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Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
iPTF Survey for Cool Transients2018In: Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, ISSN 0004-6280, E-ISSN 1538-3873, Vol. 130, no 985, article id 034202Article in journal (Refereed)

We performed a wide-area (2000 deg2) g and I band experiment as part of a two month extension to the Intermediate Palomar Transient Factory. We discovered 36 extragalactic transients including iPTF17lf, a highly reddened local SN Ia, iPTF17bkj, a new member of the rare class of transitional Ibn/IIn supernovae, and iPTF17be, a candidate luminous blue variable outburst. We do not detect any luminous red novae and place an upper limit on their rate. We show that adding a slow-cadence I band component to upcoming surveys such as the Zwicky Transient Facility will improve the photometric selection of cool and dusty transients.

• 2.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stanford University, USA. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Linnaeus University, Sweden. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
Multi-messenger Observations of a Binary Neutron Star Merger2017In: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 848, no 2, article id L12Article in journal (Refereed)

On 2017 August 17 a binary neutron star coalescence candidate (later designated GW170817) with merger time 12:41:04 UTC was observed through gravitational waves by the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo detectors. The Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor independently detected a gamma-ray burst (GRB 170817A) with a time delay of similar to 1.7 s with respect to the merger time. From the gravitational-wave signal, the source was initially localized to a sky region of 31 deg(2) at a luminosity distance of 40(-8)(+8) Mpc and with component masses consistent with neutron stars. The component masses were later measured to be in the range 0.86 to 2.26 M-circle dot. An extensive observing campaign was launched across the electromagnetic spectrum leading to the discovery of a bright optical transient (SSS17a, now with the IAU identification of AT 2017gfo) in NGC 4993 (at similar to 40 Mpc) less than 11 hours after the merger by the One-Meter, Two Hemisphere (1M2H) team using the 1 m Swope Telescope. The optical transient was independently detected by multiple teams within an hour. Subsequent observations targeted the object and its environment. Early ultraviolet observations revealed a blue transient that faded within 48 hours. Optical and infrared observations showed a redward evolution over similar to 10 days. Following early non-detections, X-ray and radio emission were discovered at the transient's position similar to 9 and similar to 16 days, respectively, after the merger. Both the X-ray and radio emission likely arise from a physical process that is distinct from the one that generates the UV/optical/near-infrared emission. No ultra-high-energy gamma-rays and no neutrino candidates consistent with the source were found in follow-up searches. These observations support the hypothesis that GW170817 was produced by the merger of two neutron stars in NGC4993 followed by a short gamma-ray burst (GRB 170817A) and a kilonova/macronova powered by the radioactive decay of r-process nuclei synthesized in the ejecta.

• 3.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
SUPPLEMENT: LOCALIZATION AND BROADBAND FOLLOW-UP OF THE GRAVITATIONAL-WAVE TRANSIENT GW150914 (2016, ApJL, 826, L13)2016In: Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, ISSN 0067-0049, E-ISSN 1538-4365, Vol. 225, no 1, article id 8Article in journal (Refereed)

This Supplement provides supporting material for Abbott et al. (2016a). We briefly summarize past electromagnetic (EM) follow-up efforts as well as the organization and policy of the current EM follow-up program. We compare the four probability sky maps produced for the gravitational-wave transient GW150914, and provide additional details of the EM follow-up observations that were performed in the different bands.

• 4. Andreoni, I.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
Follow Up of GW170817 and Its Electromagnetic Counterpart by Australian-Led Observing Programmes2017In: Publications Astronomical Society of Australia, ISSN 1323-3580, E-ISSN 1448-6083, Vol. 34, article id e069Article, review/survey (Refereed)

The discovery of the first electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational wave signal has generated follow-up observations by over 50 facilities world-wide, ushering in the new era of multi-messenger astronomy. In this paper, we present follow-up observations of the gravitational wave event GW170817 and its electromagnetic counterpart SSS17a/DLT17ck (IAU label AT2017gfo) by 14 Australian telescopes and partner observatories as part of Australian-based and Australian-led research programs. We report early- to late-time multi-wavelength observations, including optical imaging and spectroscopy, mid-infrared imaging, radio imaging, and searches for fast radio bursts. Our optical spectra reveal that the transient source emission cooled from approximately 6 400 K to 2 100 K over a 7-d period and produced no significant optical emission lines. The spectral profiles, cooling rate, and photometric light curves are consistent with the expected outburst and subsequent processes of a binary neutron star merger. Star formation in the host galaxy probably ceased at least a Gyr ago, although there is evidence for a galaxy merger. Binary pulsars with short (100 Myr) decay times are therefore unlikely progenitors, but pulsars like PSR B1534+12 with its 2.7 Gyr coalescence time could produce such a merger. The displacement (similar to 2.2 kpc) of the binary star system from the centre of the main galaxy is not unusual for stars in the host galaxy or stars originating in the merging galaxy, and therefore any constraints on the kick velocity imparted to the progenitor are poor.

• 5. Arcavi, Iair
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
Energetic eruptions leading to a peculiar hydrogen-rich explosion of a massive star2017In: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 551, no 7679, p. 210-213Article in journal (Refereed)

Every supernova so far observed has been considered to be the terminal explosion of a star. Moreover, all supernovae with absorption lines in their spectra show those lines decreasing in velocity over time, as the ejecta expand and thin, revealing slower-moving material that was previously hidden. In addition, every supernova that exhibits the absorption lines of hydrogen has one main light-curve peak, or a plateau in luminosity, lasting approximately 100 days before declining(1). Here we report observations of iPTF14hls, an event that has spectra identical to a hydrogen-rich core-collapse supernova, but characteristics that differ extensively from those of known supernovae. The light curve has at least five peaks and remains bright for more than 600 days; the absorption lines show little to no decrease in velocity; and the radius of the line-forming region is more than an order of magnitude bigger than the radius of the photosphere derived from the continuum emission. These characteristics are consistent with a shell of several tens of solar masses ejected by the progenitor star at supernova-level energies a few hundred days before a terminal explosion. Another possible eruption was recorded at the same position in 1954. Multiple energetic pre-supernova eruptions are expected to occur in stars of 95 to 130 solar masses, which experience the pulsational pair instability(2-5). That model, however, does not account for the continued presence of hydrogen, or the energetics observed here. Another mechanism for the violent ejection of mass in massive stars may be required.

• 6. Barbarino, C.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
SN 2012ec: mass of the progenitor from PESSTO follow-up of the photospheric phase2015In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 448, no 3, p. 2312-2331Article in journal (Refereed)

We present the results of a photometric and spectroscopic monitoring campaign of SN 2012ec, which exploded in the spiral galaxy NGC 1084, during the photospheric phase. The photometric light curve exhibits a plateau with luminosity L = 0.9 x 10(42) erg s(-1) and duration similar to 90 d, which is somewhat shorter than standard Type II-P supernovae (SNe). We estimate the nickel mass M(Ni-56) = 0.040 +/- 0.015 M-circle dot from the luminosity at the beginning of the radioactive tail of the light curve. The explosion parameters of SN 2012ec were estimated from the comparison of the bolometric light curve and the observed temperature and velocity evolution of the ejecta with predictions from hydrodynamical models. We derived an envelope mass of 12.6 M-circle dot, an initial progenitor radius of 1.6 x 10(13) cm and an explosion energy of 1.2 foe. These estimates agree with an independent study of the progenitor star identified in pre-explosion images, for which an initial mass of M = 14-22 M-circle dot was determined. We have applied the same analysis to two other Type II-P SNe (SNe 2012aw and 2012A), and carried out a comparison with the properties of SN 2012ec derived in this paper. We find a reasonable agreement between the masses of the progenitors obtained from pre-explosion images and masses derived from hydrodynamical models. We estimate the distance to SN 2012ec with the standardized candle method (SCM) and compare it with other estimates based on other primary and secondary indicators. SNe 2012A, 2012aw and 2012ec all follow the standard relations for the SCM for the use of Type II-P SNe as distance indicators.

• 7. Becker, A
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
Exploring the Outer Solar System with the ESSENCE Supernova Survey2008In: The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 682, no 1, p. L53-L56Article in journal (Refereed)

We report the discovery and orbital determination of 14 trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) from the ESSENCE Supernova Survey difference imaging data set. Two additional objects discovered in a similar search of the SDSS-II Supernova Survey database were recovered in this effort. ESSENCE repeatedly observed fields far from the solar system ecliptic (-21° < β < -5°), reaching limiting magnitudes per observation of I~23.1 and R~23.7. We examine several of the newly detected objects in detail, including 2003 UC414, which orbits entirely between Uranus and Neptune and lies very close to a dynamical region that would make it stable for the lifetime of the solar system. 2003 SS422 and 2007 TA418 have high eccentricities and large perihelia, making them candidate members of an outer class of TNOs. We also report a new member of the extended'' or detached'' scattered disk, 2004 VN112, and verify the stability of its orbit using numerical simulations. This object would have been visible to ESSENCE for only ~2% of its orbit, suggesting a vast number of similar objects across the sky. We emphasize that off-ecliptic surveys are optimal for uncovering the diversity of such objects, which in turn will constrain the history of gravitational influences that shaped our early solar system.

• 8. Benetti, S.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
The supernova CSS121015:004244+132827: a clue for understanding superluminous supernovae2014In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 441, no 1, p. 289-303Article in journal (Refereed)

We present optical photometry and spectra of the superluminous Type II/IIn supernova (SN) CSS121015: 004244+132827 (z = 0.2868) spanning epochs from -30 d (rest frame) to more than 200 d after maximum. CSS121015 is one of the more luminous SNe ever found and one of the best observed. The photometric evolution is characterized by a relatively fast rise to maximum (similar to 40 d in the SN rest frame), and by a linear post-maximum decline. The light curve shows no sign of a break to an exponential tail. A broad Ha is first detected at similar to+40 d (rest frame). Narrow, barely resolved Balmer and [O III] 5007 angstrom lines, with decreasing strength, are visible along the entire spectral evolution. The spectra are very similar to other superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) with hydrogen in their spectrum, and also to SN 2005gj, sometimes considered Type Ia interacting with H-rich circumstellar medium. The spectra are also similar to a subsample of H-deficient SLSNe. We propose that the properties of CSS121015 are consistent with the interaction of the ejecta with a massive, extended, opaque shell, lost by the progenitor decades before the final explosion, although a magnetar-powered model cannot be excluded. Based on the similarity of CSS121015 with other SLSNe (with and without H), we suggest that the shocked-shell scenario should be seriously considered as a plausible model for both types of SLSN.

• 9. Bersten, Melina C.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
THE TYPE IIb SUPERNOVA 2011dh FROM A SUPERGIANT PROGENITOR2012In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 757, no 1, article id 31Article in journal (Refereed)

A set of hydrodynamical models based on stellar evolutionary progenitors is used to study the nature of SN 2011dh. Our modeling suggests that a large progenitor star-with R similar to 200 R-circle dot-is needed to reproduce the early light curve (LC) of SN 2011dh. This is consistent with the suggestion that the yellow super-giant star detected at the location of the supernova (SN) in deep pre-explosion images is the progenitor star. From the main peak of the bolometric LC and expansion velocities, we constrain the mass of the ejecta to be approximate to 2 M-circle dot, the explosion energy to be E = (6-10) x 10(50) erg, and the Ni-56 mass to be approximately 0.06 M-circle dot. The progenitor star was composed of a helium core of 3-4 M-circle dot and a thin hydrogen-rich envelope of approximate to 0.1M(circle dot) with a main-sequence mass estimated to be in the range of 12-15 M-circle dot. Our models rule out progenitors with helium-core masses larger than 8 M-circle dot, which correspond to M-ZAMS greater than or similar to 25M(circle dot). This suggests that a single star evolutionary scenario for SN 2011dh is unlikely.

• 10. Betoule, M.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
Improved cosmological constraints from a joint analysis of the SDSS-II and SNLS supernova samples2014In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 568, p. A22-Article in journal (Refereed)

Aims. We present cosmological constraints from a joint analysis of type la supernova (SN Ia) observations obtained by the SDSS-II and SNLS collaborations. The dataset includes several low-redshift samples (z < 0.1), all three seasons from the SDSS-11 (0.05 < z < 0.4), and three years from SNLS (0.2 < z < 1), and it totals 740 spectroscopically confirmed type la supernovae with high quality light curves. Methods. We followed the methods and assumptions of the SNLS three-year data analysis except for the following important improvements: I) the addition of the full SDSS-II spectroscopically-confirmed SN la sample in both the training of the SALT2 light-curve model and in the Hubble diagram analysis (374 SNe); 2) intercalibration of the SNLS and SDSS surveys and reduced systematic uncertainties in the photometric calibration, performed blindly with respect to the cosmology analysis; and 3) a thorough investigation of systematic errors associated with the SALT2 modeling of SN la light curves. Results. We produce recalibrated SN la light curves and associated distances for the SDSS-II and SNLS samples. The large SOSS-II sample provides an effective, independent, low -z anchor for the Hubble diagram and reduces the systematic error from calibration systematics in the low -z SN sample. For a flat ACDM cosmology, we find Omega(m), = 0.295 0.034 (stat+sys), a value consistent with the most recent cosmic microwave background (CMB) measurement from the Planck and WMAP experiments. Our result is 1.8 sigma (stat+sys) different than the previously published result of SNLS three-year data. The change is due primarily to improvements in the SNLS photometric calibration. When combined with CMB constraints, we measure a constant dark energy equation of state parameter omega = -1.018 +/- 0,057 (sral+sys) for a fiat universe. Adding baryon acoustic oscillation distance measurements gives similar constraints: omega = 59 -1.027 0.055. Our supernova measurements provide the most stringent constraints to date on the nature of dark energy.

• 11.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
The location of the Crab pulsar emission region: restrictions on synchrotron emission models2010In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 516, p. A65-Article in journal (Refereed)

Recent observations of the Crab pulsar show no evidence of a spectral break in the infrared regime. It is argued that the observations are consistent with a power-law spectrum in the whole observable infrared-optical range. This is taken as the starting point for evaluating of how self-consistent incoherent synchrotron models fare in a comparison with observations. Inclusion of synchrotron self-absorption proves important as does the restriction on the observed size of the emission region imposed by the relativistic beaming thought to define the pulse profile. It is shown that the observations can be used to derive two independent constraints on the distance from the neutron star to the emission region; in addition to a direct lower limit, an indirect measure is obtained from an upper limit to the magnetic field strength. Both of these limits indicate that the emission region is located at a distance considerably greater than the light cylinder radius. The implications of this result are discussed, and it is emphasized that, for standard incoherent synchrotron models to fit inside the light cylinder, rather special physical conditions need to be invoked.

• 12. Blagorodnova, N.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
COMMON ENVELOPE EJECTION FOR A LUMINOUS RED NOVA IN M1012017In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 834, no 2, article id 107Article in journal (Refereed)

We present the results of optical, near-infrared, and mid-infrared observations of M101 OT2015-1 (PSN J14021678+ 5426205), a luminous red transient in the Pinwheel galaxy (M101), spanning a total of 16 years. The light curve showed two distinct peaks with absolute magnitudes M-r <= -12.4 and M-r similar or equal to -12, on 2014 November 11 and 2015 February 17, respectively. The spectral energy distributions during the second maximum show a cool outburst temperature of approximate to 3700 K and low expansion velocities (approximate to -300 km s(-1)) for the H I, Ca II, Ba II, and K I lines. From archival data spanning 15-8 years before the outburst, we find a single source consistent with the optically discovered transient, which we attribute to being the progenitor; it has properties consistent with being an F-type yellow supergiant with L similar to 8.7 x 10(4) L-circle dot, T-eff approximate to 7000. K, and an estimated mass of M1= 18 +/- 1 M-circle dot. This star has likely just finished the H-burning phase in the core, started expanding, and is now crossing the Hertzsprung gap. Based on the combination of observed properties, we argue that the progenitor is a binary system, with the more evolved system overfilling the Roche lobe. Comparison with binary evolution models suggests that the outburst was an extremely rare phenomenon, likely associated with the ejection of the common envelope of a massive star. The initial mass of the primary fills the gap between the merger candidates V838 Mon (5-10 M-circle dot) and NGC. 4490-OT. (30M(circle dot)).

• 13. Blondin, S
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
Time Dilation in Type Ia Supernova Spectra at High Redshift2008In: The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 682, no 2, p. 724-736Article in journal (Refereed)

We present multiepoch spectra of 13 high-redshift Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) drawn from the literature, the ESSENCE and SNLS projects, and our own separate dedicated program on the ESO Very Large Telescope. We use the Supernova Identification (SNID) code of Blondin and Tonry to determine the spectral ages in the supernova rest frame. Comparison with the observed elapsed time yields an apparent aging rate consistent with the 1/(1+z) factor (where z is the redshift) expected in a homogeneous, isotropic, expanding universe. These measurements thus confirm the expansion hypothesis, while unambiguously excluding models that predict no time dilation, such as Zwicky's tired light'' hypothesis. We also test for power-law dependencies of the aging rate on redshift. The best-fit exponent for these models is consistent with the expected 1/(1+z) factor.

• 14. Boles, T.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
Supernova 2012eg in NGC 1213 = Psn J03091697+38382072012Report (Other academic)

CBET 3207 available at Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams.

• 15. Brimacombe, J.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University.
Supernova 2011fc = Psn J23013638+32200692011In: Central Bureau Electronic Telegrams, Vol. 2788, p. 2-Article in journal (Other academic)

CBET 2788 available at Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams.

• 16. Bufano, F.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
Studying the SN-GRB connection with X-shooter: The GRB 100316D / SN 2010bh case2011In: Astronomical Notes - Astronomische Nachrichten, ISSN 0004-6337, E-ISSN 1521-3994, Vol. 332, no 3, p. 262-265Article in journal (Refereed)

During the last ten years, observations of long-duration gamma-ray bursts brought to the conclusion that at least a fraction of them is associated with bright supernovae of type Ib/c. In this talk, after a short review on the previously observed GRB-SN connection cases, we present the recent case of GRB 100316/SN 2010bh. In particular, during the observational campaign of SN 2010bh, a pivotal role was played by VLT/X-shooter, sampling with unique high quality data the spectral energy distribution of the early evolution phases from the UV to the K band. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, ESO, the VLT/Kueyen telescope, Paranal, Chile, proposal codes 084.D-0265 and 085.D-0701, P.I. S.Benetti and 084.A-0260 and 085.A-0009, P.I. J.Fynbo.

• 17. Bufano, Filomena
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
THE HIGHLY ENERGETIC EXPANSION OF SN 2010bh ASSOCIATED WITH GRB 100316D2012In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 753, no 1, p. 67-Article in journal (Refereed)

We present the spectroscopic and photometric evolution of the nearby (z = 0.059) spectroscopically confirmed Type Ic supernova, SN 2010bh, associated with the soft, long-duration gamma-ray burst (X-ray flash) GRB 100316D. Intensive follow-up observations of SN 2010bh were performed at the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) using the X-shooter and FORS2 instruments. Thanks to the detailed temporal coverage and the extended wavelength range (3000-24800 angstrom), we obtained an unprecedentedly rich spectral sequence among the hypernovae, making SN 2010bh one of the best studied representatives of this SN class. We find that SN 2010bh has a more rapid rise to maximum brightness (8.0 +/- 1.0 rest-frame days) and a fainter absolute peak luminosity (L-bol approximate to 3 x 10(42) erg s(-1)) than previously observed SN events associated with GRBs. Our estimate of the ejected Ni-56 mass is 0.12 +/- 0.02 M-circle dot. From the broad spectral features, we measure expansion velocities up to 47,000 km s(-1), higher than those of SNe 1998bw (GRB 980425) and 2006aj (GRB 060218). Helium absorption lines He I lambda 5876 and He I 1.083 mu m, blueshifted by similar to 20,000-30,000 km s(-1) and similar to 28,000-38,000 km s(-1), respectively, may be present in the optical spectra. However, the lack of coverage of the He I 2.058 mu m line prevents us from confirming such identifications. The nebular spectrum, taken at similar to 186 days after the explosion, shows a broad but faint [O I] emission at 6340 angstrom. The light curve shape and photospheric expansion velocities of SN 2010bh suggest that we witnessed a highly energetic explosion with a small ejected mass (E-k approximate to 10(52) erg and M-ej approximate to 3 M-circle dot). The observed properties of SN 2010bh further extend the heterogeneity of the class of GRB SNe.

• 18. Campbell, Heather
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
COSMOLOGY WITH PHOTOMETRICALLY CLASSIFIED TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE FROM THE SDSS-II SUPERNOVA SURVEY2013In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 763, no 2, p. 88-Article in journal (Refereed)

We present the cosmological analysis of 752 photometrically classified Type Ia Supernovae (SNe Ia) obtained from the full Sloan Digital Sky Survey II (SDSS-II) Supernova (SN) Survey, supplemented with host-galaxy spectroscopy from the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey. Our photometric-classification method is based on the SN classification technique of Sako et al., aided by host-galaxy redshifts (0.05 < z < 0.55). SuperNova ANAlysis simulations of our methodology estimate that we have an SN Ia classification efficiency of 70.8%, with only 3.9% contamination from core-collapse (non-Ia) SNe. We demonstrate that this level of contamination has no effect on our cosmological constraints. We quantify and correct for our selection effects (e. g., Malmquist bias) using simulations. When fitting to a flat.CDM cosmological model, we find that our photometric sample alone gives Omega(m) = 0.24(-0.05)(+0.07) (statistical errors only). If we relax the constraint on flatness, then our sample provides competitive joint statistical constraints on Omega(m) and Omega(Lambda), comparable to those derived from the spectroscopically confirmed Three-year Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS3). Using only our data, the statistics-only result favors an accelerating universe at 99.96% confidence. Assuming a constant wCDM cosmological model, and combining with H-0, cosmic microwave background, and luminous red galaxy data, we obtain w = -0.96(-0.10)(+0.10), Omega(m) = 0.29(-0.02)(+0.02), and Omega(k) = 0.00(-0.02)(+0.03)(statistical errors only), which is competitive with similar spectroscopically confirmed SNe Ia analyses. Overall this comparison is reassuring, considering the lower redshift leverage of the SDSS-II SN sample (z < 0.55) and the lack of spectroscopic confirmation used herein. These results demonstrate the potential of photometrically classified SN Ia samples in improving cosmological constraints.

• 19. Cano, Z.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
GRB 161219B/SN 2016jca: A low-redshift gamma-ray burst supernova powered by radioactive heating2017In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 605, article id A107Article in journal (Refereed)

Since the first discovery of a broad-lined type Ic supernova (SN) with a long-duration gamma-ray burst (GRB) in 1998, fewer than fifty GRB-supernovae (SNe) have been discovered. The intermediate-luminosity Swift GRB 161219B and its associated supernova SN 2016jca, which occurred at a redshift of z = 0.1475, represents only the seventh GRB-SN to have been discovered within 1 Gpc, and hence provides an excellent opportunity to investigate the observational and physical properties of these very elusive and rare type of SN. As such, we present optical to near-infrared photometry and optical spectroscopy of GRB 161219B and SN 2016jca, spanning the first three months since its discovery. GRB 161219B exploded in the disk of an edge-on spiral galaxy at a projected distance of 3.4 kpc from the galactic centre. GRB 161219B itself is an outlier in the E-p,E-i - E-gamma,E-iso plane, while SN 2016jca had a rest-frame, peak absolute V-band magnitude of M-V = -19.0 +/- 0.1, which it reached after 12.3 +/- 0.7 rest-frame days. We find that the bolometric properties of SN 2016jca are inconsistent with being powered solely by a magnetar central engine, and demonstrate that it was likely powered exclusively by energy deposited by the radioactive decay of nickel and cobalt into their daughter products, which were nucleosynthesised when its progenitor underwent core collapse. We find that 0.22 +/- 0.08 M-circle dot of nickel is required to reproduce the peak luminosity of SN 2016jca, and we constrain an ejecta mass of 5.8 +/- 0.3 M-circle dot and a kinetic energy of 5.1 +/- 0.8 x 10(52) erg. Finally, we report on a chromatic, pre-maximum bump in the g-band light curve, and discuss its possible origin.

• 20. Cao, Yi
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
A strong ultraviolet pulse from a newborn type Ia supernova2015In: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 521, no 7552, p. 328-+Article in journal (Refereed)

Type Ia supernovae(1) are destructive explosions of carbon-oxygen white dwarfs(2,3). Although they are used empirically to measure cosmological distances(4-6), the nature of their progenitors remains mysterious(3). One of the leading progenitor models, called the single degenerate channel, hypothesizes that a white dwarf accretes matter from a companion star and the resulting increase in its central pressure and temperature ignites thermonuclear explosion(3,7,8). Here we report observations with the Swift Space Telescope of strong but declining ultraviolet emission from a type Ia supernova within four days of its explosion. This emission is consistent with theoretical expectations of collision between material ejected by the supernova and a companion star(9), and therefore provides evidence that some type Ia supernovae arise from the single degenerate channel.

• 21. Childress, M. J.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
Measuring nickel masses in Type Ia supernovae using cobalt emission in nebular phase spectra2015In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 454, no 4, p. 3816-3842Article in journal (Refereed)

The light curves of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are powered by the radioactive decay of Ni-56 to Co-56 at early times, and the decay of Co-56 to Fe-56 from similar to 60 d after explosion. We examine the evolution of the [Co III] lambda 5893 emission complex during the nebular phase for SNe Ia with multiple nebular spectra and show that the line flux follows the square of the mass of Co-56 as a function of time. This result indicates both efficient local energy deposition from positrons produced in Co-56 decay and long-term stability of the ionization state of the nebula. We compile SN Ia nebular spectra from the literature and present 21 new late-phase spectra of 7 SNe Ia, including SN 2014J. From these we measure the flux in the [Co III] lambda 5893 line and remove its well-behaved time dependence to infer the initial mass of Ni-56 (M-Ni, produced in the explosion. We then examine Ni-56 yields for different SN Ia ejected masses (M-ej-calculated using the relation between light-curve width and ejected mass) and find that the Ni-56 masses of SNe Ia fall into two regimes: for narrow light curves (low stretch s similar to 0.7-0.9), M-Ni is clustered near MN, 0.4 Me and shows a shallow increase as Mei increases from similar to 1 to 1.4 M-circle dot; at high stretch, M-ej clusters at the Chandrasekhar mass (1.4 M-circle dot) while M-Ni, spans a broad range from 0.6 to 1.2 M-circle dot. This could constitute evidence for two distinct SN Ia explosion mechanisms.

• 22. Christensen,
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
IFU observations of the GRB 980425/SN 1998bw host galaxy: emission line ratios in GRB regions2008In: Astronomy and AstrophysicsArticle in journal (Refereed)

Context. The collapsar model predicts that the progenitors of Gamma-ray Bursts (GRBs) are metal poor in Fe group elements. The existence of low metallicity stellar populations could manifest itself in the characteristics of the GRB site immediate environment in the host galaxy.

Aims. We analyse the strong emission lines from the sub-luminous host galaxy of GRB 980425, which showed the first connection with a supernova explosion (SN 1998bw). The host is of sufficient size to allow detailed resolved spectroscopy of individual H II regions and to search for regions with peculiar properties close to the the GRB site.

Methods. Using integral field spectroscopy with VIMOS we study most of the high surface brightness part of the host including the H II region where the supernova and GRB occurred.

Results. The star formation rate, reddening, equivalent width and stellar mass in the GRB region is similar to other H II regions in the host. Extreme values arise in the only region that shows emission lines from Wolf-Rayet stars, a region that is located 800 pc in projection from the GRB site. Strong emission line diagnostics of all H II regions imply oxygen abundances between 0.3 and 0.8 solar with the lowest values arising in the WR and GRB regions. Including uncertainties from the metallicity diagnostics, all metallicities are similar to within 3$\sigma$. We demonstrate that there is a good agreement between the luminosity weighted and mass weighted specific star formation rates (SSFR) in individual young H II regions. While the global average of the SSFR is similar to high redshift GRB hosts, there are significant variations between individual resolved H II regions. Comparing the measured emission line ratios of low redshift GRB hosts to theoretical models and observations of field galaxies, we find that GRBs are present in different environment metallicities while the regions of their origin are consistently very young. Similar line ratios of GRB hosts compared with those of the WR region can arise in spatially unresolved galaxies with bright H II regions close to the GRB location.

• 23. Chugai, Nikolai N.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
The Type IIn supernova 1994W: evidence for the explosive ejection of a circumstellar envelope2004In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 352, p. 1213-1231Article in journal (Refereed)

We present and analyse spectra of the Type IIn supernova (SN) 1994W obtained between 18 and 203d after explosion. During the luminous phase (first 100d) the line profiles are composed of three major components: (i) narrow P-Cygni lines with the absorption minima at -700kms-1 (ii) broad emission lines with blue velocity at zero intensity ~4000km s-1 and (iii) broad, smooth wings extending out to at least ~5000kms-1, most apparent in Hα. These components are identified with an expanding circumstellar (CS) envelope, shocked cool gas in the forward post-shock region, and multiple Thomson scattering in the CS envelope, respectively. The absence of broad P-Cygni lines from the SN is the result of the formation of an optically thick, cool, dense shell at the interface of the ejecta and the CS envelope. Models of the SN deceleration and Thomson scattering wings are used to recover the density (n~ 109cm-3), radial extent [~(4-5) × 1015cm] and Thomson optical depth (τT>~ 2.5) of the CS envelope during the first month. The plateau-like SN light curve is reproduced by a hydrodynamical model and is found to be powered by a combination of internal energy leakage after the explosion of an extended pre-SN (~1015cm) and subsequent luminosity from CS interaction. The pre-explosion kinematics of the CS envelope is recovered, and is close to homologous expansion with outer velocity ~1100kms-1 and a kinematic age of ~1.5yr. The high mass (~0.4Msolar) and kinetic energy (~2 × 1048erg) of the CS envelope, combined with low age, strongly suggest that the CS envelope was explosively ejected ~1.5yr prior to the SN explosion.

• 24. Ciabattari, F.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
Supernova 2012eh in IC 1706 = Psn J01273145+14490582012Report (Other academic)

CBET 3208 available at Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams.

• 25. Corsi, Alessandra
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
iPTF17cw: An Engine-driven Supernova Candidate Discovered Independent of a Gamma-Ray Trigger2017In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 847, no 1, article id 54Article in journal (Refereed)

We present the discovery, classification, and radio-to-X-ray follow-up observations of iPTF17cw, a broad-lined (BL) type Ic supernova (SN) discovered by the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF). Although it is unrelated to the gravitational wave trigger, this SN was discovered as a happy by-product of the extensive observational campaign dedicated to the follow-up of Advanced LIGO event GW 170104. The spectroscopic properties and inferred peak bolometric luminosity of iPTF17cw are most similar to the gamma-ray-burst (GRB)associated SN, SN 1998bw, while the shape of the r-band light curve is most similar to that of the relativistic SN, SN 2009bb. Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) observations of the iPTF17cw field reveal a radio counterpart approximate to 10 times less luminous than SN 1998bw, and with a peak radio luminosity comparable to that of SN 2006aj/GRB 060218 and SN 2010bh/GRB 100316D. Our radio observations of iPTF17cw imply a relativistically expanding outflow. However, further late-time observations with the VLA in its most extended configuration are needed to confirm fading of the iPTF17cw radio counterpart at all frequencies. X-ray observations carried out with Chandra reveal the presence of an X-ray counterpart with a luminosity similar to that of SN 2010bh/GRB 100316D. Searching the Fermi catalog for possible gamma-rays reveals that GRB 161228B is spatially and temporally compatible with iPTF17cw. The similarity to SN 1998bw and SN 2009bb, the radio and X-ray detections, and the potential association with GRB 161228B all point to iPTF17cw being a new candidate member of the rare sample of optically discovered engine-driven BL-Ic SNe associated with relativistic ejecta.

• 26. Czekala, Ian
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
THE UNUSUALLY LUMINOUS EXTRAGALACTIC NOVA SN 2010U2013In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 765, no 1, p. 57-Article in journal (Refereed)

We present observations of the unusual optical transient SN 2010U, including spectra taken 1.03 days to 15.3 days after maximum light that identify it as a fast and luminous Fe II type nova. Our multi-band light curve traces the fast decline (t(2) = 3.5 +/- 0.3 days) from maximum light (M-V = -10.2 +/- 0.1 mag), placing SN 2010U in the top 0.5% of the most luminous novae ever observed. We find typical ejecta velocities of approximate to 1100 km s(-1) and that SN 2010U shares many spectral and photometric characteristics with two other fast and luminous Fe II type novae, including Nova LMC 1991 and M31N-2007-11d. For the extreme luminosity of this nova, the maximum magnitude versus rate of decline relationship indicates a massive white dwarf (WD) progenitor with a low pre-outburst accretion rate. However, this prediction is in conflict with emerging theories of nova populations, which predict that luminous novae from massive WDs should preferentially exhibit an alternate spectral type (He/N) near maximum light.

• 27. Dall'Ora, M.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
THE TYPE IIP SUPERNOVA 2012aw IN M95: HYDRODYNAMICAL MODELING OF THE PHOTOSPHERIC PHASE FROM ACCURATE SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC MONITORING2014In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 787, no 2, p. 139-Article in journal (Refereed)

We present an extensive optical and near-infrared photometric and spectroscopic campaign of the Type IIP supernova SN 2012aw. The data set densely covers the evolution of SN 2012aw shortly after the explosion through the end of the photospheric phase, with two additional photometric observations collected during the nebular phase, to fit the radioactive tail and estimate the Ni-56 mass. Also included in our analysis is the previously published Swift UV data, therefore providing a complete view of the ultraviolet-optical-infrared evolution of the photospheric phase. On the basis of our data set, we estimate all the relevant physical parameters of SN 2012aw with our radiation-hydrodynamics code: envelope mass M-env similar to 20 M-circle dot, progenitor radius R similar to 3 x 10(13) cm (similar to 430 R-circle dot), explosion energy E similar to 1.5 foe, and initial Ni-56 mass similar to 0.06 M-circle dot. These mass and radius values are reasonably well supported by independent evolutionary models of the progenitor, and may suggest a progenitor mass higher than the observational limit of 16.5 +/- 1.5 M-circle dot of the Type IIP events.

• 28. D'Andrea, Chris B.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
Type II-P Supernovae from the SDSS-II Supernova Survey and the Standardized Candle Method2010In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 708, no 1, p. 661-674Article in journal (Refereed)

We apply the Standardized Candle Method (SCM) for Type II Plateau supernovae (SNe II-P), which relates the velocity of the ejecta of a SN to its luminosity during the plateau, to 15 SNe II-P discovered over the three season run of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II Supernova Survey. The redshifts of these SNe—0.027 < z < 0.144—cover a range hitherto sparsely sampled in the literature; in particular, our SNe II-P sample contains nearly as many SNe in the Hubble flow (z > 0.01) as all of the current literature on the SCM combined. We find that the SDSS SNe have a very small intrinsic I-band dispersion (0.22 mag), which can be attributed to selection effects. When the SCM is applied to the combined SDSS-plus-literature set of SNe II-P, the dispersion increases to 0.29 mag, larger than the scatter for either set of SNe separately. We show that the standardization cannot be further improved by eliminating SNe with positive plateau decline rates, as proposed in Poznanski et al. We thoroughly examine all potential systematic effects and conclude that for the SCM to be useful for cosmology, the methods currently used to determine the Fe II velocity at day 50 must be improved, and spectral templates able to encompass the intrinsic variations of Type II-P SNe will be needed. Based in part on data collected at Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

• 29. Danilenko, A.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
Deep optical imaging of the gamma-ray pulsar J1048-5832 with the VLT2013In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 552, p. A127-Article in journal (Refereed)

Context. PSR J1048-5832 is a young radio-pulsar that has recently been detected in gamma-rays with Fermi, and also in X-rays with Chandra and XMM-Newton. It powers a compact pulsar wind nebula visible in X-rays and is in many ways similar to the Vela pulsar. Aims. We present deep optical observations made with the ESO Very Large Telescope to search for optical counterparts of the pulsar and its nebula and to explore their multi-wavelength emission properties. Methods. The data were obtained in the V and R bands and were compared with archival data in other spectral domains. Results. We do not detect the pulsar in the optical and derive informative upper limits of R greater than or similar to 28(.)(m) 1 and V less than or similar to 28(.)(m) 4 for its brightness. Using a red-clump star method, we estimate an interstellar extinction towards the pulsar of A(V) approximate to 2 mag, which is consistent with the absorbing column density derived from X-rays. The respective distance agrees with the dispersion measure distance. We reanalysed the Chandra X-ray data and compared the dereddened upper limits with the unabsorbed X-ray spectrum of the pulsar. We find that regarding its optical-X-ray spectral properties this gamma-ray pulsar is not distinct from other pulsars detected in both ranges. However, like the Vela pulsar, it is very inefficient in the optical and X-rays. Among a dozen optical sources overlapping with the pulsar X-ray nebula we find one with V approximate to 26(.)(m)9 and R approximate to 26. m 3, whose colour is slightly bluer than that of the field stars and is consistent with the peculiar colours typical for pulsar nebula features. It positionally coincides with a relatively bright feature of the pulsar X-ray nebula, resembling the Crab wisp and is located in similar to 2 '' from the pulsar. We suggest this source as a counterpart candidate to the feature. Conclusions. Based on the substantial interstellar extinction towards the pulsar and its optical inefficiency, additional optical studies should be carried out at longer wavelengths.

• 30. Davis, Tamara M.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
The Effect of Peculiar Velocities on Supernova Cosmology2011In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 741, p. 67-Article in journal (Refereed)

We analyze the effect that peculiar velocities have on the cosmological inferences we make using luminosity distance indicators, such as Type Ia supernovae. In particular we study the corrections required to account for (1) our own motion, (2) correlations in galaxy motions, and (3) a possible local under- or overdensity. For all of these effects we present a case study showing the impact on the cosmology derived by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II Supernova Survey (SDSS-II SN Survey). Correcting supernova (SN) redshifts for the cosmic microwave background (CMB) dipole slightly overcorrects nearby SNe that share some of our local motion. We show that while neglecting the CMB dipole would cause a shift in the derived equation of state of Δw ~ 0.04 (at fixed Ω m ), the additional local-motion correction is currently negligible (Δw <~ 0.01). We then demonstrate a covariance-matrix approach to statistically account for correlated peculiar velocities. This down-weights nearby SNe and effectively acts as a graduated version of the usual sharp low-redshift cut. Neglecting coherent velocities in the current sample causes a systematic shift of Δw ~ 0.02. This will therefore have to be considered carefully when future surveys aim for percent-level accuracy and we recommend our statistical approach to down-weighting peculiar velocities as a more robust option than a sharp low-redshift cut.

• 31. Davis, Tamara
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
Scrutinizing Exotic Cosmological Models Using ESSENCE Supernova Data Combined with Other Cosmological Probes2007In: The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 666, no 2, p. 716-725Article in journal (Refereed)

The first cosmological results from the ESSENCE supernova survey (Wood-Vasey and coworkers) are extended to a wider range of cosmological models including dynamical dark energy and nonstandard cosmological models. We fold in a greater number of external data sets such as the recent Higher-z release of high-redshift supernovae (Riess and coworkers), as well as several complementary cosmological probes. Model comparison statistics such as the Bayesian and Akaike information criteria are applied to gauge the worth of models. These statistics favor models that give a good fit with fewer parameters. Based on this analysis, the preferred cosmological model is the flat cosmological constant model, where the expansion history of the universe can be adequately described with only one free parameter describing the energy content of the universe. Among the more exotic models that provide good fits to the data, we note a preference for models whose best-fit parameters reduce them to the cosmological constant model.

• 32. Dilday, Benjamin
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
A Measurement of the Rate of Type Ia Supernovae in Galaxy Clusters from the SDSS-II Supernova Survey2010In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 715, p. 1021-1035Article in journal (Refereed)

We present measurements of the Type Ia supernova (SN) rate in galaxy clusters based on data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II (SDSS-II) Supernova Survey. The cluster SN Ia rate is determined from 9 SN events in a set of 71 C4 clusters at z <= 0.17 and 27 SN events in 492 maxBCG clusters at 0.1 <= z <= 0.3. We find values for the cluster SN Ia rate of (0.37+0.17+0.01 -0.12-0.01) SNur h 2 and (0.55+0.13+0.02 -0.11-0.01) SNur h 2 (SNux = 10-12 L -1 xsun yr-1) in C4 and maxBCG clusters, respectively, where the quoted errors are statistical and systematic, respectively. The SN rate for early-type galaxies is found to be (0.31+0.18+0.01 -0.12-0.01) SNur h 2 and (0.49+0.15+0.02 -0.11-0.01) SNur h 2 in C4 and maxBCG clusters, respectively. The SN rate for the brightest cluster galaxies (BCG) is found to be (2.04+1.99+0.07 -1.11-0.04) SNur h 2 and (0.36+0.84+0.01 -0.30-0.01) SNur h 2 in C4 and maxBCG clusters, respectively. The ratio of the SN Ia rate in cluster early-type galaxies to that of the SN Ia rate in field early-type galaxies is 1.94+1.31+0.043 -0.91-0.015 and 3.02+1.31+0.062 -1.03-0.048, for C4 and maxBCG clusters, respectively. The SN rate in galaxy clusters as a function of redshift, which probes the late time SN Ia delay distribution, shows only weak dependence on redshift. Combining our current measurements with previous measurements, we fit the cluster SN Ia rate data to a linear function of redshift, and find rL = [(0.49+0.15 -0.14)+(0.91+0.85 -0.81) × z] SNuB h 2. A comparison of the radial distribution of SNe in cluster to field early-type galaxies shows possible evidence for an enhancement of the SN rate in the cores of cluster early-type galaxies. With an observation of at most three hostless, intra-cluster SNe Ia, we estimate the fraction of cluster SNe that are hostless to be (9.4+8.3 -5.1)%.

• 33. Dilday, Benjamin
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
Measurements of the Rate of Type Ia Supernovae at Redshift lsim0.3 from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey II Supernova Survey2010In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 713, p. 1026-1036Article in journal (Refereed)

We present a measurement of the volumetric Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) rate based on data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey II (SDSS-II) Supernova Survey. The adopted sample of supernovae (SNe) includes 516 SNe Ia at redshift z <~ 0.3, of which 270(52%) are spectroscopically identified as SNe Ia. The remaining 246 SNe Ia were identified through their light curves; 113 of these objects have spectroscopic redshifts from spectra of their host galaxy, and 133 have photometric redshifts estimated from the SN light curves. Based on consideration of 87 spectroscopically confirmed non-Ia SNe discovered by the SDSS-II SN Survey, we estimate that 2.04+1.61 -0.95% of the photometric SNe Ia may be misidentified. The sample of SNe Ia used in this measurement represents an order of magnitude increase in the statistics for SN Ia rate measurements in the redshift range covered by the SDSS-II Supernova Survey. If we assume an SN Ia rate that is constant at low redshift (z < 0.15), then the SN observations can be used to infer a value of the SN rate of rV = (2.69+0.34+0.21 -0.30-0.01)×10-5 SNe yr-1 Mpc-3 (H 0/(70 km s-1 Mpc-1))3 at a mean redshift of ~0.12, based on 79 SNe Ia of which 72 are spectroscopically confirmed. However, the large sample of SNe Ia included in this study allows us to place constraints on the redshift dependence of the SN Ia rate based on the SDSS-II Supernova Survey data alone. Fitting a power-law model of the SN rate evolution, rV (z) = Ap × ((1 + z)/(1 + z 0))ν, over the redshift range 0.0 < z < 0.3 with z 0 = 0.21, results in Ap = (3.43+0.15 -0.15) × 10-5 SNe yr-1 Mpc-3 (H 0/(70 km s-1 Mpc-1))3 and ν = 2.04+0.90 -0.89.

• 34. Elíasdóttir, Á.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
Dust Extinction in High-z Galaxies with Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglow Spectroscopy: The 2175 Å Feature at z = 2.452009In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 697, p. 1725-1740Article in journal (Refereed)

We report the clear detection of the 2175 Å dust absorption feature in the optical afterglow spectrum of the gamma-ray burst (GRB) GRB 070802 at a redshift of z = 2.45. This is the highest redshift for a detected 2175 Å dust bump to date, and it is the first clear detection of the 2175 Å bump in a GRB host galaxy, while several tens of optical afterglow spectra without the bump have been recorded in the past decade. The derived extinction curve gives AV = 0.8-1.5 depending on the assumed intrinsic slope. Of the three local extinction laws, a Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) type extinction gives the best fit to the extinction curve of the host of GRB 070802. Besides the 2175 Å bump we find that the spectrum of GRB 070802 is characterized by unusually strong low-ionization metal lines and possibly a high metallicity for a GRB sightline ([Si/H] = -0.46 ± 0.38, [Zn/H] = -0.50 ± 0.68). In particular, the spectrum of GRB 070802 is unique for a GRB spectrum in that it shows clear C I absorption features, leading us to propose a correlation between the presence of the bump and C I. The gas-to-dust ratio for the host galaxy is found to be significantly lower than that of other GRB hosts with N(H I)/AV = (2.4 ± 1.0) × 1021 cm-2 mag-1, which lies between typical Milky Way and LMC values. Our results are in agreement with the tentative conclusion reached by Gordon et al. that the shape of the extinction curve, in particular the presence of the bump, is affected by the UV flux density in the environment of the dust. Based on observations collected under progs. ID 079.D-0429(B) and 177.D-0591(P,Q), using the FORS2 instrument installed at the Cassegrain focus of the Very Large Telescope (VLT), Unit 1 - Antu, operated by the European Southern Observatory (ESO) on Cerro Paranal, Chile.

• 35.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
The Type IIb SN 2011dh - 2 years of observations and modelling of the lightcurvesIn: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746Article in journal (Refereed)
• 36.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
The Type IIb SN 2011dh: Two years of observations and modelling of the lightcurves2015In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 580, article id A142Article in journal (Refereed)

We present optical and near-infrared (NIR) photometry and spectroscopy as well as modelling of the lightcurves of the Type IIb supernova (SN) 2011dh. Our extensive dataset, for which we present the observations obtained after day 100, spans two years, and complemented with Spitzer mid-infrared (MIR) data, we use it to build an optical-to-MIR bolometric lightcurve between days 3 and 732. To model the bolometric lightcurve before day 400 we use a grid of hydrodynamical SN models, which allows us to determine the errors in the derived quantities, and a bolometric correction determined with steady-state non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) modelling. Using this method we find a helium core mass of 3.1(-0.)(0.7) M-circle dot for SN 2011dh, consistent within error bars with previous results obtained using the bolometric lightcurve before day 80. We compute bolometric and broad-band lightcurves between days 100 and 500 from spectral steady-state NLTE models, presented and discussed in a companion paper. The preferred 12 M-circle dot (initial mass) model, previously found to agree well with the observed spectra, shows a good overall agreement with the observed lightcurves, although some discrepancies exist. Time-dependent NLTE modelling shows that after day similar to 600 a steady-state assumption is no longer valid. The radioactive energy deposition in this phase is likely dominated by the positrons emitted in the decay of Co-56, but seems insufficient to reproduce the lightcurves, and what energy source is dominating the emitted flux is unclear. We find an excess in the K and the MIR bands developing between days 100 and 250, during which an increase in the optical decline rate is also observed. A local origin of the excess is suggested by the depth of the He I 20 581 angstrom absorption. Steady-state NLTE models with a modest dust opacity in the core (tau = 0.44), turned on during this period, reproduce the observed behaviour, but an additional excess in the Spitzer 4.5 mu m band remains. Carbon-monoxide (CO) first-overtone band emission is detected at day 206, and possibly at day 89, and assuming the additional excess to be dominated by CO fundamental band emission, we find fundamental to first-overtone band ratios considerably higher than observed in SN 1987A. The profiles of the [OI] 6300 angstrom and Mg I] 4571 angstrom lines show a remarkable similarit, suggesting that these lines originate from a common nuclear burning zone (O/Ne/Mg), and using small scale fluctuations in the line profiles we estimate a filling factor of less than or similar to 0.07 for the emitting material. This paper concludes our extensive observational and modelling work on SN 2011dh. The results from hydrodynamical modelling, steady-state NLTE modelling, and stellar evolutionary progenitor analysis are all consistent, and suggest an initial mass of similar to 12 M-circle dot for the progenitor.

• 37.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
Optical and near-infrared observations of SN 2011dh-The first 100 days2014In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 562, p. A17-, article id A17Article in journal (Refereed)

We present optical and near-infrared (NIR) photometry and spectroscopy of the Type IIb supernova (SN) 2011dh for the first 100 days. We complement our extensive dataset with Swift ultra-violet (UV) and Spitzer mid-infrared (MIR) data to build a UV to MIR bolometric lightcurve using both photometric and spectroscopic data. Hydrodynamical modelling of the SN based on this bolometric lightcurve have been presented in Bersten et al. (2012, ApJ, 757, 31). We find that the absorption minimum for the hydrogen lines is never seen below similar to 11 000 km s(-1) but approaches this value as the lines get weaker. This suggests that the interface between the helium core and hydrogen rich envelope is located near this velocity in agreement with the Bersten et al. (2012) He4R270 ejecta model. Spectral modelling of the hydrogen lines using this ejecta model supports the conclusion and we find a hydrogen mass of 0.01-0.04 M-circle dot to be consistent with the observed spectral evolution. We estimate that the photosphere reaches the helium core at 5-7 days whereas the helium lines appear between similar to 10 and similar to 15 days, close to the photosphere and then move outward in velocity until similar to 40 days. This suggests that increasing non-thermal excitation due to decreasing optical depth for the gamma-rays is driving the early evolution of these lines. The Spitzer 4.5 mu m band shows a significant flux excess, which we attribute to CO fundamental band emission or a thermal dust echo although further work using late time data is needed. The distance and in particular the extinction, where we use spectral modelling to put further constraints, is discussed in some detail as well as the sensitivity of the hydrodynamical modelling to errors in these quantities. We also provide and discuss pre- and post-explosion observations of the SN site which shows a reduction by similar to 75 percent in flux at the position of the yellow supergiant coincident with SN 2011dh. The B, V and r band decline rates of 0.0073, 0.0090 and 0.0053 mag day(-1) respectively are consistent with the remaining flux being emitted by the SN. Hence we find that the star was indeed the progenitor of SN 2011dh as previously suggested by Maund et al. (2011, ApJ, 739, L37) and which is also consistent with the results from the hydrodynamical modelling.

• 38.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
Hydrodynamical modelling of Type IIb SNeIn: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746Article in journal (Refereed)
• 39. Foley, R. J.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
Spectroscopy of High-Redshift Supernovae from the Essence Project: The First Four Years2009In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 137, p. 3731-3742Article in journal (Refereed)

We present the results of spectroscopic observations from the ESSENCE high-redshift supernova (SN) survey during its first four years of operation. This sample includes spectra of all SNe Ia whose light curves were presented by Miknaitis et al. and used in the cosmological analyses of Davis et al. and Wood-Vasey et al. The sample represents 273 hr of spectroscopic observations with 6.5-10 m class telescopes of objects detected and selected for spectroscopy by the ESSENCE team. We present 184 spectra of 156 objects. Combining this sample with that of Matheson et al., we have a total sample of 329 spectra of 274 objects. From this, we are able to spectroscopically classify 118 Type Ia SNe. As the survey has matured, the efficiency of classifying SNe Ia has remained constant while we have observed both higher-redshift SNe Ia and SNe Ia farther from maximum brightness. Examining the subsample of SNe Ia with host-galaxy redshifts shows that redshifts derived from only the SN Ia spectra are consistent with redshifts found from host-galaxy spectra. Moreover, the phases derived from only the SN Ia spectra are consistent with those derived from light-curve fits. By comparing our spectra to local templates, we find that the rate of objects similar to the overluminous SN 1991T and the underluminous SN 1991bg in our sample are consistent with that of the local sample. We do note, however, that we detect no object spectroscopically or photometrically similar to SN 1991bg. Although systematic effects could reduce the high-redshift rate we expect based on the low-redshift surveys, it is possible that SN 1991bg-like SNe Ia are less prevalent at high redshift.

• 40. Foley, Ryan
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
Constraining Cosmic Evolution of Type Ia Supernovae2008In: The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 684, no 1, p. 68-87Article in journal (Refereed)

We present a large-scale effort of creating composite spectra of high-redshift SNe Ia and comparing them to low-redshift counterparts in an attempt to understand possible cosmic evolution of SNe Ia, which has major implications for studies of dark energy. Through the ESSENCE project, we have obtained 107 spectra of 88 high-redshift SNe Ia with excellent light-curve information. In addition, we have obtained 397 spectra of low-redshift SNe Ia through a multiple-decade effort at the Lick and Keck Observatories, and we have used 45 UV spectra obtained by HST and IUE. The low-redshift spectra act as a control sample when comparing to the ESSENCE spectra. In all instances, the ESSENCE and Lick composite spectra appear very similar. The addition of galaxy light to the Lick composite spectra allows an excellent match of the overall SED with the ESSENCE composite spectra, indicating that the high-redshift SNe are more contaminated with host galaxy light than their low-redshift counterparts. This is caused by observing objects at all redshifts with similar angular slit widths, which corresponds to different projected physical distances. After correcting for the galaxy light contamination, a few marginally significant differences in the spectra remain. We have estimated the systematic errors when using current spectral templates for K-corrections to be ~0.02 mag. The variance in the composite spectra gives an estimate of the intrinsic variance in low-redshift maximum light SN spectra of ~3% relative flux in the optical and growing toward the UV. The difference between the maximum light low- and high-redshift spectra constrains the evolution of SN spectral features between our samples to be <10% relative flux in the rest-frame optical. Currently, galaxy contamination and the small samples of rest-frame UV spectra at low and high redshifts are the limiting factors for future studies.

• 41. Foley, Ryan J.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
A MISMATCH IN THE ULTRAVIOLET SPECTRA BETWEEN LOW-REDSHIFT AND INTERMEDIATE-REDSHIFT TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE AS A POSSIBLE SYSTEMATIC UNCERTAINTY FOR SUPERNOVA COSMOLOGY2012In: Astronomical Journal, ISSN 0004-6256, E-ISSN 1538-3881, Vol. 143, no 5, p. 113-Article in journal (Refereed)

We present Keck high-quality rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) through optical spectra of 21 Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) in the redshift range 0.11 <= z <= 0.37 and a mean redshift of 0.22 that were discovered during the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II (SDSS-II) SN Survey. Using the broadband photometry of the SDSS survey, we are able to reconstruct the SN host-galaxy spectral energy distributions (SEDs), allowing for a correction for the host-galaxy contamination in the SN Ia spectra. Comparison of composite spectra constructed from a subsample of 17 high-quality spectra to those created from a low-redshift sample with otherwise similar properties shows that the Keck/SDSS SNe Ia have, on average, extremely similar rest-frame optical spectra but show a UV flux excess. This observation is confirmed by comparing synthesized broadband colors of the individual spectra, showing a difference in mean colors at the 2.4 sigma-4.4 sigma level for various UV colors. We further see a slight difference in the UV spectral shape between SNe with low-mass and high-mass host galaxies. Additionally, we detect a relationship between the flux ratio at 2770 and 2900 angstrom and peak luminosity that differs from that observed at low redshift. We find that changing the UV SED of an SN Ia within the observed dispersion can change the inferred distance moduli by similar to 0.1 mag. This effect only occurs when the data probe the rest-frame UV. We suggest that this discrepancy could be due to differences in the host-galaxy population of the two SN samples or to small-sample statistics.

• 42. France, Kevin
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
Observing Supernova 1987A with the Refurbished Hubble Space Telescope2010In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 329, no 5999, p. 1624-1627Article in journal (Refereed)

Observations with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), conducted since 1990, now offer an unprecedented glimpse into fast astrophysical shocks in the young remnant of supernova 1987A. Comparing observations taken in 2010 with the use of the refurbished instruments on HST with data taken in 2004, just before the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph failed, we find that the Ly alpha and H alpha lines from shock emission continue to brighten, whereas their maximum velocities continue to decrease. We observe broad, blueshifted Ly alpha, which we attribute to resonant scattering of photons emitted from hot spots on the equatorial ring. We also detect N v lambda lambda 1239, 1243 angstrom line emission, but only to the red of Ly alpha. The profiles of the N v lines differ markedly from that of H alpha, suggesting that the N4+ ions are scattered and accelerated by turbulent electromagnetic fields that isotropize the ions in the collisionless shock.

• 43. France, Kevin
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
HST-COS Observations of Hydrogen, Helium, Carbon, and Nitrogen Emission from the SN 1987A Reverse Shock2011In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 743, no 2, p. 186-Article in journal (Refereed)

We present the most sensitive ultraviolet observations of Supernova 1987A to date. Imaging spectroscopy from the Hubble Space Telescope-Cosmic Origins Spectrograph shows many narrow (Δv ~ 300 km s-1) emission lines from the circumstellar ring, broad (Δv ~ 10-20 × 103 km s-1) emission lines from the reverse shock, and ultraviolet continuum emission. The high signal-to-noise ratio (>40 per resolution element) broad Lyα emission is excited by soft X-ray and EUV heating of mostly neutral gas in the circumstellar ring and outer supernova debris. The ultraviolet continuum at λ > 1350 Å can be explained by H I two-photon (2s 2 S 1/2-1s 2 S 1/2) emission from the same region. We confirm our earlier, tentative detection of N V λ1240 emission from the reverse shock and present the first detections of broad He II λ1640, C IV λ1550, and N IV] λ1486 emission lines from the reverse shock. The helium abundance in the high-velocity material is He/H = 0.14 ± 0.06. The N V/Hα line ratio requires partial ion-electron equilibration (Te /Tp ≈ 0.14-0.35). We find that the N/C abundance ratio in the gas crossing the reverse shock is significantly higher than that in the circumstellar ring, a result that may be attributed to chemical stratification in the outer envelope of the supernova progenitor. The N/C abundance may have been stratified prior to the ring expulsion, or this result may indicate continued CNO processing in the progenitor subsequent to the expulsion of the circumstellar ring. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the data archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute. STScI is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

• 44.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
HIGH-DENSITY CIRCUMSTELLAR INTERACTION IN THE LUMINOUS TYPE IIn SN 2010jl: THE FIRST 1100 DAYS2014In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 797, no 2, article id 118Article in journal (Refereed)

Hubble Space Telescope and ground-based observations of the Type IIn supernova (SN) 2010jl are analyzed, including photometry and spectroscopy in the ultraviolet, optical, and near-IR bands, 26-1128 days after first detection. At maximum, the bolometric luminosity was similar to 3 x 10(43) erg s(-1) and even at 850 days exceeds 10(42) erg s(-1). A near-IR excess, dominating after 400 days, probably originates in dust in the circumstellar medium (CSM). The total radiated energy is greater than or similar to 6.5x10(50) erg, excluding the dust component. The spectral lines can be separated into one broad component that is due to electron scattering and one narrow with expansion velocity similar to 100 km s(-1) from the CSM. The broad component is initially symmetric around zero velocity but becomes blueshifted after similar to 50 days, while remaining symmetric about a shifted centroid velocity. Dust absorption in the ejecta is unlikely to explain the line shifts, and we attribute the shift instead to acceleration by the SN radiation. From the optical lines and the X-ray and dust properties, there is strong evidence for large-scale asymmetries in the CSM. The ultraviolet lines indicate CNO processing in the progenitor, while the optical shows a number of narrow coronal lines excited by the X-rays. The bolometric light curve is consistent with a radiative shock in an r(-2) CSM with a mass-loss rate of M similar to 0.1 M(circle dot)yr(-1). The total mass lost is greater than or similar to 3 M-circle dot. These properties are consistent with the SN expanding into a CSM characteristic of a luminous blue variable progenitor with a bipolar geometry. The apparent absence of nuclear processing is attributed to a CSM that is still opaque to electron scattering.

• 45.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
THE DESTRUCTION OF THE CIRCUMSTELLAR RING OF SN 1987A2015In: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 806, no 1, article id L19Article in journal (Refereed)

We present imaging and spectroscopic observations with Hubble Space Telescope and Very Large Telescope of the ring of SN 1987A from 1994 to 2014. After an almost exponential increase of the shocked emission from the hotspots up to day similar to 8000 (similar to 2009), both this and the unshocked emission are now fading. From the radial positions of the hotspots we see an acceleration of these up to 500-1000 km s(-1), consistent with the highest spectroscopic shock velocities from the radiative shocks. In the most recent observations (2013 and 2014), we find several new hotspots outside the inner ring, excited by either X-rays from the shocks or by direct shock interaction. All of these observations indicate that the interaction with the supernova ejecta is now gradually dissolving the hotspots. We predict, based on the observed decay, that the inner ring will be destroyed by similar to 2025.

• 46.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
LATE SPECTRAL EVOLUTION OF THE EJECTA AND REVERSE SHOCK IN SN 1987A2013In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 768, no 1, p. 88-Article in journal (Refereed)

We present observations with the Very Large Telescope and Hubble Space Telescope (HST) of the broad emission lines from the inner ejecta and reverse shock of SN 1987A from 1999 February until 2012 January (days 4381-9100 after explosion). We detect broad lines from H alpha, H beta, Mg I], Na I, [O I], [Ca II], and a feature at similar to 9220 angstrom. We identify the latter line with Mg II lambda lambda 9218, 9244, which is most likely pumped by Ly alpha fluorescence. H alpha and H beta both have a centrally peaked component extending to similar to 4500 km s(-1) and a very broad component extending to greater than or similar to 11,000 km s(-1), while the other lines have only the central component. The low-velocity component comes from unshocked ejecta, heated mainly by X-rays from the circumstellar environment, whereas the very broad component comes from faster ejecta passing through the reverse shock, created by the collision with the circumstellar ring. The flux in H alpha from the reverse shock has increased by a factor of four to six from 2000 to 2007. After that there is a tendency of flattening of the light curve, similar to what may be seen in the optical lines from the shocked ring. The core component seen in H alpha, [Ca II], and Mg II has experienced a similar increase, which is consistent with that found from HST photometry. The energy deposition of the external X-rays is calculated using explosion models for SN 1987A and we predict that the outer parts of the unshocked ejecta will continue to brighten because of this. The external X-ray illumination also explains the edge-brightened morphology of the ejecta seen in the HST images. We finally discuss evidence for dust in the ejecta from line asymmetries.

• 47. Fraser, M.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
SN 2009md: another faint supernova from a low-mass progenitor2011In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 417, p. 1417-1433Article in journal (Refereed)

We present adaptive optics imaging of the core-collapse supernova (SN) 2009md, which we use together with archival Hubble Space Telescope data to identify a coincident progenitor candidate. We find the progenitor to have an absolute magnitude of V=-4.63+0.3-0.4 mag and a colour of V-I= 2.29+0.25-0.39 mag, corresponding to a progenitor luminosity of log L/L&sun;˜ 4.54 ± 0.19 dex. Using the stellar evolution code STARS, we find this to be consistent with a red supergiant progenitor with M= 8.5+6.5-1.5 M&sun;. The photometric and spectroscopic evolution of SN 2009md is similar to that of the class of sub-luminous Type IIP SNe; in this paper we compare the evolution of SN 2009md primarily to that of the sub-luminous SN 2005cs. We estimate the mass of 56Ni ejected in the explosion to be (5.4 ± 1.3) × 10-3 M&sun; from the luminosity on the radioactive tail, which is in agreement with the low 56Ni masses estimated for other sub-luminous Type IIP SNe. From the light curve and spectra, we show the SN explosion had a lower energy and ejecta mass than the normal Type IIP SN 1999em. We discuss problems with stellar evolutionary models, and the discrepancy between low observed progenitor luminosities (log L/L&sun;˜4.3-5 dex) and model luminosities after the second dredge-up for stars in this mass range, and consider an enhanced carbon burning rate as a possible solution. In conclusion, SN 2009md is a faint SN arising from the collapse of a progenitor close to the lower mass limit for core collapse. This is now the third discovery of a low-mass progenitor star producing a low-energy explosion and low 56Ni ejected mass, which indicates that such events arise from the lowest end of the mass range that produces a core-collapse SN (7-8 M&sun;).

• 48. Fraser, M.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
RED AND DEAD: THE PROGENITOR OF SN 2012aw IN M952012In: The Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, Vol. 759, no 1, p. L13-Article in journal (Refereed)

Core-collapse supernovae (SNe) are the spectacular finale to massive stellar evolution. In this Letter, we identify a progenitor for the nearby core-collapse SN 2012aw in both ground-based near-infrared and space-based optical pre-explosion imaging. The SN itself appears to be a normal Type II Plateau event, reaching a bolometric luminosity of 10(42) erg s(-1) and photospheric velocities of similar to 11,000 km s(-1) from the position of the H beta P-Cygni minimum in the early SN spectra. We use an adaptive optics image to show that the SN is coincident to within 27 mas with a faint, red source in pre-explosion HST+WFPC2, VLT+ISAAC, and NTT+SOFI images. The source has magnitudes F555W = 26.70 +/- 0.06, F814W = 23.39 +/- 0.02, J = 21.1 +/- 0.2, K = 19.1 +/- 0.4, which, when compared to a grid of stellar models, best matches a red supergiant. Interestingly, the spectral energy distribution of the progenitor also implies an extinction of A(V) > 1.2 mag, whereas the SN itself does not appear to be significantly extinguished. We interpret this as evidence for the destruction of dust in the SN explosion. The progenitor candidate has a luminosity between 5.0 and 5.6 log L/L-circle dot, corresponding to a zero-age main-sequence mass between 14 and 26 M-circle dot (depending on A(V)), which would make this one of the most massive progenitors found for a core-collapse SN to date.

• 49. Fraser, M.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
A low mass red supergiant progenitor candidate for SN 2012aw2012Report (Other academic)

We obtained an unfiltered image of the Type IIP SN 2012aw (CBET 3054) from the Nordic Optical Telescope + ALFOSC on 2012 March 19.9 UT, under excellent (~0.5") seeing conditions. 6 sources were identified in both the the ALFOSC image, and a pre-explosion HST+WFPC2 F555W mosaic of M95 retrieved (together with F439W and F814W-filter images) from the Hubble Legacy Archive. Using a geometric transformation derived from the position of the fiducial sources in both images, SN 2012aw was located in the WFPC2 image to an accuracy of 0.24". We find SN 2012aw to be coincident with a faint, red source in the pre-explosion WFPC data, which is the probable progenitor.

• 50. Fraser, M.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
On the Progenitor and Early Evolution of the Type II Supernova 2009kr2010In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 714, p. L280-L284Article in journal (Refereed)

We identify a source coincident with SN 2009kr in Hubble Space Telescope pre-explosion images. The object appears to be a single point source with an intrinsic color V - I = 1.1 ± 0.25 and MV = -7.6 ± 0.6. If this is a single star, it would be a yellow supergiant of log L/L sun ~ 5.1 and a mass of 15+5 -4 M sun. The spatial resolution does not allow us yet to definitively determine if the progenitor object is a single star, a binary system, or a compact cluster. We show that the early light curve is similar to a Type IIL SN, but the prominent Hα P-Cygni profiles and the signature of the end of a recombination phase are reminiscent of a Type IIP. The evolution of the expanding ejecta will play an important role in understanding the progenitor object.

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• sv-SE
• Other locale
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Output format
• html
• text
• asciidoc
• rtf