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  • 1.
    Cancino-Montecinos, Sebastian
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Dissonance and abstraction: Cognitive conflict leads to higher level of construal2018In: European Journal of Social Psychology, ISSN 0046-2772, E-ISSN 1099-0992, Vol. 48, no 1, p. 100-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the effects of cognitive conflict on abstract thinking. According to action-identification theory, an ambiguous and unfamiliar situation might propel an individual to a more abstract mindset. Based on this premise, cognitive conflict was hypothesized to put people in an abstract mindset. The induced compliance paradigm, in which participants are asked to write a counter-attitudinal essay under either low choice (producing little dissonance) or high choice (producing more dissonance), was employed. Results showed that an abstract mindset was in fact activated in the induced compliance paradigm, and this effect was more pronounced for participants having a more concrete mindset to begin with. The results suggest that the experience of cognitive conflict is closely related to increased abstraction.

  • 2.
    Cancino-Montecinos, Sebastian
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Dissonance reduction as emotion regulation: Attitude change is related to positive emotions in the induced compliance paradigm2018In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 12, article id e0209012Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to clarify how positive and negative emotions are related to the common attitude-change effect in cognitive dissonance research. Drawing on appraisal theories of emotion, and emotion-regulation research, we predicted that negative emotions would be inversely related to attitude change, whereas positive emotions would be positively related to attitude change in the induced compliance paradigm. In two studies, participants (N = 44; N = 106) wrote a counter-attitudinal essay under the perception of high choice, and were later asked to state their emotions in relation to writing this essay, as well as to state their attitude. Results confirmed the predictions, even when controlling for baseline emotions. These findings untangled a previously unresolved issue in dissonance research, which in turn shows how important emotion theories are for the understanding of cognitive dissonance processes.

  • 3.
    Cancino-Montecinos, Sebastian
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Borg, Elisabet
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Assessing traits in a psychophysical way: Reassessing need for cognition and behavioral inhibition/approach2018In: Proceedings of the 34 th Annual Meeting of the International Society for Psychophysics / [ed] Friedrich Müller, Lara Ludwigs, Malizia Kupper, International Society for Psychophysics , 2018, p. 36-42Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate if different scale formats affect what conclusion one can draw about the prevalence of a specific trait in a sample. More specifically, we compared the original scale format of Need for cognition (1-5) and Behavioral Inhibition/Approach (1-4) with an 11-point scale (0-10), and a psychophysical scale originally developed to measure physical exertion, Borg centiMax Scale®. Forty-eight psychology undergraduate students participated in return for course credit. In a within-subjects design, all participants completed both questionnaires in all three versions. Results revealed that the mean was consistently reaching ceiling effects when using the original scale formats, and the variation was relatively low compared to the other scales. In sum, the results revealed that the scale format plays a significant role in how prevalent a specific trait becomes in a sample.

  • 4.
    Cancino-Montecinos, Sebastian
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Dissonance and abstraction: Cognitive conflict leads to higher level of construal2017In: 18th General Meeting of The European Association of Social Psychology: Programme and Abstract Book, European Association of Social Psychology , 2017, p. 123-123Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the effects of cognitive conflict on abstraction. Results revealed that an abstract mindset was in fact activated when participants experienced cognitive conflict. This suggest that cognitive conflicts are closely related to increased abstraction.

  • 5.
    Cancino-Montecinos, Sebastian
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Cognitive dissonance leads to an abstract mindset2016In: Book of abstract, 2016, p. 38-38Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the effects of cognitive dissonance on abstract thinking. According to action-identification theory, whenever people try to understand a situation in a new way, they activate an abstract mindset. Based on this premise, dissonance was hypothesized to put people in an abstract mindset. The induced compliance paradigm, in which participants are asked to write a counter-attitudinal essay under either low choice (producing little dissonance) or high choice (producing more dissonance), was employed. Results showed that dissonance did in fact activate a more abstract mindset, and this effect was more pronounced for participants having a more concrete mindset to begin with. This suggests that increasing abstraction, as a reaction to cognitive conflict, is a way for people to resolve inconsistencies.

  • 6.
    Cancino-Montecinos, Sebastian
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    The effects of cognitive dissonance on abstract thinking: Dissonance leads to an abstract mindset2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we investigated how individuals’ abstract thinking increases when experiencing dissonance. Dissonance theory holds that people reduce dissonance by accommodating their attitudes in order to fit their most recent behavior. This process resembles the reasoning of action-identification theory (AIT), which postulates that people usually try to understand their actions in a meaningful and coherent way, and also that actions can take on new meanings when people move from a low-level to a high-level understanding of the action. Thus, acting inconsistently threatens the coherent understanding of ones action; and in order to regain a sense of consonance, people will try to find a new meaning of their action (e.g., via attitude change). However, this occurs when moving to a high-level understanding (i.e., thinking more abstractly) of ones action. However, the effect of dissonance on abstraction should be stronger for individuals with low level of abstraction to begin with – since AIT holds that people who naturally tend to think abstractly already have high-level understandings of their actions. We predicted that: (1) dissonance puts people in a more abstract mindset, and (2) this effect will be more apparent for individuals low in abstraction. First, we established participants’ natural tendencies to abstract thinking with the Gestalt Completion Test (GCT). This variable was later split into low and high GCT. Several days later, we employed the induced compliance paradigm, in which participants were asked to write a counter-attitudinal essay under either low choice or high choice. High-choice participants usually experience more dissonance. We also created a neutral condition (to serve as a comparison to the other conditions) in which individuals were asked to write a pro-attitudinal essay. After the induced compliance manipulation, the Behavior Identification Form (BIF) was used to measure abstraction. The sample consisted of 125 non-psychology students. A 3 (condition: high-choice vs. low-choice vs. neutral) ˙ 2 (GCT: low vs. high) between subjects factorial ANOVA showed that participants in the high-choice condition (who experienced more dissonance) did exhibit a more abstract mindset, and level of GCT moderated this effect. The following simple effects analysis showed a significant effect for the low-GCT groups: (F(2, 119) = 6.607, p = .002, &#951;2 = .100) and the pairwise comparisons revealed that high-choice participants exhibited a significantly more abstract mindset (M = 16.65, SD = 4.54) compared to both the low-choice participants (M = 13.18, SD = 4.45) p = .013, d = .77 and the neutral participants (M = 12.25, SD = 4.71) p < .001, d = .95. No significant effects were found when comparing the high-GCT groups (p = .398). The present study demonstrated that dissonance activates abstract thinking, which is thought to facilitate people’s understanding their recent actions. This finding has important implication for the future study of consequences of cognitive conflicts, and also the study of how abstraction enables people to find new meanings of their own actions. Hence, investigation on these mechanisms could shed more light on how people regulate their thoughts, emotions and behavior in real time.

  • 7.
    Lindholm, Torun
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Blomkvist, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Cancino Montecinos, Sebastian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Yzerbyt, Vincent Y.
    Men’s and Women’s Self-Presentational Tactics Lead to Gender Biases in Manager Selection2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined how men’s and women’s self-presentational choices influenced perceived suitability for a senior position. We confronted applicants to job interview questions preferred by men or women. Regardless of their gender, applicants received better evaluations when they received questions initially selected by men than questions initially selected by women.

  • 8. Liuzza, Marco Tullio
    et al.
    Olofsson, Jonas K.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Cancino Montecinos, Sebastian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    The Moderating Role of Body Odor Disgust Sensitivity in the Affective and Moral Reactivity to Purity Violations2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this preregistered study, we investigated how different types of moral violations elicit disgust vs. anger, and the role of disgust sensitivity in responding to moral violations. Our results show that purity violations primarily elicit disgust reactions, and individual differences in body odor disgust sensitivity moderates reactions to purity violations.

  • 9. Liuzza, Marco Tullio
    et al.
    Olofsson, Jonas K.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Cancino-Montecinos, Sebastian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Body Odor Disgust Sensitivity Predicts Moral Harshness Toward Moral Violations of Purity2019In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, article id 458Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Detecting pathogen threats and avoiding disease is fundamental to human survival. The behavioral immune system (BIS) framework outlines a set of psychological functions that may have evolved for this purpose. Disgust is a core emotion that plays a pivotal role in the BIS, as it activates the behavioral avoidance motives that prevent people from being in contact with pathogens. To date, there has been little agreement on how disgust sensitivity might underlie moral judgments. Here, we investigated moral violations of “purity” (assumed to elicit disgust) and violations of “harm” (assumed to elicit anger). We hypothesized that individual differences in BIS-related traits would be associated with greater disgust (vs. anger) reactivity to, and greater condemnation of Purity (vs. Harm) violations. The study was pre-registered (https://osf.io/57nm8/). Participants (N = 632) rated scenarios concerning moral wrongness or inappropriateness and regarding disgust and anger. To measure individual differences in the activation of the BIS, we used our recently developed Body Odor Disgust Scale (BODS), a BIS-related trait measure that assesses individual differences in feeling disgusted by body odors. In line with our predictions, we found that scores on the BODS relate more strongly to affective reactions to Purity, as compared to Harm, violations. In addition, BODS relates more strongly to Moral condemnation than to perceived Inappropriateness of an action, and to the condemnation of Purity violations as compared to Harm violations. These results suggest that the BIS is involved in moral judgment, although to some extent this role seems to be specific for violations of “moral purity,” a response that might be rooted in disease avoidance. Data and scripts to analyze the data are available on the Open Science Framework (OSF) repository: https://osf.io/tk4x5/. Planned analyses are available at https://osf.io/x6g3u/.

1 - 9 of 9
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  • nn-NO
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