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  • 1.
    Hosono, Chie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Matsuda, Ryo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Adryan, Boris
    Samakovlis, Christos
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute. University of Giessen, Germany.
    Transient junction anisotropies adjust 3-dimensional cell polarization to tissue geometryManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Hosono, Chie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Matsuda, Ryo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Adryan, Boris
    Samakovlis, Christos
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute. ECCPS, University of Giessen, Germany.
    Transient junction anisotropies orient annular cell polarization in the Drosophila airway tubes2015In: Nature Cell Biology, ISSN 1465-7392, E-ISSN 1476-4679, Vol. 17, no 12, 1569-1576 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In contrast to planes, three-dimensional (3D) structures such as tubes are physically anisotropic. Tubular organs exhibit a striking orientation of landmarks according to the physical anisotropy of the 3D shape(1-4), in addition to planar cell polarization(5,6). However, the influence of 3D tissue topography on the constituting cells remains underexplored(7-9). Here, we identify a regulatory network polarizing cellular biochemistry according to the physical anisotropy of the 3D tube geometry (tube cell polarization) by a genome-wide, tissue-specific RNAi screen. During Drosophila airway remodelling, each apical cellular junction is equipotent to establish perpendicular actomyosin cables, irrespective of the longitudinal or transverse tube axis. A dynamic transverse enrichment of atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) shifts the balance and transiently targets activated small GTPase RhoA, myosin phosphorylation and Rab11 vesicle trafficking to longitudinal junctions. We propose that the PAR complex translates tube physical anisotropy into longitudinal junctional anisotropy, where cell cell communication aligns the contractile cytoskeleton of neighbouring cells.

  • 3.
    Jayaram, S. A.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute .
    Tiklová, K.
    Samakovlis, C.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute .
    Selective requirement of a deacetylase domain for Emp24independent luminal secretion in the Drosophila tracheaManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Vermiform and Serpentine are secreted putative chitin deacetylases (ChLDs). They are deposited into the tracheal lumen to terminate tube elongation during morphogenesis. Deletion analysis of a Serp-GFP reporter had revealed that the deacetylase domain is essential for its luminal localization. We transferred the deacetylase domain from Serp to Gasp, another tracheal luminal protein, which requires the Emp24 adaptor for ER exit. The GaspDeac-GFP chimera was normally secreted in emp24 mutants indicating that the deacetylase domain contains potential ER-exit signals. To explore this possibility we identified and characterized conserved sequence motifs in Serp deacetylase domain. We generated amino acid substitution mutants altering the three putative Nglycosylation sites, the predicted enzymatic activity cluster and three phylogenetically conserved motifs. We tested the cellular localization of the constructs in S2 cultured cells and the trachea of transgenic Drosophila embryos. Residue substitutions in the putative catalytic site neither interfered with Serp secretion nor with its ability to rescue the tracheal tube elongation defects of serp mutants. Mutations of the N-glycosylation sites gradually reduced the luminal deposition of Serp-GFP constructs suggesting that increased glycosylation enhances apical Serp secretion. By contrast, substitutions in each of the three uncharacterized amino acid stretches completely blocked the ER-exit of Serp-GFP constructs. The mutated proteins were N-glycosylated suggesting that the motifs may be involved in a subsequent protein-folding step or facilitate ER exit through interactions with unidentified specific adaptors.

  • 4.
    Jayaram, Satish Arcot
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute .
    Senti, Kirsten-André
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute .
    Tiklová, Katarina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute .
    Tsarouhas, Vasilios
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute .
    Hemphälä, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute .
    Samakovlis, Christos
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute .
    COPI Vesicle Transport Is a Common Requirement for Tube Expansion in Drosophila2008In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 09 AprArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Tube expansion defects like stenoses and atresias cause devastating human diseases. Luminal expansion during organogenesis begins to be elucidated in several systems but we still lack a mechanistic view of the process in many organs. The Drosophila tracheal respiratory system provides an amenable model to study tube size regulation. In the trachea, COPII anterograde transport of luminal proteins is required for extracellular matrix assembly and the concurrent tube expansion.

    Principal Findings We identified and analyzed Drosophila COPI retrograde transport mutants with narrow tracheal tubes. γCOP mutants fail to efficiently secrete luminal components and assemble the luminal chitinous matrix during tracheal tube expansion. Likewise, tube extension is defective in salivary glands, where it also coincides with a failure in the luminal deposition and assembly of a distinct, transient intraluminal matrix. Drosophila γCOP colocalizes with cis-Golgi markers and in γCOP mutant embryos the ER and Golgi structures are severely disrupted. Analysis of γCOP and Sar1 double mutants suggests that bidirectional ER-Golgi traffic maintains the ER and Golgi compartments and is required for secretion and assembly of luminal matrixes during tube expansion.

    Conclusions/Significance Our results demonstrate the function of COPI components in organ morphogenesis and highlight the common role of apical secretion and assembly of transient organotypic matrices in tube expansion. Intraluminal matrices have been detected in the notochord of ascidians and zebrafish COPI mutants show defects in notochord expansion. Thus, the programmed deposition and growth of distinct luminal molds may provide distending forces during tube expansion in diverse organs.

  • 5. Krauss-Etschmann, Susanne
    et al.
    Bush, Andrew
    Bellusci, Saverio
    Brusselle, Guy G
    Erik K Dahlén, Sven
    Dehmel, Stefan
    Eickelberg, Oliver
    Gibson, Greg
    Hylkema, Machteld N
    Knaus, Petra
    Königshoff, Melanie
    Lloyd, Clare M
    Macciarini, Paolo
    Mailleux, Arnaud
    Marsland, Benjamin J
    Postma, Dirkje S
    Roberts, Graham
    Samakovlis, Christos
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Stocks, Janet
    Vandesompele, Joke
    Wjst, Matthias
    Holloway, John
    Of flies, mice and men: a systematic approach to understanding the early life origins of chronic lung disease2013In: Thorax, ISSN 0040-6376, E-ISSN 1468-3296, Vol. 68, no 4, 380-384 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite intensive research efforts, the aetiology of the majority of chronic lung diseases (CLD) in both, children and adults, remains elusive. Current therapeutic options are limited, providing only symptomatic relief, rather than treating the underlying condition, or preventing its development in the first place. Thus, there is a strong and unmet clinical need for the development of both, novel effective therapies and preventative strategies for CLD. Many studies suggest that modifications of prenatal and/or early postnatal lung development will have important implications for future lung function and risk of CLD throughout life. This view represents a fundamental change of current pathophysiological concepts and treatment paradigms, and holds the potential to develop novel preventative and/or therapeutic strategies. However, for the successful development of such approaches, key questions, such as a clear understanding of underlying mechanisms of impaired lung development, the identification and validation of relevant preclinical models to facilitate translational research, and the development of concepts for correction of aberrant development, all need to be solved. Accordingly, a European Science Foundation Exploratory Workshop was held where clinical, translational and basic research scientists from different disciplines met to discuss potential mechanisms of developmental origins of CLD, and to identify major knowledge gaps in order to delineate a roadmap for future integrative research.

  • 6.
    Matsuda, Ryo
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Hosono, Chie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Saigo, Kaoru
    Samakovlis, Christos
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute. University of Giessen, Germany.
    Antagonistic interactions between the Emx ortholog Empty spiracle with Wingless/WNT, Dpp/BMP and Hox proteins induce branch-specific apoptotic pruning in the Drosophila airwaysManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Matsuda, Ryo
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Hosono, Chie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Saigo, Kaoru
    Samakovlis, Christos
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute. University of Giessen, Germany.
    The Intersection of the Extrinsic Hedgehog and WNT/Wingless Signals with the Intrinsic Hox Code Underpins Branching Pattern and Tube Shape Diversity in the Drosophila Airways2015In: PLOS Genetics, ISSN 1553-7390, E-ISSN 1553-7404, Vol. 11, no 1, e1004929Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The tubular networks of the Drosophila respiratory system and our vasculature show distinct branching patterns and tube shapes in different body regions. These local variations are crucial for organ function and organismal fitness. Organotypic patterns and tube geometries in branched networks are typically controlled by variations of extrinsic signaling but the impact of intrinsic factors on branch patterns and shapes is not well explored. Here, we show that the intersection of extrinsic hedgehog(hh) and WNT/wingless (wg) signaling with the tube-intrinsic Hox code of distinct segments specifies the tube pattern and shape of the Drosophila airways. In the cephalic part of the airways, hh signaling induces expression of the transcription factor (TF) knirps (kni) in the anterior dorsal trunk (DTa1). kni represses the expression of another TF spalt major (salm), making DTa1 a narrow and long tube. In DTa branches of more posterior metameres, Bithorax Complex (BX-C) Hox genes autonomously divert hh signaling from inducing kni, thereby allowing DTa branches to develop as salm-dependent thick and short tubes. Moreover, the differential expression of BX-C genes is partly responsible for the anterior-to-posterior gradual increase of the DT tube diameter through regulating the expression level of Salm, a transcriptional target of WNT/wg signaling. Thus, our results highlight how tube intrinsic differential competence can diversify tube morphology without changing availabilities of extrinsic factors.

  • 8.
    Matsuda, Ryo
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Hosono, Chie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Samakovlis, Christos
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute. University of Giessen, Germany.
    Saigo, Kaoru
    A genetic basis for pluripotent versus differentiated cell fate selection during early development of the Drosophila airwaysManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Matsuda, Ryo
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Hosono, Chie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Samakovlis, Christos
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute. University of Giessen, Germany.
    Saigo, Kaoru
    Decapentaplegic/BMP and dEGFR promote the airway cell fate in DrosophilaManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Matsuda, Ryo
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Hosono, Chie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Samakovlis, Christos
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute. Stockholm University, Science for Life Laboratory (SciLifeLab). Justus Liebig University of Giessen, Germany.
    Saigo, Kaoru
    Multipotent versus differentiated cell fate selection in the developing Drosophila airways2015In: eLIFE, E-ISSN 2050-084X, Vol. 4, e09646Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Developmental potentials of cells are tightly controlled at multiple levels. The embryonic Drosophila airway tree is roughly subdivided into two types of cells with distinct developmental potentials: a proximally located group of multipotent adult precursor cells (P-fate) and a distally located population of more differentiated cells (D-fate). We show that the GATA-family transcription factor (TF) Grain promotes the P-fate and the POU-homeobox TF Ventral veinless (Vvl/Drifter/U-turned) stimulates the D-fate. Hedgehog and receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling cooperate with Vvl to drive the D-fate at the expense of the P-fate while negative regulators of either of these signaling pathways ensure P-fate specification. Local concentrations of Decapentaplegic/BMP, Wingless/Wnt, and Hedgehog signals differentially regulate the expression of D-factors and P-factors to transform an equipotent primordial field into a concentric pattern of radially different morphogenetic potentials, which gradually gives rise to the distal-proximal organization of distinct cell types in the mature airway.

  • 11.
    O'Farrell, Fergal
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute. University of Oslo.
    Wang, Shenqiu
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute. Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center .
    Katheder, Nadja
    Rusten, Tor Erik
    Samakovlis, Christos
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Two-Tiered Control of Epithelial Growth and Autophagy by the Insulin Receptor and the Ret-Like Receptor, Stitcher2013In: PLoS biology, ISSN 1544-9173, E-ISSN 1545-7885, Vol. 11, no 7, e1001612- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Body size in Drosophila larvae, like in other animals, is controlled by nutrition. Nutrient restriction leads to catabolic responses in the majority of tissues, but the Drosophila mitotic imaginal discs continue growing. The nature of these differential control mechanisms that spare distinct tissues from starvation are poorly understood. Here, we reveal that the Ret-like receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK), Stitcher (Stit), is required for cell growth and proliferation through the PI3K-I/TORC1 pathway in the Drosophila wing disc. Both Stit and insulin receptor (InR) signaling activate PI3K-I and drive cellular proliferation and tissue growth. However, whereas optimal growth requires signaling from both InR and Stit, catabolic changes manifested by autophagy only occur when both signaling pathways are compromised. The combined activities of Stit and InR in ectodermal epithelial tissues provide an RTK-mediated, two-tiered reaction threshold to varying nutritional conditions that promote epithelial organ growth even at low levels of InR signaling.

  • 12.
    Papadopoulos, Dimitrios K
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute .
    Skouloudaki, Kassiani
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute .
    Adachi, Yoshitsugu
    Samakovlis, Christos
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute .
    Gehring, Walter J
    Dimer formation via the homeodomain is required for function and specificity of Sex combs reduced in Drosophila.2012In: Developmental Biology, ISSN 0012-1606, E-ISSN 1095-564X, Vol. 367, no 1, 78-89 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hox transcription factors specify body segments along the anteroposterior axis of the embryo. Despite conservation of the homeodomain (HD), different Hox paralogs instruct remarkably different developmental fates. We have unexpectedly found that the Drosophila Sex combs reduced (Scr) protein dimerizes in vivo via the homeodomain, whereas its closest relative, Antennapedia (Antp), does not. Dimerization requires the conserved residue 19 in the ELEKEF motif of the HD and is facilitated by DNA binding. To study Scr dimerization in vivo, we generate a giant transcriptional puff in live salivary gland cells, consisting of a controllable multiple Scr-binding site of the fork head enhancer, and visualize Scr dimer formation upon specific DNA binding. Scr dimerization is required not only for transcriptional activation of the fork head gene but also for Scr homeotic function in the fly (formation of ectopic salivary glands, posterior transformations in the embryo and antenna-to-tarsus transformations). Finally, we attempt to attribute the differential behavior in dimer formation observed between Antp and Scr to diverse amino acid regions between the two proteins that account for dimerization in Scr versus non-dimerization in Antp. By constructing hybrid Antp proteins, we find that the C terminus and linker region between the YPWM motif and the HD of Scr are independently sufficient to confer dimer formation in Antp, whereas the long N terminus of the protein and the HD are largely dispensable. Our results indicate that Scr functions as a homodimer to increase its transcriptional specificity and suggest that the formation of HD homo- or heterodimers might underlie the functional distinction between very similar HD proteins in vivo.

  • 13.
    Tiklova, Katarina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Tsarouhas, Vasilios
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Samakovlis, Christos
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Control of Airway Tube Diameter and Integrity by Secreted Chitin-Binding Proteins in Drosophila2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 6, e67415- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The transporting function of many branched tubular networks like our lungs and circulatory system depend on the sizes and shapes of their branches. Understanding the mechanisms of tube size control during organ development may offer new insights into a variety of human pathologies associated with stenoses or cystic dilations in tubular organs. Here, we present the first secreted luminal proteins involved in tube diametric expansion in the Drosophila airways. obst-A and gasp are conserved among insect species and encode secreted proteins with chitin binding domains. We show that the widely used tracheal marker 2A12, recognizes the Gasp protein. Analysis of obst-A and gasp single mutants and obst-A; gasp double mutant shows that both genes are primarily required for airway tube dilation. Similarly, Obst-A and Gasp control epidermal cuticle integrity and larval growth. The assembly of the apical chitinous matrix of the airway tubes is defective in gasp and obst-A mutants. The defects become exaggerated in double mutants indicating that the genes have partially redundant functions in chitin structure modification. The phenotypes in luminal chitin assembly in the airway tubes are accompanied by a corresponding reduction in tube diameter in the mutants. Conversely, overexpression of Obst-A and Gasp causes irregular tube expansion and interferes with tube maturation. Our results suggest that the luminal levels of matrix binding proteins determine the extent of diametric growth. We propose that Obst-A and Gasp organize luminal matrix assembly, which in turn controls the apical shapes of adjacent cells during tube diameter expansion.

  • 14.
    Tiklová, Katarína
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute , Developmental Biology.
    Samakovlis, Christos
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute , Developmental Biology.
    Control of tube diameter expansion by secreted chitin-binding proteinsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The size and shape of epithelial tubes determine the transporting capacities of tubular organs. Here, we analyze two genes involved in airway tube size regulation in Drosophila. Obst-A and gasp encode secreted proteins with chitin binding domains that are conserved among insect species. mRNA in situ hybridizations show that both genes are strongly expressed during airway tube expansion. Gasp protein is secreted into the airway tubes and colocalizes with a chitin binding probe and other chitin binding proteins. Analysis of obst-A and gasp single mutants and obst-A; gasp double mutant shows that both genes are required for larval elongation and airway tube dilation. The assembly of the apical chitinous matrix of the airway tubes is defective in gasp and Obst-A mutants. The defects become exaggerated in double mutants indicating that the genes have partially redundant functions in chitin structure modification. The phenotypes in luminal chitin assembly in the airway tubes are accompanied with a corresponding reduction of tube diameter in the mutants. Conversely, overexpression of Obst-A or Gasp in the airways expands the tube circumference.  Our results indicate that the level of distinct matrix binding proteins in the tubes determines the extent of diametric growth. We propose that Obst-A and Gasp organize the assembly of the luminal matrix and thereby provide distending forces that stretch the apical cell membranes to expand tube diameter accordingly.

  • 15.
    Tiklová, Katarína
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute .
    Senti, Kirsten-André
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute .
    Wang, Shenqiu
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute .
    Gräslund, Astrid
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Samakovlis, Christos
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute .
    Epithelial septate junction assembly relies on melanotransferrin iron binding and endocytosis in Drosophila2010In: Nature Cell Biology, ISSN 1465-7392, Vol. 12, no 11, 1071-1077 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Iron is an essential element in many biological processes. In vertebrates, serum transferrin is the major supplier of iron to tissues, but the function of additional transferrin-like proteins remains poorly understood. Melanotransferrin (MTf) is a phylogenetically conserved, iron-binding epithelial protein. Elevated MTf levels have been implicated in melanoma pathogenesis. Here, we present a functional analysis of MTf in Drosophila melanogaster. Similarly to its human homologue, Drosophila MTf is a lipid-modified, iron-binding protein attached to epithelial cell membranes, and is a component of the septate junctions that form the paracellular permeability barrier in epithelial tissues. We demonstrate that septate junction assembly during epithelial maturation relies on endocytosis and apicolateral recycling of iron-bound MTf. Mouse MTf complements the defects of Drosophila MTf mutants. Drosophila provides the first genetic model for the functional dissection of MTf in epithelial junction assembly and morphogenesis.

  • 16.
    Tsarouhas, Vasilios
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute .
    Senti, Kirsten-André
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute .
    Jayaram, Satish Arcot
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute .
    Tiklová, Katarina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute .
    Hemphälä, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute .
    Adler, Jeremy
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute .
    Samakovlis, Christos
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute .
    Sequential Pulses of Apical Epithelial Secretion and Endocytosis Drive Airway Maturation in Drosophila2007In: Developmental Cell, ISSN 1534-5807, E-ISSN 1878-1551, Vol. 13, no 2, 214-225 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of air-filled respiratory organs is crucial for survival at birth. We used a combination of live imaging and genetic analysis to dissect respiratory organ maturation in the embryonic Drosophila trachea. We found that tracheal tube maturation entails three precise epithelial transitions. Initially, a secretion burst deposits proteins into the lumen. Solid luminal material is then rapidly cleared from the tubes, and shortly thereafter liquid is removed. To elucidate the cellular mechanisms behind these transitions, we identified gas-filling-deficient mutants showing narrow or protein-clogged tubes. These mutations either disrupt endoplasmatic reticulum-to-Golgi vesicle transport or endocytosis. First, Sar1 is required for protein secretion, luminal matrix assembly, and diametric tube expansion. Subsequently, a sharp pulse of Rab5-dependent endocytic activity rapidly internalizes and clears luminal contents. The coordination of luminal matrix secretion and endocytosis may be a general mechanism in tubular organ morphogenesis and maturation.

  • 17.
    Tsarouhas, Vasilios
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Yao, Liqun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Samakovlis, Christos
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Src kinases and ERK activate distinct responses to Stitcher receptor tyrosine kinase signaling during wound healing in Drosophila2014In: Journal of Cell Science, ISSN 0021-9533, E-ISSN 1477-9137, Vol. 127, no 8, 1829-1839 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Metazoans have evolved efficient mechanisms for epidermal repair and survival following injury. Several cellular responses and key signaling molecules that are involved in wound healing have been identified in Drosophila, but the coordination of cytoskeletal rearrangements and the activation of gene expression during barrier repair are poorly understood. The Ret-like receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) Stitcher (Stit, also known as Cad96Ca) regulates both re-epithelialization and transcriptional activation by Grainy head (Grh) to induce restoration of the extracellular barrier. Here, we describe the immediate downstream effectors of Stit signaling in vivo. Drk (Downstream of receptor kinase) and Src family tyrosine kinases bind to the same docking site in the Stit intracellular domain. Drk is required for the full activation of transcriptional responses but is dispensable for re-epithelialization. By contrast, Src family kinases (SFKs) control both the assembly of a contractile actin ring at the wound periphery and Grh-dependent activation of barrier-repair genes. Our analysis identifies distinct pathways mediating injury responses and reveals an RTK-dependent activation mode for Src kinases and their central functions during epidermal wound healing in vivo.

  • 18.
    Wagner, Nicole
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute , Developmental Biology.
    Weyhersmüller, Annika
    Blauth, Anna
    Schuhmann, Tamara
    Heckmann, Manfred
    Krohne, Georg
    Samakovlis, Christos
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute , Developmental Biology.
    The Drosophila LEM-domain protein MAN1 antagonizes BMP signaling at the neuromuscular junction and the wing crossveins2010In: Developmental Biology, ISSN 0012-1606, E-ISSN 1095-564X, Vol. 339, no 1, 1-13 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BMP signaling responses are refined by distinct secreted and intracellular antagonists in different cellular and temporal contexts. Here, we show that the nuclear LEM-domain protein MAN1 is a tissue-specific antagonist of BMP signaling in Drosophila. MAN1 contains two potential Mad-binding sites. We generated MAN1DeltaC mutants, harbouring a MAN1 protein that lacks part of the C-terminus including the RNA recognition motif, a putative Mad-binding domain. MAN1DeltaC mutants show wing crossvein (CV) patterning defects but no detectable alterations in nuclear morphology. MAN1(DeltaC) pupal wings display expanded phospho-Mad (pMad) accumulation and ectopic expression of the BMP-responsive gene crossveinless-2 (cv-2) indicating that MAN1 restricts BMP signaling. Conversely, MAN1 overexpression in wing imaginal discs inhibited crossvein development and BMP signaling responses. MAN1 is expressed at high levels in pupal wing veins and can be activated in intervein regions by ectopic BMP signaling. The specific upregulation of MAN1 in pupal wing veins may thus represent a negative feedback circuit that limits BMP signaling during CV formation. MAN1DeltaC flies also show reduced locomotor activity, and electrophysiology recordings in MAN1DeltaC larvae uncover a new presynaptic role of MAN1 at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Genetic interaction experiments suggest that MAN1 is a BMP signaling antagonist both at the NMJ and during CV formation.

  • 19.
    Wang, Shenqiu
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute .
    Dai, Qi
    Lai, Eric C
    Samakovlis, Christos
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute .
    Grainy head regulates genes involved in cuticle maturation and immune response in Drosophila.Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Wang, Shenqiu
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute .
    Jayaram, Arcot Jayaram
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute .
    Hemphälä, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute .
    Senti, Kirsten-André
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute .
    Tsarouhas, Vasilis
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute .
    Jin, Haining
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute .
    Samakovlis, Christos
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute .
    Septate-Junction-Dependent Luminal Deposition  of Chitin Deacetylases Restricts  Tube Elongation in the Drosophila Trachea2006In: Current Biology, ISSN 0960-9822, Vol. 16, no 2, 180-185 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The function of tubular epithelial organs like the kidney and lung is critically dependent on the length and diameter of their constituting branches. Genetic analysis of tube size control during Drosophila tracheal development has revealed that epithelial septate junction (SJ) components and the dynamic chitinous luminal matrix coordinate tube growth. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms controlling tube expansion so far remained elusive. Here, we present the analysis of two luminal chitin binding proteins with predicted polysaccharide deacetylase activities (ChLDs). ChLDs are required to assemble the cable-like extracellular matrix (ECM) and restrict tracheal tube elongation. Overexpression of native, but not of mutated, ChLD versions also interferes with the structural integrity of the intraluminal ECM and causes aberrant tube elongation. Whereas ChLD mutants have normal SJ structure and function, the luminal deposition of the ChLD requires intact cellular SJs. This identifies a new molecular function for SJs in the apical secretion of ChLD and positions ChLD downstream of the SJs in tube length control. The deposition of the chitin luminal matrix first promotes and coordinates radial tube expansion. We propose that the subsequent structural modification of chitin by chitin binding deacetylases selectively instructs the termination of tube elongation to the underlying epithelium.

  • 21.
    Wang, Shenqiu
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Samakovlis, Christos
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Grainy head and its target genes in epithelial morphogenesis and wound healing2012In: Transcriptional switches during development / [ed] Plaza S., Payre F., San Diego, CA: Elsevier Academic Press , 2012, 35-63 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Grainy head (Grh) family of transcription factors is characterized by a unique DNA-binding domain that binds to a conserved consensus sequence. Nematodes and flies have a single grh gene, whereas mice and humans have evolved three genes encoding Grainy head-like (Grhl) factors. We review the biological function of Grh in different animals and the mechanisms modulating its activity. grh and grhl genes play a remarkably conserved role in epithelial organ development and extracellular barrier repair after tissue damage. Recent studies in flies and vertebrates suggest that Grh factors may be primary determinants of cell adhesion and epithelial tissue formation. Grh proteins can dimerize and act as activators or repressors in different developmental contexts. In flies, tissue-specific, alternative splicing generates different Grh isoforms with different DNA-binding specificities and functions. Grh activity is also modulated by receptor tyrosine kinases: it is phosphorylated by extracellular signal regulated kinase, and this phosphorylation is selectively required for epidermal barrier repair. Two mechanisms have been proposed to explain the repressive function of Grh on target gene transcription. First, Grh can target the Polycomb silencing complex to specific response elements. Second, it can directly compete for DNA binding with transcriptional activators. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of gene regulation by Grh factors is likely to elucidate phylogenetically conserved mechanisms of epithelial cell morphogenesis and regeneration upon tissue damage.

  • 22.
    Wang, Shenqiu
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute .
    Tsarouhas, Vasilis
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute .
    Xylourgidis, Nikos
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute .
    Sabri, Nafiseh
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute .
    Tiklová, Katarína
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute .
    Nautiyal, Naumi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute .
    Gallio, Marco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute .
    Samakovlis, Christos
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute .
    The tyrosine kinase Stitcher activates Grainy head and epidermal woundhealing in Drosophila.2009In: Nature Cell Biology, ISSN 1465-7392, Vol. 11, no 7, 890-895 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Epidermal injury initiates a cascade of inflammation, epithelial remodelling and integument repair at wound sites. The regeneration of the extracellular barrier and damaged tissue repair rely on the precise orchestration of epithelial responses triggered by the injury1, 2. Grainy head (Grh) transcription factors induce gene expression to crosslink the extracellular barrier in wounded flies and mice3, 4. However, the activation mechanisms and functions of Grh factors in re-epithelialization remain unknown. Here we identify stitcher (stit), a new Grh target in Drosophila melanogaster. stit encodes a Ret-family receptor tyrosine kinase required for efficient epidermal wound healing. Live imaging analysis reveals that Stit promotes actin cable assembly during wound re-epithelialization. Stit activation also induces extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation along with the Grh-dependent expression of stit and barrier repair genes at the wound sites. The transcriptional stimulation of stit on injury triggers a positive feedback loop increasing the magnitude of epithelial responses. Thus, Stit activation upon wounding coordinates cytoskeletal rearrangements and the level of Grh-mediated transcriptional wound responses.

  • 23.
    Yao, Liqun
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Guo, Enen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Samakovlis, Christos
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute. Stockholm University, Science for Life Laboratory (SciLifeLab). Universities of Giessen and Marburg Lung Center (UGMLC), Germany.
    A new grh isoform in Drosophila and functional analysis of Grh domains in DrosophilaManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Yao, Liqun
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Wang, Shenqiu
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute. Sloan Kettering Institute, USA.
    Dai, Qi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute. Sloan Kettering Institute, USA.
    Orzechowski-Westholm, Jakub
    Matsuda, Ryo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Hosono, Chie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Bray, Sarah
    Lai, Eric C.
    Samakovlis, Christos
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute. Stockholm University, Science for Life Laboratory (SciLifeLab). Universities of Giessen and Marburg Lung Center (UGMLC), Germany.
    Genome-wide identification of Grainy head target genes in Drosophila reveals complex regulatory interactions between Grh and the POU-domain transcription factor, VvlManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Yao, Liqun
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Wang, Shenqiu
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute. Sloan-Kettering Institute, USA.
    Westholm, Jakub O.
    Dai, Qi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute. Sloan-Kettering Institute, USA.
    Matsuda, Ryo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Hosono, Chie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Bray, Sarah
    Lai, Eric C.
    Samakovlis, Christos
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute. Stockholm University, Science for Life Laboratory (SciLifeLab). UGMLC, Germany.
    Genome-wide identification of Grainy head targets in Drosophila reveals regulatory interactions with the POU domain transcription factor Vvl2017In: Development, ISSN 0950-1991, E-ISSN 1477-9129, Vol. 144, no 17, 3145-3155 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Grainy head (Grh) is a conserved transcription factor (TF) controlling epithelial differentiation and regeneration. To elucidate Grh functions we identified embryonic Grh targets by ChIP-seq and gene expression analysis. We show that Grh controls hundreds of target genes. Repression or activation correlates with the distance of Grh-binding sites to the transcription start sites of its targets. Analysis of 54 Grh-responsive enhancers during development and upon wounding suggests cooperation with distinct TFs in different contexts. In the airways, Grh-repressed genes encode key TFs involved in branching and cell differentiation. Reduction of the POU domain TF Ventral veins lacking (Vvl) largely ameliorates the airway morphogenesis defects of grh mutants. Vvl and Grh proteins additionally interact with each other and regulate a set of common enhancers during epithelial morphogenesis. We conclude that Grh and Vvl participate in a regulatory network controlling epithelial maturation.

1 - 25 of 25
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