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  • 1. Andreasen, Katarina
    et al.
    Manktelow, Mariette
    Razafimandimbison, Sylvain
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bergius Botanical Garden Museum.
    Successful DNA amplification of a more than 200-year-old herbarium specimen: recovering genetic material from the Linnaean era2009In: Taxon, ISSN 0040-0262, E-ISSN 1996-8175, Vol. 58, no 3, p. 959-962Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The limit for successful DNA extraction was tested by amplification and sequencing of an over 200-year-old herbarium specimen collected by Adam Afzelius, a student of Carl Linnaeus. We amplified and sequenced a 800-bp region between 16S ribosomal DNA and the 3′ part of the trnI gene (16S-trnI) in the chloroplast genomeof Phaulopsis talbotii S. Moore (Acanthaceae). To test the replicability and to control for contamination the procedure was performed in sealed vials and with negative PCR controls. The procedure was also repeated in a separate laboratory. In addition, the chloroplast rpl16 intron was successfully amplified and sequenced and the rps16 intron amplified. Sequences of taxa closely related to Acanthaceae were found to be most similar to the produced sequences. The results suggest that molecular investigations of other 18th century botanical collections are feasible and that molecular methods could be employed for comparative studies to extant plant collections. An important application would be to identify descendants or clones of Linnaean lectotypes by comparing DNA from these with potentially remnant plants from Linnaeus’ cultivations.

  • 2. Andriamihajarivo, Tefy H.
    et al.
    Razafimandimbison, Sylvain G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Karehed, Jesper
    Phyllopentas flava (Rubiaceae), a New Morphologically Heterodistylous and Functionally Dioecious Species from Madagascar2011In: Systematic Botany, ISSN 0363-6445, E-ISSN 1548-2324, Vol. 36, no 4, p. 1024-1027Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new species of the Afro-Malagasy genus Phyllopentas Karehed & B. Bremer, Phyllopentas flava Razafim., T. Andriam. et Karehed, is described and illustrated. This plant is restricted to the Itremo region in southeastern Madagascar and is distinct morphologically from the other species of the genus by its pubescent, narrowly ovate to narrowly elliptic leaves, grey-whitish and thickly hairy midribs and secondary veins on the lower surfaces of leaves, and functionally dioecious and heterodistylous flowers. Summaries of distribution, phenology, habitat, and ecology are given and a conservation assessment is also provided.

  • 3. Appelhans, M. S.
    et al.
    Smets, E.
    Razafimandimbison, Sylvain G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Haevermans, T.
    van Marle, E. J.
    Couloux, A.
    Rabarison, H.
    Randrianarivelojosia, M.
    Kessler, P. J. A.
    Phylogeny, evolutionary trends and classification of the Spathelia-Ptaeroxylon clade: morphological and molecular insights2011In: Annals of Botany, ISSN 0305-7364, E-ISSN 1095-8290, Vol. 107, no 8, p. 1259-1277Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Aims The Spathelia-Ptaeroxylon clade is a group of morphologically diverse plants that have been classified together as a result of molecular phylogenetic studies. The clade is currently included in Rutaceae and recognized at a subfamilial level (Spathelioideae) despite the fact that most of its genera have traditionally been associated with other families and that there are no obvious morphological synapomorphies for the clade. The aim of the present study is to construct phylogenetic trees for the Spathelia-Ptaeroxylon clade and to investigate anatomical characters in order to decide whether it should be kept in Rutaceae or recognized at the familial level. Anatomical characters were plotted on a cladogram to help explain character evolution within the group. Moreover, phylogenetic relationships and generic limits within the clade are also addressed. Methods A species-level phylogenetic analysis of the Spathelia-Ptaeroxylon clade based on five plastid DNA regions (rbcL, atpB, trnL-trnF, rps16 and psbA-trnH) was conducted using Bayesian, maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood methods. Leaf and seed anatomical characters of all genera were (re) investigated by light and scanning electron microscopy. Key Results With the exception of Spathelia, all genera of the Spathelila-Ptaeroxylon clade are monophyletic. The typical leaf and seed anatomical characters of Rutaceae were found. Further, the presence of oil cells in the leaves provides a possible synapomorphy for the clade. Conclusions The Spathelia-Ptaeroxylon clade is well placed in Rutaceae and it is reasonable to unite the genera into one subfamily (Spathelioideae). We propose a new tribal classification of Spathelioideae. A narrow circumscription of Spathelia is established to make the genus monophyletic, and Sohnreyia is resurrected to accommodate the South American species of Spathelia. The most recent common ancestor of Spathelioideae probably had leaves with secretory cavities and oil cells, haplostemonous flowers with appendaged staminal filaments, and a tracheidal tegmen.

  • 4. Appelhans, Marc S.
    et al.
    Kessler, Paul J. A.
    Smets, Erik
    Razafimandimbison, Sylvain G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Janssens, Steven B.
    Age and historical biogeography of the pantropically distributed Spathelioideae (Rutaceae, Sapindales)2012In: Journal of Biogeography, ISSN 0305-0270, E-ISSN 1365-2699, Vol. 39, no 7, p. 1235-1250Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim The family Rutaceae (rue family) is the largest within the eudicot order Sapindales and is distributed mainly in the tropical and subtropical regions of both the New World and the Old World, with a few genera in temperate zones. The main objective of this study is to present molecular dating and biogeographical analyses of the subfamily Spathelioideae, the earliest branching clade (which includes eight extant genera), to interpret the temporal and spatial origins of this group, ascertaining possible vicariant patterns and dispersal routes and inferring diversification rates through time. Location Pantropics. Methods A dataset comprising a complete taxon sampling at generic level (83.3% at species level) of Spathelioideae was used for a Bayesian molecular dating analysis (beast). Four fossil calibration points and an age constraint for Sapindales were applied. An ancestral area reconstruction analysis utilizing the dispersalextinctioncladogenesis model and diversification rate analyses was conducted. Results Dating analyses indicate that Rutaceae and Spathelioideae are probably of Late Cretaceous origin, after which Spathelioideae split into a Neotropical and a Palaeotropical lineage. The Palaeotropical taxa have their origin inferred in Africa, with postulated dispersal events to the Mediterranean, the Canary Islands, Madagascar and Southeast Asia. The lineages within Spathelioideae evolved at a relatively constant diversification rate. However, abrupt changes in diversification rates are inferred from the beginning of the Miocene and during the Pliocene/Pleistocene. Main conclusions The geographical origin of Spathelioideae probably lies in Africa. The existence of a Neotropical lineage may be the result of a dispersal event at a time in the Late Cretaceous when South America and Africa were still quite close to each other (assuming that our age estimates are close to the actual ages), or by Gondwanan vicariance (assuming that our age estimates provide minimal ages only). Separation of land masses caused by sea level changes during the Pliocene and Pleistocene may have been triggers for speciation in the Caribbean genus Spathelia.

  • 5. Buerki, Sven
    et al.
    Lowry, Porter P., II
    Alvarez, Nadir
    Razafimandimbison, Sylvain G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Kuepfer, Philippe
    Callmander, Martin W.
    Phylogeny and circumscription of Sapindaceae revisited: molecular sequence data, morphology and biogeography support recognition of a new family, Xanthoceraceae2010In: Plant Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2032-3913, Vol. 143, no 2, p. 148-159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aims Recent studies have adopted a broad definition of Sapindaceae that includes taxa traditionally placed in Aceraceae and Hippocastanaceae, achieving monophyly but yielding a family difficult to characterize and for which no obvious morphological synapomorphy exists. This expanded circumscription was necessitated by the finding that the monotypic, temperate Asian genus Xanthoceras, historically placed in Sapindaceae tribe Harpullieae, is basal within the group. Here we seek to clarify the relationships of Xanthoceras based on phylogenetic analyses using a dataset encompassing nearly 3/4 of sapindaceous genera, comparing the results with information from morphology and biogeography, in particular with respect to the other taxa placed in Harpullieae. We then re-examine the appropriateness of maintaining the current broad, morphologically heterogeneous definition of Sapindaceae and explore the advantages of an alternative family circumscription. Methods Using 243 samples representing 104 of the 142 currently recognized genera of Sapindaceae s. lat. (including all in Harpullieae), sequence data were analyzed for nuclear (ITS) and plastid (matK, rpoB, trnD-trnT, trnK-matK, trnL-trnF and trnS-trnG) markers, adopting the methodology of a recent family-wide study, performing single-gene and total evidence analyses based on maximum likelihood (ML) and maximum parsimony (MP) criteria, and applying heuristic searches developed for large datasets, viz, a new strategy implemented in RAxML (for ML) and the parsimony ratchet (for MP). Bootstrap analyses were performed for each method to test for congruence between markers. Key results Our findings support earlier suggestions that Harpullieae are polyphyletic: Xanthoceras is confirmed as sister to all other sampled taxa of Sapindaceae s. lat.; the remaining members belong to three other clades within Sapindaceae s. lat., two of which correspond respectively to the groups traditionally treated as Aceraceae and Hippocastanaceae, together forming a clade sister to the largely tropical Sapindaceae s. str., which is monophyletic and morphologically coherent provided Xanthoceras is excluded. Conclusion To overcome the difficulties of a broadly circumscribed Sapindaceae, we resurrect the historically recognized temperate families Aceraceae and Hippocastanaceae, and describe a new family, Xanthoceraceae, thus adopting a monophyletic and easily characterized circumscription of Sapindaceae nearly identical to that used for over a century.

  • 6. Davis, Aaron P.
    et al.
    Razafimandimbison, Sylvain G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Three species of Madagascan Plectronia transferred to Peponidium (Vanguerieae, Rubiaceae)2010In: PHYTOTAXA, ISSN 1179-3155, Vol. 10, p. 46-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Three new combinations are made in the genus Peponidium: P. boivinianum, P. densiflorum and P. micranthum. A lectotype is designated for Plectronia boiviniana.

  • 7. Davis, Aaron
    et al.
    Razafimandimbison, Sylvain G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bergius Botanical Garden Museum.
    Andriambololonera, Sylvie
    Nomenclatural changes in the genus Bremeria (Rubiaceae)2011In: Blumea - Journal of plant taxonomy and plant geography, ISSN 0006-5196, E-ISSN 2212-1676, Vol. 56, no 1, p. 4-5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Five new combinations are made in the genus Bremeria: B. arachnocarpa, B. eriantha, B. scabrella, B. landia var. holosericea, and B. landia var. stadmanii. Bremeria gerrardii is conspecific with Gaertnera phanerophlebia, and thus excluded from Bremeria. Lectotypes are designated for Mussaenda erectiloba var. scabrella, M. stadmanii, and M. trichophlebia.

  • 8. De Block, Petra
    et al.
    Razafimandimbison, Sylvain G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bergius Botanical Garden Museum.
    Janssens, Steven
    Ochoterena, Helga
    Robbrecht, Elmar
    Bremer, Birgitta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bergius Botanical Garden Museum.
    Molecular phylogenetics and generic assessment in the tribe Pavetteae (Rubiaceae)2015In: Taxon, ISSN 0040-0262, E-ISSN 1996-8175, Vol. 64, no 1, p. 79-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This is the first phylogenetic study focused on the Pavetteae, one of the most species-rich and morphologically diverse tribes within the coffee family (Rubiaceae). Fifteen of the 17 currently recognized genera, represented by 85 taxa, were sequenced for rps16, trnT-F and ITS and analysed using Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood methods. The monophyly of the Pavetteae is confirmed. Four major lineages are identified, but their phylogenetic relationships are not fully resolved. The continental African genera Rutidea, Nichallea and Tennantia, the Madagascan genera Homollea and Robbrechtia, and the paleotropical genus Pavetta are monophyletic. Other genera are paraphyletic in their current circumscriptions and the following changes are made: Homolliella is placed in synonymy with Paracephaelis, and Coleactina and Dictyandra with Leptactina, resulting in four new combinations. The large paleotropical genus Tarenna is shown not to be monophyletic. In the future, the name Tarenna should not be used for continental African species. Most of these could be transferred to the hitherto monospecific genus Cladoceras, but other species might constitute altogether new genera. The relationship between the monophyletic Asian-Pacific and Madagascan Tarenna species remains unclear. The phylogeny of the Madagascan genera of the Pavetteae is largely unresolved and the largest Madagascar-centred genus Coptosperma was not recovered as monophyletic. The low resolution for the Madagascan taxa can be considered as an indication of rapid radiation. Further molecular and morphological studies are necessary to clarify the phylogeny of the Pavetteae, especially regarding the African Tarenna species and the Madagascan genera of the tribe.

  • 9.
    Ginter, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Razafimandimbison, Sylvain G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bergius Botanical Garden Museum.
    Bremer, Birgitta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bergius Botanical Garden Museum.
    Phylogenetic affinities of Myrioneuron and Cyanoneuron, generic limits of the tribe Argostemmateae and description of a new Asian tribe, Cyanoneuroneae (Rubiaceae)2015In: Taxon, ISSN 0040-0262, E-ISSN 1996-8175, Vol. 64, no 2, p. 286-298Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Argostemmateae (Rubiaceae, subfam. Rubioideae) are a mostly tropical Asian group of about 200 species currently classified in four morphologically distinct genera (Argostemma, Mouretia, Mycetia, Neohymenopogon). The monophyly of the tribe and Mycetia is strongly supported by molecular data, however, the tropical Asian genus Myrioneuron, traditionally associated with Mycetia based on its berry fruits, has not previously been investigated. The Bornean and Sulawesian genus Cyanoneuron, described based on the species of Myrioneuron with drupaceous fruits, had not been sequenced. Therefore, the phylogenetic positions of Cyanoneuron and Myrioneuron within Rubiaceae and their generic status have yet to be assessed with molecular data. These genera have tentatively been placed in tribe Spermacoceae (Rubioideae). We reconstructed a robust phylogeny of Rubioideae with sequence data from five plastid regions of 176 accessions and using the Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo and parsimony methods. Once the positions of Cyanoneuron and Myrioneuron were revealed, a robust phylogeny of the Spermacoceae alliance was reconstructed with the combined plastid and nuclear data (nrETS, nrITS) from 61 accessions to reassess its tribal limits. Mycetia and Myrioneuron are non-monophyletic and intermixed, and formed a well-supported clade diagnosed by berry fruits. We formally transfer Myrioneuron to Mycetia (older name), and present nine new combinations in the latter genus. Cyanoneuron was resolved with high support as monophyletic, and appears to be closely related to the Chinese monogeneric tribes Foonchewieae and Dunnieae. A new tribe Cyanoneuroneae is described to accommodate Cyanoneuron. This tribe is morphologically distinct from related tribes by its stipules apically divided into multiple linear segments, condensed-cymose inflorescences and drupe-like fruits with numerous small seeds. A new key to the genera of Argostemmateae is provided.

  • 10. Huang, Wei-Ping
    et al.
    Sun, Hang
    Deng, Tao
    Razafimandimbison, Sylvain G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Nie, Ze-Long
    Wen, Jun
    Molecular phylogenetics and biogeography of the eastern Asian-eastern North American disjunct Mitchella and its close relative Damnacanthus (Rubiaceae, Mitchelleae)2013In: Botanical journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4074, E-ISSN 1095-8339, Vol. 171, no 2, p. 395-412Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mitchella is a small genus of the Rubiaceae with only two species. It is the only herbaceous semishrub of the family showing a disjunct distribution in eastern Asia and eastern North America, extending to Central America. Its phylogeny and biogeographical diversification remain poorly understood. In this study, we conducted phylogenetic and biogeographical analyses for Mitchella and its close relative Damnacanthus based on sequences of the nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and four plastid markers (rbcL, atpB-rbcL, rps16 and trnL-F). Mitchella is monophyletic, consisting of an eastern Asian M. undulata clade and a New World M. repens clade. Our results also support Michella as the closest relative to the eastern Asian Damnacanthus. The divergence time between the two intercontinental disjunct Mitchella species was dated to 7.73 Mya, with a 95% highest posterior density (HPD) of 3.14-12.53 Mya, using the Bayesian relaxed clock estimation. Ancestral area reconstructions suggest that the genus originated in eastern Asia. The semishrub Mitchella appears to have arisen from its woody ancestor in eastern Asia and then migrated to North America via the Bering land bridge in the late Miocene.

  • 11.
    Kainulainen, Kent
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Razafimandimbison, Sylvain
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Bremer, Birgitta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Phylogeny and evolution of secondary pollen presentation, corolla aestivation patterns, fruit types, and seed number in the Ixoroideae (Rubiaceae)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Phylogenetic reconstructions using Bayesian and parsimony analyses of six chloroplast DNA region were performed in order to investigate character evolution and tribal relationships within the subfamily Ixoroideae (Rubiaceae). In the inferred phylogenetic hypotheses, the tribal relationships were mostly well supported, with the subfamily comprised of a crown group of two major sister clades termed the Coffeeae-alliance and Vanguerieae-alliance respectively, and a basal grade comprising Condamineeae, Henriquezieae, Posoquerieae, Retiniphyleae, Sipaneeae, and Steenisia. Five new tribes are here recognized (Airospermeae, Augusteae, Scyphiphoreae, Steenisieae and Trailliaedoxeae). Secondary pollen presentation, corolla aestivation patterns,fruit types, and number of ovules are all characters that have been considered of great importance in the classification of Rubiaceae. Ancestral state reconstructions of these characters using likelihood optimization indicate that secondary pollen presentation is synapomorphic for a clade comprising the Ixoroideae crown group and Retiniphyllum, whereas left-contorted corolla aestivation is synapomorphic for a clade comprising the crown group, Retiniphyllum, and Steenisia. Capsular fruits with numerous seeds are plesiomorphic in Ixoroideae, from which dry or fleshy indehiscent fruits have evolved numerous times independently. Reductions in seed number appears to have occurred within several lineages, none of which show a secondary increase in the number of seeds.

  • 12.
    Kainulainen, Kent
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Razafimandimbison, Sylvain G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Chapelieria magna, a new species of Rubiaceae from eastern Madagascar2015In: PhytoKeys, ISSN 1314-2011, E-ISSN 1314-2003, Vol. 44, p. 89-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new species of Chapelieria was discovered during a recent field trip to the Masoala National Park in eastern Madagascar, and is described here as Chapelieria magna Kainul., sp. nov. This species is readily distinguishable from previously described species of the genus by its quadrangular shoots, triangular-calyptrate stipules, sessile leaves, pubescent styles, and ridged fruits. It also differs in the larger number of ovules and the much larger size of leaves and fruits.

  • 13.
    Kainulainen, Kent
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bergius Botanical Garden Museum.
    Razafimandimbison, Sylvain G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bergius Botanical Garden Museum. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Bremer, Birgitta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bergius Botanical Garden Museum.
    Phylogenetic relationships and new tribal delimitations in subfamily Ixoroideae (Rubiaceae)2013In: Botanical journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4074, E-ISSN 1095-8339, Vol. 173, no 3, p. 387-406Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Subfamily Ixoroideae is one of three major lineages in Rubiaceae, with approximately 4000 species. Previous molecular phylogenetic studies have indicated that many genera and tribes previously placed in other subfamilies are better considered as part of Ixoroideae. However, the internal resolution and clade support have generally been low, and several genera found to be nested in the subfamily do not appear to be associated with any described tribe. In order to resolve the phylogeny and assess the tribal delimitations in the expanded Ixoroideae, phylogenetic reconstructions were performed using Bayesian and parsimony analyses of six plastid DNA regions and a broad sampling of genera from all tribes of the subfamily. In the inferred phylogenetic hypotheses, the tribal relationships were mostly well supported, with Ixoroideae consisting of the Coffeeae and the Vanguerieae alliances as sister groups and a grade comprising Condamineeae, Henriquezieae, Posoquerieae, Retiniphylleae, Sipaneeae and the genus Steenisia. A revised tribal classification, including the description of five new tribes, Airospermeae, Augusteae, Scyphiphoreae, Steenisieae and Trailliaedoxeae, is provided.

  • 14.
    Krüger, Åsa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Razafimandimbison, Sylvain G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Bremer, Birgitta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Molecular phylogeny of the tribe Danaideae (Rubiaceae: Rubioideae): Another example of out-of-Madagascar dispersal2012In: Taxon, ISSN 0040-0262, E-ISSN 1996-8175, Vol. 61, no 3, p. 629-636Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Extensive efforts have been made to resolve the phylogeny of the large coffee family (Rubiaceae) based on molecular data. As a result, several small tribes have been described, but the phylogenies and generic delimitations for many of these groups remain unclear. This study focuses on the small tribe Danaideae that belongs to subfamily Rubioideae and whose generic limits have not previously been addressed with molecular data. It is the sole rubiaceous tribe distributed almost entirely in the Western Indian Ocean region, with the exception of the East African Danais xanthorrhoea. The tribe consists of three genera: Danais, Payera (including the monotypic genus Coursiana), and Schismatoclada. We present the first molecular phylogenetic study of Danaideae including representatives from all three genera and using Bayesian and maximum parsimony methods and sequence data from nuclear DNA (nrITS) and chloroplast DNA (petD, psbA-trnH, rpl32-trnL(UAG), rps16). Our main objectives were to rigorously test the monophyly of Danaideae as currently circumscribed and assess phylogenetic relationships within the tribe. The findings of this study shed light on the colonization history of the tribe. Our analyses reaffirm the monophyly of Danaideae and Danais but reveal the paraphyly of Payera and Schismatoclada. The close relationship between the three Danaideae genera and Coursiana is supported. However, we found very little support for the inclusion of the latter genus in Payera as proposed earlier. The tribe is resolved in two morphologically distinct major lineages, the highly supported Damns clade with lianescent habit (= Danais sensu Buchner & Puff) and the Payera-Schismatoclada clade with arborescent habit. The Malagasy and Mauritian specimens of Danais fragrans are not closely related, and we restrict D. fragrans to the Mauritian taxa and resurrect Danais lyallii Baker to accommodate the Malagasy D. fragrans. According to our analysis. Madagascar is the origin of all species of Danaideae occurring in the Comoro archipelago, East Africa, and Mauritius. The Mauritian and East African Danais each is the result of a single colonization event, while there were at least two independent colonization events to the Comoros.

  • 15.
    Löfstrand, Stefan D.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bergius Botanical Garden Museum. University of Vienna, Austria.
    Krüger, Åsa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bergius Botanical Garden Museum.
    Razafimandimbison, Sylvain G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bergius Botanical Garden Museum.
    Bremer, Birgitta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bergius Botanical Garden Museum.
    Phylogeny and Generic Delimitations in the Sister Tribes Hymenodictyeae and Naucleeae (Rubiaceae)2014In: Systematic Botany, ISSN 0363-6445, E-ISSN 1548-2324, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 304-315Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Hymenodicteae-Naudeeae clade is a predominantly Paleotropical group with 220 species in 28 genera. The phylogertetic relationships and generic limits within Naucleeae have previously been assessed using combined molecular-morphological data, however the status of some genera remains questionable. The evolutionary relationships within Hymenodictyeae have never been investigated before. We performed phylogenetic analyses of the Hymenodictyeae-Naucleeae clade using nuclear [nrETS; nrITS] and chloroplast [ndhF; rbcL; rps16; trnT-F] data and a large sampling of both tribes. Our study supports the monophyly of the tribes, all subtribes of Naucleeae (Adininae, Breoniinae, Cephalanthinae, Corynantheinae, Mitragyninae, Naucleinae, and Uncariinae), and the Hymenodictyeae genera Hymenodictyon and Paracorynanthe. In Naucleeae, the monotypic genera Adinauclea, Metadina, and Pertusadina are nested within Adina, Mitragyna within Fleroya, Ludekia, Myrmeconauclea, and Ochreinauclea within Neonauclea, and Burttdavya and Sarcocephalus within Nauclea. Corynanthe and Pausinystalia are mutually paraphyletic. We provisionally maintain the current generic status of Neonauclea and its allied genera, pending further study. In sum, we recognize 17 genera in Naucleeae: Adina s. l., Breonadia, Breonia, Cephalanthus, Corynanthe s. l., Diyaminauclea, Gyrostipula, Janotia, Khasiaclunea, Ludekia, Mitragyna s. l., Myrmeconauclea, Nauclea s. l., Neolamarckia, Neonauclea, Ochreinauclea, and Uncaria. Five new combinations were made: Adina euryncha, Adina malaccensis, Corynanthe lane-poolei subsp. iturense, Corynanthe talbotii, and Nauclea nyasica.

  • 16.
    Mouly, Arnaud
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bergius Botanical Garden Museum. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Kainulainen, Kent
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bergius Botanical Garden Museum. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Persson, Claes
    Davis, Aaron P.
    Wong, Khoon Meng
    Razafimandimbison, Sylvain G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bergius Botanical Garden Museum. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Bremer, Birgitta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bergius Botanical Garden Museum. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Phylogenetic structure and clade circumscriptions in the Gardenieae complex (Rubiaceae)2014In: Taxon, ISSN 0040-0262, E-ISSN 1996-8175, Vol. 63, no 4, p. 801-818Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we investigate the large and diverse Rubiaceae-Gardenieae and closely related tribes Bertiereae, Coffeeae, Cremasporeae, Octotropideae, and Pavetteae. Some of the tribes or groups have been shown to be monophyletic and strongly supported, but the phylogeny of this large complex is still far from being satisfactorily elucidated particularly for Gardenieae, both in terms of intertribal relationships as well as tribal delimitations. We reconstruct the phylogeny of the complex using an extensive sampling of 108 genera and five plastid DNA regions. Phylogenetic relationships demonstrate that Gardenieae sensu Andreasen & Bremer is polyphyletic, as Burchellia, Didymosalpinx, Monosalpinx, and Mantalania are closer to Octotropideae-Cremasporeae. In addition, Pavetteae and the investigated members of Aulacocalyceae are nested in a supported but partially unresolved Gardenieae-Pavetteae clade. Within this clade, several strongly supported groups are resolved: an Aidia group, an Alibertia group, a Gardenia group, Pavetteae including Pelagodendron, a Porterandia group, a Randia group, a Rothmannia group (including Aulacocalyx and Heinsenia), a Sherbournia group, and the two isolated genera Massularia and Schumanniophyton. The latter genus presented a high rate of genetic substitutions, which resulted in perturbations of the phylogenetic reconstruction. A revised tribal circumscription is given for Gardenieae, the Alibertia group is recognized at tribal level as an emended Cordiereae, and a new tribe, Sherbournieae, is described to accommodate the members of the Sherbournia group.

  • 17. Mouly, Arnaud
    et al.
    Razafimandimbison, Sylvain
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bergius Botanical Garden Museum. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Khodabandeh, Anbar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bergius Botanical Garden Museum. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Bremer, Birgitta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bergius Botanical Garden Museum. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Phylogeny and classification of the species-rich pantropical showy genus Ixora (Rubiaceae-Ixoreae) with indications of geographical monophyletic units and hybrids2009In: American Journal of Botany, ISSN 0002-9122, E-ISSN 1537-2197, Vol. 96, p. 686-706Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Species-rich genera often have various conflicting circumscriptions from independent regional fl ora treatments. Testing the monophyly of these groups of plants is an important step toward the establishment of a phylogenetic classifi cation. The genus Ixora of the tribe Ixoreae in the subfamily Ixoroideae (coffee family or Rubiaceae) is a species-rich pantropical genus of ca. 500 species. Phylogenetic analyses of Ixoreae based on combined sequence data from one nuclear (nrETS) and two chloroplast ( rps16 and trnT-F ) markers reveal the paraphyly of Ixora as presently delimited and also show that the tribe can be subdivided into three major

    clades: the Mascarene/neotropical/Malagasy/African clade, the Pacifi c clade, and the Asian clade. Given the lack of morphological synapomorphies supporting the different Ixora clades and the morphological consistency of the ingroup taxa, we propose a broad circumscription of Ixora including all its satellite genera: Captaincookia , Doricera , Hitoa , Myonima , Sideroxyloides , Thouarsiora, and Versteegia . The current infrageneric classifi cation of Ixora is not supported. The different Ixora subclades represent geographical units. Nuclear and chloroplast tree topologies were partially incongruent, indicating at least four potential natural hybridization events. Other confl icting positions for the cultivated species are most likely due to anthropogenic hybridization.

  • 18. Rakotoarivelo, Fanny P.
    et al.
    Razafimandimbison, Sylvain G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Mallet, Bertrand
    Faliniaina, Lucien
    Pailler, Thierry
    Molecular systematics and evolutionary trends and relationships in the genus Jumellea (Orchidaceae): Implications for its species limits2012In: Taxon, ISSN 0040-0262, E-ISSN 1996-8175, Vol. 61, no 3, p. 534-544Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Jumellea is an orchid genus centered on Madagascar but also occurs on some of the neighboring oceanic islands (the Mascarenes and Comoros) and in southern and eastern Africa. Prior to our study the genus contained ca. 55 morphologically distinct species, of which six are found in the Comoros (three endemic, three shared with Madagascar), nine in the Mascarenes (four endemic, four shared with Madagascar), two in southern and eastern Africa (both endemic), and 41 species endemic to Madagascar. We perform Bayesian and parsimony phylogenetic analyses of Jumellea based on combined chloroplast (matK, trnL-F, rps16, ycf1) and nuclear (nrITS) data from 60 specimens representing 47 species, four subspecies, and two varieties of Jumellea: (1) to assess the phylogenetic value of growth form, leaf, bract and lip shape, and spur length, presently used for recognizing informal groups within the genus; and (2) to test the monophyly of some variable species (e.g., J. gracilipes, J. lignosa). We find no support for the informal groups of Jumellea, as all the characters tested are evolutionarily labile. Jumellea lignosa (comprising J. lignosa subsp. lignosa, subsp. tenuibracteata, subsp. actuissima, and subsp. latilabia) is not monophyletic unless subsp. tenuibracteata is excluded. Jumellea gracilipes s.l. (including J. ambongensis, J. imerinensis, and J. unguicularis) is polyphyletic. As a result, we resurrect these three latter species, and recognize J. lignosa subsp. tenuibracteata at species level. Furthermore, we propose new circumscriptions for the following species: the Comorian J. arachnantha (including the Malagasy J. sagittata); the Reunionese J. exilis (including the Malagasy J. flavescens); the Reunionese J. recta (including the Malagasy Jumellea sp. I); the Reunionese J. recurva (including the Malagasy J. pandurata); and the Reunionese J. stenophylla (including the Malagasy J. gracilipes 2 and 3). Finally, Jumellea arborescens and J. maxillarioides are recorded from Madagascar and the Comoros. Finally, the number of species of Jumellea has now increased from 55 to 57: seven species in the Comoros (four shared with Madagascar), nine species in the Mascarenes (four shared with Madagascar), two species in Africa, and 39 species, three subspecies, and two varieties restricted to Madagascar.

  • 19.
    Razafimandimbison, Sylvain G.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Appelhans, Marc S.
    Rabarison, Harison
    Haevermans, Thomas
    Rakotondrafara, Andriarimalala
    Rakotonandrasana, Stephan R.
    Ratsimbason, Michel
    Labat, Jean-Noel
    Kessler, Paul J. A.
    Smets, Erik
    Cruaud, Corinne
    Couloux, Arnaud
    Randrianarivelojosia, Milijaona
    Implications of a molecular phylogenetic study of the Malagasy genus Cedrelopsis and its relatives (Ptaeroxylaceae)2010In: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, ISSN 1055-7903, E-ISSN 1095-9513, Vol. 57, no 1, p. 258-265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ptaeroxylaceae is an Afro-Malagasy family containing three genera, Bottegoa. Cedrelopsis, and Ptaeroxylon. Although the family is morphologically well delimited, it is currently considered part of the subfamily Spathelioideae in a broadly circumscribed orange family (Rutaceae). The Malagasy Cedrelopsis has traditionally been associated with different families of the order Sapindales and its phylogenetic placement in Rutaceae sensu lato has yet to be tested with molecular data. The present molecular phylogenetic study reaffirms the monophyly of Ptaeroxylaceae and its placement in Spathelioideae. Therefore, molecules and morphology support close affinities between Bottegoa, Cedrelopsis, and Ptaeroxylon and also their current generic circumscriptions. We report a case of an evolutionary change from one-seeded to two-seeded carpels within the Harrisonia-Cneorum-Ptaeroxylaceae clade of Spathelioideae. Finally, the sister-group relationship between the African Bottegoa and the Afro-Malagasy Ptaeroxylon-Cedrelopsis clade suggests an African origin of Cedrelopsis.

  • 20.
    Razafimandimbison, Sylvain G.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bergius Botanical Garden Museum.
    Bremer, Birgitta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bergius Botanical Garden Museum.
    Nomenclatural changes and taxonomic notes in the tribe Morindeae (Rubiaceae)2011In: Adansonia, ISSN 1280-8571, E-ISSN 1639-4798, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 283-309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new circumscription and new generic delimitations of the tribe Morindeae in the subfamily Rubioideae (Rubiaceae) have been proposed as a result of two recent molecular phylogenetic studies. The adoption of a narrow circumscription of Morinda and a broad circumscription of Gynochthodes requires new combinations and names in these genera. This study presents descriptions of the newly delimited Gynochthodes and Morinda, and 78 new combinations (73 in the former and five in the latter) and three new names (Gynochthodes alejandroi Razafim. & B.Bremer, G. ridsdalei Razafim. & B.Bremer, and G. wongii Razafim. & B.Bremer). We make three lectotypifications, and recognize 15 species in Appunia, 11 species in Coelospermum, 93 species in Gynochthodes, 39 species in Morinda, and one species in Siphonandrium. Finally, a list of all currently recognized species for each genus of Morindeae is presented.

  • 21.
    Razafimandimbison, Sylvain G.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bergius Botanical Garden Museum.
    Ekman, Stefan
    McDowell, Timothy D.
    Bremer, Birgitta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bergius Botanical Garden Museum.
    Evolution of Growth Habit, Inflorescence Architecture, Flower Size, and Fruit Type in Rubiaceae: Its Ecological and Evolutionary Implications2012In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 7, article id e40851Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During angiosperm evolution, innovations in vegetative and reproductive organs have resulted in tremendous morphological diversity, which has played a crucial role in the ecological success of flowering plants. Morindeae (Rubiaceae) display considerable diversity in growth form, inflorescence architecture, flower size, and fruit type. Lianescent habit, head inflorescence, small flower, and multiple fruit are the predominant states, but arborescent habit, non-headed inflorescence, large flower, and simple fruit states occur in various genera. This makes Morindeae an ideal model for exploring the evolutionary appearances and transitions between the states of these characters. We reconstructed ancestral states for these four traits using a Bayesian approach and combined nuclear/chloroplast data for 61 Morindeae species. The aim was to test three hypotheses: 1) self-supporting habit is generally ancestral in clades comprising both lianescent and arborescent species; 2) changes from lianescent to arborescent habit are uncommon due to a high degree of specialization and developmental burden''; 3) head inflorescences and multiple fruits in Morindeae evolved from non-headed inflorescences and simple fruits, respectively. Lianescent habit, head inflorescence, large flower, and multiple fruit are inferred for Morindeae, making arborescent habit, non-headed inflorescence, small flower, and simple fruit derived within the tribe. The rate of change from lianescent to arborescent habit is much higher than the reverse change. Therefore, evolutionary changes between lianescent and arborescent forms can be reversible, and their frequency and trends vary between groups. Moreover, these changes are partly attributed to a scarcity of host trees for climbing plants in more open habitats. Changes from large to small flowers might have been driven by shifts to pollinators with progressively shorter proboscis, which are associated with shifts in breeding systems towards dioecy. A single origin of dioecy from hermaphroditism is supported.

  • 22.
    Razafimandimbison, Sylvain G.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Kainulainen, Kent
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Wong, Khoon M.
    Beaver, Katy
    Bremer, Birgitta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Molecular support for a basal grade of morphologically distinct, monotypic genera in the species-rich Vanguerieae alliance (Rubiaceae, Ixoroideae): Its systematic and conservation implications2011In: Taxon, ISSN 0040-0262, E-ISSN 1996-8175, Vol. 60, no 4, p. 941-952Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many monotypic genera with unique apomorphic characters have been difficult to place in the morphology-based classifications of the coffee family (Rubiaceae). We rigorously assessed the subfamilial phylogenetic position and generic status of three enigmatic genera, the Seychellois Glionnetia, the Southeast Asian Jackiopsis, and the Chinese Trailliaedoxa within Rubiaceae, using sequence data of four plastid markers (ndhF, rbcL, rps16, trnT-F). The present study provides molecular phylogenetic support for positions of these genera in the subfamily Ixoroideae, and reveals the presence of a basal grade of morphologically distinct, monotypic genera (Crossopteryx,Jackiopsis,Scyphiphora,Trailliaedoxa, and Glionnetia, respectively) in the species-rich Vanguerieae alliance. These five genera may represent sole representatives of their respective lineages and therefore may carry unique genetic information. Their conservation status was assessed, applying the criteria set in IUCN Red List Categories. We consider Glionnetia and Jackiopsis Endangered. Scyphiphora is recognized as Near Threatened despite its extensive range and Crossopteryx as Least Concern. Trailliaedoxa is poorly known (Data Deficient). Finally, the generic status of Glionnetia,Jackiopsis, and Trailliaedoxa and the monogeneric tribe Jackieae as defined by Ridsdale are supported.

  • 23.
    Razafimandimbison, Sylvain G.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bergius Botanical Garden Museum.
    McDowell, Timothy D.
    Halford, David A.
    Bremer, Birgitta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bergius Botanical Garden Museum. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Origin of the pantropical and nutriceutical Morinda citrifolia L. (Rubiaceae): comments on its distribution range and circumscription2010In: Journal of Biogeography, ISSN 0305-0270, E-ISSN 1365-2699, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 520-529Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim Morinda citrifolia L., commercially known as noni or the Indian mulberry plant, is morphologically variable and the only widely distributed member of the pantropical genus Morinda sensu stricto (Rubiaceae). This large distribution has been attributed partly to the ability of the seeds of the large-fruited M. citrifolia L. var. citrifolia L. to be transported by oceanic drifting. This form of M. citrifolia var. citrifolia has been predicted to be the progenitor colonizer of the island endemic Morinda species. Using a phylogenetic approach and large sampling of the widespread, large-fruited M. citrifolia var. citrifolia, we assessed the potential area of origin of M. citrifolia and tested the hypothesis that the large-fruited M. citrifolia var. citrifolia is an ancestral colonizer. Location Tropics. Methods We performed Bayesian analyses of 22 species of the tribe Morindeae (including 11 individuals of the three currently recognized varieties of M. citrifolia) based on combined nrETS, nrITS, rps16 and trnT-F sequence data. Geographic origins of the studied taxa were mapped onto the Bayesian majority rule consensus tree. Results Nine sequenced individuals of M. citrifolia from diverse geographic locations formed a highly supported clade, which was sister to the Australo-Micronesian clade that included M. bracteata var. celebica and M. latibracteata. These sister clades are part of the broader Asian, arborescent Morinda clade. We found no support for the current varietal classification of M. citrifolia. Main conclusions Our analyses suggest a Micronesian origin of M. citrifolia. This implies that the large-fruited M. citrifolia var. citrifolia might well have been present in the Pacific before the arrival of the Micronesian and Polynesian ancestors from Southeast Asia. The wide distribution of this form of M. citrifolia var. citrifolia is attributed partly to the trans-oceanic dispersal of its buoyant seeds, self-pollination and its ability to produce flowers and fruits year-round. The hypothesis that the widespread, large-fruited M. citrifolia var. citrifolia is the progenitor colonizer of the island endemic Morinda species is inconsistent with its derived position within the Asian, arborescent Morinda clade and with the fact that the nine sampled individuals of M. citrifolia form a clade.

  • 24.
    Razafimandimbison, Sylvain G.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bergius Botanical Garden Museum.
    Taylor, Charlotte M.
    Wikström, Niklas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bergius Botanical Garden Museum.
    Pailler, Thierry
    Khodabandeh, Anbar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bergius Botanical Garden Museum.
    Bremer, Birgitta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bergius Botanical Garden Museum.
    PHYLOGENY AND GENERIC LIMITS IN THE SISTER TRIBES PSYCHOTRIEAE AND PALICOUREEAE (RUBIACEAE): EVOLUTION OF SCHIZOCARPS IN PSYCHOTRIA AND ORIGINS OF BACTERIAL LEAF NODULES OF THE MALAGASY SPECIES2014In: American Journal of Botany, ISSN 0002-9122, E-ISSN 1537-2197, Vol. 101, no 7, p. 1102-1126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Premise of the study: The pantropical, species-rich Psychotrieae and Palicoureeae are sister tribes of mostly drupe-bearing and nonbacterial leaf-nodulating species with problematic generic limits. This problem is more complicated in Psychotrieae due to the paraphyly of the genus Psychotria, the lack of diagnostic characters for some major lineages, and the poor sampling from some biodiversity hotspots. Schizocarps and bacterial leaf nodules have been used for recognizing formal groups in Psychotrieae, but their evolution and taxonomic value have not been studied using a robust phylogeny of the tribe. Methods: We analyzed 287 samples from the entire ranges of the tribes, with particular emphasis on the Western Indian Ocean region, with the Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo method. Key results: All allied Psychotria genera investigated are nested within a paraphyletic Psychotria. Schizocarps evolved independently two times within Psychotria, and one reversal back to the drupaceous condition is inferred. The Malagasy leaf-nodulated Psychotrieae (except Apomuria bullata) and the Comorian non-leaf-nodulated Psychotria conocarpa are nested within the (African) leaf-nodulated clade. Within Palicoureeae, Chassalia is paraphyletic with respect to Geophila sensu stricto, and the Malagasy Geophila gerrardii and the African Hymenocoleus are closely related. Conclusions: A widely circumscribed Psychotria encompassing the entire Psychotrieae is supported. Within Psychotria, two separate origins of schizocarps from drupes, one reversal back to the drupaceous condition, and two independent origins of the Malagasy leafnodulated species are inferred. A new genus Puffia is described to accommodate Geophila gerrardii, and a narrow circumscription of Chassalia is adopted. Thirty-two new combinations, two lectotypifications, and 25 new names are presented.

  • 25.
    Razafimandimbison, Sylvain
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bergius Botanical Garden Museum.
    Halford, Davis
    McDowell, Timothy
    Bremer, Birgitta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bergius Botanical Garden Museum.
    Proposal to conserve the name Morinda citrifolia (Rubiaceae) with a conserved type2011In: Taxon, Vol. 60, no 2, p. 607-607Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Razafimandimbison, Sylvain
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Kainulainen, Kent
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Wong, Khoon
    Singapore Botanic Gardens.
    Beaver, Kathy
    Seychelles Plant Conservation Action Group .
    Bremer, Birgitta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Molecular support for a basal grade of morphologically peculiar, monotypic genera in the species-rich Vanguerieae alliance (Rubiaceae): its systematic and conservation implicationsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The species-rich coffee family (Rubiaceae) contains 211 monotypic genera, representing 34.5% of the total number of rubiaceous genera. We rigorously assessed the generic status and phylogenetic positions of the enigmatic, monotypic genera, the Seychellean Glionnetia, the Southeast Asian Jackiopsis, and the Chinese Trailliaedoxa, in Rubiaceae using sequence data from four plastid markers (ndhF, rbcL, rps16, and trnT-F). The present study provides molecular support for isolated phylogenetic positions of these genera in the subfamily Ixoroideae, and reveals the presence of a basal grade of morphologically odd, monotypic genera (Crossopteryx, Jackiopsis, Scyphiphora, Trailliaedoxa, and Glionnetia, respectively) in the species-rich Vanguerieae alliance. We consider these phylogenetically isolated genera potential candidates for a high conservation priority, as they appear to be sole representatives of their respective lineages and therefore carry unique genetic information and evolutionary history. The monogeneric tribe Jackieae as defined by Ridsdale is supported.

  • 27.
    Rydin, Catarina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bergius Botanical Garden Museum.
    Kainulainen, Kent
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bergius Botanical Garden Museum.
    Razafimandimbison, Sylvain
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bergius Botanical Garden Museum.
    Smedmark, Jenny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bergius Botanical Garden Museum.
    Bremer, Birgitta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bergius Botanical Garden Museum.
    Deep divergences in the coffee family and the systematic position of Acranthera2009In: Plant Systematics and Evolution, ISSN 0378-2697, E-ISSN 1615-6110, Vol. 278, p. 101-123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite extensive efforts, there are unresolved questions on evolutionary relationships in the angiosperm family Rubiaceae. Here, information from six loci and 149 Rubiaceae taxa provide new insights. Acranthera and Coptosapelta are strongly supported as sisters. Pollen grains of Acranthera possess several features common in Rubiaceae, but amongst potential similarities with the unusual grains of Coptosapelta are the nature of the apertures andthe structure of the sexine. Luculia, Acranthera and Coptosapelta are excluded from the three subfamilies Ixoroideae, Cinchonoideae and Rubioideae. Sipaneeae and Condamineeae form a clade, sister to remaining Ixoroideae. Rondeletieae and Guettardeae are sisters to remaining Cinchonoideae. Colletoecema is sister to remaining Rubioideae, followed by the Urophylleae–Ophiorrhizeae clade. Nuclear ITS provided structured information at all phylogenetic levels, but the main gain from adding nrITS was the increased resolution. Average support values also increased but were generally high also without nrITS andthe increase was not statistically significant.

  • 28.
    Rydin, Catarina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Razafimandimbison, Sylvain
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bergius Botanical Garden Museum.
    Khodabandeh, Anbar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bergius Botanical Garden Museum.
    Bremer, Birgitta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bergius Botanical Garden Museum.
    Evolutionary relationships in the Spermacoceae alliance (Rubiaceae) using information from six molecular loci: insights into systematic affinities of Neohymenopogon and Mouretia2009In: Taxon, ISSN 0040-0262, E-ISSN 1996-8175, Vol. 58, no 3, p. 793-810Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several recent phylogenetic studies of Rubiaceae have dealt with enigmatic taxa whose systematic positions have been previously unknown or controversial. We address evolutionary relationships in the Spermacoceae alliance (Rubioideae) with special emphasis on the Asian genera Mouretia and Neohymenopogon, here sequenced for the first time. Both genera belong in the tribe Argostemmateae and have persistent calyx lobeson the fruit in common with Argostemma and Mycetia. Other previous uncertainties are resolved with strong support; Saprosma is sister to Paederieae s.str. and Carpacoce is sister to remaining Anthospermeae. Our results further reveal some phylogenetic problems. Danaideae is sister to remaining taxa in the Spermacoceae alliance with high posterior probability, which contradicts results in a recent study. The uncertainty concerning evolutionary relationships of Dunnia and Theligonum is reinforced, despite a denser taxon sampling in the Spermacoceae alliance compared with earlier studies. We also demonstrate yet another example of the controversial correlation between molecular substitution rate and plant life history.

  • 29.
    Smedmark, Jenny E. E.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. University of Bergen .
    Razafimandimbison, Sylvain G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Wikström, Niklas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Bremer, Birgitta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Inferring geographic range evolution of a pantropical tribe in the coffee family (Lasiantheae, Rubiaceae) in the face of topological uncertainty2014In: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, ISSN 1055-7903, E-ISSN 1095-9513, Vol. 70, p. 182-194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we explore what historical biogeographic events are responsible for the wide and disjunct distribution of extant species in Lasiantheae, a pantropical group of trees and shrubs in the coffee family. Three of the genera in the group, Lasianthus, Saldinia, and Trichostachys, are found to be monophyletic, while there are indications that the fourth, Ronabea, is paraphyletic. We also address how the uncertainty in topology and divergence times affects the level of confidence in the biogeographic reconstruction. A data set consisting of chloroplast and nuclear ribosomal DNA data was analyzed using a Bayesian relaxed molecular clock approach to estimate phylogenetic relationships and divergence times, and the dispersal-extinction-cladogenesis (DEC) method to reconstruct geographic range evolution. Our results show that the Lasiantheae stem lineage originated in the neotropics, and the group expanded its range to the palaeotropics during the Eocene, either by continental migration through the boreotropics or by transatlantic long-distance dispersal. Two cases of Oligocene/Miocene over water-dispersal were also inferred, once from the paleotropics to the neotropics within Lasianthus, and once to Madagascar, concurrent with the origin of Saldinia. A lot of the diversification within Lasianthus took place during the Miocene and may have been influenced by climatic factors such as a period of markedly warm and moist climate in Asia and the aridification of the interior of the African continent. When biogeographic reconstructions were averaged over a random sample of 1000 dated phylogenies, the confidence in the biogeographic reconstruction decreased for most nodes, compared to when a single topology was used. A good understanding of phylogenetic relationships is necessary to understand the biogeographic history of a group, bit since the phylogeny is rarely completely known it is important to include phylogenetic uncertainty in biogeographic analysis. For nodes where the resolution is uncertain, the use of a single best topology as a basis for biogeographic analysis will result in inflated confidence in a biogeographic reconstruction which may be just one of several possible reconstructions.

  • 30. Tedersoo, Leho
    et al.
    Bahram, Mohammad
    Jairus, Teele
    Bechem, Eneke
    Chinoya, Stephen
    Mpumba, Rebecca
    Leal, Miguel
    Randrianjohany, Emile
    Razafimandimbison, Sylvain
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Sadam, Ave
    Naadel, Triin
    Koljalg, Urmas
    Spatial structure and the effects of host and soil environments on communities of ectomycorrhizal fungi in wooded savannas and rain forests of Continental Africa and Madagascar2011In: Molecular Ecology, ISSN 0962-1083, E-ISSN 1365-294X, Vol. 20, no 14, p. 3071-3080Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mycorrhizal fungi play a key role in mineral nutrition of terrestrial plants, but the factors affecting natural distribution, diversity and community composition of particularly tropical fungi remain poorly understood. This study addresses shifts in community structure and species frequency of ectomycorrhizal (EcM) fungi in relation to host taxa, soil depth and spatial structure in four contrasting African ecosystems. We used the rDNA and plastid trnL intron sequence analysis for identification of fungi and host plants, respectively. By partitioning out spatial autocorrelation in plant and fungal distribution, we suggest that African EcM fungal communities are little structured by soil horizon and host at the plant species and family levels. These findings contrast with patterns of vegetation in these forests and EcM fungal communities in other tropical and temperate ecosystems. The low level of host preference indirectly supports an earlier hypothesis that pioneer Phyllanthaceae may facilitate the establishment of late successional Fabaceae and potentially other EcM host trees by providing compatible fungal inoculum in deforested and naturally disturbed ecosystems of tropical Africa.

  • 31. Thulin, Mats
    et al.
    Beier, Bjorn-Axel
    Razafimandimbison, Sylvain G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Banks, Hannah I.
    Ambilobea, a new genus from Madagascar, the position of Aucoumea, and comments on the tribal classification of the frankincense and myrrh family (Burseraceae)2008In: Nordic Journal of Botany, ISSN 0107-055X, E-ISSN 1756-1051, Vol. 26, no 04-mar, p. 218-229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phylogenetic analyses of 46 species, representing all tribes and 14 out of 18 recognized genera of Burseraceae, are performed using nuclear ETS and plastid rps16 sequences. Boswellia madagascariensis, the only Malagasy species of this genus, is shown to belong to a clade comprising all sampled members of the current tribe Canarieae plus Triomma, whereas other species of Boswellia (including the type, B. serrata) form a clade that is strongly supported as sister to Garuga. A new genus, Ambilobea, is proposed for B. madagascariensis and the new combination A. madagascariensis is made. Ambilobea differs from Boswellia s. s. by being dioecious and by having valvate petals and, furthermore, is unique in the family by its winged tips to the petioles, by having pyrenes that remain attached to the detached valves of the fruit at dehiscence, and by its long-spinose pollen grains. Aucoumea, a monotypic central African rain forest genus, is strongly supported as sister to a clade with the arid-adapted Bursera and Commiphora. Boswellia s. s. and Garuga form a clade characterized by having hermaphroditic flowers. The relationships within Burseraceae emerging from this and previous phylogenetic studies are, on several points, in conflict with current tribal delimitation. The following suggestions for a new tribal classification of Burseraceae are made: 1) Beiselia, sister to the rest of the family, needs to be placed in a tribe of its own, Beiselieae, trib. nov., 2) Protieae should be restricted to Crepidospermum, Protium and Tetragastris, although generic rearrangements seem to be needed within this tribe, 3) Bursereae should be restricted to Aucoumea, Bursera and Commiphora, but generic rearrangements are needed in the Bursera-Commiphora complex, 4) the remaining genera, Ambilobea, Boswellia, Canarium, Dacryodes, Garuga, Haplolobus, Pseudodacryodes, Rosselia, Santiria, Scutinanthe, Trattinnickia and Triomma, are probably best placed in a broadly circumscribed Garugeae.

  • 32. Thulin, Mats
    et al.
    Razafimandimbison, Sylvain G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bergius Botanical Garden Museum.
    Chafe, Paul
    Heidari, Nahid
    Kool, Anneleen
    Shore, Joel S.
    Phylogeny of the Turneraceae clade (Passifloraceae s.l.): Trans-Atlantic disjunctions and two new genera in Afric2012In: Taxon, ISSN 0040-0262, E-ISSN 1996-8175, Vol. 61, no 2, p. 308-323Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Turneraceae, with just over 200 species in 10 genera, is today often included in a widely circumscribed Passifloraceae. The vast majority of the species are found in the New World, whereas generic diversity is largest in the Old World. According to current circumscriptions, three of the genera show trans-Atlantic disjunctions: Turnera with over 135 species in America and two species in Africa (one in the south-western and one in the north-eastern part), Piriqueta with 44 species in America and one in southern Africa, and Erblichia with one species in Central America and four in Madagascar. The phylogeny of Turneraceae is reconstructed based on DNA sequences from plastid trnL-F and nuclear ITS and sampling for all genera, including both New and Old World species for the trans-Atlantic groups to test their monophyly. The genera of Turneraceae form a strongly supported monophyletic group, the Turneraceae clade, within Passifloraceae s.l. The phylogeny is geographically structured, with one clade comprising American species only, except for the two African species of Turnera, and another clade with all other African species plus the Central American Erblichia odorata. Turnera is retrieved as monophyletic with the two African species appearing as close relatives of T. ulmifolia, the type of Turnera. The existence of a trans-Atlantic disjunction in Turnera is therefore supported. It is most likely caused by long-distance dispersal and estimated to be not older than late Miocene. In Piriqueta only the American species are supported as a monophyletic group, whereas the single African species is resolved as a member of the African clade. The trans-Atlantic disjunction in Piriqueta is therefore not supported and the African species is proposed to be placed in a genus of its own, Afroqueta gen. nov., as Afroqueta capensis comb. nov. Erblichia on Madagascar is supported as sister to Mathurina, a genus endemic to Rodrigues Island in the Mascarenes, and does not group with E. odorata in Central America, the type of Erblichia. The trans-Atlantic disjunction in Erblichia is therefore not supported either and the genus Arboa gen. nov. is proposed to accommodate the four Malagasy species, Arboa integrifolia comb. nov., Arboa berneriana comb. nov., Arboa madagascariensis comb. nov., and Arboa antsingyae comb. nov.

  • 33.
    Wikström, Niklas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Kainulainen, Kent
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Razafimandimbison, Sylvain G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Smedmark, Jenny E. E.
    Bremer, Birgitta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    A Revised Time Tree of the Asterids: Establishing a Temporal Framework For Evolutionary Studies of the Coffee Family (Rubiaceae)2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 5, article id e0126690Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Divergence time analyses in the coffee family (Rubiaceae) have all relied on the same Gentianales crown group age estimate, reported by an earlier analysis of the asterids, for defining the upper age bound of the root node in their analyses. However, not only did the asterid analysis suffer from several analytical shortcomings, but the estimate itself has been used in highly inconsistent ways in these Rubiaceae analyses. Based on the original data, we here reanalyze the divergence times of the asterids using relaxed-clock models and 14 fossil-based minimum age constraints. We also expand the data set to include an additional 67 taxa from Rubiaceae sampled across all three subfamilies recognized in the family. Three analyses are conducted: a separate analysis of the asterids, which completely mirrors the original asterid analysis in terms of taxon sample and data; a separate analysis of the Gentianales, where the result from the first analysis is used for defining a secondary root calibration point; and a combined analysis where all taxa are analyzed simultaneously. Results are presented in the form of a time-calibrated phylogeny, and age estimates for asterid groups, Gentianales, and major groups of Rubiaceae are compared and discussed in relation to previously published estimates. Our updated age estimates for major groups of Rubiaceae provide a significant step forward towards the long term goal of establishing a robust temporal framework for the divergence of this biologically diverse and fascinating group of plants.

  • 34. Xie, Peiwu
    et al.
    Tu, Tieyao
    Razafimandimbison, Sylvain G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bergius Botanical Garden Museum.
    Zhu, Chengjie
    Zhang, Dianxiang
    Phylogenetic position of Guihaiothamnus (Rubiaceae): Its evolutionary and ecological implications2014In: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, ISSN 1055-7903, E-ISSN 1095-9513, Vol. 78, p. 375-385Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Guihaiothamnus (Rubiaceae) is an enigmatic, monotypic genus endemic to southwestern China. Its generic status has never been doubted because it is morphologically unique by having rosette habit, showy, long-corolla-tubed flowers, and multi-seeded indehiscent berry-like fruits. The genus has been postulated to be a relict in the broad-leaved forests of China, and to be related to the genus Wendlandia, which was placed in the subfamily Cinchonoideae and recently classified in the tribe Augusteae of the subfamily Dialypetalanthoideae. Using combined evidence from palynology, cytology, and DNA sequences of nuclear ITS and four plastid markers (rps16, trnT-F, ndhF, rbcL), we assessed the phylogenetic position of Guihaiothamnus in Rubiaceae. Our molecular phylogenetic analyses placed the genus deeply nested within Wendlandia. This relationship is corroborated by evidence from palynology and cytology. Using a relaxed molecular clock method based on five fossil records, we dated the stem age of Wendlandia to be 17.46 my and, the split between G. acaulis and related Wendlandia species in southwestern China to be 2.11 mya. This young age, coupled with the derived position in Wendlandia, suggests an evolutionary derivation rather than an evolutionary relict of G. acaulis. Its rosette habit and large showy flowers, which are very distinctive from other Wendlandias, are interpreted as a result of recent rapid adaptation to rock and cliff habitats.

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