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  • 1.
    Axelsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Baldini, L.
    Barbiellini, G.
    Baring, M. G.
    Bellazzini, R.
    Bregeon, J.
    Brigida, M.
    Bruel, P.
    Buehler, R.
    Caliandro, G. A.
    Cameron, R. A.
    Caraveo, P. A.
    Cecchi, C.
    Chaves, R. C. G.
    Chekhtman, A.
    Chiang, J.
    Claus, R.
    Conrad, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Cutini, S.
    D'Ammando, F.
    de Palma, F.
    Dermer, C. D.
    do Couto e Silva, E.
    Drell, P. S.
    Favuzzi, C.
    Fegan, S. J.
    Ferrara, E. C.
    Focke, W. B.
    Fukazawa, Y.
    Fusco, P.
    Gargano, F.
    Gasparrini, D.
    Gehrels, N.
    Germani, S.
    Giglietto, N.
    Giroletti, M.
    Godfrey, G.
    Guiriec, S.
    Hadasch, D.
    Hanabata, Y.
    Hayashida, M.
    Hou, X.
    Iyyani, Shabnam
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Royal Institute of Technology Sweden.
    Jackson, M. S.
    Kocevski, D.
    Kuss, M.
    Larsson, J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
    Larsson, Stefan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Longo, F.
    Loparco, F.
    Lundman, C.
    Mazziotta, M. N.
    McEnery, J. E.
    Mizuno, T.
    Monzani, M. E.
    Moretti, E.
    Morselli, A.
    Murgia, S.
    Nuss, E.
    Nymark, T.
    Ohno, M.
    Omodei, N.
    Pesce-Rollins, M.
    Piron, F.
    Pivato, G.
    Racusin, J. L.
    Raino, S.
    Razzano, M.
    Razzaque, S.
    Reimer, A.
    Roth, M.
    Ryde, F.
    Sanchez, D. A.
    Sgro, C.
    Siskind, E. J.
    Spandre, G.
    Spinelli, P.
    Stamatikos, M.
    Tibaldo, L.
    Tinivella, M.
    Usher, T. L.
    Vandenbroucke, J.
    Vasileiou, V.
    Vianello, G.
    Vitale, V.
    Waite, A. P.
    Winer, B. L.
    Wood, K. S.
    Burgess, J. M.
    Bhat, P. N.
    Bissaldi, E.
    Briggs, M. S.
    Connaughton, V.
    Fishman, G.
    Fitzpatrick, G.
    Foley, S.
    Gruber, D.
    Kippen, R. M.
    Kouveliotou, C.
    Jenke, P.
    McBreen, S.
    McGlynn, S.
    Meegan, C.
    Paciesas, W. S.
    Pelassa, V.
    Preece, R.
    Tierney, D.
    von Kienlin, A.
    Wilson-Hodge, C.
    Xiong, S.
    Pe'er, A.
    GRB110721A: AN EXTREME PEAK ENERGY AND SIGNATURES OF THE PHOTOSPHERE2012In: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, Vol. 757, no 2, article id L31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    GRB110721A was observed by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope using its two instruments, the Large Area Telescope (LAT) and the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM). The burst consisted of one major emission episode which lasted for similar to 24.5 s (in the GBM) and had a peak flux of (5.7 +/- 0.2) x 10(-5) erg s(-1) cm(-2). The time-resolved emission spectrum is best modeled with a combination of a Band function and a blackbody spectrum. The peak energy of the Band component was initially 15 +/- 2 MeV, which is the highest value ever detected in a GRB. This measurement was made possible by combining GBM/BGO data with LAT Low Energy events to achieve continuous 10-100 MeV coverage. The peak energy later decreased as a power law in time with an index of -1.89 +/- 0.10. The temperature of the blackbody component also decreased, starting from similar to 80 keV, and the decay showed a significant break after similar to 2 s. The spectrum provides strong constraints on the standard synchrotron model, indicating that alternative mechanisms may give rise to the emission at these energies.

  • 2. Begue, D.
    et al.
    Iyyani, Shabnam
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    TRANSPARENCY PARAMETERS FROM RELATIVISTICALLY EXPANDING OUTFLOWS2014In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 792, no 1, article id 42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many gamma-ray bursts a distinct blackbody spectral component is present, which is attributed to the emission from the photosphere of a relativistically expanding plasma. The properties of this component (temperature and flux) can be linked to the properties of the outflow and have been presented in the case where there is no sub-photospheric dissipation and the photosphere is in coasting phase. First, we present the derivation of the properties of the outflow for finite winds, including when the photosphere is in the accelerating phase. Second, we study the effect of localized sub-photospheric dissipation on the estimation of the parameters. Finally, we apply our results to GRB 090902B. We find that during the first epoch of this burst the photosphere is most likely to be in the accelerating phase, leading to smaller values of the Lorentz factor than the ones previously estimated. For the second epoch, we find that the photosphere is likely to be in the coasting phase.

  • 3. Burgess, J. Michael
    et al.
    Preece, Robert D.
    Ryde, Felix
    Veres, Peter
    Meszaros, Peter
    Connaughton, Valerie
    Briggs, Michael
    Pe'er, Asaf
    Iyyani, Shabnam
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Goldstein, Adam
    Axelsson, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Baring, Matthew G.
    Bhat, P. N.
    Byrne, David
    Fitzpatrick, Gerard
    Foley, Suzanne
    Kocevski, Daniel
    Omodei, Nicola
    Paciesas, William S.
    Pelassa, Veronique
    Kouveliotou, Chryssa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Xiong, Shaolin
    Yu, Hoi-Fung
    Zhang, Binbin
    Zhu, Sylvia
    AN OBSERVED CORRELATION BETWEEN THERMAL AND NON-THERMAL EMISSION IN GAMMA-RAY BURSTS2014In: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 784, no 2, article id L43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent observations by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope have confirmed the existence of thermal and non-thermal components in the prompt photon spectra of some gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Through an analysis of six bright Fermi GRBs, we have discovered a correlation between the observed photospheric and non-thermal gamma-ray emission components of several GRBs using a physical model that has previously been shown to be a good fit to the Fermi data. From the spectral parameters of these fits we find that the characteristic energies, E-p and kT, of these two components are correlated via the relation E-p proportional to T-alpha which varies from GRB to GRB. We present an interpretation in which the value of the index alpha indicates whether the jet is dominated by kinetic or magnetic energy. To date, this jet composition parameter has been assumed in the modeling of GRB outflows rather than derived from the data.

  • 4.
    Iyyani, Shabnam
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Photospheric emission in gamma ray bursts: Analysis and interpretation of observations made by the Fermi gamma ray space telescope2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The large flashes of radiation that are observed in GRBs are generally believed to arise in a relativistic jetted outflow. This thesis addresses the question of how and where in the jet this radiation is produced. It further explores the jet properties that can be inferred from the observations made by the Fermi GST that regularly observes GRBs in the range 8 keV - 300 GeV.  In my analysis I focus on the observational effects of the emission from the jet photosphere. I show that the photosphere has an important role in shaping the observed radiation spectrum and that its manifestations can significantly vary between bursts. For bursts in which the photospheric  emission component can be identified, the dynamics of the flow can be explored by determining the  jet Lorentz factor and the position of the jet nozzle. I also develop the theory of how to derive the properties of the outflow for general cases. The spectral analysis of the strong burst GRB110721A reveals a two-peaked spectrum, with the peaks evolving differently. I conclude that three main flow quantities can describe the observed spectral behaviour in bursts:  the luminosity, the Lorentz factor, and the nozzle radius. While the photosphere can appear like a pure blackbody it can also be substantially broadened, due to dissipation of the jet energy below the photosphere. I show that Comptonisation of the blackbody can shape the observed spectra and describe its evolution. In particular this model can very well explain GRB110920A which has two prominent breaks in its spectra.  Alternative models including synchrotron emission leads to severe physical constraints, such as the need for very high electron Lorentz factors, which are not expected in internal shocks. Even though different manifestations of the photospheric emission can explain the data, and lead to ambiguous interpretations, I argue that dissipation below the photosphere is the most important process in shaping the observed spectral shapes and evolutions.

  • 5.
    Iyyani, Shabnam
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Erasmus Mundus Joint Doctorate in Relativistic Astrophysics.
    Ryde, F.
    Ahlgren, B.
    Burgess, J. M.
    Larsson, J.
    Pe'er, A.
    Lundman, C.
    Axelsson, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    McGlynn, S.
    Extremely narrow spectrum of GRB110920A: further evidence for localised, subphotospheric dissipation2015In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 450, no 2, p. 1651-1663Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Much evidence points towards that the photosphere in the relativistic outflow in GRBs plays an important role in shaping the observed MeV spectrum. However, it is unclear whether the spectrum is fully produced by the photosphere or whether a substantial part of the spectrum is added by processes far above the photosphere. Here we make a detailed study of the $\gamma$−ray emission from single pulse GRB110920A which has a spectrum that becomes extremely narrow towards the end of the burst. We show that the emission can be interpreted as Comptonisation of thermal photons by cold electrons in an unmagnetised outflow at an optical depth of $\tau \sim 20$. The electrons receive their energy by a local dissipation occurring close to the saturation radius. The main spectral component of GRB110920A and its evolution is thus, in this interpretation, fully explained by the emission from the photosphere including localised dissipation at high optical depths. 

  • 6.
    Iyyani, Shabnam
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ryde, F.
    Axelsson, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Burgess, J. M.
    Guiriec, S.
    Larsson, J.
    Lundman, C.
    Moretti, E.
    McGlynn, S.
    Nymark, T.
    Rosquist, Kjell
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). ICRANet, Italy.
    Variable jet properties in GRB 110721A: time resolved observations of the jet photosphere2013In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 433, no 4, p. 2739-2748Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope observations of GRB 110721A have revealed two emission components from the relativistic jet: emission from the photosphere, peaking at similar to 100 keV, and a non-thermal component, which peaks at similar to 1000 keV. We use the photospheric component to calculate the properties of the relativistic outflow. We find a strong evolution in the flow properties: the Lorentz factor decreases with time during the bursts from G similar to 1000 to similar to 150 (assuming a redshift z = 2; the values are only weakly dependent on unknown efficiency parameters). Such a decrease is contrary to the expectations from the internal shocks and the isolated magnetar birth models. Moreover, the position of the flow nozzle measured from the central engine, r(0), increases by more than two orders of magnitude. Assuming a moderately magnetized outflow we estimate that r(0) varies from 10(6) to similar to 10(9) cm during the burst. We suggest that the maximal value reflects the size of the progenitor core. Finally, we show that these jet properties naturally explain the observed broken power-law decay of the temperature which has been reported as a characteristic for gamma-ray burst pulses.

  • 7.
    Iyyani, Shabnam
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Ryde, F.
    Burgess, J. M.
    Begu'e, D.
    Synchrotron emission in GRBs observed with Fermi: Its limitations and the role of the photosphereIn: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Iyyani, Shabnam
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ryde, F.
    Burgess, J. M.
    Pe'er, A.
    Begue, D.
    Synchrotron emission in GRBs observed by Fermi: its limitations and the role of the photosphere2016In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 456, no 2, p. 2157-2171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been suggested that the prompt emission in gamma-ray bursts consists of several components giving rise to the observed spectral shape. Here we examine a sample of the eight brightest, single pulsed Fermi bursts whose spectra are modelled by using synchrotron emission as one of the components. Five of these bursts require an additional photospheric component (blackbody). In particular, we investigate the inferred properties of the jet and the physical requirements set by the observed components for these five bursts, in the context of a baryonic dominated outflow, motivated by the strong photospheric component. We find similar jet properties for all five bursts: the bulk Lorentz factor decreases monotonously over the pulses and lies between 1000 and 100. This evolution is robust and can neither be explained by a varying radiative efficiency nor a varying magnetization of the jet (assuming the photosphere radius is above the coasting radius). Such a behaviour challenges several dissipation mechanisms, e.g. the internal shocks. Furthermore, in all eight cases the data clearly reject a fast-cooled synchrotron spectrum (in which a significant fraction of the emitting electrons have cooled to energies below the minimum injection energy), inferring a typical electron Lorentz factor of 10(4)-10(7). Such values are much higher than what is typically expected in internal shocks. Therefore, while the synchrotron scenario is not rejected by the data, the interpretation does present several limitations that need to be addressed. Finally, we point out and discuss alternative interpretations.

  • 9. Preece, R.
    et al.
    Burgess, J. Michael
    von Kienlin, A.
    Bhat, P. N.
    Briggs, M. S.
    Byrne, D.
    Chaplin, V.
    Cleveland, W.
    Collazzi, A. C.
    Connaughton, V.
    Diekmann, A.
    Fitzpatrick, G.
    Foley, S.
    Gibby, M.
    Giles, M.
    Goldstein, A.
    Greiner, J.
    Gruber, D.
    Jenke, P.
    Kippen, R. M.
    Kouveliotou, C.
    McBreen, S.
    Meegan, C.
    Paciesas, W. S.
    Pelassa, V.
    Tierney, D.
    van der Horst, A. J.
    Wilson-Hodge, C.
    Xiong, S.
    Younes, G.
    Yu, H. -F
    Ackermann, M.
    Ajello, M.
    Axelsson, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Baldini, L.
    Barbiellini, G.
    Baring, M. G.
    Bastieri, D.
    Bellazzini, R.
    Bissaldi, E.
    Bonamente, E.
    Bregeon, J.
    Brigida, M.
    Bruel, P.
    Buehler, R.
    Buson, S.
    Caliandro, G. A.
    Cameron, R. A.
    Caraveo, P. A.
    Cecchi, C.
    Charles, E.
    Chekhtman, A.
    Chiang, J.
    Chiaro, G.
    Ciprini, S.
    Claus, R.
    Cohen-Tanugi, J.
    Cominsky, L. R.
    Conrad, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    D'Ammando, F.
    de Angelis, A.
    de Palma, F.
    Dermer, C. D.
    Desiante, R.
    Digel, S. W.
    Di Venere, L.
    Drell, P. S.
    Drlica-Wagner, A.
    Favuzzi, C.
    Franckowiak, A.
    Fukazawa, Y.
    Fusco, P.
    Gargano, F.
    Gehrels, N.
    Germani, S.
    Giglietto, N.
    Giordano, F.
    Giroletti, M.
    Godfrey, G.
    Granot, J.
    Grenier, I. A.
    Guiriec, S.
    Hadasch, D.
    Hanabata, Y.
    Harding, A. K.
    Hayashida, M.
    Iyyani, Shabnam
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Jogler, T.
    Joannesson, G.
    Kawano, T.
    Knoedlseder, J.
    Kocevski, D.
    Kuss, M.
    Lande, J.
    Larsson, J.
    Larsson, Stefan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Latronico, L.
    Longo, F.
    Loparco, F.
    Lovellette, M. N.
    Lubrano, P.
    Mayer, M.
    Mazziotta, M. N.
    Michelson, P. F.
    Mizuno, T.
    Monzani, M. E.
    Moretti, E.
    Morselli, A.
    Murgia, S.
    Nemmen, R.
    Nuss, E.
    Nymark, T.
    Ohno, M.
    Ohsugi, T.
    Okumura, A.
    Omodei, N.
    Orienti, M.
    Paneque, D.
    Perkins, J. S.
    Pesce-Rollins, M.
    Piron, F.
    Pivato, G.
    Porter, T. A.
    Racusin, J. L.
    Raino, S.
    Rando, R.
    Razzano, M.
    Razzaque, S.
    Reimer, A.
    Reimer, O.
    Ritz, S.
    Roth, M.
    Ryde, F.
    Sartori, A.
    Scargle, J. D.
    Schulz, A.
    Sgro, C.
    Siskind, E. J.
    Spandre, G.
    Spinelli, P.
    Suson, D. J.
    Tajima, H.
    Takahashi, H.
    Thayer, J. G.
    Thayer, J. B.
    Tibaldo, L.
    Tinivella, M.
    Torres, D. F.
    Tosti, G.
    Troja, E.
    Usher, T. L.
    Vandenbroucke, J.
    Vasileiou, V.
    Vianello, G.
    Vitale, V.
    Werner, M.
    Winer, B. L.
    Wood, K. S.
    Zhu, S.
    The First Pulse of the Extremely Bright GRB 130427A: A Test Lab for Synchrotron Shocks2014In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 343, no 6166, p. 51-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gamma-ray burst (GRB) 130427A is one of the most energetic GRBs ever observed. The initial pulse up to 2.5 seconds is possibly the brightest well-isolated pulse observed to date. A fine time resolution spectral analysis shows power-law decays of the peak energy from the onset of the pulse, consistent with models of internal synchrotron shock pulses. However, a strongly correlated power-law behavior is observed between the luminosity and the spectral peak energy that is inconsistent with curvature effects arising in the relativistic outflow. It is difficult for any of the existing models to account for all of the observed spectral and temporal behaviors simultaneously.

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