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  • 1. Andreoni, Igor
    et al.
    Goldstein, Daniel A.
    Kasliwal, Mansi M.
    Nugent, Peter E.
    Zhou, Rongpu
    Newman, Jeffrey A.
    Bulla, Mattia
    Stockholm University, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics (Nordita). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Foucart, Francois
    Hotokezaka, Kenta
    Nakar, Ehud
    Nissanke, Samaya
    Raaijmakers, Geert
    Bloom, Joshua S.
    De, Kishalay
    Jencson, Jacob E.
    Ward, Charlotte
    Ahumada, Tomas
    Anand, Shreya
    Buckley, David A. H.
    Caballero-Garcia, Maria D.
    Castro-Tirado, Alberto J.
    Copperwheat, Christopher M.
    Coughlin, Michael W.
    Cenko, S. Bradley
    Gromadzki, Mariusz
    Hu, Youdong
    Karambelkar, Viraj R.
    Perley, Daniel A.
    Sharma, Yashvi
    Valeev, Azamat F.
    Cook, David O.
    Fremling, U. Christoffer
    Kumar, Harsh
    Taggart, Kirsty
    Bagdasaryan, Ashot
    Cooke, Jeff
    Dahiwale, Aishwarya
    Dhawan, Suhail
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Dobie, Dougal
    Gatkine, Pradip
    Golkhou, V. Zach
    Goobar, Ariel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Chaves, Andreas Guerra
    Hankins, Matthew
    Kaplan, David L.
    Kong, Albert K. H.
    Kool, Erik C.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Mohite, Siddharth
    Sollerman, Jesper
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Tzanidakis, Anastasios
    Webb, Sara
    Zhang, Keming
    GROWTH on S190814bv: Deep Synoptic Limits on the Optical/Near-infrared Counterpart to a Neutron Star-Black Hole Merger2020In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 890, no 2, article id 131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    On 2019 August 14, the Advanced LIGO and Virgo interferometers detected the high-significance gravitational wave (GW) signal S190814bv. The GW data indicated that the event resulted from a neutron star-black hole (NSBH) merger, or potentially a low-mass binary BH merger. Due to the low false-alarm rate and the precise localization (23 deg(2) at 90%), S190814bv presented the community with the best opportunity yet to directly observe an optical/near-infrared counterpart to an NSBH merger. To search for potential counterparts, the GROWTH Collaboration performed real-time image subtraction on six nights of public Dark Energy Camera images acquired in the 3 weeks following the merger, covering >98% of the localization probability. Using a worldwide network of follow-up facilities, we systematically undertook spectroscopy and imaging of optical counterpart candidates. Combining these data with a photometric redshift catalog, we ruled out each candidate as the counterpart to S190814bv and placed deep, uniform limits on the optical emission associated with S190814bv. For the nearest consistent GW distance, radiative transfer simulations of NSBH mergers constrain the ejecta mass of S190814bv to be M-ej < 0.04 M-circle dot at polar viewing angles, or M-ej < 0.03 M-circle dot if the opacity is kappa < 2 cm(2)g(-1). Assuming a tidal deformability for the NS at the high end of the range compatible with GW170817 results, our limits would constrain the BH spin component aligned with the orbital momentum to be chi < 0.7 for mass ratios Q < 6, with weaker constraints for more compact NSs.

  • 2.
    Bulla, Mattia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Goobar, Ariel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Dhawan, Suhail
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Shedding light on the Type Ia supernova extinction puzzle: dust location found2018In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 479, no 3, p. 3663-3674Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The colour evolution of reddened Type Ia supernovae can place strong constraints on the location of dust and help address the question of whether the observed extinction stems from the interstellar medium or from circumstellar material surrounding the progenitor. Here, we analyse BV photometry of 48 reddened Type Ia supernovae from the literature and estimate the dust location from their B - V colour evolution. We find a time-variable colour excess E(B - V) for 15 supernovae in our sample and constrain dust to distances between 0.013 and 45 pc (4 x 10(16)-10(20) cm). For the remaining supernovae, we obtain a constant E(B - V) evolution and place lower limits on the dust distance from the explosion. In all the 48 supernovae, the inferred dust location is compatible with an interstellar origin for the extinction. This is corroborated by the observation that supernovae with relatively nearby dust (less than or similar to 1 pc) are located close to the centre of their host galaxy in high-density dusty regions, where interactions between the supernova radiation and interstellar clouds close by are likely to occur. For supernovae showing time-variable E(B - V), we identify a potential preference for low-R-V values, unusually strong sodium absorption, and blue-shifted and time-variable absorption features. Within the interstellar framework, this brings evidence to a proposed scenario, where cloud-cloud collisions induced by the supernova radiation pressure can shift the grain size distribution to smaller values and enhance the abundance of sodium in the gaseous phase.

  • 3.
    Dhawan, Suhail
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Bulla, Mattia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Goobar, Ariel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Lunnan, Ragnhild
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Johansson, J.
    Fransson, Claes
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Kulkarni, R.
    Papadogiannakis, Seméli
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Miller, A. A.
    iPTF16abc and the population of Type Ia supernovae: comparing the photospheric, transitional, and nebular phases2018In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 480, no 2, p. 1445-1456Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Key information about the progenitor system and the explosion mechanism of Type la supernovae (SNe Ia) can be obtained from early observations, within a few days from explosion. iPTF16abc was discovered as a young SN la with excellent early time data. Here, we present photometry and spectroscopy of the SN in the nebular phase. A comparison of the early time data with a sample of SNe la shows distinct features, differing from normal SNe la at early phases but similar to normal SNe Ia at a few weeks after maximum light (i.e. the transitional phase) and well into the nebular phase. The transparency time-scales (t(0)) for this sample of SNe Ia range between similar to 25 and 41 d indicating a diversity in the ejecta masses. t(0) also weakly correlates with the peak bolometric luminosity, consistent with the interpretation that SNe with higher ejecta masses would produce more Ni-56. Comparing the to and the maximum luminosity, L-max distribution of a sample of SNe Ia to predictions from a wide range of explosion models we find an indication that the sub-Chandrasekhar mass models span the range of observed values. However, the bright end of the distribution can be better explained by Chandrasekhar mass delayed detonation models, hinting at multiple progenitor channels to explain the observed bolometric properties of SNe Ia. iPTF16abc appears to be consistent with the predictions from the M-ch models.

  • 4.
    Dhawan, Suhail
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Bulla, Mattia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Goobar, Ariel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Sagués Carracedo, Ana
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Setzer, Christian N.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Constraining the Observer Angle of the Kilonova AT2017gfo Associated with GW170817: Implications for the Hubble Constant2020In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 888, no 2, article id 67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a strong degeneracy between the luminosity distance (D-L) and the observer viewing angle (<italic(obs); hereafter viewing angle) of the gravitational wave (GW) source with an electromagnetic counterpart, GW170817. Here, for the first time, we present independent constraints on from broadband photometry of the kilonova (kN) AT2017gfo associated with GW170817. These constraints are consistent with independent results presented in the literature using the associated gamma-ray burst GRB 170817A. Combining the constraints on (obs) with the GW data, we find an improvement of 24% on H-0. The observer angle constraints are insensitive to other model parameters, e.g., the ejecta mass, the half-opening angle of the lanthanide-rich region and the temperature. A broad wavelength coverage extending to the near-infrared is helpful to robustly constrain (obs). While the improvement on H-0 presented here is smaller than the one from high angular resolution imaging of the radio counterpart of GW170817, kN observations are significantly more feasible at the typical distances of such events from current and future LIGO-Virgo collaboration observing runs (D-L similar to 100 Mpc). Our results are insensitive to the assumption of the peculiar velocity of the kN host galaxy.

  • 5.
    Dhawan, Suhail
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). European Southern Observatory, Germany.
    Flörs, A.
    Leibundgut, B.
    Maguire, K.
    Kerzendorf, W.
    Taubenberger, S.
    Van Kerkwijk, M. H.
    Spyromilio, J.
    Nebular spectroscopy of SN 2014J: Detection of stable nickel in near-infrared spectra2018In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 619, article id A102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy of the nearby supernova 2014J obtained similar to 450 d after explosion. We detect the [Ni II] 1.939 mu m line in the spectra indicating the presence of stable Ni-58 in the ejecta. The stable nickel is not centrally concentrated but rather distributed as the iron. The spectra are dominated by forbidden [Fe II] and [Co II] lines. We used lines, in the NIR spectra, arising from the same upper energy levels to place constraints on the extinction from host galaxy dust. We find that that our data are in agreement with the high A(v) and low R-v found in earlier studies from data near maximum light. Using a Ni-56 mass prior from near maximum light gamma-ray observations, we find 0.053 +/- 0.018 M-circle dot of stable nickel to be present in the ejecta. We find that the iron group features are redshifted from the host galaxy rest frame by similar to 600 km s(-1).

  • 6.
    Dhawan, Suhail
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Goobar, Ariel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Mörtsell, Edvard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    The effect of inhomogeneities on dark energy constraints2018In: Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, ISSN 1475-7516, E-ISSN 1475-7516, no 7, article id 024Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Constraints on models of the late time acceleration of the universe assume the cosmological principle of homogeneity and isotropy on large scales. However, small scale inhomogeneities can alter observational and dynamical relations, affecting the inferred cosmological parameters. For precision constraints on the properties of dark energy, it is important to assess the potential systematic effects arising from these inhomogeneities. In this study, we use the Type Ia supernova magnitude-redshift relation to constrain the inhomogeneities as described by the Dyer-Roeder distance relation and the effect they have on the dark energy equation of state (w), together with priors derived from the most recent results of the measurements of the power spectrum of the Cosmic Microwave Background and Baryon Acoustic Oscillations. We find that the parameter describing the inhomogeneities (eta) is weakly correlated with w. The best fit values w = -0.933 +/- 0.065 and eta = 0.61 +/- 0.37 are consistent with homogeneity at < 2 sigma level. Assuming homogeneity (eta = 1), we find w = -0.961 +/- 0.055, indicating only a small change in w. For a time-dependent dark energy equation of state, w(0) = -0.951 +/- 0.112 and w(a) = 0.059 +/- 0.418, to be compared with w(0) = -0.983 +/- 0.127 and w(a) = 0.07 +/- 0.432 in the homogeneous case, which is also a very small change. We do not obtain constraints on the fraction of dark matter in compact objects, f(p), at the 95% C.L. with conservative corrections to the distance formalism. Future supernova surveys will improve the constraints on eta, and hence, f(p), by a factor of similar to 10.

  • 7.
    Dhawan, Suhail
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Goobar, Ariel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Mörtsell, Edvard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Amanullah, Rahman
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Feindt, Ulrich
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Narrowing down the possible explanations of cosmic acceleration with geometric probes2017In: Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, ISSN 1475-7516, E-ISSN 1475-7516, no 7, article id 040Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent re-calibration of the Type Ia supernova (SNe Ia) magnitude-redshift relation combined with cosmic microwave background (CMB) and baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) data have provided excellent constraints on the standard cosmological model. Here, we examine particular classes of alternative cosmologies, motivated by various physical mechanisms, e.g. scalar fields, modified gravity and phase transitions to test their consistency with observations of SNe Ia and the ratio of the angular diameter distances from the CMB and BAO. Using a model selection criterion for a relative comparison of the models (the Bayes Factor), we find moderate to strong evidence that the data prefer flat Lambda CDM over models invoking a thawing behaviour of the quintessence scalar field. However, some exotic models like the growing neutrino mass cosmology and vacuum metamorphosis still present acceptable evidence values. The bimetric gravity model with only the linear interaction term as well as a simplified Galileon model can be ruled out by the combination of SNe Ia and CMB/BAO datasets whereas the model with linear and quadratic interaction terms has a comparable evidence value to standard Lambda CDM. Thawing models are found to have significantly poorer evidence compared to flat Lambda CDM cosmology under the assumption that the CMB compressed likelihood provides an adequate description for these non-standard cosmologies. We also present estimates for constraints from future data and find that geometric probes from oncoming surveys can put severe limits on non-standard cosmological models.

  • 8.
    Dhawan, Suhail
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). European Southern Observatory, Germany; Technische Universität München, Germany.
    Jha, Saurabh W.
    Leibundgut, Bruno
    Measuring the Hubble constant with Type Ia supernovae as near-infrared standard candles2018In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 609, article id A72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The most precise local measurements of H-0 rely on observations of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) coupled with Cepheid distances to SN Ia host galaxies. Recent results have shown tension comparing H-0 to the value inferred from CMB observations assuming Lambda CDM, making it important to check for potential systematic uncertainties in either approach. To date, precise local H-0 measurements have used SN Ia distances based on optical photometry, with corrections for light curve shape and colour. Here, we analyse SNe Ia as standard candles in the near-infrared (NIR), where luminosity variations in the supernovae and extinction by dust are both reduced relative to the optical. From a combined fit to 9 nearby calibrator SNe with host Cepheid distances from Riess et al. (2016) and 27 SNe in the Hubble flow, we estimate the absolute peak J magnitude M-J = -18.524 +/- 0.041 mag and H-0 = 72.8 +/- 1.6 (statistical) +/- 2.7 (systematic) km s(-1) Mpc(-1). The 2.2% statistical uncertainty demonstrates that the NIR provides a compelling avenue to measuring SN Ia distances, and for our sample the intrinsic (unmodeled) peak J magnitude scatter is just similar to 0.10 mag, even without light curve shape or colour corrections. Our results do not vary significantly with different sample selection criteria, though photometric calibration in the NIR may be a dominant systematic uncertainty. Our findings suggest that tension in the competing H-0 distance ladders is likely not a result of supernova systematics that could be expected to vary between optical and NIR wavelengths, like dust extinction. We anticipate further improvements in H-0 with a larger calibrator sample of SNe Ia with Cepheid distances, more Hubble flow SNe Ia with NIR light curves, and better use of the full NIR photometric data set beyond simply the peak J-band magnitude.

  • 9.
    Dhawan, Suhail
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Johansson, J.
    Goobar, Ariel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Amanullah, Rahman
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Mörtsell, Edvard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Cenko, S. B.
    Cooray, A.
    Fox, O.
    Goldstein, D.
    Kalender, Raphael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Kasliwal, M.
    Kulkarni, S. R.
    Lee, W. H.
    Nayyeri, H.
    Nugent, P.
    Ofek, E.
    Quimby, R.
    Magnification, dust, and time-delay constraints from the first resolved strongly lensed Type Ia supernova iPTF16geu2020In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 491, no 2, p. 2639-2654Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report lensing magnifications, extinction, and time-delay estimates for the first resolved, multiply imaged Type Ia supernova iPTF16geu, at z = 0.409, using Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations in combination with supporting ground-based data. Multiband photometry of the resolved images provides unique information about the differential dimming due to dust in the lensing galaxy. Using HST and Keck AO reference images taken after the SN faded, we obtain a total lensing magnification for iPTF16geu of mu = 67.8(-2.9)(+2.6), accounting for extinction in the host and lensing galaxy. As expected from the symmetry of the system, we measure very short time-delays for the three fainter images with respect to the brightest one: -0.23 +/- 0.99,-1.43 +/- 0.74, and 1.36 +/- 1.07 d. Interestingly, we find large differences between the magnifications of the four supernova images, even after accounting for uncertainties in the extinction corrections: Delta m(1) = -3.88(-0.06)(+0.07), Delta m(2) = -2.99(-0.08)(+0.09), Delta m(3) = -2.19(-0.15)(+0.14), and Delta m(4) = -2.40(-0.12)(+0.14) mag, discrepant with model predictions suggesting similar image brightnesses. A possible explanation for the large differences is gravitational lensing by substructures, micro- or millilensing, in addition to the large-scale lens causing the image separations. We find that the inferred magnification is insensitive to the assumptions about the dust properties in the host and lens galaxy.

  • 10.
    Feindt, Ulrich
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Nordin, Jakob
    Rigault, Mickael
    Brinnel, Valéry
    Dhawan, Suhail
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Goobar, Ariel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Kowalski, Marek
    simsurvey: estimating transient discovery rates for the Zwicky transient facility2019In: Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, ISSN 1475-7516, E-ISSN 1475-7516, no 10, article id 005Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When planning a survey for astronomical transients, many factors such as cadence, filter choice, sky coverage, and depth of observations need to be balanced in order to optimize the scientific gain of the survey. Here we present a software package called simsurvey for simulating the supernova lightcurves that are expected based on a survey strategy, which can then be used to determine the potential for discoveries of each strategy in question. The code is set up in a modular fashion that allows easy modification of small details of the survey and enables the user to adapt it to any survey design and transient template that they wish to use in planning their survey. As an example of its utility, we use simsurvey to simulate the lightcurve of several types of supernovae that the recently started Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF) is expected to find and compare the results to the discoveries made during its early operations. We conclude that ZTF will find thousands of bright supernovae per year, of which about 10 could potentially be found with two days of explosion. Over the course of three years the survey will obtain lightcurves of about 1800 type Ia supernovae with z < 0.1 that can be used as distance indicators in cosmology if they are spectroscopically classified using additional telescopes. In a comparison to detections from the ZTF public survey, we found good agreement with the numbers of detections expected from the simulations.

  • 11. Flörs, A.
    et al.
    Spyromilio, J.
    Maguire, K.
    Taubenberger, S.
    Kerzendorf, W. E.
    Dhawan, Suhail
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Limits on stable iron in Type Ia supernovae from near-infrared spectroscopy2018In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 620, article id A200Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We obtained optical and near infrared spectra of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) at epochs ranging from 224 to 496 days after the explosion. The spectra show emission lines from forbidden transitions of singly ionised iron and cobalt atoms. We used non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) modelling of the first and second ionisation stages of iron, nickel, and cobalt to fit the spectra using a sampling algorithm allowing us to probe a broad parameter space. We derive velocity shifts, line widths, and abundance ratios for iron and cobalt. The measured line widths and velocity shifts of the singly ionised ions suggest a shared emitting region. Our data are fully compatible with radioactive Ni-56 decay as the origin for cobalt and iron. We compare the measured abundance ratios of iron and cobalt to theoretical predictions of various SN Ia explosion models. These models include, in addition to Ni-56, different amounts of Ni-57 and stable Fe-54,Fe-56. We can exclude models that produced only Fe-54,Fe-56 or only Ni-57 in addition to Ni-56. If we consider a model that has Ni-56, Ni-57; and Fe-54,Fe-56 then our data imply that these ratios are Fe-54,Fe-56/Ni-56 = 0.272 +/- 0.086 and Ni-57 / Ni-56 = 0.032 +/- 0.011.

  • 12. Flörs, A.
    et al.
    Spyromilio, J.
    Taubenberger, S.
    Blondin, S.
    Cartier, R.
    Leibundgut, B.
    Dessart, L.
    Dhawan, Suhail
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Hillebrandt, W.
    Sub-Chandrasekhar progenitors favoured for Type Ia supernovae: evidence from late-time spectroscopy2020In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 491, no 2, p. 2902-2918Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A non-local-thermodynamic-equilibrium level population model of the first and second ionization stages of iron, nickel, and cobalt is used to fit a sample of XShooter optical + near-infrared (NIR) spectra of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). From the ratio of the NIR lines to the optical lines limits can be placed on the temperature and density of the emission region. We find a similar evolution of these parameters across our sample. Using the evolution of the Fe II 12 570 -7155 angstrom line as a prior in fits of spectra covering only the optical wavelengths we show that the 7200 angstrom feature is fully explained by [Fe II] and [Ni II] alone. This approach allows us to determine the abundance of Ni II/Fe II for a large sample of 130 optical spectra of 58 SNe Ia with uncertainties small enough to distinguish between Chandrasekhar mass (MCh) and sub-Chandrasekhar mass (sub-MCh) explosion models. We conclude that the majority (85 per cent) of normal SNe Ia have a Ni/Fe abundance that is in agreement with predictions of sub- MCh explosion simulations of similar to Z(circle dot) progenitors. Only a small fraction (11 per cent) of objects in the sample have a Ni/Fe abundance in agreement with M-Ch explosion models.

  • 13.
    Goobar, Ariel
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Dhawan, Suhail
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Scolnic, Daniel
    The cosmic transparency measured with Type Ia supernovae: implications for intergalactic dust2018In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 477, no 1, p. l75-L79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Observations of high-redshift Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are used to study the cosmic transparency at optical wavelengths. Assuming a flat Lambda cold dark matter (Lambda CDM) cosmological model based on baryon acoustic oscillations and cosmic microwave background measurements, redshift dependent deviations of SN Ia distances are used to constrain mechanisms that would dim light. The analysis is based on the most recent Pantheon SN compilation, for which there is a 0.03 +/- 0.01 (stat) mag discrepancy in the distant supernova distance moduli relative to the Lambda CDM model anchored by supernovae at z < 0.05. While there are known systematic uncertainties that combined could explain the observed offset, here we entertain the possibility that the discrepancy may instead be explained by scattering of supernova light in the intergalactic medium (IGM). We focus on two effects: Compton scattering by free electrons and extinction by dust in the IGM. We find that if the discrepancy is entirely due to dimming by dust, the measurements can be modelled with a cosmic dust density Omega(dust)(IGM) = 8 x 10(-5)(1 + z)(-1), corresponding to an average attenuation of 2 x 10(-5) mag Mpc(-1) in V band. Forthcoming SN Ia studies may provide a definitive measurement of the IGM dust properties, while still providing an unbiased estimate of cosmological parameters by introducing additional parameters in the global fits to the observations.

  • 14. Miller, A. A.
    et al.
    Cao, Y.
    Piro, A. L.
    Blagorodnova, N.
    Bue, B. D.
    Cenko, S. B.
    Dhawan, Suhail
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Ferretti, Raphael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Fox, O. D.
    Fremling, Christoffer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Goobar, Ariel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Howell, D. A.
    Hosseinzadeh, G.
    Kasliwal, M. M.
    Laher, R. R.
    Lunnan, R.
    Masci, F. J.
    McCully, C.
    Nugent, P. E.
    Sollerman, Jesper
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Taddia, Fransesco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Kulkarni, S. R.
    Early Observations of the Type Ia Supernova iPTF 16abc: A Case of Interaction with Nearby, Unbound Material and/or Strong Ejecta Mixing2018In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 852, no 2, article id 100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Early observations of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) provide a unique probe of their progenitor systems and explosion physics. Here we report the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF) discovery of an extraordinarily young SN Ia, iPTF 16abc. By fitting a power law to our early light curve, we infer that first light for the SN, that is, when the SN could have first been detected by our survey, occurred only 0.15 +/-(0.15)(0.07) days before our first detection. In the similar to 24 hr after discovery, iPTF 16abc rose by similar to 2mag, featuring a near-linear rise in flux for. greater than or similar to 3 days. Early spectra show strong C II absorption, which disappears after similar to 7 days. Unlike the extensively observed Type Ia SN 2011fe, the (B - V)(0) colors of iPTF 16abc are blue and nearly constant in the days after explosion. We show that our early observations of iPTF 16abc cannot be explained by either SN shock breakout and the associated, subsequent cooling or the SN ejecta colliding with a stellar companion. Instead, we argue that the early characteristics of iPTF 16abc, including (i) the rapid, near-linear rise, (ii) the nonevolving blue colors, and (iii) the strong C II absorption, are the result of either ejecta interaction with nearby, unbound material or vigorous mixing of radioactive Ni-56 in the SN ejecta, or a combination of the two. In the next few years, dozens of very young normal SNe Ia will be discovered, and observations similar to those presented here will constrain the white dwarf explosion mechanism.

  • 15.
    Mörtsell, Edvard
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Dhawan, Suhail
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Does the Hubble constant tension call for new physics?2018In: Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, ISSN 1475-7516, E-ISSN 1475-7516, no 9, article id 025Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Lambda Cold Dark Matter model (Lambda CDM) represents the current standard model in cosmology. Within this, there is a tension between the value of the Hubble constant, H-0, inferred from local distance indicators and the angular scale of fluctuations in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). In terms of Bayseian evidence, we investigate whether the tension is significant enough to warrant new physics in the form of modifying or adding energy components to the standard cosmological model. We find that late time dark energy explanations are not favoured by data whereas a pre-CMB decoupling extra dark energy component has a positive, although not substantial, Bayesian evidence. A constant equation of state of the additional early energy density is constrained to 0.086(-0.03)(+0:04). Although this value deviates significantly from 1/3, valid for dark radiation, the latter is favoured based on the Bayesian evidence. If the tension persists, future estimates of H-0 at the 1% level will be able to decisively determine which of the proposed explanations is favoured.

  • 16.
    Papadogiannakis, Seméli
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Dhawan, Suhail
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Morosin, Roberta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
    Goobar, Ariel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Characterizing the secondary maximum in the r-band for Type Ia supernovae: diagnostic for the ejecta mass2019In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 485, no 2, p. 2343-2354Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An increase in the number of studied Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) has demonstrated that this class of explosions has a greater diversity in its observables than was previously assumed. The reasons (e.g. the explosion mechanism, progenitor system) for such a diversity remain unknown. Here, we analyse a sample of r-band light curves of SNe Ia, focusing on their behaviour similar to 2-4 weeks after maximum light, i.e. the second maximum. We characterize the second maximum by its timing (t(r2)) and the integrated flux ((F) over bar (r2)). We find that t(r2) correlates with the 'colour-stretch' parameter s(BV), which can be used as a proxy for Ni-56 mass, and (F) over bar (r2) correlates with the transparency time-scale, t(0). Using (F) over bar (r2) for a sample of 199 SNe from the Palomar Transient Factory and intermediate Palomar Transient Factory, we evaluate a distribution on t(0) for a sample of SNe Ia found in an 'untargeted' survey. Comparing this distribution to the predictions of t(0) ranges from models we find that the largest overlap in t(0) values between models and observations is for the sub-Chandrasekhar double detonation models. We also compare our relations between t(0) and (F) over bar (r2) with that from the 1D explosion models of Goldstein & Kasen and confirm that (F) over bar (r2) can be used as a diagnostic of the total ejecta mass.

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  • 17.
    Papadogiannakis, Seméli
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Goobar, Ariel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Amanullah, Rahman
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Bulla, Mattia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Dhawan, Suhail
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Doran, G.
    Feindt, Ulrich
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Ferretti, Raphael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Hangard, Laura
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Howell, D. A.
    Johansson, J.
    Kasliwal, M. M.
    Laher, R.
    Masci, F.
    Nyholm, A.
    Ofek, E.
    Sollerman, Jesper
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Yan, L.
    R-band light-curve properties of Type Ia supernovae from the (intermediate) Palomar Transient Factory2019In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 483, p. 5045-5076Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the best 265 sampled R-band light curves of spectroscopically identified Type Ia supernovae (SNe) from the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF; 2009-2012) survey and the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF; 2013-2017). A model-independent light-curve template is built from our data-set with the purpose to investigate average properties and diversity in our sample. We searched for multiple populations in the light-curve properties using machine learning tools. We also utilized the long history of our light curves, up to 4000 days, to exclude any significant pre- or post- supernova flares. From the shapes of light curves we found the average rise time in the R band to be 16.8&#x2212;0.6+0.5'>16.8 +0.5 −0.6  16.8−0.6+0.5 days. Although PTF/iPTF were single-band surveys, by modelling the residuals of the SNe in the Hubble–Lemaître diagram, we estimate the average colour excess of our sample to be 〈E(BV)〉 ≈ 0.05(2) mag and thus the mean corrected peak brightness to be MR = −19.02 ± 0.02 +5log&#x2061;(H0[kms&#x2212;1Mpc&#x2212;1]/70)'>+5log(H 0 [kms −1 Mpc −1 ]/70) +5log⁡(H0[kms−1Mpc−1]/70) mag with only weak dependennce on light–curve shape. The intrinsic scatter is found to be σR = 0.186 ± 0.033 mag for the redshift range 0.05 < z < 0.1, without colour corrections of individual SNe. Our analysis shows that Malmquist bias becomes very significant at z = 0.13. A similar limitation is expected for the ongoing Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF) survey using the same telescope, but new camera expressly designed for ZTF.

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  • 18.
    Vagnozzi, Sunny
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics (Nordita).
    Dhawan, Suhail
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Gerbino, Martina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Freese, Katherine
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics (Nordita). University of Michigan, USA.
    Goobar, Ariel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Mena, Olga
    Constraints on the sum of the neutrino masses in dynamical dark energy models with w(z) >=-1 are tighter than those obtained in Lambda CDM2018In: Physical Review D: covering particles, fields, gravitation, and cosmology, ISSN 2470-0010, E-ISSN 2470-0029, Vol. 98, no 8, article id 083501Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We explore cosmological constraints on the sum of the three active neutrino masses M-v in the context of dynamical dark energy (DDE) models with equation of state (EoS) parametrized as a function of redshift z by w(z) = w(0) + w(a)z/ (1 + z), and satisfying w(z) >= -1 for all z. We make use of cosmic microwave background data from the Planck satellite, baryon acoustic oscillation measurements, and supernovae la luminosity distance measurements, and perform a Bayesian analysis. We show that, within these models, the bounds on M-v do not degrade with respect to those obtained in the Lambda CDM case; in fact, the bounds arc slightly tighter, despite the enlarged parameter space. We explain our results based on the observation that, for fixed choices of w(0), w(a) such that w(z) >= -1 (but not w = -1 for all z), the upper limit on M-v is tighter than the Lambda CDM limit because of the well-known degeneracy between w and M-v. The Bayesian analysis we have carried out then integrates over the possible values of w(0)-w(a) such that w(z) >= -1, all of which correspond to tighter limits on M-v than the Lambda CDM limit. We find a 95% credible interval (C.I.) upper bound of M-v < 0.13 eV. This bound can be compared with the 95% C.I. upper bounds of M-v < 0.16 eV, obtained within the Lambda CDM model, and M-v < 0.41 eV, obtained in a DDE model with arbitrary EoS (which allows values of w < -1). Contrary to the results derived for DDE models with arbitrary EoS, we find that a dark energy component with w(z) >= -1 is unable to alleviate the tension between high-redshift observables and direct measurements of the Hubble constant H o . Finally, in light of the results of this analysis, we also discuss the implications for DDE models of a possible determination of the neutrino mass ordering by laboratory searches.

  • 19. Yao, Yuhan
    et al.
    Miller, Adam A.
    Kulkarni, S. R.
    Bulla, Mattia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Masci, Frank J.
    Goldstein, Daniel A.
    Goobar, Ariel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Nugent, Peter
    Dugas, Alison
    Blagorodnova, Nadia
    Neill, James D.
    Rigault, Michael
    Sollerman, Jesper
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Nordin, J.
    Bellm, Eric C.
    Cenko, S. Bradley
    De, Kishalay
    Dhawan, Suhail
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Feindt, Ulrich
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Fremling, C.
    Gatkine, Pradip
    Graham, Matthew J.
    Graham, Melissa L.
    Ho, Anna Y. Q.
    Hung, T.
    Kasliwal, Mansi M.
    Kupfer, Thomas
    Laher, Russ R.
    Perley, Daniel A.
    Rusholme, Ben
    Shupe, David L.
    Soumagnac, Maayane T.
    Taggart, K.
    Walters, Richard
    Yan, Lin
    ZTF Early Observations of Type Ia Supernovae. I. Properties of the 2018 Sample2019In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 886, no 2, article id 152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Early-time observations of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are essential to constrain the properties of their progenitors. In this paper, we present high-quality light curves of 127 SNe Ia discovered by the Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF) in 2018. We describe our method to perform forced point-spread function photometry, which can be applied to other types of extragalactic transients. With a planned cadence of six observations per night (three g + three r), all of the 127 SNe Ia are detected in both g and r bands more than 10 days (in the rest frame) prior to the epoch of g-band maximum light. The redshifts of these objects range from z = 0.0181 to 0.165; the median redshift is 0.074. Among the 127 SNe, 50 are detected at least 14 days prior to maximum light (in the rest frame), with a subset of nine objects being detected more than 17 days before g-band peak. This is the largest sample of young SNe Ia collected to date; it can be used to study the shape and color evolution of the rising light curves in unprecedented detail. We discuss six peculiar events in this sample: one 02cx-like event ZTF18abclfee (SN 2018crl), one Ia-CSM SN ZTF18aaykjei (SN 2018cxk), and four objects with possible super-Chandrasekhar mass progenitors: ZTF18abhpgje (SN 2018eul), ZTF18abdpvnd (SN 2018dvf), ZTF18aawpcel (SN 2018cir), and ZTF18abddmrf (SN 2018dsx).

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