%. Logistic regression was the primary method of analysis. The results show that having a large percentage of smokers in one’s network was by far the most important risk factor for daily smoking. The risk of daily smoking was 21.20 (CI 14.24. 31.54) if 76%–100% of the network members smoked. Having a high percentage of physically active friends was inversely associated with daily smoking. The risk of smoking was 0.65 (CI 0.42. 1.00) if 76%–100% of the network members were physically active. No main associations between the other network characteristics (relationship content and structural aspects of the network) and smoking were found. However, there was an interaction between the percentage of smokers in the network and relationship content (i.e., trust, relationship quality and propensity to discuss problems): positive relationship content in combination with peer smoking may increase the risk of smoking. Women with a high percentage of smokers in their networks were also at higher risk of daily smoking than were men with many smoking friends. Hence, it is important to consider the interplay between peer smoking and other network characteristics on the risk of smoking, where features of networks which traditionally are seen as constructive may occasionally provide the impetus to smoke. Future studies should use longitudinal data to study whether these findings reflect peer selection or peer influence.

  • 49.
    Rostila, Mikael
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Berg, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Arat, Arzu
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Vinnerljung, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Parental death in childhood and self-inflicted injuries in young adults - a national cohort study from Sweden2016In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 25, no 10, p. 1103-1111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have shown that parental death influences health and mortality in bereaved offspring. To date, few studies have examined whether exposure to parental bereavement in childhood is associated with suicidality later in life. The aim of the present research was to investigate whether parental death during childhood influences self-inflicted injuries/poisoning in young adulthood. A national cohort born during 1973–1982 (N = 871,402) was followed prospectively in the National Patient Discharge Register from age 18 to 31–40 years. Cox regression analyses of proportional hazards, with adjustment for socio-demographic confounders and parental psychosocial covariates, were used to test hypotheses regarding parental loss and hospital admission due to self-inflicted injuries/poisoning. Parental deaths were divided into deaths caused by (1) external causes/substance abuse and (2) natural causes. Persons who had lost a parent to an external cause/substance abuse-related death had the highest risk of being admitted to a hospital for a self-inflicted injury/poisoning; HRs 2.03 (1.67–2.46) for maternal death and 2.03 (1.84–2.25) for paternal death, after adjustment for socio-demographic confounders and risk factors among surviving parents. Risks were also increased for parental death due to natural causes, but at a lower level: 1.19 (1.01–1.39) and 1.28 (1.15–1.43), respectively. Losing a father before school age was associated with a higher risk of hospital admission for a self-inflicted injury/poisoning than was loss at an older age for both genders. Maternal loss before school age was associated with a higher risk only for men, particularly maternal death by natural causes (p < 0.01).

  • 50.
    Rostila, Mikael
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Berg, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Arat, Arzu
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Vinnerljung, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Sibling death in childhood and self-inflicted injuries in young adults: A national cohort study from Sweden2016Conference paper (Refereed)
12 1 - 50 of 77
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