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  • 1.
    Ahola, Angela S.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Christianson, Sven Å.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Hellström, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Justice Needs a Blindfold: Effects of Gender and Attractiveness on Prison Sentences and Attributions of Personal Characteristics in a Judicial Process2009Inngår i: Psychiatry, Psychology and Law, ISSN 1321-8719, E-ISSN 1934-1687, Vol. 16, nr 1, s. 90-100Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the effect of gender and facial characteristics of criminal offenders on attributions of crime-relevant traits. The stimulus pictures portrayed women and men of varying attractiveness. Participants were presented with pictures of these female or male faces along with accompanying crime accounts. The crime account described the individual in the picture as a person who had committed one of the following crimes: theft, fraud, drug crime, child molestation, child abuse, or homicide. After reading one case account the participants were asked to evaluate the credibility and other crime-relevant personality traits of the offender. Results showed that female defendants were rated more favourably than were male defendants. Gender worked to the advantage of the female perpetrator. There were also slight tendencies towards more lenient appraisal of the more attractive women.

  • 2. Ask, Karl
    et al.
    Granhag, Pär Anders
    Christianson, Sven Å.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Falska minnen och falska erkännanden2008Inngår i: Handbok i rättspsykologi, Liber, Stockholm , 2008Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    This chapter discusses cognitive and social aspects that may contribute to false memories in children and adults. The chapter also discusses different causes behind false confessions among suspects of crimes and that interrogation methods recommended in some police manuals can result in miscarriages of justice as a result of false confessions.

  • 3.
    Azad, Azade
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Christianson, Sven Å.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Barn och ungdomar minns och berättar detaljerat efter att ha bevittnat dödligt våld2012Inngår i: Svensk Juristtidning, ISSN 0039-6591, Vol. 97, s. 746-759Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    De flesta barn som kommer i kontakt med rättsväsendet har utsatts för stressfyllda eller traumatiska händelser. Följaktligen är effekten av starka negativa känslor på minnet och berättandet, av både juridiska och kliniska skäl, av stor vikt att undersöka. I ett pågående forskningsprojekt har vi kartlagt de mönster som präglar barns minnen och berättande när de bevittnat dödligt våld, samt olika bakgrundsfaktorer som kan tänkas påverka barnens vittnesmål. Totalt har vi analyserat polisförhör med över 100 barn och ungdomar i åldrarna 3–17 år. Huvudresultaten visar att barn berättar detaljerat om dessa upplevelser i polisförhör, oavsett ålder och relation till gärningsmannen och/eller offret. Därtill visar resultaten att upprepade förhör leder till ett än mer detaljerat berättande. Det finns således skäl till att reflektera över etablerade uppfattningar angående i vilken utsträckning barn är lojala mot sina föräldrar och av den anledningen tiger om det våld de upplevt i hemmet. Barnets vittnesmål är av stor vikt för att få ett bättre underlag i en brottsutredning och för att försäkra barnets rätt till brottsskadeersättning samt för att domstolarna vid straffvärdesbedömningen ska kunna beakta att ett barn bevittnat brottet.

  • 4.
    Azad, Azade
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Christianson, Sven-Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Selenius, Heidi
    Children's reporting patterns after witnessing homicidal violence - the effect of repeated experience and repeated interviews2014Inngår i: Psychology, Crime and Law, ISSN 1068-316X, E-ISSN 1477-2744, Vol. 20, nr 5, s. 407-429Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    For both legal and clinical purposes, it is of importance to study children's memories and reports of stressful events. The present study investigated the reporting patterns of 83 children who had witnessed homicidal violence, which is considered to be a highly stressful experience. More specifically, we explored the possible effects of prior violence exposure and of repeated questioning on the amount of details reported. Results showed that the majority of children provided detailed reports about the homicidal violence they had witnessed, including details concerning what happened before, during, and after the violent act. The children provided detailed and vivid testimonies from their experiences, whether they witnessed the event for the first time or had prior experience of witnessing severe violence against the victim by the perpetrator. Children with no prior experience of repeated violence who underwent repeated interviews provided more details than those interviewed once. The present data indicate that children are competent witnesses when questioned in legal contexts after having been exposed to extremely stressful events. These findings have implications for research related to children's memories and reporting of traumatic experiences, as well as practical implications for future treatment and evaluation of children's testimonies.

  • 5.
    Christianson, Sven A.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Engelberg, Elisabeth
    Gustafson, Åsa
    Recognition of previous eyewitness testimony from an altered interrogation protocol: Potential effects of distortions2007Inngår i: Psychology, Crime and Law, ISSN 1068-316X, E-ISSN 1477-2744, Vol. 13, nr 6, s. 583-589Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of protocol presentation on witnesses' tendency to point out errors in a transcribed version of their verbal testimony was examined in two experiments. Participants were shown a film depicting a robbery and were subsequently questioned. In the process of typing out the testimony, there were six distortions entered into the protocol. When participants were asked to check the content for approval, they either listened to the experimenter reading the protocol out aloud, or read it on their own. The results showed that witnesses who had listened to the content being read to them pointed out significantly fewer distortions, and suggest that protocol presentation may have important implications for the justice system.

  • 6.
    Christianson, Sven Å.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    A cat-and-mouse game: Media Manipulation2016Inngår i: Shrunk: Crime and disorders of the mind / [ed] J Thomas Dalby, Lisa Ramshaw, Calgary: Durvile Publications , 2016, s. 22-39Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    SHRUNK is a collection of true cases by eminent Canadian and international forensic psychologists and psychiatrists facing the tough topic of mental illness in the criminal justice system.

  • 7.
    Christianson, Sven Å.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Förhör och utredande intervjumetodik2008Inngår i: Handbok i rättspsykologi, Liber, Stockholm , 2008Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    This chapter gives an overview of a number of principles and central aspects in interviewing practices regarding victims and bystander witnesses: for example, planning and preparation, empathy, documentation, ground rules, context reinstatement and various techniques for guided retrieval, conclusion and evaluation.

  • 8.
    Christianson, Sven Å.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Kommentarer till debattartikel om minnespsykologiska teorier2011Inngår i: Svensk Juristtidning, ISSN 0039-6591, nr 3, s. 321-323Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 9.
    Christianson, Sven Å.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Äkta och simulerad minnesförlust hos gärningsmän2008Inngår i: Handbok i rättspsykologi, Liber, Stockholm , 2008Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    There is a need for a more comprehensive insight into forensic issues pertaining to trauma, memory and amnesia among offenders, both on a theoretical and applied level, in order to further our understanding of how to elicit and evaluate their recall of violent crime events. This chapter discusses different explanations for memory loss for criminal offences and the motivation to simulate amnesia among offenders.

  • 10.
    Christianson, Sven å.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Azad, Azade
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Leander, Lina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Selenius, Heidi
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Children as Witnesses to Homicidal Violence: What They Remember and Report2013Inngår i: Psychiatry, Psychology and Law, ISSN 1321-8719, E-ISSN 1934-1687, Vol. 20, nr 3, s. 366-383Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigated how 96 children who have witnessed homicidal violence remember and report their experiences. The aims of the study were to describe the children's reporting pattern and to investigate background factors that could affect the children's reporting. Police interviews with the children were analysed regarding the amount and type of information reported, as well as frequency of denial, withholding and claims of memory loss. Results showed that the majority of children provided detailed reports about the homicidal violence they had witnessed, including critical details about the abuse. Results also revealed that the child's relationship to the perpetrator or the victim did not affect the children's reporting pattern, indicating that the children's willingness to report exceeds strong impact factors such as loyalty conflicts. These findings are applicable in different legal contexts dealing with child witnesses and can be used as guidance when interviewing children and evaluating their testimony.

  • 11.
    Christianson, Sven Å.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Ehrenkrona, Marika
    Psykologi och bevisvärdering: myter om trovärdighet och tillförlitlighet2011 (oppl. 1)Bok (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    ”Vittnet talade klart och tydligt, hade stadig blick och lämnade en detaljrik och sammanhängande berättelse. Dessutom var hon säker på sina uppgifter och hade konsekvent berättat samma sak mellan olika förhör.”

    Är detta ett trovärdigt vittne och en tillförlitlig utsaga? – Inte självklart.

    Tvärtom visar flera vetenskapliga studier att många av de handgrepp och antaganden om hur människan fungerar som används inom rättsväsendet stämmer dåligt med den psykologiska forskningen på området.

    Med utgångspunkt i domar, intervjuer och enkätundersökningar analyserar författarna en rad psykologiska myter i juridiken. Olika föreställningar illustreras även med exempel från litteratur, konst och film, och många gamla sanningar sätts i nytt perspektiv. Syftet är att med aktuell och relevant kunskap bidra till att höja kvaliteten i de juridiska bedömningarna för att ytterst öka rättssäkerheten.

    Boken vänder sig i första hand till advokater, domare, åklagare, poliser och andra som är verksamma inom rättsväsendet. Den kan med fördel användas av juridikstudenter som vill fördjupa sina insikter i bevisvärdering och vid universitetskurser i kriminologi och rättspsykologi.

  • 12.
    Christianson, Sven Å
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Engelberg, Elisabeth
    Remembering emotional events: The relevance of memory for associated emotions.2006Inngår i: Memory and Emotion: Interdisciplinary Perspectives, Blackwell Publishing, Singapore , 2006, s. 59-82Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The chapter presents a brief review of basic principles uncovered in studies of the relations between emotion and memory. Understanding these principles is crucial when eliciting and evaluating the recall of witnesses to and victims and perpetrators of violent crime.. Research shows that traumatic experiences tend to persist in memory, both with respect to the emotional event itself and with respect to the central, critical detail information of the emotion-eliciting event. Such consistent findings make it possible to capitalize on the interconnection that seems to exist between memory for the event as such and associated emotions. We discuss the issue of memory of associated emotions in order to highlight their potential as cues in retrieving information from episodic memory.

  • 13.
    Christianson, Sven Å.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Granhag, Pär Anders
    Rättspsykologi - en introduktion2008Inngår i: Handbok i rättspsykologi, Liber, Stockholm , 2008Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    This chapter presents definitions and a historical overview of forensic psychology and the development and trends in this field during the last decades. The chapter also review the most common research topics in current international and domestic forensic psychology.

  • 14.
    Christianson, Sven Å.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Granhag, Pär Anders
    Hartwig, Maria
    Gärningsmannaprofilering2008Inngår i: Handbok i rättspsykologi, Liber, Stockholm , 2008Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    This chapter gives an overview of criminal profiling (or offender profiling). Definitions, central concepts, and assumptions are discussed as well as different approaches to criminal profiling. Geographic profiling is described and the chapter also discusses the use of profiling in Sweden. Furthermore, the effectiveness of criminal profileing is discussed, that is; to what extent profiles facilitate the work of investigators in evaluting suspects and providing useful advice on investigation and interviewing.

  • 15.
    Christianson, Sven Å
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Merckelbach, Harald
    Koppelman, Michael
    Crime-related amnesia.2006Inngår i: Witness testimony: Psychological, investigative, and evidential perspectives., Oxford University Press , 2006, s. 105-126Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It is not uncommon that defendants claim amnesia for the crime of which they are accused, particularly in cases of homicide where 25-45% of offenders claim amnesia. This chapter presents arguments against and for the existence of such amnesias. Against the authenticity of amnesia, empirical data from interviews with homicide offenders indicate that they often have a strong motivation for feigning amnesia, and that their memory loss may possess typical features of malingered amnesia. Simulated or imagined amnesia may be at least as common as dissociative amnesia. However, unstructured clinical interviews are not a reliable way of differentiating between these types of amnesias. On the other hand, it can pointed out that many offenders claiming amnesia report their own offence, or fail to take measures to avoid capture. There are consistencies across their reports which are striking, and their descriptions do indeed bear some resemblances to other patients’ accounts of psychological forms of amnesia in clinical circumstances. Furthermore, victims sometimes report similar amnesias, and memory errors are common in eyewitnesses; nobody disputes the motives of these parties. Also, amnesia itself only rarely has legal implications, and may be damaging to the conduct of a person’s defence; it will certainly be challenged vigorously by the prosecution. Another point is that alcoholic blackouts are common in heavy drinking populations, and there is a high rate of offending and violent crime in such groups; it is not surprising that some individuals who have consumed large quantities of alcohol report amnesia for their offence. Finally, even the sceptic will not usually query the presence of amnesia in certain neurological conditions, such as epilepsy, hypoglycaemia, and somnambulism, although these can be at least as difficult to assess as the psychological forms of memory loss.

  • 16.
    Christianson, Sven Å.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Montgomery, Henry
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Kognition i ett rättspsykologiskt perspektiv2008Inngår i: Handbok i rättspsykologi, Liber, Stockholm , 2008Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    This chapter gives an overview of a number of central fields in cognitive psychology: information processing mechanisms and modes, memory processes, and judgment and decision making. Throughout is discussed and exemplified how theories and findings in cognitive psychology may be applied in forensic contexts.

  • 17.
    Christianson, Sven Å.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Rogland, Ulrika
    Vad är grooming?2016Bok (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 18.
    Christianson, Sven-Åke
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Karlsson, Ingemar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Persson, Leif G. W.
    Police personnel as eyewitnesses to a violent crime1998Inngår i: Legal and Criminological Psychology, nr 3, s. 59-72Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 19.
    Corovic, Jelena
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Bergman, Lars R.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Christianson, Sven Å.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Using Stranger Rapists' Pre-Assault and Initial-Attack Behaviors to Predict Likely Offender CharacteristicsArtikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 20.
    Corovic, Jelena
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Christianson, Sven Å.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Bergman, Lars R.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    From Crime Scene Actions in Stranger Rape to Prediction of Rapist Type: Single-Victim or Serial Rapist?2012Inngår i: Behavioral sciences & the law (Print), ISSN 0735-3936, E-ISSN 1099-0798, Vol. 30, nr 6, s. 764-781Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The differences in crime scene actions in cases of stranger rape committed by convicted offenders were examined between 31 single-victim rapists and 35 serial rapists. Data were collected from police files, court verdicts, psychiatric evaluations, and criminal records. Findings indicate that the serial rapists were more criminally sophisticated than the single-victim rapists, during their first and second rapes. The single-victim rapists were significantly more likely to engage in the interpersonal involvement behavior of kissing the victim, and to engage in pre-assault alcohol use, than the serial rapists. There was, however, no significant difference in physically violent or sexual behaviors. To investigate the possibility of predicting rapist type, logistic regression analyses were performed. Results indicate that three behaviors in conjunction, kissed victim, controlled victim, and offender drank alcohol before the offense, predicted whether an unknown offender is a single-victim or serial rapist with a classification accuracy of 80.4%. The findings have implications for the classification of stranger rapists in offender profiling.

  • 21. Eriksson, Malin C.
    et al.
    Christianson, Sven Å.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Professionals' Experiences With and Perceptions of Children Exposed to Severe and Homicidal Violence in Sweden2017Inngår i: Victims & Offenders, ISSN 1556-4886, E-ISSN 1556-4991, Vol. 12, nr 4, s. 523-548Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study aimed to examine professionals' experiences, perceptions, and knowledge regarding violence-exposed children in order to clarify the status and opportunities these children have in the Swedish legal system. A questionnaire was distributed to 63 professionals, representing police, prosecutors, social personnel, and treatment personnel. Findings revealed several problems that hindered effective work. Routines and guidelines were lacking and knowledge gaps regarding these children were found among all professions. Perceptions that children remember and tell were widely held, although conditions enabling sufficient reports are seldom met. Results can be used to guide necessary changes in national routines and guidelines to ensure recovery and maintaining of societal rights of this group of psychologically abused victims.

  • 22. Granhag, Pär Anders
    et al.
    Christianson, Sven Å.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Handbok i rättspsykologi2008Bok (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna grundbok i rättspsykologi ger en heltäckande bild av var den vetenskapligt baserade rättspsykologiska forskningen står idag. Boken täcker även områdets många delteman, t.ex. vittnespsykologi, förhörsmetodik, gärningsmannaprofilering, bevisvärdering och viktimologi. En viktig del är också att ge kunskaper om de grundläggande psykologiska teorier och principer som rättspsykologin vilar på, som bland annat kognitiv psykologi, utvecklingspsykologi, socialpsykologi och psykopatologi.

  • 23. Granhag, Pär Anders
    et al.
    Christianson, Sven Å.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Vittneskonfrontationer2008Inngår i: Handbok i rättspsykologi, Liber, Stockholm , 2008Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    This chapter gives an overview of a number of central topicts related to eyewitness identification procedures. Pro and cons associated with different lineup procedures are discussed. The chapter also decribes common errors in the use of lineups.

  • 24. Hartwig, Maria
    et al.
    Christianson, Sven Å.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Granhag, Pär Anders
    Förhör med misstänkta gärningsmän2008Inngår i: Handbok i rättspsykologi, Liber, Stockholm , 2008Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    The chapter gives an overview of a number of principles and central aspects in interviewing suspects of crimes. Current interviewing practices in Britain and America, and in Sweden are reviewed. The use of Cognitive Interviewing is discussed for interviewing cooperative suspects and how evidence can be strategically used in interviews for lie detection purposes. The chapter also provides useful advices in intervieweing suspects who show symptoms of various types of personality disorders.

  • 25.
    Holmberg, Ulf
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Christianson, Sven-Åke
    Murderers' and Sexual Offenders' Experiences of Police Interviews and Their Inclination to Admit or Deny Crimes2002Inngår i: Behavioral Sciences and the Law, ISSN 0735-3936, Vol. 20, nr 1-2, s. 31-45Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 26.
    Holmberg, Ulf
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Christianson, Sven-Åke
    Karlsson, Ingemar
    Stressful Event Exposure is Related to Police Officers' Attitudes to Interviewing Crime Victims and SuspectInngår i: Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 27. Karlsson, Ingemar
    et al.
    Christianson, Sven Å
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Police officers involved in a manhunt of a mass murder: Memories and psychological responses.2006Inngår i: Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, ISSN 1363-951X, Vol. 29, nr 3, s. 524-540Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The focus of the present study was on police officers reactions to and memories of a manhunt after a shooting incident. Emotional impact and memories of these events are discussed in relation to time elapsed, support from co-workers, supervisors and professional debriefing. Design/methodology/approach: Eleven police officers responding to a mass shooting carried out by a young offender resulting in seven dead civilians were asked to describe the event 10 months after the event, five years after the event, and again nine years after the event. Findings: All police officers reported having vivid memories of the mass shooting incident, and visual and auditory memories of the event were best retained, although a decline was observed nine years after the incident. Regarding working through the traumatic experience, the police officers had not been offered professional help in connection with the mass shooting incident. Research limitations/implications: Due to the fact that police officers in the present study answered the survey anonymously, it was not possible to work out repeated measures statistics for these memories over time. Practical implications: Knowing that the psychological distress due to exposure to a traumatic event may be long lasting, it is crucial that police organizations consider time as an important factor in working through these experiences. Originality/value: Research on emotion and memory is highly relevant to the work of police officers and to the legal system.

  • 28.
    Karlsson, Ingemar
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Christianson, Sven-Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    The phenomenology of traumatic experiences in police work2003Inngår i: Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, ISSN 1363-951X, Vol. 26, nr 3, s. 419-438Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 29. Leander, Lina
    et al.
    Christianson, Sven A.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Granhag, Paer Anders
    Internet-Initiated Sexual Abuse: Adolescent Victims' Reports About On- and Off-Line Sexual Activities2008Inngår i: Applied Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 0888-4080, E-ISSN 1099-0720, Vol. 22, nr 9, s. 1260-1274Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate how adolescent girls, who had been sexually (on- and off-line) deceived and abused by an Internet hebephile, reported about these acts. As we had access to documentation of 68 girls' conversations (i.e. chat logs) and involvement with the perpetrator, we were able to gauge what the victims reported during the police interview against this detailed documentation. In contrast with findings from previous research, the majority of victims reported about the off-line activities (real-life meetings) with the perpetrator. However, the victims omitted and/or denied more of the on-line activities, specifically the more severe sexual on-line acts (sending nude photos and participating in sexual web shows). There is probably a gap between what the victims reported and what they presumably remembered about the oil-line activities. Factors that might have affected the victims' pattern of reports are discussed.

  • 30. Leander, Lina
    et al.
    Christianson, Sven Å.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Barns minne och berättande2008Inngår i: Handbok i rättspsykologi, Liber, Stockholm , 2008Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    This chapter gives an overview of a number of central issuse related to childrens’ memories of traumatic events and child sexual abuse. Throughout is discussed and exemplified how theories and findings regarding devolpmental aspects and interviewing procedures may be applied in forensic contexts.

  • 31. Leander, Lina
    et al.
    Christianson, Sven Å
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Granhag, Pär Anders
    A sexual abuse case study: Children's memories and reports2007Inngår i: Psychiatry, Psychology and Law, ISSN 1321-8719, E-ISSN 1934-1687, Vol. 14, nr 1, s. 120-129Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examines how children, who had been exposed to a single act of sexual abuse carried out by an unfamiliar perpetrator (the same perpetrator in all cases), remembered and reported on the abuse in subsequent police interviews. Interviews with eight children were analysed with regard to the amount and type of information reported, and the number of times the children denied the sexual abuse. Documentation of the abuse (photographs and medical examinations) was analysed to verify that abuse had actually occurred. The majority of the children reported no, or very few, sexual details. Of all the event details reported, 7.6% referred to sexual acts and, in specific descriptions of the course of the sexual abuse, only 21% of the details were of a sexual nature. In addition, the youngest children expressed to the interviewer on almost 100 occasions that they did not wish to talk about the abuse. The present data indicate that children display difficulties when reporting on sexual abuse, even when the perpetrator is a stranger (i.e., when factors such as loyalty conflicts, dependence on the abuser, fear of negative consequences for the family may be excluded).

  • 32. Leander, Lina
    et al.
    Christianson, Sven Å.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Svedin, Carl Goran
    Granhag, Par Anders
    Judges', lay judges', and police officers' beliefs about factors affecting children's testimony about sexual abuse2007Inngår i: Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0022-3980, E-ISSN 1940-1019, Vol. 141, nr 4, s. 341-357Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors examined Swedish judges', lay judges', and police officers' beliefs about factors that may complicate or facilitate children's reports of sexual abuse. Participants (N = 562) rated potential complicating and facilitating factors and freely reported which criteria they considered important when assessing the reliability of child witnesses. The groups had similar opinions regarding which factors are complicating and facilitating. Furthermore, the groups tended to regard emotional factors as more complicating than cognitive factors. When freely reporting criteria that are important when assessing reliability, judges and police officers reported criteria pertaining mainly to the child, whereas lay judges reported mainly criteria pertaining mainly to the police interview. Results indicate that participants believe that children have the capacity to remember and report about abuse but are hindered in doing so by emotional factors. Results also suggest that police officers may underestimate their own influence on the reliability of children's reports.

  • 33. Leander, Lina
    et al.
    Granhag, Par Anders
    Christianson, Sven A.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Children's Reports of Verbal Sexual Abuse: Effects of Police Officers' Interviewing Style2009Inngår i: Psychiatry, Psychology and Law, ISSN 1321-8719, E-ISSN 1934-1687, Vol. 16, nr 3, s. 340-354Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study was to assess how individual differences in interviewing style affected children's reports of verbal sexual abuse. Specifically, individual differences were analysed with regard to establishing rapport and type of questions, between four police officers (that in sum interviewed 61 children) and their effects on the richness and accuracy of children's reports. The children's reports were coded by counting all informative details (richness) and by matching the children's statements with transcripts made by the perpetrator (accuracy). The interviewers' utterances were coded into two categories corresponding to either establishing rapport or the question phase. A positive association was found between (a) the number of rapport-establishing utterances and the number of questions asked, as well as between (b) the number of questions asked and the richness of the children's reports. More specifically, a stronger association was found between specific questions and richness, than between open-ended questions and richness. This study points to the importance of interviewing style in elicitation of information from children reporting about sexual abuse. The interviews that included a well-established rapport also included a high frequency of questions, which in turn resulted in rich reports from the children.

  • 34. Leander, Lina
    et al.
    Granhag, Pär Anders
    Christianson, Sven Å
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Children exposed to obscene phone calls: What they remember and tell.2005Inngår i: Child Abuse & Neglect, ISSN 0145-2134, Vol. 29, nr 8, s. 871-888Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: This case study examined children's reports from an obscene phone call (i.e., a verbal sexual abuse). We investigated which type of information the children reported, the completeness and accuracy of the children's statements, and whether there were systematic patterns in terms of memory distortions and omissions. Method: The completeness and the accuracy of the children's statements were examined by matching 64 children's statements given during police interviews with a detailed documentation of each phone call, made by the perpetrator during the actual phone calls. Results: All children remembered the phone call per se, but they were found to omit almost all of the sexual and sensitive information (perpetrator's questions and statements) and about 70% of the neutral information given by the perpetrator. However, the children were accurate in the information they did report. Conclusions: The fact that the children did remember more of the neutral information suggests that they actually remembered the sexual information as well, but that they chose not to report it. Results indicate that children who have been sexually abused may remember more than they report in an initial interview. One possible underlying reason is that children experience shame or embarrassment.

  • 35.
    Lindholm, Torun
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Christianson, Sven-Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Karlsson, Ingemar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Police Officers and Civilians as Witnesses: Intergroup Biases and Memory Performance1997Inngår i: Applied Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 0888-4080, Vol. 11, nr 5, s. 431-444Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 36. Rogland, Ulrika
    et al.
    Christianson, Sven Å.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    "Jag kände mig speciell": grooming på Internet2012Bok (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 37. Sandnabba, N. Kenneth
    et al.
    Christianson, Sven Å.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Granhag, Pär Anders
    Sexuella komponenter bakom brott2008Inngår i: Handbok i rättspsykologi, Liber, Stockholm , 2008Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    This chapter discusses a number of central topicts related to sexual behaviour and sexual crimes. Among the themes discussed are, attitudes and the law concerning sexual behaviour; diagnostic aspects; sexual criminals as a heterogenous group; motives behind sexual assualts and rape; deviant sexual behaviour/ paraphilias (e.g., exhibitionism, pedophilia, arson, lust murder) and female sex offenders. Pro and cons associated with different lineup procedures are discussed. The chapter also decribes psychological autopsy as an investigative aid in sexual crimes.

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