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  • 1.
    André, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Baird, Julia
    Gerger Swartling, Åsa
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Vulturius, Gregor
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute. University of Edinburgh, UK.
    Plummer, Ryan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Brock University, Canada.
    Analysis of Swedish Forest Owners' Information and Knowledge-Sharing Networks for Decision-Making: Insights for Climate Change Communication and Adaptation2017In: Environmental Management, ISSN 0364-152X, E-ISSN 1432-1009, Vol. 59, no 6, p. 885-897Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To further the understanding of climate change adaptation processes, more attention needs to be paid to the various contextual factors that shape whether and how climate-related knowledge and information is received and acted upon by actors involved. This study sets out to examine the characteristics of forest owners' in Sweden, the information and knowledge-sharing networks they draw upon for decision-making, and their perceptions of climate risks, their forests' resilience, the need for adaptation, and perceived adaptive capacity. By applying the concept of ego-network analysis, the empirical data was generated by a quantitative survey distributed to 3000 private forest owners' in Sweden in 2014 with a response rate of 31%. The results show that there is a positive correlation, even though it is generally weak, between forest owner climate perceptions and (i) network features, i.e. network size and heterogeneity, and (ii) presence of certain alter groups (i.e. network members or actors). Results indicate that forest owners' social networks currently serve only a minimal function of sharing knowledge of climate change and adaptation. Moreover, considering the fairly infrequent contact between respondents and alter groups, the timing of knowledge sharing is important. In conclusion we suggest those actors that forest owners' most frequently communicate with, especially forestry experts providing advisory services (e.g. forest owner associations, companies, and authorities) have a clear role to communicate both the risks of climate change and opportunities for adaptation. Peers are valuable in connecting information about climate risks and adaptation to the actual forest property.

  • 2. Armitage, Derek
    et al.
    de Loë, Rob
    Plummer, Ryan
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Environmental governance and its implications for conservation practice2012In: Conservation Letters, ISSN 1755-263X, E-ISSN 1755-263X, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 245-255Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Governments are no longer the most important source of decision making in the environmental field. Instead, new actors are playing critical decision-making roles, and new mechanisms and forums for decision making are becoming important (e.g., in some contexts regulation is being supplemented or replaced by markets and cooperative arrangements). New ways of governing in relation to the environment have important implications for the practice of conservation. Greater awareness of key ideas and concepts of environmental governance can help conservation managers and scientists participate more effectively in governance processes. Understanding how conservation practice is influenced by emergent hybrid and network governance arrangements is particularly important. This short review explores key environmental governance concepts relevant to the practice of conservation, with specific reference to institutional fit and scale; adaptiveness, flexibility and learning; the coproduction of knowledge from diverse sources; the emergence of new actors and their roles in governance; and changing expectations about accountability and legitimacy. Case-based examples highlight key directions in environmental governance.

  • 3. Armitage, Derek
    et al.
    Dzyundzyak, Angela
    Baird, Julia
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Plummer, Ryan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Brock University, Canada.
    Schultz, Lisen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    An Approach to Assess Learning Conditions, Effects and Outcomes in Environmental Governance2018In: Environmental Policy and Governance, ISSN 1756-932X, E-ISSN 1756-9338, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 3-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We empirically examine relationships among the conditions that enable learning, learning effects and sustainability outcomes based on experiences in four biosphere reserves in Canada and Sweden. In doing so, we provide a novel approach to measure learning and address an important methodological and empirical challenge in assessments of learning processes in decision-making contexts. Findings from this study highlight the effectiveness of different measures of learning, and how to differentiate the factors that foster learning with the outcomes of learning. Our approach provides a useful reference point for future empirical studies of learning in different environment, resource and sustainability settings.

  • 4.
    Armitage, Derek Russel
    et al.
    Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, Wilfrid Laurier Univeristy, Ontario, Kanada.
    Plummer, Ryan
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Adaptive capacity and environmental governance2010Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Rapid environmental change calls for individuals and societies with an ability to transform our interactions with each other and the ecosystems upon which we depend. Adaptive capacity - the ability of a social-ecological system (or the components of that system) to be robust to disturbances and capable of responding to changes - is increasingly recognized as a critical attribute of multi-level environmental governance. This unique volume offers the first interdisciplinary and integrative perspective on an emerging area of applied scholarship, with contributions from internationally recognized researchers and practitioners. It demonstrates how adaptive capacity makes environmental governance possible in complex social-ecological systems. Cutting-edge theoretical developments are explored and empirical case studies offered from a wide range of geographic settings and natural resource contexts, such as water, climate, fisheries and forestry. • Of interest to researchers, policymakers and resource managers seeking to navigate and understand social-ecological change in diverse geographic settings and resource contexts.

  • 5. Baird, Julia
    et al.
    Dzyundzyak, Angela
    Plummer, Ryan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Brock University, Canada.
    Bullock, Ryan
    Dupont, Diane
    Jollineau, Marilyne
    Kubik, Wendee
    Pickering, Gary
    Vasseur, Liette
    Ecosystem Perceptions in Flood Prone Areas: A Typology and Its Relationship to Preferences for Governance2016In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 8, no 5, article id 191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A shift appears to be occurring in thinking about flooding, from a resistance-based approach to one of resilience. Accordingly, how stakeholders in flood-prone regions perceive the system and its governance are salient questions. This study queried stakeholders' internal representations of ecosystems (resistance- or resilience-based), preferences for governance actors and mechanisms for flooding, and the relationship between them in five different regions of the world. The influence of personal experience on these variables was also assessed. Most respondents aligned themselves with a resilience-based approach in relation to system connectedness and response to disturbance; however, respondents were almost evenly split between resistance- and resilience-based approaches when considering system management. Responses generally were considered to hold for other disturbances as well. There was no clear relationship between internal representations and preferences for governance actors or mechanisms. Respondents generally favoured actor combinations that included governments and mechanism combinations that included regulations and policies. Those who had personal experience with flooding tended to align themselves with a resilience-based internal representation of system management, but personal experience showed no clear relationship with governance preferences. The findings support an evolutionary perspective of flood management where emerging paradigms enhance preceding ones, and prompt a critical discussion about the universality of resilience as a framing construct.

  • 6. Baird, Julia
    et al.
    Jollineau, Marilyne
    Plummer, Ryan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Brock University, Canada.
    Valenti, Josh
    Exploring agricultural advice networks, beneficial management practices and water quality on the landscape: A geospatial social-ecological systems analysis2016In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 51, p. 236-243Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Agricultural practices have been linked to detrimental effects on ecosystems, with water quality of particular concern. Research has been devoted to understanding uptake of beneficial, or best, management practices (BMPs) in agriculture; however, sources of advice and subsequent effects on the landscape have not been elucidated. This study set out to understand (1) what sources of information agricultural producers rely on when making land-management decisions; (2) the characteristics of their advice networks; and (3) how the advice network linked spatially to water quality on the landscape. A watershed in Alberta was used as a case study and respondents identified that regional advisors were relied upon most often for advice and these advisors had the most influence on the adoption of BMPs. Results indicate that respondents with connections to regional actors implemented more BMPs that those without. Regional government actors had a greater effect than regional non-governmental actors. Local actors played a lesser role in advice networks related to BMP adoption. A 3D geovisualization was used to explore linkages among advisors, BMPs, and water quality. This technique may be useful for other scenarios and can contribute to policy development and enhanced practices.

  • 7. Baird, Julia M.
    et al.
    Summers, Robert
    Plummer, Ryan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Brock University, Canada.
    Cisterns and safe drinking water in Canada2013In: Canadian water resources journal, ISSN 0701-1784, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 121-134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Access to sources of safe drinking water is imperative to human health and of concern in both developing and developed countries. A myriad of responses have occurred to enhance drinking water safety in Canada over the decade since the Walkerton tragedy. Pressing questions remain about drinking water safety, especially in small systems and private water supplies that fall outside much of the recently implemented regulations. This paper explores the use of cisterns in Canada and their safety as a private means to supply potable drinking water. Knowledge of cistern use in Canada is probed, associated health risks are examined and the ways these risks are being managed are considered. Knowledge of cistern use in Canada at present is nominal. Management and policy considerations need to be advanced alongside further research to better understand and manage risks associated with this source of drinking water.

  • 8. Baird, Julia
    et al.
    Plummer, Ryan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Brock University, Canada.
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Collaborative governance for climate change adaptation in Canada: experimenting with adaptive co-management2016In: Regional Environmental Change, ISSN 1436-3798, E-ISSN 1436-378X, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 747-758Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The search for strategies to address 'super wicked problems' such as climate change is gaining urgency, and a collaborative governance approach, and adaptive co-management in particular, is increasingly recognized as one such strategy. However, the conditions for adaptive co-management to emerge and the resulting network structures and relational patterns remain unclear in the literature. To address these identified needs, this study examines social relationships from a network perspective while initiating a collaborative multiactor initiative aimed to develop into adaptive co-management for climate change adaptation, an action research project undertaken in the Niagara region of Canada. The project spanned 1 year, and a longitudinal analysis of participants' networks and level of participation in the process was performed. Evidence of support for climate change adaptation from the process included the development of deliberative and adaptive responses to opportunities presented to the group and the development of a strong subgroup of participants where decision-making was centered. However, the complexity of the challenge of addressing climate change, funding constraints, competing initiatives, and the lack of common views among participants may have contributed to the group, highlighting the finding that beneficial network structural features and relational patterns are necessary but not sufficient condition for the development of an adaptive co-management process. The context of climate change adaptation may require a different social network structure and processes than other contexts for adaptive co-management to occur, and there may be limitations to adaptive co-management for dealing with super wicked problems.

  • 9. Baird, Julia
    et al.
    Plummer, Ryan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Brock University, Canada.
    Bullock, Ryan
    Dupont, Diane
    Heinmiller, Tim
    Jollineau, Marilyne
    Kubik, Wendee
    Renzetti, Steven
    Vasseur, Liette
    Contemporary Water Governance: Navigating Crisis Response and Institutional Constraints through Pragmatism2016In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 8, no 6, article id 224Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Water has often been the source of crises and their frequency will intensify due to climate change impacts. The Niagara River Watershed provides an ideal case to study water crises as it is an international transboundary system (Canada-United States) and has both historical and current challenges associated with water quantity and quality, which resonates broadly in water basins throughout the world. The aim of this study was to understand how stakeholders perceive ecosystems and the relationship with preferences for governance approaches in the context of water governance. An online survey instrument was employed to assess perceptions of the system in terms of resilience (engineering, ecological, social-ecological, or epistemic), preferences for governance approaches (state, citizen, market, and hybrid forms), and the most pressing issues in the watershed. Responses showed that, despite demographic differences and adherence to different resilience perspectives, support was strongest for governance approaches that focused on state or state-citizen hybrid forms. The validity of the resilience typology as a grouping variable is discussed. The roles of institutional constraints, pragmatism in governance approach preferences, and the influence of multiple crises are explored in relation to the context of the study site, as well as to water governance scholarship more broadly.

  • 10. Baird, Julia
    et al.
    Plummer, Ryan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Brock University, Canada.
    Haug, Constanze
    Huitema, Dave
    Learning effects of interactive decision-making processes for climate change adaptation2014In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 27, p. 51-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Learning is gaining attention in relation to governance processes for contemporary environmental challenges; however, scholarship at the nexus of learning and environmental governance lacks clarity and understanding about how to define and measure learning, and the linkages between learning, social interactions, and environment. In response, this study aimed to advance and operationalize a typology of learning in an environmental governance context, and examined if a participatory decision-making process (adaptive co-management) for climate change adaptation fostered learning. Three types of learning were identified: cognitive learning, related to the acquisition of new or the structuring of existing knowledge; normative learning, which concerns a shift in viewpoints, values or paradigms, and relational learning, referring to an improved understanding of others' mindsets, enhanced trust and ability to cooperate. A robust mixed methods approach with a focus on quantitative measures including concept map analysis, social network analysis, and self-reflective questions, was designed to gauge indicators for each learning type. A participatory decision-making process for climate change adaptation was initiated with stakeholders in the Niagara region, Canada. A pseudo-control group was used to minimize external contextual influences on results. Clear empirical evidence of cognitive and relational learning was gained; however, the results from normative learning measures were inconclusive. The learning typology and measurement method operationalized in this research advances previous treatments of learning in relation to participatory decision-making processes, and supports adaptive co-management as a governance strategy that fosters learning and adaptive capacity.

  • 11. Baird, Julia
    et al.
    Plummer, Ryan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Brock University, Canada.
    Moore, Michele-Lee
    Brandes, Oliver
    Introducing Resilience Practice to Watershed Groups: What Are the Learning Effects?2016In: Society & Natural Resources, ISSN 0894-1920, E-ISSN 1521-0723, Vol. 29, no 10, p. 1214-1229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Resilience as an organizing framework for addressing dynamics of social-ecological systems has experienced strong uptake; however, its application is nascent. This research study aimed to address the gap between resilience thinking and practice by focusing on learning, a key aspect of resilience. Two Canadian watershed groups were led in 2-day workshops focused on resilience. Learning effects were measured using a survey administered both before and after the workshop, and a qualitative survey was administered 6 months later to understand longer term effects. Short-term learning effects were similar between the two case studies, with strong cognitive and relational learning and less normative learning. Longer term effects showed enduring cognitive and normative learning in both cases; however, relational learning persisted only in the watershed where a resilience practice approach to watershed planning had been incorporated. Future research directions include refinements to the learning measurement methodology and continuing to build resilience practice literature.

  • 12. Baird, Julia
    et al.
    Plummer, Ryan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Brock University, Canada.
    Morris, Samantha
    Mitchell, Simon
    Rathwell, Kaitlyn
    Enhancing source water protection and watershed management: Lessons from the case of the New Brunswick Water Classification Initiative2014In: Canadian water resources journal, ISSN 0701-1784, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 49-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Source water protection varies by locale, and approaches and experiences are accumulating in response to concerns about drinking water safety. Learning lessons and transferring them from experiences elsewhere is a well-established practice for addressing water governance challenges. In response to the need to enhance source water protection policies and initiatives and a growing interest in modes of governance in which government and non-government actors collaborate, this research investigated and derived lessons from the Water Classification Initiative in New Brunswick, Canada. The research specifically aimed to describe the development of the initiative, analyze structural relationships among actors involved in the initiative and describe the successes and challenges experienced. Investigation of the Water Classification Initiative illustrates how key aspects of source water protection identified in the literature (e. g. watershed as a focal scale, collaborative approaches, incorporation of science and local knowledge) can be incorporated into policy, how capacity may be built or constrained in the context of government-led collaborative approaches, and how social network analysis offers a powerful tool to understand interactions among those involved in a policy process. Learning from these insights offers an opportunity to advance the development of new approaches as well as to enhance existing source water protection policies.

  • 13. Baird, Julia
    et al.
    Schultz, Lisen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Plummer, Ryan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Brock University, Canada.
    Armitage, Derek
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Emergence of Collaborative Environmental Governance: What are the Causal Mechanisms?2019In: Environmental Management, ISSN 0364-152X, E-ISSN 1432-1009, Vol. 63, no 1, p. 16-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conflict in environmental governance is common, and bringing together stakeholders with diverse perspectives in situations of conflict is extremely difficult. However, case studies of how diverse stakeholders form self-organized coalitions under these circumstances exist and provide invaluable opportunities to understand the causal mechanisms that operate in the process. We focus on the case of the Georgian Bay Biosphere Reserve nomination process, which unfolded over several years and moved the region from a series of serious conflicts to one where stakeholders came together to support a Biosphere Reserve nomination. Causal mechanisms identified from the literature and considered most relevant to the case were confirmed in it, using an 'explaining outcomes' process tracing methodology. Perceived severity of the problem, institutional emulation, and institutional entrepreneurship all played an important role in the coalition-building process. The fear of marginalization was identified as a potential causal mechanism that requires further study. The findings here contribute to filling an important gap in the literature related to causal mechanisms for self-organized coalition-building under conflict, and contribute to practice with important considerations when building a coalition for natural resource management and governance.

  • 14. de Grosbois, Danuta
    et al.
    Plummer, Ryan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Brock University, Canada.
    Problematizing Water Vulnerability Indices at a Local Level: a Critical Review and Proposed Solution2015In: Water resources management, ISSN 0920-4741, E-ISSN 1573-1650, Vol. 29, no 14, p. 5015-5035Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Effectively assessing water vulnerability is essential as threats to water resources mount. Appraisals that take an integrative perspective incorporating physical and social considerations at a community scale are particularly important as they address the breadth of vulnerability sources and concentrate on a level where action frequently occurs. This paper critically reviews seven water vulnerability indices according to good practices for composite indices. The analysis reveals several shortcomings and discusses how they limit the validity of water vulnerability indices. A seven step framework is proposed to overcome these limitations. It builds upon previous approaches to assessing water vulnerability and incorporates good practice of developing composite indices. The framework offers guidance to enhance effectiveness and promotes tailoring of water vulnerability assessments to particular situations. Improving the accuracy of information from such assessments ultimately enhances the capability to respond to water related challenges.

  • 15. de Loe, R. C.
    et al.
    Murray, D.
    Michaels, S.
    Plummer, Ryan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of Waterloo, Canada; Brock University, Canada.
    Policy Transfer Among Regional-Level Organizations: Insights from Source Water Protection in Ontario2016In: Environmental Management, ISSN 0364-152X, E-ISSN 1432-1009, Vol. 58, no 1, p. 31-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organizations at the local and regional scales often face the challenge of developing policy mechanisms rapidly and concurrently, whether in response to expanding mandates, newly identified threats, or changes in the political environment. In the Canadian Province of Ontario, rapid, concurrent policy development was considered desirable by 19 regional organizations tasked with developing policies for protection of drinking water sources under very tight and highly prescribed mandates. An explicit policy transfer approach was used by these organizations. Policy transfer refers to using knowledge of policies, programs, and institutions in one context in the development of policies, programs, and institutions in another. This paper assesses three online mechanisms developed to facilitate policy transfer for source water protection in Ontario. Insights are based on a survey of policy planners from the 19 regional organizations who used the three policy transfer tools, supplemented by an analysis of three policies created and transferred among the 19 regional source water protection organizations. Policy planners in the study indicated they had used policy transfer to develop source protection policies for their regions-a finding confirmed by analysis of the text of policies. While the online policy transfer tools clearly facilitated systematic policy transfer, participants still preferred informal, direct exchanges with their peers in other regions over the use of the internet-based policy transfer mechanisms created on their behalf.

  • 16. Dupont, Diane
    et al.
    Waldner, Cheryl
    Bharadwaj, Lalita
    Plummer, Ryan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Carter, Blair
    Cave, Kate
    Zagozewski, Rebecca
    Drinking Water Management: Health Risk Perceptions and Choices in First Nations and Non-First Nations Communities in Canada2014In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 11, no 6, p. 5889-5903Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relationship between tap water and health has been a topic of public concern and calls for better management in Canada since well-publicized contamination events in two provinces (Ontario and Saskatchewan) in 2000-2001. This study reports the perspectives on health risks from tap water and corresponding use of, and spending on, bottled water in a number of different communities in Canada. In 2009-2010, four First Nations communities (three from Ontario and one from Saskatchewan) and a geographically diverse sample of non-First Nations Canadians were surveyed about their beliefs concerning health risks from tap water and their spending practices for bottled water as a substitute. Responses to five identical questions were examined, revealing that survey respondents from Ontario First Nations communities were more likely than non-First Nations Canadians to believe bottled water is safer than tap water (OR 1.6); more likely to report someone became ill from tap water (OR 3.6); more likely to express water and health concerns related to tap water consumption (OR 2.4); and more likely to spend more on bottled water (OR 4.9). On the other hand, participants from one Saskatchewan First Nations community were less likely than non-First Nations Canadians to believe that someone had become ill from drinking tap water (OR 3.8), less likely to believe bottled water is safer than tap (OR 2.0), and less likely to have health concerns with tap water (OR 1.5). These differences, however, did not translate into differences in the likelihood of high bottled water expenditures or being a 100% bottled water consumer. The paper discusses how the differences observed may be related to water supply and regulation, trust, perceived control, cultural background, location, and past experience.

  • 17. Huitema, Dave
    et al.
    Adger, William Neil
    Berkhout, Frans
    Massey, Eric
    Mazmanian, Daniel
    Munaretto, Stefania
    Plummer, Ryan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Brock University, Canada.
    Termeer, Catrien C. J. A. M.
    The governance of adaptation: choices, reasons, and effects. Introduction to the Special Feature2016In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 21, no 3, article id 37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The governance of climate adaptation involves the collective efforts of multiple societal actors to address problems, or to reap the benefits, associated with impacts of climate change. Governing involves the creation of institutions, rules and organizations, and the selection of normative principles to guide problem solution and institution building. We argue that actors involved in governing climate change adaptation, as climate change governance regimes evolve, inevitably must engage in making choices, for instance on problem definitions, jurisdictional levels, on modes of governance and policy instruments, and on the timing of interventions. Yet little is known about how and why these choices are made in practice, and how such choices affect the outcomes of our efforts to govern adaptation. In this introduction we review the current state of evidence and the specific contribution of the articles published in this Special Feature, which are aimed at bringing greater clarity in these matters, and thereby informing both governance theory and practice. Collectively, the contributing papers suggest that the way issues are defined has important consequences for the support for governance interventions, and their effectiveness. The articles suggest that currently the emphasis in adaptation governance is on the local and regional levels, while underscoring the benefits of interventions and governance at higher jurisdictional levels in terms of visioning and scaling-up effective approaches. The articles suggest that there is a central role of government agencies in leading governance interventions to address spillover effects, to provide public goods, and to promote the long-term perspectives for planning. They highlight the issue of justice in the governance of adaptation showing how governance measures have wide distributional consequences, including the potential to amplify existing inequalities, access to resources, or generating new injustices through distribution of risks. For several of these findings, future research directions are suggested.

  • 18. Jobin-Poirier, Emilie
    et al.
    Pickering, Gary
    Plummer, Ryan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Brock University, Canada; The University of the Sunshine Coast, Australia.
    Doom, gloom, or boom?: Perceptions of climate change among Canadian winegrowers2019In: International Journal of Wine Research, ISSN 1179-1403, Vol. 11, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Climate change (CC) could have both positive and negative consequences for the Canadian and global wine industries. Understanding how winegrowers perceive CC, however, can provide insight into how to better assist the industry to cope with the impacts of a changing climate. Material and methods: An online survey of 122 Canadian winegrowers was conducted to understand knowledge, beliefs, environmental values, and perceptions towards CC and its impact on the Canadian wine industry. Environmental values (New Environmental Paradigm score), subjective and objective CC knowledge, CC skepticism and uncertainty, belief in anthropogenic CC, and perceptions of the impacts of CC were measured using established tools. Results: Overall, results show that Canadian winegrowers have a relatively low level of CC skepticism, a medium level of CC scientific knowledge, a pro-ecological (as opposed to anthropological) worldview, and generally believe that CC is caused by a mix of anthropogenic and natural forces. Moreover, a majority of respondents (60%) believe that CC has both positive and negative con- sequences on their vineyard and winery operations, while 8% think that climate change has no consequence on their operations. An extended growing season for grapes, the improvement of grape and wine quality, and the possibility to grow varieties that are not currently viable were the main beneficial consequences of CC reported by participants, while an increase in both disease and pests in the vineyard were the most commonly identified disadvantages. Finally, no association was observed between CC skepticism, knowledge, environmental values, and the perception of CC consequences. Conclusion: Our findings inform communication strategies for the wine industry around CC, and provide important baseline information on winegrowers’ perceptions that inform wider efforts to improve the capacity of the industry to develop and adapt to the consequences of CC. 

  • 19. Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    et al.
    Baird, Julia
    Ambjörnsson, Emmeline Laszlo
    Plummer, Ryan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Social Network Analysis of Multi-level Linkages: A Swedish Case Study on Northern Forest-Based Sectors2014In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 43, no 6, p. 745-758Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forest use in Northern Sweden is being influenced both by global trends and local situations. This results in interactions between numerous groups that may impact local forest governance. Social network analysis can here provide insight into the total pattern of positive, negative, and cross-level interactions within user group community structure (within and among groups). This study analyses interactions within selected renewable resource sectors in two northern Swedish municipalities, both with regard to whether they are positive, neutral, or negative, as well as with regard to how local actors relate to actors across levels, e.g., with regional, national, and international actors. The study illustrates that many interactions both within and outside a given sector are seen as neutral or positive, and that considerable interaction and impact are defined as national and in some cases even international. It also indicates that the impact of Sweden's only existing Model Forest may to some extent constitute a bridge between different sectors and levels, in comparison with the interactions between sectors in a municipality where such a cooperation mechanism does not exist.

  • 20.
    Kløcker Larsen, Rasmus
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Gerger Swartling, Åsa
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Powell, Neil
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    May, Brad
    Plummer, Ryan
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Simonsson, Louise
    Osbeck, Maria
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    A framework for facilitating dialogue between policy planners and local climate change adaptation professionals: cases from Sweden, Canada and Indonesia2012In: Environmental Science and Policy, ISSN 1462-9011, E-ISSN 1873-6416, Vol. 23, p. 12-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The dominant approach to mainstreaming climate adaptation into sectoral policies relies on an ‘upscaling’ model in which it is envisaged to extract lessons from local change processes to inspire generic sub-national and national policies. One of the central methodological questions, which remain unanswered in climate change adaptation research, is exactly how public policy can learn from highly contextual experiences of community-based adaptation and what role should be played by case study research. In this paper we undertake a comparison between three large research projects in Sweden, Canada and Indonesia, which aim to study and/or foster local adaptation in selected case studies through a process of social learning. We present a novel framework based on mapping of ‘sense-making perspectives’, which enables analysis of the multiple ways case study research can support local climate adaptation and link such efforts to higher level public policy. The analysis demonstrates how methodological choices shape how case study research works at the interface between planned (steered/regulatory policy) and self-organised adaptation of stakeholders (non-coercive policy). In this regard, there is a need for a high degree of transparency from the research community to enable local professionals to decide on their stakes and interests when inviting researchers into their grounded activities. We conclude that case study research can achieve new significance if viewed as a platform to leverage stakeholder competencies when informing existing social structures and enable the implementation of political objectives, but equally driving the very reinvention and improvement of these institutions.

  • 21. Krasny, Marianne E.
    et al.
    Lundholm, CeciliaStockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.Plummer, Ryan
    Resilience in social-ecological systems: the role of learning and education2010Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Resilience thinking challenges us to reconsider the meaning of sustainability in a world that must constantly adapt in the face of gradual and at times catastrophic change. This volume further asks environmental education and resource management scholars to consider the relationship of environmental learning and behaviours to attributes of resilient social-ecological systems - attributes such as ecosystem services, innovative governance structures, biological and cultural diversity, and social capital. Similar to current approaches to environmental education and education for sustainable development, resilience scholarship integrates social and ecological perspectives.

    The authors of Resilience in social-ecological systems: the role of learning and education present a wealth of perspectives, integrating theory with reviews of empirical studies in natural resource management, and in youth, adult, and higher education. The authors explore the role of education and learning in helping social-ecological systems as they respond to change, through adaptation and transformation. This book also serves to integrate a growing literature on resilience and social learning in natural resources management, with research in environmental education and education for sustainable development.

  • 22. Melo Zurita, Maria de Lourdes
    et al.
    Thomsen, Dana C.
    Holbrook, Neil J.
    Smith, Timothy F.
    Lyth, Anna
    Munro, Paul G.
    de Bruin, Annemarieke
    Seddaiu, Giovanna
    Roggero, Pier Paolo
    Baird, Julia
    Plummer, Ryan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of the Sunshine Coast, Australia; Brock University, Canada.
    Bullock, Ryan
    Collins, Kevin
    Powell, Neil
    Global Water Governance and Climate Change: Identifying Innovative Arrangements for Adaptive Transformation2018In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 10, no 1, article id 29Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A convoluted network of different water governance systems exists around the world. Collectively, these systems provide insight into how to build sustainable regimes of water use and management. We argue that the challenge is not to make the system less convoluted, but rather to support positive and promising trends in governance, creating a vision for future environmental outcomes. In this paper, we analyse nine water case studies from around the world to help identify potential innovative arrangements' for addressing existing dilemmas. We argue that such arrangements can be used as a catalyst for crafting new global water governance futures. The nine case studies were selected for their diversity in terms of location, scale and water dilemma, and through an examination of their contexts, structures and processes we identify key themes to consider in the milieu of adaptive transformation. These themes include the importance of acknowledging socio-ecological entanglements, understanding the political dimensions of environmental dilemmas, the recognition of different constructions of the dillema, and the importance of democratized processes.

  • 23. Moore, Michele-Lee
    et al.
    von der Porten, Suzanne
    Plummer, Ryan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Brock University, Canada.
    Brandes, Oliver
    Baird, Julia
    Water policy reform and innovation: A systematic review2014In: Environmental Science and Policy, ISSN 1462-9011, E-ISSN 1873-6416, Vol. 38, p. 263-271Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A growing need for innovation in water policy is increasingly recognized within water policy and governance scholarship, but the types of innovation and changes being considered or undertaken, and the conditions that enable or hinder those changes remain unclear. A systematic review of water policy reform literature was undertaken to investigate how innovation is defined in this area of scholarship and the enabling conditions or barriers shaping the innovation process. The findings of the review demonstrated that the mainstream water policy reform scholarship that examines innovation is limited. A small portion of the water policy reform literature that addresses innovation considers different types of policy changes as innovative. Therefore, the results are used to propose a typology of water policy innovations. Furthermore, the results demonstrated that preliminary knowledge about the role of policy entrepreneurs, networks, social learning, adaptive approaches, and niche experiments in the innovation process emerge in a sub-set of the water policy reform literature.

  • 24.
    Plummer, Ryan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Brock University, Canada.
    Baird, Julia
    Adaptive Co-Management for Climate Change Adaptation: Considerations for the Barents Region2013In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 629-642Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adaptive co-management is a governance approach gaining recognition. It emphasizes pluralism and communication; shared decision-making and authority; linkages within and among levels; actor autonomy; and, learning and adaptation. Adaptive co-management is just starting to be applied for climate change adaptation. In drawing upon adaptive co-management scholarship and a case in progress of application for climate change adaptation in Niagara, Canada, key considerations for the Barents Euro-Arctic Region are identified. Realistic expectations, sensitivity to context, and cultivating conditions for success are highlighted as key considerations for future efforts to implement adaptive co-management approaches in the Barents Region.

  • 25.
    Plummer, Ryan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Brock University, Canada.
    Baird, Julia
    Armitage, Derek
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Schultz, Lisen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Diagnosing adaptive comanagement across multiple cases2017In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 22, no 3, article id 19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adaptive comanagement is at an important cross-road: different research paths forward are possible, and a diagnostic approach has been identified as a promising one. Accordingly, we operationalize a diagnostic approach, using a framework, to set a new direction for adaptive comanagement research. We set out three main first-tier variables: antecedents, process, and outcomes, and these main variables are situated within a fourth: the setting. Within each of these variables, significant depth of study may be achieved by investigating second-and third-tier variables. Causal relationships among variables, and particularly related to the outcomes of adaptive comanagement, may also be investigated at varying depths using the diagnostic framework and associated nomenclature. We believe that the diagnostic approach we describe offers a unifying methodological approach to advancing adaptive comanagement research as well as similar approaches. There are significant benefits to be gained, including building a database of case studies using this common framework, advancing theory, and ultimately, improving social and ecological outcomes.

  • 26.
    Plummer, Ryan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Brock University, Canada.
    Baird, Julia
    Bullock, Ryan
    Dupont, Diane
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Brock University, Canada.
    Renzetti, Steven
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Brock University, Canada.
    Probing the relationship between ecosystem perceptions and approaches to environmental governance: an exploratory content analysis of seven water dilemmas2018In: Resilience - International Policies, Practices and Discourses, ISSN 2169-3293, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 54-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Addressing wicked 'water dilemmas' requires an understanding of the context within which they are embedded. This study explored perceptions of the ecosystem in terms of resilience and the governance approaches employed through a content analysis of documents from seven case studies across the globe. Analytical constructs developed for resilience and governance approaches guided the exploration. Multiple resilience types were present in documents for each case, but few patterns emerged across cases. Governance approaches were strongly focused on state approaches in most cases. A relationship between resilience type and governance approach was not clear; however, a pattern emerged between the presence of the social-ecological resilience type and non-state-centred governance forms. The type of author (government, non-government) or the type of document (research and advisory, descriptive) were not found to mediate the findings as resilience framings varied considerably and state governance approaches were emphasised throughout. As the findings stand in contrast to contemporary scholarship on understanding ecosystems and environmental governance they raise important issues to which individuals must be cognizant when accessing documents for guidance. They also open avenues for future investigation of water dilemmas at the nexus of theory, policy and practice.

  • 27.
    Plummer, Ryan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Brock University, Canada.
    Baird, Julia
    Bullock, Ryan
    Dzyundzyak, Angela
    Dupont, Diane
    Gerger Swartling, Åsa
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Johannessen, Åse
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Huitema, Dave
    Lyth, Anna
    de Lourdes Melo Zurita, Maria
    Munaretto, Stefania
    Smith, Timothy
    Thomsen, Dana
    Flood Governance: A multiple country comparison of stakeholder perceptions and aspirations2018In: Environmental Policy and Governance, ISSN 1756-932X, E-ISSN 1756-9338, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 67-81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flooding is routinely among the most disastrous annual events worldwide with extensive impacts on human wellbeing, economies and ecosystems. Thus, how decisions are made about floods (i.e. flood governance) is extremely important and evidence shows that it is changing, with non-governmental actors (civil society and the private sector) becoming involved in new and sometimes hybrid governance arrangements. This study investigates how stakeholders perceive floods to be governed and how they believe decision-making ought to occur, with the intent of determining to what extent changing governance is evident on the ground and how well (or poorly) it aligns with desired governance arrangements. Flood governance stakeholders were surveyed in five flood-prone geographical areas from Australia, Canada, Italy, the Netherlands and Sweden. The findings suggest that a reconfiguration of flood governance is underway with relatively little consensus regarding the specific arrangements and mechanisms in place during this transitionary period. Across the five cases, stakeholders indicated that they wanted flood governance to be organized at multiple levels, with strong government involvement and with diverse actor groups, and through mechanisms that match the involvement of these actors, with a lack of desirability for some specific configurations involving the private sector in particular. There was little alignment between stakeholder perceptions of governance currently in place and their desired arrangements, except for government involvement. Future research directions highlight the importance of the inclusion of stakeholder perspectives in assessing flood governance, and following the transition in flood governance over time.

  • 28.
    Plummer, Ryan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Brock University, Canada.
    Baird, Julia
    Dzyundzyak, Angela
    Armitage, Derek
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Schultz, Lisen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Is Adaptive Co-management Delivering? Examining Relationships Between Collaboration, Learning and Outcomes in UNESCO Biosphere Reserves2017In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 140, p. 79-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines relationships among perceived processes and outcomes in four UNESCO biosphere reserves (BRs). BRs offer a unique opportunity to examine these relationships because they aim to foster more adaptive and collaborative forms of management, i.e. adaptive co-management (ACM). Accounting for the outcomes of ACM is a difficult task and little progress has been made to this end. However, we show here that ACM efforts in all four BRs had a myriad of positive results as well as ecological and livelihood effects. Process variables of collaboration and learning explained over half (54.6%) of the variability in results and over one third (35.1%) of the variability in effects. While the overall models for outcomes and subsequent process were not significant, the regressions revealed predictive potential for both process variables. Our analysis highlights that a better process is associated with more positive outcomes and that collaboration and learning make unique contributions to outcomes. Opportunities for quantitative techniques to be utilized in understanding, the dynamics of ACM are illustrated. Understanding relationships between process and outcomes (and vice versa) provides a sound basis to answer critiques, enhances accountability, and maximizes the potential of positive impacts for ecosystems and humans.

  • 29.
    Plummer, Ryan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Brock University, Canada.
    Baird, Julia
    Krievins, Katrina
    Mitchell, Simon J.
    Improving river health: insights into initiating collaboration in a transboundary river basin2016In: International Journal of River Basin Management, ISSN 1571-5124, E-ISSN 1814-2060, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 119-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    River health is a concern worldwide. Governance of river basins is particularly complicated when they are large scale and cross jurisdictional boundaries. Past approaches to making decisions in transboundary basins are limited and attention is increasingly being focused on the potential of collaboration. This research investigates the initiation phase of a collaborative conservation project (WWF-Canada Freshwater Program, St. John River project) in the St. John River Basin of Canada. A social-ecological inventory technique and social network analysis are used to identify the actors in the transboundary basin and their activities, perceptions and connections to river health, relationship with other stakeholders, and actual engagement with a milestone event in the project. Insights gained from exploring the relationships between/among these variables highlight the complicated nature of initiating collaboration. A common understanding of river health and a strong structure of connected actors were encouraging signs that collaboration may flourish, while the assertion of power and context surrounding the initiative were found to mediate its possibility. The collaborative potential of conservation projects in large-scale transboundary river basins may be enhanced through such research and by actively applying these insights.

  • 30.
    Plummer, Ryan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Brock University, Canada .
    de Grosbois, Danuta
    Armitage, Derek
    de Loe, Rob C.
    An integrative assessment of water vulnerability in First Nation communities in Southern Ontario, Canada2013In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 749-763Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessing vulnerability related to water is a global concern and especially important to populations experiencing multiple exposures and sensitivities. Approaches are required that span social and physical concerns, and that bridge multiple types and forms of knowledge. This research investigates the water vulnerability of three First Nation communities in Ontario, Canada. A collaborative process was used to build an integrative understanding of water vulnerability, develop an associated instrument, and undertake the community scale assessments. Results from the assessment provided communities with a comprehensive overview of water vulnerability, and pointed to gaps in knowledge and specific areas where attention was needed. Conducting assessments at a community scale following the methodology employed in this research responds to the need for integration and context sensitivity when engaging in water vulnerability assessments and introduces innovations to existing assessment tools. A holistic approach to water vulnerability assessment provided decision-makers with the context-specific details and empirical insights they require to prioritize issues and allocate resources.

  • 31.
    Plummer, Ryan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Brock University, Canada.
    Dzyundzyak, Angela
    Baird, Julia
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Armitage, Derek
    Schultz, Lisen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    How do environmental governance processes shape evaluation of outcomes by stakeholders? A causal pathways approach2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 9, article id e0185375Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multi-stakeholder environmental management and governance processes are essential to realize social and ecological outcomes. Participation, collaboration, and learning are emphasized in these processes; to gain insights into how they influence stakeholders' evaluations of outcomes in relation to management and governance interventions we use a path analysis approach to examine their relationships in individuals in four UNESCO Biosphere Reserves. We confirm a model showing that participation in more activities leads to greater ratings of process, and in turn, better evaluations of outcomes. We show the effects of participation in activities on evaluation of outcomes appear to be driven by learning more than collaboration. Original insights are offered as to how the evaluations of outcomes by stakeholders are shaped by their participation in activities and their experiences in management and governance processes. Understanding stakeholder perceptions about the processes in which they are involved and their evaluation of outcomes is imperative, and influences current and future levels of engagement. As such, the evaluation of outcomes themselves are an important tangible product from initiatives. Our research contributes to a future research agenda aimed at better understanding these pathways and their implications for engagement in stewardship and ultimately social and ecological outcomes, and to developing recommendations for practitioners engaged in environmental management and governance.

  • 32. van Tol Smit, Elaine
    et al.
    de Loe, Rob
    Plummer, Ryan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of Waterloo, Canada; Brock University, Canada.
    How knowledge is used in collaborative environmental governance: water classification in New Brunswick, Canada2015In: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559, Vol. 58, no 3, p. 423-444Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Collaboration is an increasingly important approach to dealing with complex environmental challenges. Participation of diverse actors in collaborative processes necessitates attention to the use of different forms of knowledge. We use a multi-case study of governance for water in New Brunswick, Canada, to explore knowledge-related concerns that are prominent in collaborative processes. As is common in other contexts, local or lay (experiential) forms of knowledge appeared to play complementary but ultimately subordinate roles to expert technical and scientific knowledge in the cases. Importantly, we found that the distinction between 'expert' and 'local' knowledge was not at all clear for the many participants. This study reinforces the importance of designing reflexive and flexible processes for encouraging the active engagement and use of knowledge in collaboration.

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