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  • 1.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Memory carriers and stewardship of metropolitan landscapes2016Inngår i: Ecological Indicators, ISSN 1470-160X, E-ISSN 1872-7034, Vol. 70, s. 606-614Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    History matters, and can be an active and dynamic component in the present. We explore social-ecological memory as way to diagnose and engage with urban green space performance and resilience. Rapidly changing cities pose a threat and a challenge to the continuity that has helped to support biodiversity and ecological functions by upholding similar or only slowly changing adaptive cycles over time. Continuity is perpetuated through memory carriers, slowly changing variables and features that retain or make available information on how different situations have been dealt with before. Ecological memory carriers comprise memory banks, spatial connections and mobile link species. These can be supported by social memory carriers, represented by collectively created social features like habits, oral tradition, rules-in-use and artifacts, as well as media and external sources. Loss or lack of memory can be diagnoses by the absence or disconnect between memory carriers, as will be illustrated by several typical situations. Drawing on a set of example situations, we present an outline for a look-up table approach that connects ecological memory carriers to the social memory carriers that support them and use these connections to set diagnoses and indicate potential remedies. The inclusion of memory carriers in planning and management considerations may facilitate preservation of feedbacks and disturbance regimes as well as species and habitats, and the cultural values and meanings that go with them.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Systemekologiska institutionen. Naturresurshushållning.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Systemekologiska institutionen. Naturresurshushållning.
    Ahrné, K
    Measuring social-ecological dynamics behind the generation of ecosystem services2007Inngår i: Ecological Applications, Vol. 17, nr 5, s. 1267-1278Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 3.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Borgström, Sara
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Colding, Johan
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Science, Beijer Institute, Sweden.
    Gren, Åsa
    Reconnecting Cities to the Biosphere: Stewardship of Green Infrastructure and Urban Ecosystem Services2014Inngår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 43, nr 4, s. 445-453Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Within-city green infrastructure can offer opportunities and new contexts for people to become stewards of ecosystem services. We analyze cities as social-ecological systems, synthesize the literature, and provide examples from more than 15 years of research in the Stockholm urban region, Sweden. The social-ecological approach spans from investigating ecosystem properties to the social frameworks and personal values that drive and shape human interactions with nature. Key findings demonstrate that urban ecosystem services are generated by social-ecological systems and that local stewards are critically important. However, land-use planning and management seldom account for their role in the generation of urban ecosystem services. While the small scale patchwork of land uses in cities stimulates intense interactions across borders much focus is still on individual patches. The results highlight the importance and complexity of stewardship of urban biodiversity and ecosystem services and of the planning and governance of urban green infrastructure.

  • 4.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Historiska institutionen.
    Resilience2014Inngår i: A Companion to Urban Anthropology / [ed] Donald M. Nonini, Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2014, s. 428-446Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter uses a resilience lens, where resilience is defined as the capacity to absorb shocks, utilize them, reorganize, and continue to develop without losing fundamental functions (Folke 2006). This resilience lens can be used to analyze the role of urban gardens as memory carriers of ways to build food securityin cities (see Chapters 20 and 23, “Memory and Narrative” and “Food and Farming”).

    Comparing Western urban histories in a global frame of reference suggests that a marked conceptual and physical separation between urban and rural sectors emerged largely as a consequence of high modernist time–space compression during the 1900s (Harvey 1990). However, it is estimated that in contemporary cities of the global South, approximately 800 million people are still engaged in urban agriculture, producing approximately 15–20 percent of the world’s food. These numbers are diminishing due to similar processes that drove food production from Western cities. Do such changes in the urban environment influence the capacity of urban people to respond to food shortages in the future?It has been suggested that modernist urbanization severs perceived and experienced relations between people and nature as urban lifestyles are adopted and resilience as access to green areas is reduced. This alienation process has been termedthe “extinction-of-experience” (Miller 2005), an ongoing generational amnesia among city peoples about their relationships to, and dependence upon, diverse ecosystems, including agro-ecosystems. Such social amnesia has been argued to produce food insecurity among growing urban populations, simply because it erodes options of self-sufficiency (Barthel, Parker, and Ernstson 2013). Food security is broadly defined here as having physical and economic access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food to meet dietary needs (FAO 1996). Following Pothukuchi and Kaufman (2000: 113), the food system is defined as “the chain of activities connecting food production, processing, distribution, consumption, and waste management, as well as all the associated regulatory institutions and activities” (see Chapters 23 and 24, “Food and Farming” and “Pollution”). The focus of this essay is on food production, which makes this whole circuit possible. I highlight collectively managed urban gardens as potential “memory workers” to combat the ongoing generational amnesia among city dwellers about the intimate links between local agro-ecosystems and food security (Barthel, Parker, and Ernstson 2013).

  • 5.
    Barthel, Stephan
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Historiska institutionen. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Science, Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Sweden.
    Colding, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Science, Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Sweden.
    The potential of ‘Urban Green Commons’ in the resilience building of cities2013Inngår i: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 86, s. 156-166Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    While cultural diversity is increasing in cities at a global level as a result of urbanization, biodiversity is decreasing with a subsequent loss of ecosystem services. It is clear that diversity plays a pivotal role in the resilience building of ecosystems; however, it is less clear what role cultural diversity plays in the resil- ience building of urban systems. In this paper we provide innovative insights on how common property sys- tems could contribute to urban resilience building. Through a review of recent findings on urban common property systems and the relevant literature, we deal with urban green commons (UGCs) and discuss their potential to manage cultural and biological diversity in cities. We describe three examples of UGCs, i.e. col- lectively managed parks, community gardens, and allotment areas, with a focus on their institutional characteristics, their role in promoting diverse learning streams, environmental stewardship, and social– ecological memory. We discuss how UGCs can facilitate cultural integration through civic participation in urban land-management, conditions for the emergence of UGCs, the importance of cognitive resilience building, and what role property-rights diversity plays in urban settings. We conclude by elucidating some key insights on how UGCs can promote urban resilience building.

  • 6.
    Barthel, Stephan
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Colding, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Eriksson, Hanna
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Baltic Nest Institute.
    Chans att sätta Stockholm på kartan2011Inngår i: Svenska DagbladetArtikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Så beskriver ett antal forskare från Stockholm Resilience Centre och KTH läget nu när Albano ska utvecklas till ett nytt universitetsområde. Albano kan bli en internationell förebild när det gäller hållbart byggande om politikerna tar sitt ansvar, skriver forskarna i en debattartikel i Svenska Dagbladet idag. På Stockholm Resilience Centres webbplats finns texten även på engelska.

  • 7.
    Barthel, Stephan
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Historiska institutionen. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Crumley, Carole
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Uppsala University, Sweden; Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Svedin, Uno
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Biocultural Refugia: Combating the Erosion of Diversity in Landscapesof Food Production2013Inngår i: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 18, nr 4, s. UNSP 71-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There is urgent need to both reduce the rate of biodiversity loss caused by industrialized agriculture and feed morepeople. The aim of this paper is to highlight the role of places that harbor traditional ecological knowledge, artifacts, and methodswhen preserving biodiversity and ecosystem services in landscapes of food production. We use three examples in Europe ofbiocultural refugia, defined as the physical places that not only shelter farm biodiversity, but also carry knowledge and experiencesabout practical management of how to produce food while stewarding biodiversity and ecosystem services. Memory carriersinclude genotypes, landscape features, oral, and artistic traditions and self-organized systems of rules, and as such reflect adiverse portfolio of practices on how to deal with unpredictable change. We find that the rich biodiversity of many regionallydistinct cultural landscapes has been maintained through different smallholder practices developed in relation to localenvironmental fluctuations and carried within biocultural refugia for as long as millennia. Places that transmit traditionalecological knowledge and practices hold important lessons for policy makers since they may provide genetic and culturalreservoirs — refugia — for the wide array of species that have co-evolved with humans in Europe for more than 6000 thousandyrs. Biodiversity restoration projects in domesticated landscapes can employ the biophysical elements and cultural practicesembedded in biocultural refugia to create locally adapted small-scale mosaics of habitats that allow species to flourish and adaptto change. We conclude that such insights must be included in discussions of land-sparing vs. land-sharing when producingmore food while combating loss of biodiversity. We found the latter strategy rational in domesticated landscapes with a longhistory of agriculture

  • 8.
    Barthel, Stephan
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Historiska institutionen. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Crumley, Carole
    Svedin, Uno
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Bio-cultural refugia: Safeguarding diversity of practices for food security and biodiversity2013Inngår i: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 23, nr 5, s. 1142-1152Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Food security for a growing world population is high on the list of grand sustainability challenges, as is reducing the pace of biodiversity loss in landscapes of food production. Here we shed new insights on areas that harbor place specific social memories related to food security and stewardship of biodiversity. We call them bio-cultural refugia. Our goals are to illuminate how bio-cultural refugia store, revive and transmit memory of agricultural biodiversity and ecosystem services, and how such social memories are carried forward between people and across cohorts. We discuss the functions of such refugia for addressing the twin goals of food security and biodiversity conservation in landscapes of food production. The methodological approach is first of its kind in combining the discourses on food security, social memory and biodiversity management. We find that the rich biodiversity of many regionally distinct cultural landscapes has been maintained through a mosaic of management practices that have co-evolved in relation to local environmental fluctuations, and that such practices are carried forward by both biophysical and social features in bio-cultural refugia including; genotypes, artifacts, written accounts, as well as embodied rituals, art, oral traditions and self-organized systems of rules. Combined these structure a diverse portfolio of practices that result in genetic reservoirs—source areas—for the wide array of species, which in interplay produce vital ecosystem services, needed for future food security related to environmental uncertainties, volatile financial markets and large scale conflicts. In Europe, processes related to the large-scale industrialization of agriculture threaten such bio-cultural refugia. The paper highlights that the dual goals to reduce pressures from modern agriculture on biodiversity, while maintaining food security, entails more extensive collaboration with farmers oriented toward ecologically sound practices.

  • 9.
    Barthel, Stephan
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Historiska institutionen.
    Parker, John
    Ernstson, Henrik
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of Cape Town, South Africa.
    Food and Green Space in Cities: A Resilience Lens on Gardens and Urban Environmental Movements2013Inngår i: Urban Studies, ISSN 0042-0980, E-ISSN 1360-063XArtikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the role played by urban gardens during historical collapses in urban food supply lines and identifies the social processes required to protect two crit- ical elements of urban food production during times of crisis—open green spaces and the collective memory of how to grow food. Advanced communication and transport technologies allow food sequestration from the farthest reaches of the planet, but have markedly increasing urban dependence on global food systems over the past 50 years. Simultaneously, such advances have eroded collective memory of food production, while suitable spaces for urban gardening have been lost. These factors combine to heighten the potential for food shortages when—as occurred in the 20th century— major economic, political or environmental crises sever supply lines to urban areas. This paper considers how to govern urban areas sustainably in order to ensure food security in times of crisis by: evincing the effectiveness of urban gardening during crises; showing how allotment gardens serve as conduits for transmitting collective social-ecological memories of food production; and, discussing roles and strategies of urban environmental movements for protecting urban green space. Urban gardening and urban social movements can build local ecological and social response capacity against major collapses in urban food supplies. Hence, they should be incorporated as central elements of sustainable urban development. Urban governance for resilience should be historically informed about major food crises and allow for redundant food production solutions as a response to uncertain futures.

  • 10.
    Barthel, Stephan
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Historiska institutionen. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Parker, John
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Colding, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Urban gardens: pockets of social-ecological memory2014Inngår i: Greening in the Red Zone: Disaster, Resilience, and Community Greening Part II / [ed] Keith G. Tidball and Marianne E. Krasny, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2014, s. 145-158Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well known that urban allotment gardens provide important ecosystem services. Their potential to act as sources of local resilience during times of crisis is less appreciated, despite the role they have played as areas of food security during times of crisis in history. Their ability to provide such relief, however, requires that the skills and knowledge needed for effective gardening can be transmitted over time and across social groups. In short, some portion of urban society must remember how to grow food. This chapter proposes that collectively managed gardens function as ‘pockets’ of social-ecological memory in urban landscapes by storing the knowledge and experience required to grow food. Allotment gardeners operate as ‘communities of practice’ with ecosystem stewardship reflecting long-term, dynamic interactions between community members and gardening sites. Social-ecological memories about food production and past crises are retained and transmitted through habits, traditions, informal institutions, artifacts and the physical structure of the gardens themselves. Allotment gardens thus serve as incubators of social-ecological knowledge with experiences that can be accessed and transferred to other land uses in times of crisis, contributing to urban resilience. Conversely, failure to protect these pockets of social-ecological memory could result in a collective ‘forgetting’ of important social-ecological knowledge and reduce social-ecological resilience.

  • 11.
    Barthel, Stephan
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Sörlin, Sverker
    Ljungkvist, John
    Innovative memory and resilient cities: echoes from ancient Constantinople2011Inngår i: The urban mind: cultural and environmental dynamics / [ed] Paul Sinclair, Frands Herschend, Christian Isendahl and Gullög Nordquist, Uppsala: Uppsala universitet, 2011, s. 391-406Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter uses insights from resilience thinking in analysing a two-thousand-year periodof ancient and modern Constantinople, addressing one of the great challenges of the UrbanAnthropocene: how to nurture an ecologically sound urbanisation. One of the lessons isthat Constantinople maintained a diversity of insurance strategies to a greater degree thanmany historical and contemporary urban centres. It invested heavily not only in militaryinfrastructure but also in systems for supplying, storing, and producing food and water.From major granaries and at least four harbours the citizens could receive seaborne goods,but during sieges the trade networks broke down. At those times, when supplies ran dry,there were possibilities to cultivate food within the defensive walls and to catch fish in theGolden Horn. Repeated sieges, which occurred on average every fifty years, generated adiversity of social-ecological memories – the means by which the knowledge, experience,and practice of how to manage a local ecosystem were stored and transmitted in acommunity. These memories existed in multiple groups of society, partly as a response tothe collapse of long-distance, seaborne, grain transports from Egypt. Food production andtransports were decentralized into a plethora of smaller subsistence communities (oikoi),which also sold the surplus to the markets of the city. In this way Constantinople becamemore self-reliant on regional ecosystems. An additional result was that the defensive wallswere moved, not in order to construct more buildings but to increase the proportionof gardens and agricultural land. In a comparison with Cairo, it can be seen that theseinnovations related to enhanced self-reliance in food production made it possible for392Constantinople to bounce back from extreme hardships, such as extended sieges, withoutcollapsing into chaos or moral decay. Transformed urban morphology of the city wouldsimply remind residents, through the visual presence of a living garden culture, of theimportance of the latter for food security. Without the gardens the long intervals betweensieges would probably have been enough to dissolve living memory. Hence, the urbanresilience of Constantinople was enhanced, promoting well-established old regimes andtraditions of importance for producing ecosystem services to society while at the sametime testing and refining new and successful regimes, or in other words through theinterplay of memory and innovation. Currently, and even more so in decades to come, themindsets of urban people hold power in a global arena. Questions related to how the lossof green space in metropolitan landscapes will affect worldviews are worrisome since it isthe desires and demands of urban people that will affect future decisions and essentiallydetermine the fate of the planet. People throughout the world, and not least in Westernsocieties, need to be constantly reminded of our dependence on a living planet and staymotivated to support it. Social-ecological memories related to local food production haveto be nurtured in urban landscapes as well, and an urban morphology is needed thatstrengthens ecological awareness across urban populations rather than the opposite.

  • 12.
    Barthtel, Stephan
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Historiska institutionen. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Swedish Royal Academy of Science, Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Sweden.
    Isendahl, Christian
    Urban Gardens, Agricultures and Waters: Sources of Resilience for Long-Term Food Security in Cities2013Inngår i: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 86, s. 224-234Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Food security has always been a key resilience facet for people living in cities. This paper discusses lessons for food security from historic and prehistoric cities. The Chicago school of urban sociology established a modernist understanding of urbanism as an essentialist reality separate from its larger life-support system. However, different urban histories have given rise to a remarkable spatial diversity and temporal variation viewed at the global and long-term scales that are often overlooked in urban scholarship. Drawing on two case studies from widely different historical and cultural contexts - the Classic Maya civilization of the late first millennium AD and Byzantine Constantinople - this paper demonstrates urban farming as a pertinent feature of urban support systems over the long-term and global scales. We show how urban gardens, agriculture, and water management as well as the linked social-ecological memories of how to uphold such practices over time have contributed to long-term food security during eras of energy scarcity. We exemplify with the function of such local blue-green infrastructures during chocks to urban supply lines. We conclude that agricultural production is not "the antithesis of the city," but often an integrated urban activity that contribute to the resilience of cities.

  • 13. Bendt, Pim
    et al.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Historiska institutionen. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Colding, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Science, Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Sweden.
    Civic greening and environmental learning in public-access community gardens in Berlin2013Inngår i: Landscape and Urban Planning, ISSN 0169-2046, E-ISSN 1872-6062, Vol. 109, nr 1, s. 18-30Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyse environmental learning in public-access community gardens (‘PAC-gardens’) in Berlin, representing public green spaces that are collectively managed by civil society groups. Through extensive fieldwork, and drawing upon social theories of learning, we describe learning communities in four PAC-gardens and analyse factors that influence participation and boundary interaction, that is when experiences brought in from the outside encounter socially defined competences. Results show that these PAC-gardens have self-generated social and physical structures, which to different degrees inhibit or facilitate boundary interactions, whereas skills of individuals to put those to work, in combination with the quality of the surrounding neighbourhoods, can be ascribed for creating broader participation and greater diversity in the content of learning about local sustainability. Identified learning streams included learning about gardening and local ecological conditions; about urban politics, and about social entrepreneurship. We discuss results in relation to environmental learning that combats the generational amnesia in cities about our dependence on nature, where PAC-gardens clearly distinguish themselves from more closed forms of urban gardening such as allotment gardens and gated community gardens. We conclude that PAC-gardens that intertwine gardening with social, political and economic practices can create broader and more heterogeneous learning about social–ecological conditions, and help develop sense-of-place in degraded neighbourhoods.

  • 14.
    Colding, Johan
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of Gävle, Sweden.
    An urban ecology critique on the Smart City model2017Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 164, s. 95-101Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this letter is to raise some critical concerns and gaps in the booming literature on Smart Cities; concerns that we think deserve greater attention from scientists, policy makers and urban planners. Using an urban ecology lens, we provide some reflections that need to forgo any wider-scale implementation of the Smart City-model with the goal to enhance urban sustainability. We discuss that the Smart City literature must better include analysis around social sustainability issues for city dwellers. Focus here should start on health issues and more critical analysis about whom the Smart City is for. Also, the literature must address issues of resilience and cyber security, including how Smart City solutions may affect the autonomy of urban governance, personal integrity and how it may affect the resilience of infrastructures that provide inhabitants with basic needs, such as food, energy and water security. A third major gap in this literature is how smart city developments may change human-nature relations. Focus here should start on how Smart City technologies may hinder or support children's learning towards a stronger psychological connection with nature. Discussions are also needed on how the Smart City model may affect pro-environmental behavior more broadly.

  • 15.
    Colding, Johan
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of Gävle, Sweden.
    The Role of University Campuses in Reconnecting Humans to the Biosphere2017Inngår i: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 9, nr 12, artikkel-id 2349Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we explore the potential for integrating university campuses in a global sustainability agenda for a closer reconnection of urban residents to the biosphere. This calls for a socio-cultural transition that allows universities and colleges to reconnect to the biosphere and become active stewards of the Earth System. Recognizing their pivotal role of fostering coming generations of humans, university campuses represent a unique socio-cultural setting to promote sustainable development in practice. Among others, this involves the nurturing of biodiversity and ecosystem services in the Antropocene era, which is characterized by ongoing climate change and massive loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services. We explore the traditional campus setting, its role as a community for rejuvenating town planning and its role as a governance authority that may promote or retard sustainable development with an ecological focus. We explore the sustainable university and describe the campus as an ecosystem and how a resilient campus can be designed to meet the novel and critical challenges of the Anthropocene. We conclude by providing some policy recommendations for higher educational institutes to speed up their ambitions in the area of sustainable biosphere management.

  • 16.
    Colding, Johan
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academt of Science, Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Sweden.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Historiska institutionen. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academt of Science, Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Sweden.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of Cape Town, South Africa.
    Urban green commons: Insights on urban common property systems2013Inngår i: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 23, nr 5, s. 1039-1051Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to shed new light on urban common property systems. We deal with urban commons in relation to urban green-space management, referring to them as urban green commons. Applying a property-rights analytic perspective, we synthesize information on urban green commons from three case-study regions in Sweden, Germany, and South Africa, and elaborate on their role for biodiversity conservation in urban settings, with a focus on business sites. Cases cover both formally established types of urban green commons and bottom-up emerged community-managed habitats. As our review demonstrates, the right to actively manage urban green space is a key characteristic of urban green commons whether ownership to land is in the private, public, the club realm domain, or constitutes a hybrid of these. We discuss the important linkages among urban common property systems, social–ecological learning, and management of ecosystem services and biodiversity. Several benefits can be associated with urban green commons, such as a reduction of costs for ecosystem management and as designs for reconnecting city-inhabitants to the biosphere. The emergence of urban green commons appears closely linked to dealing with societal crises and for reorganizing cities; hence, they play a key role in transforming cities toward more socially and ecologically benign environments. While a range of political questions circumscribe the feasibility of urban green commons, we discuss their usefulness in management of different types of urban habitats, their political justification and limitation, their potential for improved biodiversity conservation, and conditions for their emergence. We conclude by postulating some general policy advice.

  • 17. d'Amour, Christopher Bren
    et al.
    Reitsma, Femke
    Baiocchi, Giovanni
    Barthel, Stephan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Guneralp, Burak
    Erb, Karl-Heinz
    Haberl, Helmut
    Creutzig, Felix
    Seto, Karen C.
    Future urban land expansion and implications for global croplands2017Inngår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 114, nr 34, s. 8939-8944Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban expansion often occurs on croplands. However, there is little scientific understanding of how global patterns of future urban expansion will affect the world's cultivated areas. Here, we combine spatially explicit projections of urban expansion with datasets on global croplands and crop yields. Our results show that urban expansion will result in a 1.8-2.4% loss of global croplands by 2030, with substantial regional disparities. About 80% of global cropland loss from urban expansion will take place in Asia and Africa. In both Asia and Africa, much of the cropland that will be lost is more than twice as productive as national averages. Asia will experience the highest absolute loss in cropland, whereas African countries will experience the highest percentage loss of cropland. Globally, the croplands that are likely to be lost were responsible for 3-4% of worldwide crop production in 2000. Urban expansion is expected to take place on cropland that is 1.77 times more productive than the global average. The loss of cropland is likely to be accompanied by other sustainability risks and threatens livelihoods, with diverging characteristics for different megaurban regions. Governance of urban area expansion thus emerges as a key area for securing livelihoods in the agrarian economies of the Global South.

  • 18.
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Redman, Charles
    Barthel, Stephan
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Historiska institutionen. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Costanza, Robert
    History of Urbanization and the Missing Ecology2013Inngår i: Urbanization, Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services: Challenges and Opportunities / [ed] Elmqvist, T. et al., New York: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2013, s. 13-30Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, we explore the historical dimension of urbanization and why the ecology of urbanization has, until recently, been missing. We discuss the consequences of this for our perceptions of urbanization throughout history and also discuss the emerging reintroduction of ecology and the concept of natural capital into the global discourse on urbanization and sustainability. Humans and the institutions they devise for their governance are often successful at self-organizing to promote their survival in the face of virtually any environment challenge. However, from history we learn that there may often be unanticipated costs to many of these solutions with long-term implications on future societies. For example, increased specialization has led to increased surplus of food and made continuing urban growth possible. But an increased urban - rural disconnection has also led to an alienation of food production from the carrying capacity of the land. While connections and feedbacks with the hinterland that supported growing urban centres were often apparent in the past, this has increasingly been lost in a globalized world. The neglect of a social-ecological perspective and the current disconnect between the urban and the rural risks mean that important feedback mechanisms remain invisible, misinforming policy and action with large consequences for global sustainability. We argue that through reintroducing the social-ecological perspective and the concept of natural capital it is possible to contribute to a redefinition of urban sustainability through making invisible feedbacks and connections visible.

  • 19.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Systemekologiska institutionen.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Andersson, Erik
    Borgström, Sara
    Ecological scales and social network structure: management and governance of urban ecosystem services in Stockholm, SwedenManuskript (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 20.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Systemekologiska institutionen.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Andersson, Erik
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Systemekologiska institutionen.
    Borgström, Sara
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Systemekologiska institutionen.
    Scale-Crossing Brokers and Network Governance of Urban Ecosystem Services: The Case of Stockholm2010Inngår i: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 15, nr 4, s. 28-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban ecosystem services are crucial for human well-being and the livability of cities. A central challenge for sustaining ecosystem services lies in addressing scale mismatches between ecological processes on one hand, and social processes of governance on the other. This article synthesizes a set of case studies from urban green areas in Stockholm, Sweden—allotment gardens, urban parks, cemeteries and protected areas—and discusses how governmental agencies and civil society groups engaged in urban green area management can be linked through social networks so as to better match spatial scales of ecosystem processes. The article develops a framework that combines ecological scales with social network structure, with the latter being taken as the patterns of interaction between actor groups. Based on this framework, the article (1) assesses current ecosystem governance, and (2) develops a theoretical understanding of how social network structure influences ecosystem governance and how certain actors can work as agents to promote beneficial network structures. The main results show that the mesoscale of what is conceptualized as city scale green networks (i.e., functionally interconnected local green areas) is not addressed by any actor in Stockholm, and that the management practices of civil society groups engaged in local ecosystem management play a crucial but neglected role in upholding ecosystem services. The article proposes an alternative network structure and discusses the role of midscale managers (for improving ecological functioning) and scale-crossing brokers (engaged in practices to connect actors across ecological scales). Dilemmas, strategies, and practices for establishing this governance system are discussed.

  • 21.
    Giusti, Matteo
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Marcus, Lars
    Nature Routines and Affinity with the Biosphere: A Case Study of Preschool Children in Stockholm2014Inngår i: Children, Youth and Environments, ISSN 1546-2250, E-ISSN 1546-2250, Vol. 24, nr 3, s. 16-42Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Do nature-deficit routines undermine affinity with the biosphere? We assessed social-ecological features in Stockholm that afford nature experiences and analyzed the accessibility of these natural areas to preschools. We then selected preschools with contrasting accessibilities. The nature routines resulting from differing outdoor possibilities in preschool life were investigated in relation to children’s affinity with the biosphere. Preschools with routines closer to nature have children who are more empathetic and concerned for non-human life forms, and more cognitively aware of human-nature interdependence. We conclude that, nature-rich routines in cities significantly correlate with higher children’s ability to develop affinity with the biosphere.

  • 22.
    Gordon, Line J.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Bignet, Victoria
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Henriksson, Patrik J. G.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. WorldFish, Penang, Malaysia.
    Van Holt, Tracy
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden; Center for Sustainable Business, United States of America.
    Jonell, Malin
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Lindahl, Therese
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Troell, Max
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Deutsch, Lisa
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Haider, L. Jamila
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Rockström, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Queiroz, Cibele
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Rewiring food systems to enhance human health and biosphere stewardship2017Inngår i: Environmental Research Letters, ISSN 1748-9326, E-ISSN 1748-9326, Vol. 12, nr 10, artikkel-id 100201Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Food lies at the heart of both health and sustainability challenges. We use a social-ecological framework to illustrate how major changes to the volume, nutrition and safety of food systems between 1961 and today impact health and sustainability. These changes have almost halved undernutrition while doubling the proportion who are overweight. They have also resulted in reduced resilience of the biosphere, pushing four out of six analysed planetary boundaries across the safe operating space of the biosphere. Our analysis further illustrates that consumers and producers have become more distant from one another, with substantial power consolidated within a small group of key actors. Solutions include a shift from a volume-focused production system to focus on quality, nutrition, resource use efficiency, and reduced antimicrobial use. To achieve this, we need to rewire food systems in ways that enhance transparency between producers and consumers, mobilize key actors to become biosphere stewards, and re-connect people to the biosphere.

  • 23. Ives, Christopher D.
    et al.
    Giusti, Matteo
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Fischer, Joern
    Abson, David J.
    Klaniecki, Kathleen
    Dorninger, Christian
    Laudan, Josefine
    Barthel, Stephan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Abernethy, Paivi
    Martin-Lopez, Berta
    Raymond, Christopher M.
    Kendal, Dave
    von Wehrden, Henrik
    Human-nature connection: a multidisciplinary review2017Inngår i: Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, ISSN 1877-3435, E-ISSN 1877-3443, Vol. 26-27, s. 106-113Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In sustainability science calls are increasing for humanity to (re-)connect with nature, yet no systematic synthesis of the empirical literature on human-nature connection (HNC) exists. We reviewed 475 publications on HNC and found that most research has concentrated on individuals at local scales, often leaving 'nature' undefined. Cluster analysis identified three subgroups of publications: first, HNC as mind, dominated by the use of psychometric scales, second, HNC as experience, characterised by observation and qualitative analysis; and third, HNC as place, emphasising place attachment and reserve visitation. To address the challenge of connecting humanity with nature, future HNC scholarship must pursue cross-fertilization of methods and approaches, extend research beyond individuals, local scales, and Western societies, and increase guidance for sustainability transformations.

  • 24. Jongerden, joost
    et al.
    Swagemakers, Paul
    Barthel, Stephan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Connective storylines: A relational approach to initiatives in food provisioning and green infrastructures2014Inngår i: Spanish journal of rural development, ISSN 2171-1216, E-ISSN 2172-2277, Vol. 5, s. 7-18Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Debates about the design and management of ecosystem services and interweaving of rural and urban spaces in metropolitan regions raise questions about how to conceptualize “the local”. Rather than presupposing spatial settings or identities as rural-urban or local global, attention here shifts to the immediacy of connections and relations. Conceptualized in terms of activity space, this paperpresents a relational analysis and a practice oriented approach. To illustrate the approach, we overview three case studies in food provisioning and show how an analysis in terms of a set of spatially organized activities can generate new insights.

  • 25. Langemeyer, Johannes
    et al.
    Camps-Calvet, Marta
    Calvet-Mir, Laura
    Barthel, Stephan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Gómez-Baggethun, Erik
    Stewardship of urban ecosystem services: understanding the value(s) of urban gardens in Barcelona2018Inngår i: Landscape and Urban Planning, ISSN 0169-2046, E-ISSN 1872-6062, Vol. 170, s. 79-89Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The notion and assessment of ecosystem services (ES) values is becoming an established part of the discourse regarding urban green space performance. Yet, underlying factors enabling ES values are still poorly understood. We assume the production of ES value crucial for environmental stewardship in cities, and aimed in this study to uncover their key enabling factors. This study has been developed on a broad data base including a survey (n = 201), interviews (n = 46), field observation and remote sensing from 27 urban gardens in Barcelona, Spain, including municipal 'allotment gardens' and 'civic gardens' emerging from bottom-up initiatives. In a first step, we distinguished different urban gardens types regarding the ES values they provide. In a second step, we tested specific garden characteristics including (a) user profiles, (b) biophysical garden properties, and (c) institutional settings for their specific importance to trigger ES values. Results showed ES values to significantly differ with the types of gardens. For example, classical allotment gardens are more likely to provide recreational values, while emerging civic gardens are more likely to produce place-making and social cohesion. A main finding from our study is the importance of social and institutional garden characteristic as enabling factors of ES values. Results indicate, for example, a correlation between childhood experiences and a higher appreciation of ES. Our results further indicate that civic gardens with broader property rights and decision-capacities are more likely to enhance stewardship action. In providing a differentiated understanding of the ES value(s) of urban gardens, this study highlights the potential for green space planning in cities to steer the stewardship of urban gardens by providing institutional and physical space for civic gardening initiatives.

  • 26. Ljungkvist, John
    et al.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Finnveden, Göran
    Sörlin, Sverker
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    The Urban Anthropocene: lessons for Sustainability from the Environmental History of Constantinople2011Inngår i: The Urban Mind: cultural and Environmental Dynamics / [ed] , in Paul J.J. Sinclair, Gullög Nordquist, Frands Herschend & Christian Isendahl, Uppsala universitet, 2011, 1, s. 367-390Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 27. Marcus, Lars
    et al.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Historiska institutionen. Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Colding, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Erixon, Hanna
    Utveckla Valhallavägen till Stockholms gröna bredband2012Inngår i: Dagens nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 28. Marcus, Lars
    et al.
    Giusti, Matteo
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Cognitive affordances in sustainable urbanism: contributions of space syntax and spatial cognition2016Inngår i: Journal of Urban Design, ISSN 1357-4809, E-ISSN 1469-9664, Vol. 21, nr 4, s. 439-452Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Post-industrial societies impose new ecological challenges on urbanism. However, it is argued here that most approaches to sustainable urbanism still share the conception of the humans-environment relations that characterized modernism. The paper finds support in recent knowledge developments in social-ecological sustainability, spatial analysis and cognitive science to initiate a dialogue for an alternative framework. Urban form engages humans not only through physical activities, but also mentally through opportunities for learning and creation of meaning, thereby both reinforcing and impeding behaviours on a cognitive level. Against this background, it is proposed that what in cognition studies is termed 'cognitive affordances' could form the core of a new epistemological framework of the human-environment relation in sustainable urbanism.

  • 29. Raymond, Christopher M.
    et al.
    Giusti, Matteo
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of Gävle, Sweden.
    An embodied perspective on the co-production of cultural ecosystem services: toward embodied ecosystems2018Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559, Vol. 61, nr 5-6, s. 778-799Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite arguments justifying the need to consider how cultural ecosystem services are coproduced by humans and nature, there are currently few approaches for explaining the relationships between humans and ecosystems through embodied scientific realism. This realism recognises that human–environment connections are not solely produced in the mind, but through relations between mind, body, culture and environment through time. Using affordance theory as our guide, we compare and contrast embodied approaches to common understandings of the co-production of cultural ecosystem services across three assumptions: (1) perspective on cognition; (2) the position of socio-cultural processes and (3) typologies used to understand and value human–environment relationships. To support a deeper understanding of co-production, we encourage a shift towards embodied ecosystems for assessing the dynamic relations between mind, body, culture and environment. We discuss some of the advantages and limitations of this approach and conclude with directions for future research.

  • 30. Samuelsson, Karl
    et al.
    Giusti, Matteo
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Peterson, Garry D.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Legeby, Ann
    Brandt, S. Anders
    Barthel, Stephan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Impact of environment on people's everyday experiences in Stockholm2018Inngår i: Landscape and Urban Planning, ISSN 0169-2046, E-ISSN 1872-6062, Vol. 171, s. 7-17Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to construct urban environments that limit negative impacts for global sustainability while supporting human wellbeing, there is a need to better understand how features of the environment influence people's everyday experiences. We present a novel method for studying this combining accessibility analysis and public participatory GIS (PPGIS). Seven environment features are defined and accessibility to them analysed across Stockholm municipality. We estimate the probabilities of positive and negative experiences in places based on these environment features, by using spatial regression to extrapolate from the results of an online PPGIS survey (1784 experiences of 1032 respondents). Six of the seven studied environment features have significant impact on experiential outcome, after accounting for spatial autocorrelation among the data. The results show that number of residents and proximity of nature environments and water, all common quality indicators in urban planning and research, have weak statistically significant effects on people's experiences. However, areas dominated by large working populations or proximity to major roads have very low rates of positive experiences, while areas with high natural temperature regulating capacities have very high rates, showing that there are considerable qualitative differences within urban environments as well as nature environments. Current urban planning practices need to acknowledge these differences to limit impacts on the biosphere while promoting human wellbeing. We suggest that a good way to start addressing this is through transformation of negatively experienced urban areas through designs that integrate closeness to urbanity with possibilities to have nature experiences on a daily basis.

  • 31. Thorsvall, Jonas
    et al.
    Kärsten, Carl
    Barthel, Stephan
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Historiska institutionen. Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Laboratoriestaden2012Inngår i: Arkitektur: byggnad, interiör, plan, landskap, ISSN 0004-2021, nr 2, s. 64-69Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Norra Djurgårdsstaden är Stockholms nästa stora projekt för hållbart stads­byggande. "Världsklass" är nyckel­ordet. Vi har lagt de stora planerna på analyssoffan. Fram träder en stad där den ekologiska hållbarheten triumfe­rar, men som socialt nöjer sig med att bli ett livsstilsboende för en urban elit.

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