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  • 1.
    Almquist, Ylva B.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Edling, Christofer
    Rydgren, Jens
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Friendship network characteristics and psychological well-being in late adolescence: Exploring differences by gender and gender composition2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 146-154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: The aim of the present study was to examine the association between friendship networks and psychological well-being among 19-year-olds. Methods: The data used was a random sample of Swedish individuals born in 1990 who answered a questionnaire in 2009-2010. Friendship networks were considered in terms of three measures of emotional support. Six statements about the individual's emotional state were used to create a summary measure of psychological well-being. Gender and gender composition were included as potentially moderating factors. The association between friendship networks and psychological well-being was analysed by means of linear regression analysis (n = 1289). Results: The results indicate that males' and females' friendship networks were similar with regard to quality and trust, whereas males' networks were characterized by less self-disclosure and a stronger preference for same-gender friendships. Gender composition did not matter for the support levels. Emotional support was associated with psychological well-being but there were gender differences: females seemed to benefit more health-wise from having high-quality (and trusting) networks. Moreover, whereas self-disclosure among males was positively linked to well-being, this was not the case among females. None of these associations were moderated by gender composition. Conclusions: In sum, friendship networks are beneficial for the psychological well-being among late adolescents, but there are some important differences according to gender.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Anton
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Edling, Christofer
    Rydgren, Jens
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    In Sweden we shake hands - but are we really?2017In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 54, no 4, p. 377-381Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Motivated by a recent controversy over handshaking, a survey of the personal networks of young Swedes (n=2244) is used to describe greeting practices across social class, gender, immigrant background, and geographic location. While greeting practices in the sample are fairly uniform, there are also important differences. Handshaking is predominantly used by respondents with an immigrant background, men and women distinguish between greetings depending on the gender of the person they are greeting, and greeting practices differ between northern and southern Sweden as well as between rural and urban areas.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Anton
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Edling, Christofer
    Rydgren, Jens
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    The intersection of class origin and immigration background in structuring social capital: The role of transnational tiesIn: British Journal of Sociology, ISSN 0007-1315, E-ISSN 1468-4446Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study investigates inequalities in access to social capital based on social class origin and immigration background and examines the role of transnational ties in explaining these differences. Social capital is measured with a position generator methodology that separates between national and transnational contacts in a sample of young adults in Sweden with three parental backgrounds: at least one parent born in Iran or Yugoslavia, or two Sweden-born parents. The results show that having socioeconomically advantaged parents is associated with higher levels of social capital. Children of immigrants are found to have a greater access to social capital compared to individuals with native background, and the study shows that this is related to transnational contacts, parents’ education and social class in their country of origin. Children of immigrants tend to have more contacts abroad, while there is little difference in the amount of contacts living in Sweden across the three groups. It is concluded that knowledge about immigration group resources help us predict its member’s social capital, but that the analysis also needs to consider how social class trajectories and migration jointly structure national and transnational contacts.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Anton
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Edling, Christofer
    Rydgren, Jens
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    The intersection of class origin and immigration background in structuring social capital: the role of transnational ties2018In: British Journal of Sociology, ISSN 0007-1315, E-ISSN 1468-4446, Vol. 69, no 1, p. 99-123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study investigates inequalities in access to social capital based on social class origin and immigration background and examines the role of transnational ties in explaining these differences. Social capital is measured with a position generator methodology that separates between national and transnational contacts in a sample of young adults in Sweden with three parental backgrounds: at least one parent born in Iran or Yugoslavia, or two Sweden-born parents. The results show that having socioeconomically advantaged parents is associated with higher levels of social capital. Children of immigrants are found to have a greater access to social capital compared to individuals with native background, and the study shows that this is related to transnational contacts, parents' education and social class in their country of origin. Children of immigrants tend to have more contacts abroad, while there is little difference in the amount of contacts living in Sweden across the three groups. It is concluded that knowledge about immigration group resources help us predict its member's social capital, but that the analysis also needs to consider how social class trajectories and migration jointly structure national and transnational contacts.

  • 5.
    Barclay, Kieron J.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Edling, Christofer
    Rydgren, Jens
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Peer clustering of exercise and eating behaviours among young adults in Sweden: a cross-sectional study of egocentric network data2013In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 13, p. 784-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Research suggests that the growing prevalence of obesity may be related to the influence of the health behaviours of peers. We look at clustering of exercise and eating behaviours amongst a previously unstudied group, young adults in Sweden. Previous research has mainly been conducted in the United States and Britain, countries that have relatively high rates of obesity. Methods: Using ego-alter dyads from the egocentric network data as the unit of analysis, we conduct logistic regressions to investigate the association between ego and alter exercise and eating behaviours. Results: Respondents have a significantly greater probability of engaging in regular exercise and eating healthily if a nominated peer also does so. Furthermore, the degree to which this behavior is shared is modulated by the strength of the relationship between the two individuals, with a greater probability of engaging in these behaviours observed when the relationship with the nominated peer is strong relative to when the relationship is weak. However, we find that ego-alter homogeneity in terms of gender and migration status was not associated with a significantly greater probability of behaving in a similar manner to a nominated peer. Furthermore, the status of the nominated peer as a relative or not did not impact the probability that the ego would engage in similar health behaviours to that alter. Conclusions: We observe strong associations between ego and alter health behaviours for young adults, consistent with previous research. Although we cannot draw causal inferences, these results suggest that the health behaviours of an individual's peers may play a role in shaping their own health behaviours.

  • 6.
    Edling, Christofer
    et al.
    Lunds universitet, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Farkas, Gergei
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Rydgren, Jens
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Women in Power: Sex Differences in Swedish Local Elite NetworksArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Women occupy a small minority of elite positions in contemporary society. In addition, the minority of women who gain access to influential elite-positions are often assumed to have their actual influence circumscribed by mechanisms of marginalization. However, systematic evidence to support the latter view is relatively scarce. We apply social network analysis to study sex differences in local elite networks in Sweden, and show empirically that despite the fact that women are the minority group across all elite dimensions; female elites uphold the same “structural status” as male elites.

  • 7.
    Edling, Christofer
    et al.
    Department of Sociology, Lund University.
    Farkas, Gergei
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Rydgren, Jens
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Women in power: Sex differences in Swedish local elite networks2013In: Acta Sociologica, ISSN 0001-6993, E-ISSN 1502-3869, Vol. 56, no 1, p. 21-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Women occupy a small minority of elite positions in contemporary society. In addition, the minority of women who gain access to influential elite positions are often assumed to have their actual influence circumscribed by mechanisms of marginalization. However, systematic evidence to support the latter view is relatively scarce. We apply social network analysis to study sex differences in local elite networks in Sweden, and show empirically that, despite the fact that women are the minority group across all elite dimensions, female elites uphold the same 'structural status' as male elites.

  • 8.
    Edling, Christofer R.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Farkas, Gergei M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Rydgren, Jens
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Integration of the Swedish Local Elite: The Role of Professional and Private Networks2015In: Scandinavian Political Studies, ISSN 0080-6757, E-ISSN 1467-9477, Vol. 38, no 1, p. 49-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article uses social network data to study the integration of local elites in four Swedish municipalities. Four research questions are asked. First: How integrated are the elites? While the results modify the picture that there are two rather distinct elites in Sweden - that is, a political elite dominated by the labour movement and an economic elite dominated by business and the large business organizations - it is interesting to note that integration between elite spheres is lowest for the relation between politicians and business representatives. To a considerable degree, integration between political and economic elites is indirect, mediated through the administrative elite. The second question is: Are the inner elite circles dominated by the political, economic or administrative elite? The study indicates that local elites in Sweden are strongly dominated by political elites, and also by administrative elites. This is reassuring, since it would indicate a democratic deficit if the structural power of decision making in municipalities resided predominantly in economic actors and administrators. The third question is: What is the role of friendship relations in creating elite integration? The study indicates that private relations among elites both reinforce professional networks and extend them in important ways. The final question is: Is elite integration contingent on political stability and/or the structure of local business? The results are surprisingly stable across the four municipalities, even though the largest distinction was found between elite core and periphery in the politically most stable municipality, which was also the one with the lowest economic diversity.

  • 9.
    Edling, Christofer
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Rydgren, Jens
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Die Analytische Soziologie in der Diskussion: Auf der Suche nach Identität. Analytische Soziologie und die Makro-Mikro-Verbindung2010In: Die Analytische Soziologie in der Diskussion / [ed] Thomas Kron & Thomas Grund, Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, 2010, p. 115-132Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Edling, Christofer
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Rydgren, JensStockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Social handling och sociala relationer2007Collection (editor) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 11. Edling, Christofer
    et al.
    Rydgren, Jens
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Social nätverksteori2007In: Social handling och sociala relationer, Stockholm: Natur och kultur , 2007, p. 281-302Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 12.
    Edling, Christofer
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Rydgren, Jens
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Sociala handlingar och sociala relationer: En introduktion2007In: Social handling och sociala relationer, Stockholm: Natur och kultur , 2007, p. 13-23Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 13.
    Edling, Christofer
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Rydgren, Jens
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Sociological Insights of Great Thinkers2010Book (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Edling, Christofer
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Rydgren, JensStockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Sociological insights of great thinkers: sociology through literature, philosophy, and science2010Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Edling, Christofer
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Rydgren, Jens
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Spelteori2007In: Social handling och sociala relationer, Stockholm: Natur och kultur , 2007, p. 107-124Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 16. Edling, Christofer
    et al.
    Rydgren, Jens
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Bohman, Love
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Faith or Social Foci?: Happiness, Religion, and Social Networks in Sweden2014In: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672, Vol. 30, no 5, p. 615-626Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we study 19-year-olds in Sweden (n=2,942) with and without an immigration background (Iran, Yugoslavia, and Sweden). We follow-up on a recent study, which shows that religion and happiness tend to be positively associated at the individual level only in countries with high aggregate levels of religiosity and proposes that what affects happiness is not religiosity per se but conformity to the standard in one's country. We take these results a step further and study the relationship between religion and happiness across immigrant groups that have significantly different experiences of religion. Are we more likely to find a positive association between religion and happiness among young Swedes with parents born in Iran and Yugoslavia than among those with two Sweden-born parents? And do these associations depend on their sense of affiliation with Sweden? We argue that there are strong theoretical reasons to assume that previous results also apply to the observed association between religious networks and happiness, and we study to what extent previous results can be generalized to societies like Sweden, which has a very low aggregate level of religiosity, and whether that effect differs by immigration background. The results show that religion and religiousness per se have little impact on happiness. In particular, we find that social networks tend to be positively associated with happiness, and that this effect is driven by co-organizational membership among friends.

  • 17. Edling, Christofer
    et al.
    Rydgren, Jens
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Sandell, Rickard
    Terrorism, Belief Formation, and Residential Integration: Population Dynamics in the Aftermath of the 2004 Madrid Terror Bombings2016In: American Behavioral Scientist, ISSN 0002-7642, E-ISSN 1552-3381, Vol. 60, no 10, p. 1215-1231Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we study the effects of the 2004 terrorist bombings in Madrid on ethnic segregation in Spain. Using large-scale Spanish register data consisting of information on 5.4 million international migration events on a monthly basis and 13.9 million intermunicipal migration events, of which 3.8 million events concern the foreign-born population's internal migration within Spain, the analyses show that ethnic segregation increased (i.e., the average geographical distance) between Arab immigrants and native Spaniards shortly after the terror bombing, but that no such effect was found for other immigrant groups. The analysis also shows that this was a relative short-term effect: After about 1 or 2 years, ethnic segregation started to decline again (and thus resumed the declining trend that was observed during the years before the terrorist bombing). We interpret these results in terms of belief formation mechanisms. Because of priming and framing effects, the terrorist bombings accentuated the salience of ethnic categorizations and induced threat-attributing ethnic stereotypes, which were influencing migration behaviors. However, not only did native Spaniards become more reluctant to live in close proximity to Arab immigrants, Arab migrants also became more inclined to move closer to coethnics, possibly because of a perceived threat to become victims of discriminatory behaviors of the majority population. Priming and framing affects abated after a while, and migration behaviors started to return to normal again. Finally, we discuss a variety of survey data to substantiate the argument that belief formation mechanisms played an important role in these processes.

  • 18. Elgenius, Gabriella
    et al.
    Rydgren, Jens
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    The Sweden Democrats and the ethno-nationalist rhetoric of decay and betrayal2017In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 54, no 4, p. 353-358Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden was long considered an exceptional case with no representatives of the radical right in parliament. However, the Sweden Democrats (SD) entered parliament in the 2010 parliamentary election, pointing towards the demand for ethnic nationalism also in Sweden. This article explores the party's rhetoric with particular references to the politics of decay and betrayal and its construction of a Swedish golden age. The rhetoric of decay echoes the ethnicity-based nationalisms articulated in other parts of Europe alongside nationalist claims of homogenous origins, a common destiny and an inherited social solidarity. The empirical material consists of political election programs since 1989 (SD 1989), high profile speeches and the party journal (SD Kuriren).

  • 19.
    Farkas, Gergei
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Edling, Christofer
    Lunds universitet, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Rydgren, Jens
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Integration of the Swedish Local Elite: The Role of Professional and Friendship NetworksArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present paper we study local elite integration from a social network analytic perspective in Sweden, at the municipal level of political administration. The elites’ overall integration, the significance of informal personal relations for elite integration, and the role of political stability for elite integration are among the study’s main research questions. Empirically the study draws upon original data collected from positional samples of local elites (politicians, civil servants, business representatives, etc.) in four mid-sized Swedish municipalities. Overall the results indicate that local elites in Sweden are well integrated into one fairly unified social entity, structurally ordered around tightly connected social cores of high-ranking politicians and civil servants. We discuss the results and their significance in relation to elite integration’s importance as far as the functioning of democratic institutions is concerned, and also with reference to the common understanding of Sweden having a dual elite structure.

  • 20.
    Goldschmidt, Tina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Hällsten, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Rydgren, Jens
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Are They Hunkering Down? Revisiting the Relationship between Exposure to Ethnic Diversity, Intergroup Contact, and Group TrustManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Past research suggests that the migration-induced diversification of everyday living spaces creates uncertainty about shared norms and rules of engagement, leading individuals to “hunker down” and become distrustful. Theory distinguishes between mere exposure and actual contact effects. For mere exposure, the assumption is that ethnic diversity matters even in the absence of one-on-one interactions, as observing the unknown from afar will serve to activate negative prejudice which lowers trust. But diverse environments may also provide opportunities for positive contact, leading individuals to revise their distrust. Improving upon existing studies, we investigate simultaneously the association between group trust and diversity via static and cumulative mere exposure in the neighborhood setting and actual intergroup contact at the workplace, relying on administrative register data rather than self-reporting for our main predictors. We find that trust in neighbors is significantly negatively associated with cumulative exposure to ethnic diversity, while the widely-used measure of current exposure shows no effect. Workplace contact neither has a statistically significant association with trust in neighbors, nor does it mediate the negative association between neighborhood exposure and trust. We thus find some support for the hunkering down hypothesis, but also find that it takes much more precise measures of exposure than studies commonly use to reliably establish this effect.

  • 21.
    Goldschmidt, Tina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Rydgren, Jens
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Social Distance, Immigrant Integration, and Welfare Chauvinism in SwedenManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Populist radical right-wing parties across Europe garner support for welfare chauvinistic promises to limit government spending on immigrants and focus on natives’ welfare instead. However, most research on the so-called immigration-welfare nexus does not study welfare chauvinism but instead focuses on generalized support for the welfare state. Using Swedish register-linked survey data from 2013, we study three hypothetical pathways into welfare chauvinism: via ethnic prejudice, operationalized as a desire for social distance; via the direct experience of immigrant unemployment and putative welfare receipt in the neighborhood context; and via immigrant competition at the workplace. Based on our sample of native-born Swedes, we find that both negative prejudice and the share of unemployed immigrants among the neighborhood population provide two distinct and independent routes into chauvinism, while workplace competition does not.

  • 22.
    Hällsten, Martin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Edling, Christofer
    Rydgren, Jens
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Social capital, friendship networks, and youth unemployment2017In: Social Science Research, ISSN 0049-089X, E-ISSN 1096-0317, Vol. 61, p. 234-250Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Youth unemployment is a contemporary social problem in many societies. Youths often have limited access to information about jobs and limited social influence, yet little is known about the relationship between social capital and unemployment risk among youth. We study the effect of social capital on unemployment risk in a sample of 19 year olds of Swedish, Iranian, and Yugoslavian origin living in Sweden (N = 1590). We distinguish between two dimensions of social capital: occupational contact networks and friendship networks. First, ego's unemployment is found to be strongly associated with friends' unemployment among individuals of Yugoslavian origins and individuals of Swedish origin, but not Iranian origin. Second, occupational contact networks reduce unemployment risks for all groups, but especially so for Iranians. The effect sizes of the two dimensions are similar and substantial: going from low to high values on these measures is associated with a difference of some 60-70 percent relative difference in unemployment risk. The findings are robust to a number of different model specifications, including a rich set of social origin controls, personality traits, educational performance, friends' characteristics, and friendship network characteristics, as well as controls for geographical employment patterns. A sensitivity simulation shows that homogeneity bias need to be very strong to explain away the effect.

  • 23.
    Hällsten, Martin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Edling, Christofer
    Rydgren, Jens
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    The acculturation in Sweden of adolescents of Iranian and Yugoslavian origin2018In: Acta Sociologica, ISSN 0001-6993, E-ISSN 1502-3869, Vol. 61, no 2, p. 163-181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethnic acculturation in a sample of 19-year-old individuals of Yugoslavian and Iranian origin in contemporary Sweden was studied, with a focus on how acculturation is contingent on social structure and social context. Acculturation was measured as orientation to the majority and the parental culture of origin. The results suggest, first, that the two dimensions are weakly but positively correlated, meaning that acculturation identity does not involve any trade-offs, as new strands of oppositional culture theory suggest. Second, it was found that ethnic closure in friendship networks is positively associated with orientations to parents' culture and negatively with orientations to Swedish culture. Individuals with a rich occupational social contact network tended to be orientated towards both the majority and the parental culture. There was a marked social difference between the most disadvantaged social class and all other classes, with the former being less oriented to both cultures compared to more advantaged classes.

  • 24.
    Hällsten, Martin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Edling, Christofer
    Rydgren, Jens
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    The effects of specific occupations in position generator measures of social capital2015In: Social Networks, ISSN 0378-8733, E-ISSN 1879-2111, Vol. 40, p. 55-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The position generator is a widespread method for measuring latent social capital in which respondents are queried about contacts on a list of occupations predefined by the analyst. We separate out the unique contribution of each occupation to aggregated measures of social capital. It turns out that this contribution varies vastly: knowing a person in some occupations provides substance to measures of social capital, while knowing a person in a few occupations is irrelevant and contributes statistical noise and causes attenuation bias. We discuss the implication of our findings for the design of position generator measures generally.

  • 25.
    Miething, Alexander
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Almquist B., Ylva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Edling, Christofer
    Rydgren, Jens
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Friendship trust and psychological well-being from late adolescence to early adulthood: A structural equation modeling approach2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 45, no 3, p. 244-252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: This study explored the sex-specific associations between friendship trust and the psychological well-being of young Swedes from late adolescence to early adulthood. Methods: A random sample of native Swedes born in 1990 was surveyed at age 19 years and again at age 23 years regarding their own well-being and their relationships with a maximum of five self-named peers. The response rate was 31.3%, resulting in 782 cases to be analysed. We used sex-stratified structural equation models to explore the associations between trust and well-being. Psychological well-being was constructed as the latent variable in the measurement part. The structural part accounted for the autocorrelation of trust with respect to well-being over time and incorporated the cross-lagged effects between late adolescence and early adulthood. Results: It was found that trust increased while well-being decreased for young men and remained stable for young women from 19 to 23 years of age. The young women reported lower well-being at both time points, whereas no sex difference was found for trust. Based on model fit comparisons, a simple model without forward or reward causation was accepted for young men, whereas reversed causation from well-being to trust was suggested for young women. Subsequent analysis based on these assumptions confirmed the reversed effect for young women. Conclusions: The findings suggest that young people do not benefit from trustful social relations to the same extent as adult populations. Young women who express impaired well-being run a greater risk of being members of networks characterized by low friendship trust over time.

  • 26.
    Miething, Alexander
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Almquist, Ylva B.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Edling, Christofer
    Rydgren, Jens
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Friendship networks and psychological well-being from late adolescence to young adulthood: A gender-specific structural equation modeling approach2016In: BMC Psychology, E-ISSN 2050-7283, Vol. 4, article id 34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The importance of supportive social relationships for psychological well-being has been previously recognized, but the direction of associations between both dimensions and how they evolve when adolescents enter adulthood have scarcely been addressed. The present study aims to examine the gender-specific associations between self-reported friendship network quality and psychological well-being of young people during the transition from late adolescence to young adulthood by taking into account the direction of association.

    Methods

    A random sample of Swedes born in 1990 were surveyed at age 19 and again at age 23 regarding their own health and their relationships with a maximum of five self-nominated friends. The response rate was 55.3 % at baseline and 43.7 % at follow-up, resulting in 772 cases eligible for analysis. Gender-specific structural equation modeling was conducted to explore the associations between network quality and well-being. The measurement part included a latent measure of well-being, whereas the structural part accounted for autocorrelation for network quality and for well-being over time and further examined the cross-lagged associations.

    Results

    The results show that network quality increased while well-being decreased from age 19 to age 23. Females reported worse well-being at both time points, whereas no gender differences were found for network quality. Network quality at age 19 predicted network quality at age 23, and well-being at age 19 predicted well-being at age 23. The results further show positive correlations between network quality and well-being for males and females alike. The strength of the correlations diminished over time but remained significant at age 23. Simultaneously testing social causation and social selection in a series of competing models indicates that while there were no cross-lagged associations among males, there was a weak reverse association between well-being at age 19 and network quality at age 23 among females.

    Conclusions

    The study contributes to the understanding of the direction of associations between friendship networks and psychological well-being from late adolescence to young adulthood by showing that while these dimensions are closely intertwined among males and females alike, females’ social relationships seem to be more vulnerable to changes in health status.

  • 27.
    Miething, Alexander
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Edling, Christofer
    Rydgren, Jens
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    The influence of social network characteristics on peer clustering in smoking: A two-wave panel study of 19- and 23-year-old Swedes2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 10, article id e0164611Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives

    The present study examines how the composition of social networks and perceived relationship content influence peer clustering in smoking, and how the association changes during the transition from late adolescence to early adulthood.

    Methods

    The analysis was based on a Swedish two-wave survey sample comprising ego-centric network data. Respondents were 19 years old in the initial wave, and 23 when the follow-up sample was conducted. 17,227 ego-alter dyads were included in the analyses, which corresponds to an average response rate of 48.7 percent. Random effects logistic regression models were performed to calculate gender-specific average marginal effects of social network characteristics on smoking.

    Results

    The association of egos’ and alters’ smoking behavior was confirmed and found to be stronger when correlated in the female sample. For females, the associations decreased between age 19 and 23. Interactions between network characteristics and peer clustering in smoking showed that intense social interactions with smokers increase egos’ smoking probability. The influence of network structures on peer clustering in smoking decreased during the transition from late adolescence to early adulthood.

    Conclusions

    The study confirmed peer clustering in smoking and revealed that females’ smoking behavior in particular is determined by social interactions. Female smokers’ propensity to interact with other smokers was found to be associated with the quality of peer relationships, frequent social interactions, and network density. The influence of social networks on peer clustering in smoking decreased during the transition from late adolescence to early adulthood.

  • 28.
    Miething, Alexander
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Rydgren, Jens
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Access to occupational networks and ethnic variation of depressive symptoms in young adults in Sweden2017In: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 190, p. 207-216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social capital research has recognized the relevance of occupational network contacts for individuals’ life chances and status attainment, and found distinct associations dependent on ethnic background. A still fairly unexplored area is the health implications of occupational networks. The current approach thus seeks to study the relationship between access to occupational social capital and depressive symptoms in early adulthood, and to examine whether the associations differ between persons with native Swedish parents and those with parents born in Iran and the former Yugoslavia.

    The two-wave panel comprised 19- and 23-year-old Swedish citizens whose parents were born in either Sweden, Iran or the former Yugoslavia. The composition of respondents’ occupational networks contacts was measured with a so-called position generator. Depressive symptoms were assessed with a two-item depression screener. A population-averaged model was used to estimate the associations between depressive symptoms and access to occupational contact networks.

    Similar levels of depressive symptoms in respondents with parents born in Sweden and Yugoslavia were contrasted by a notably higher prevalence of these conditions in those with an Iranian background. After socioeconomic conditions were adjusted for, regression analysis showed that the propensity for depressive symptoms in women with an Iranian background increased with a higher number of manual class contacts, and decreased for men and women with Iranian parents with a higher number of prestigious occupational connections. The respective associations in persons with native Swedish parents and parents from the former Yugoslavia are partly reversed.

    Access to occupational contact networks, but also perceived ethnic identity, explained a large portion of the ethnic variation in depression. Mainly the group with an Iranian background seems to benefit from prestigious occupational contacts. Among those with an Iranian background, social status concerns and expected marginalization in manual class occupations may have contributed to their propensity for depressive symptoms.

  • 29.
    Mollenhorst, Gerald
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. University of Utrecht, Netherlands .
    Edling, Christofer
    Rydgren, Jens
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Psychological Well-Being and Brokerage in Friendship Networks of Young Swedes2015In: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 123, no 3, p. 897-917Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    All ethnic groups have norms and values according to which one is expected to behave. Immigrants in particular have personal networks that simultaneously consist of co-ethnics and friends of a different ethnic background. As a consequence, they may be accustomed to the behavior, norms, and values of their own ethnic group, and also be expected to behave according to those of another ethnic group. This may either lead to ego-gratification and the strengthening and enrichment of their personality, or to feelings of stress and non-acceptance if they cannot behave fully in accordance with the expectations of their friends. This study addresses the association between interethnic open triads in networks (i.e., brokerage) and individual psychological well-being. That is, we examine whether having intra-ethnic and interethnic relationships with friends who are not also friends with each other, is either positively or negatively associated with psychological well-being. Using (network) data from a large sample (N = 2,942; age = 19) of native Swedes and first- and second-generation immigrants from former Yugoslavia and Iran (all born in 1990 and currently living in Sweden), we show that interethnic brokerage is negatively associated with psychological well-being, which implies that the different norms, values and corresponding behaviors that prevail in different ethnic groups to which the ethnic broker is connected may result in internal and external conflicts, to feelings that one is not fully accepted by any of these groups, and ultimately to a lower level of psychological well-being.

  • 30.
    Rostila, Mikael
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Almquist, Ylva B.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Edling, Christofer
    Rydgren, Jens
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Social Network Characteristics and Daily Smoking among Young Adults in Sweden2013In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 10, no 12, p. 6517-6533Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A large number of studies have shown that friends’ smoking behavior is strongly associated with an individual’s own risk for smoking. However, few studies have examined whether other features of social networks, independently or conjointly with friends’ smoking behavior, may influence the risk for smoking. Because it is characterized by the growing importance of friendship networks, the transition from adolescence to young adulthood may constitute a particularly relevant period on which to focus our investigation of network influences on smoking behavior. The aim of this study was therefore to examine the consequences of peer smoking as well as other network characteristics (friends’ other health behaviors, relationship content, and structural aspects of the network) on the risk for smoking among young adults. The data was based on a cross-sectional survey of Swedish 19-year-olds carried out in 2009 (n = 5,695) with a response rate of 51.6%. Logistic regression was the primary method of analysis. The results show that having a large percentage of smokers in one’s network was by far the most important risk factor for daily smoking. The risk of daily smoking was 21.20 (CI 14.24. 31.54) if 76%–100% of the network members smoked. Having a high percentage of physically active friends was inversely associated with daily smoking. The risk of smoking was 0.65 (CI 0.42. 1.00) if 76%–100% of the network members were physically active. No main associations between the other network characteristics (relationship content and structural aspects of the network) and smoking were found. However, there was an interaction between the percentage of smokers in the network and relationship content (i.e., trust, relationship quality and propensity to discuss problems): positive relationship content in combination with peer smoking may increase the risk of smoking. Women with a high percentage of smokers in their networks were also at higher risk of daily smoking than were men with many smoking friends. Hence, it is important to consider the interplay between peer smoking and other network characteristics on the risk of smoking, where features of networks which traditionally are seen as constructive may occasionally provide the impetus to smoke. Future studies should use longitudinal data to study whether these findings reflect peer selection or peer influence.

  • 31.
    Rydgren, Jens
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    A legacy of 'uncivicness'?: Social capital and radical right-wing populist voting in Eastern Europe2011In: Acta Politica, ISSN 0001-6810, E-ISSN 1741-1416, Vol. 46, no 2, p. 132-157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is focusing on radical right-wing populist voting in Eastern Europe, and shows that neither the mass society thesis nor the theory of social capital, in Putnam's tradition, has much explanatory value for explaining the support for radical right-wing populism. Individuals with low participation in civil society are shown not to be significantly more right-wing populist than others, so that participation in civil society organizations is not a shield against populism. That means, that claims that radical right-wing populism has risen in Eastern Europe over the past one and a half decades because of a weakly developed civil society, that is, because of a legacy of lack of civic virtues being born through participation in civil society organizations, must be questioned. Such claims are not finding support in the empirical results presented in this article.

  • 32.
    Rydgren, Jens
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Beliefs2009In: The Oxford Handbook of Analytical Sociology / [ed] Peter Hedström and Peter Bearman, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009, p. 72-93Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Rydgren, Jens
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Conformity2007In: International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, Blackwell. , 2007Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Rydgren, Jens
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Den radikala högerns sociologi2010In: Det vita fältet: Samtida forskning om högerextremism / [ed] Deland, Mats; Hertzberg, Fredrik och Hvitfeldt, Thomas, Uppsala: Opuscula Historica Upsaliensis , 2010Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Rydgren, Jens
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Immigration Sceptics, Xenophobes, or Racists?: Radical Right-wing Voting in Six West European Countries2008In: European Journal of Political Research, Vol. 47, p. 737-765Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Rydgren, Jens
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Introduction: Class Politics and the Radical Right 2012In: Class Politics and the Radical Right / [ed] Jens Rydgren, London: Routledge, 2012Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Rydgren, Jens
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Marcel Proust: On Social Status and Capital Forms2010In: Sociological Insights of Great Thinkers: Sociology Through Literature, Philosophy, and Science / [ed] Rydgren, Jens and Edling, Christofer, Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger , 2010Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Rydgren, Jens
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Radical right-wing parties in Europe What's populism got to do with it?2017In: Journal of Language and Politics, ISSN 1569-2159, E-ISSN 1569-9862, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 485-496Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper I discuss, critically, the literature on populism and the extent to which it applies to the contemporary radical right-wing parties in Europe. These parties are often - and increasingly - referred to as populist parties. I argue that it is misleading to label these parties 'populist parties', since populism is not the most pertinent feature of this party family. These parties are mainly defined by ethnic nationalism, and not a populist ideology. In their discourse they are primarily preoccupied with questions pertaining to national identity and national security - and their 'negative' doubles immigration, multiculturalism, Islamist threat - and they consistently pit 'the people' mainly against elites that they view as responsible for a cultural and political threat against their idealized image of their nation state. The ethnic nationalism of European radical right-wing parties is more important for their discourse and tends to influence the populist elements.

  • 39.
    Rydgren, Jens
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Radical Right-wing Populism in Denmark and Sweden: Explaining Party System Change and Stability2010In: The SAIS Review of International Affairs, Vol. XXX, no 1, p. 57-71Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Rydgren, Jens
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Radikal högerpopulism - ett hot mot EU:s sammanhållning i spåren av den ekonomiska krisen?2012In: Arbetslöshet, migrationspolitik och nationalism - hot mot EU:s sammanhållning? / [ed] Bakardjieva Engelbrekt, A., Oxelheim, L. and Persson, T., Stockholm: Santérus Förlag, 2012Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Rydgren, jens
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Shared beliefs about the past: toward a cognitive sociology of intersubjective memory2009In: The frontiers of sociology / [ed] Peter Hedström, Björn Wittrock, Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers, 2009Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Rydgren, Jens
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Social Isolation? Social Capital and Radical Right-Wing Voting in Western Europe2009In: Journal of Civil Society, ISSN 1744-8689, E-ISSN 1744-8697, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 129-150Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Rydgren, Jens
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Sweden: The Scandinavian Exception2007In: Twenty-first Century Populism: The Spectre of Western European Democracy, Palgrave , 2007Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Rydgren, Jens
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    The Front National and Populism in France2007In: Twenty-first Century Populism: The Spectre of Western European Democracy, Palgrave , 2007Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Rydgren, Jens
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    The Power of the Past: A Contribution to a Cognitive Sociology of Ethnic Conflict2007In: Sociological Theory, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 225-244Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Rydgren, Jens
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    The Sociology of the Radical Right2007In: Annual Review of Sociology, Vol. 33, p. 241-262Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Rydgren, Jens
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Xenophobia and Radical Right-wing Populism:  A Vicious Circle2011In: Rechtextremismus in Deutschland und Europa / [ed] Roberson-von Trotha, Baden-Baden: Nomos , 2011, p. 39-46Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Rydgren, Jens
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Edling, Christofer
    Introduction2011In: Sociological Insights of Great Thinkers: Sociology Through Literature, Philosophy, and Science / [ed] Christofer Edling and Jens Rydgren, Santa Barbara: Praeger, 2011Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Rydgren, Jens
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Edling, Christofer
    Socialt kapital och arbetsmarknadsintegration2009In: Intervjuaren, no 3, p. 6-8Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 50.
    Rydgren, Jens
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Ruth, Patrick
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Contextual explanations of radical right-wing support in Sweden: socioeconomic marginalization, group threat, and the halo effect2013In: Ethnic and Racial Studies, ISSN 0141-9870, E-ISSN 1466-4356, Vol. 36, no 4, p. 711-728Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides a thorough test of important contextual explanations of variation in electoral support for radical right-wing parties. It has been proposed that support of the radical right is particularly strong in areas that are socioeconomically poor and/or where the concentration of immigrants is high. A variant of the latter hypothesis, known as the halo effect', states that the propensity to vote for the radical right is highest in areas close to immigrant-dense areas, but not within these areas. The data analyses are based on the total population of voting districts in Sweden (N = 5,668), which makes it possible to avoid some of the problems that usually plague studies of contextual effects on voting, such as low numbers of observations. The results demonstrate support for the socioeconomic marginalization hypothesis and, when controlling for socioeconomic factors, the halo effect hypothesis; whereas the support for group threat theory is mixed.

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