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  • 1.
    Ahrens, Maryon
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Bohm, Christian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Conrad, Jan M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Dumm, Jonathan P.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Finley, Chad
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Flis, Samuel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Hultqvist, Klas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Walck, Christian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Zoll, Marcel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Meyer, Manuel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stanford University, USA.
    Rosswog, Stephan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Feindt, Ulrich
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Goobar, Ariel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Sollerman, Jesper
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Barbarino, Cristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Bulla, Mattia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Roy, Rupak
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Taddia, Francesco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Farnier, Christian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Morå, Knut
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Wagner, Robert M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Multi-messenger Observations of a Binary Neutron Star Merger2017In: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 848, no 2, article id L12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    On 2017 August 17 a binary neutron star coalescence candidate (later designated GW170817) with merger time 12:41:04 UTC was observed through gravitational waves by the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo detectors. The Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor independently detected a gamma-ray burst (GRB 170817A) with a time delay of similar to 1.7 s with respect to the merger time. From the gravitational-wave signal, the source was initially localized to a sky region of 31 deg(2) at a luminosity distance of 40(-8)(+8) Mpc and with component masses consistent with neutron stars. The component masses were later measured to be in the range 0.86 to 2.26 M-circle dot. An extensive observing campaign was launched across the electromagnetic spectrum leading to the discovery of a bright optical transient (SSS17a, now with the IAU identification of AT 2017gfo) in NGC 4993 (at similar to 40 Mpc) less than 11 hours after the merger by the One-Meter, Two Hemisphere (1M2H) team using the 1 m Swope Telescope. The optical transient was independently detected by multiple teams within an hour. Subsequent observations targeted the object and its environment. Early ultraviolet observations revealed a blue transient that faded within 48 hours. Optical and infrared observations showed a redward evolution over similar to 10 days. Following early non-detections, X-ray and radio emission were discovered at the transient's position similar to 9 and similar to 16 days, respectively, after the merger. Both the X-ray and radio emission likely arise from a physical process that is distinct from the one that generates the UV/optical/near-infrared emission. No ultra-high-energy gamma-rays and no neutrino candidates consistent with the source were found in follow-up searches. These observations support the hypothesis that GW170817 was produced by the merger of two neutron stars in NGC4993 followed by a short gamma-ray burst (GRB 170817A) and a kilonova/macronova powered by the radioactive decay of r-process nuclei synthesized in the ejecta.

  • 2.
    Anderson, Brandon
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Larsson, Stefan
    Li, L.
    Meyer, Manuel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Zimmer, Stephan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Ferretti, Raphael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Sollerman, Jesper
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Rosswog, Stephan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    SUPPLEMENT: LOCALIZATION AND BROADBAND FOLLOW-UP OF THE GRAVITATIONAL-WAVE TRANSIENT GW150914 (2016, ApJL, 826, L13)2016In: Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, ISSN 0067-0049, E-ISSN 1538-4365, Vol. 225, no 1, article id 8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This Supplement provides supporting material for Abbott et al. (2016a). We briefly summarize past electromagnetic (EM) follow-up efforts as well as the organization and policy of the current EM follow-up program. We compare the four probability sky maps produced for the gravitational-wave transient GW150914, and provide additional details of the EM follow-up observations that were performed in the different bands.

  • 3.
    Anderson, Brandon
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Meyer, Manuel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Ferretti, Raphael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Sollerman, Jesper
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Zimmer, Stephan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Rosswog, Stephan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    LOCALIZATION AND BROADBAND FOLLOW-UP OF THE GRAVITATIONAL-WAVE TRANSIENT GW 1509142016In: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 826, no 1, article id L13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A gravitational-wave (GW) transient was identified in data recorded by the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) detectors on 2015 September 14. The event, initially designated G184098 and later given the name GW150914, is described in detail elsewhere. By prior arrangement, preliminary estimates of the time, significance, and sky location of the event were shared with 63 teams of observers covering radio, optical, near-infrared, X-ray, and gamma-ray wavelengths with ground- and space-based facilities. In this Letter we describe the low-latency analysis of the GW data and present the sky localization of the first observed compact binary merger. We summarize the follow-up observations reported by 25 teams via private Gamma-ray Coordinates Network circulars, giving an overview of the participating facilities, the GW sky localization coverage, the timeline, and depth of the observations. As this event turned out to be a binary black hole merger, there is little expectation of a detectable electromagnetic (EM) signature. Nevertheless, this first broadband campaign to search for a counterpart of an Advanced LIGO source represents a milestone and highlights the broad capabilities of the transient astronomy community and the observing strategies that have been developed to pursue neutron star binary merger events. Detailed investigations of the EM data and results of the EM follow-up campaign are being disseminated in papers by the individual teams.

  • 4. Ascenzi, Stefano
    et al.
    Coughlin, Michael W.
    Dietrich, Tim
    Foley, Ryan J.
    Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico
    Piranomonte, Silvia
    Mockler, Brenna
    Murguia-Berthier, Ariadna
    Fryer, Chris L.
    Lloyd-Ronning, Nicole M.
    Rosswog, Stephan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    A luminosity distribution for kilonovae based on short gamma-ray burst afterglows2019In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 486, no 1, p. 672-690Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The combined detection of a gravitational-wave signal, kilonova, and short gamma-ray burst (sGRB) from GW170817 marked a scientific breakthrough in the field of multimessenger astronomy. But even before GW170817, there have been a number of sGRBs with possible associated kilonova detections. In this work, we re-examine these ` historical' sGRB afterglows with a combination of state-of-the-art afterglow and kilonova models. This allows us to include optical/near-infrared synchrotron emission produced by the sGRB as well as ultraviolet/optical/near-infrared emission powered by the radioactive decay of r-process elements (i.e. the kilonova). Fitting the light curves, we derive the velocity and the mass distribution as well as the composition of the ejected material. The posteriors on kilonova parameters obtained from the fit were turned into distributions for the peak magnitude of the kilonova emission in different bands and the time at which this peak occurs. From the sGRB with an associated kilonova, we found that the peak magnitude in H bands falls in the range [-16.2, -13.1] (95 per cent of confidence) and occurs within 0.8-3.6 d after the sGRB prompt emission. In g band instead we obtain a peak magnitude in range [-16.8, -12.3] occurring within the first 18 h after the sGRB prompt. From the luminosity distributions of GW170817/AT2017gfo, kilonova candidates GRB130603B, GRB050709, and GRB060614 (with the possible inclusion of GRB150101B, GRB050724A, GRB061201, GRB080905A, GRB150424A, and GRB160821B) and the upper limits from all the other sGRBs not associated with any kilonova detection we obtain for the first time a kilonova luminosity distribution in different bands.

  • 5. Barack, Leor
    et al.
    Cardoso, Vitor
    Nissanke, Samaya
    Sotiriou, Thomas P.
    Askar, Abbas
    Belczynski, Chris
    Bertone, Gianfranco
    Bon, Edi
    Blas, Diego
    Brito, Richard
    Bulik, Tomasz
    Burrage, Clare
    Byrnes, Christian T.
    Caprini, Chiara
    Chernyakova, Masha
    Chruściel, Piotr
    Colpi, Monica
    Ferrari, Valeria
    Gaggero, Daniele
    Gair, Jonathan
    García-Bellido, Juan
    Hassan, Sayed Fawad
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Heisenberg, Lavinia
    Hendry, Martin
    Heng, Ik Siong
    Herdeiro, Carlos
    Hinderer, Tanja
    Horesh, Assaf
    Kavanagh, Bradley J.
    Kocsis, Bence
    Kramer, Michael
    Le Tiec, Alexandre
    Mingarelli, Chiara
    Nardini, Germano
    Nelemans, Gijs
    Palenzuela, Carlos
    Pani, Paolo
    Perego, Albino
    Porter, Edward K.
    Rossi, Elena M.
    Schmidt, Patricia
    Sesana, Alberto
    Sperhake, Ulrich
    Stamerra, Antonio
    Stein, Leo C.
    Tamanini, Nicola
    Tauris, Thomas M.
    Arturo Urena-López, L.
    Vincent, Frederic
    Volonteri, Marta
    Wardell, Barry
    Wex, Norbert
    Yagi, Kent
    Abdelsalhin, Tiziano
    Ángel Aloy, Miguel
    Amaro-Seoane, Pau
    Annulli, Lorenzo
    Arca-Sedda, Manuel
    Bah, Ibrahima
    Barausse, Enrico
    Barakovic, Elvis
    Benkel, Robert
    Bennett, Charles L.
    Bernard, Laura
    Bernuzzi, Sebastiano
    Berry, Christopher P. L.
    Berti, Emanuele
    Bezares, Miguel
    Juan Blanco-Pillado, Jose
    Blázquez-Salcedo, Jose Luis
    Bonetti, Matteo
    Bošković, Mateja
    Bosnjak, Zeljka
    Bricman, Katja
    Brügmann, Bernd
    Capelo, Pedro R.
    Carloni, Sante
    Cerdá-Durán, Pablo
    Charmousis, Christos
    Chaty, Sylvain
    Clerici, Aurora
    Coates, Andrew
    Colleoni, Marta
    Collodel, Lucas G.
    Compère, Geoffrey
    Cook, William
    Cordero-Carríon, Isabel
    Correia, Miguel
    de la Cruz-Dombriz, Álvaro
    Czinner, Viktor G.
    Destounis, Kyriakos
    Dialektopoulos, Kostas
    Doneva, Daniela
    Dotti, Massimo
    Drew, Amelia
    Eckner, Christopher
    Edholm, James
    Emparan, Roberto
    Erdem, Recai
    Ferreira, Miguel
    Ferreira, Pedro G.
    Finch, Andrew
    Font, Jose A.
    Franchini, Nicola
    Fransen, Kwinten
    Gal'tsov, Dmitry
    Ganguly, Apratim
    Gerosa, Davide
    Glampedakis, Kostas
    Gomboc, Andreja
    Goobar, Ariel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Gualtieri, Leonardo
    Guendelman, Eduardo
    Haardt, Francesco
    Harmark, Troels
    Hejda, Filip
    Hertog, Thomas
    Hopper, Seth
    Husa, Sascha
    Ihanec, Nada
    Ikeda, Taishi
    Jaodand, Amruta
    Jetzer, Philippe
    Jimenez-Forteza, Xisco
    Kamionkowski, Marc
    Kaplan, David E.
    Kazantzidis, Stelios
    Kimura, Masashi
    Kobayashi, Shiho
    Kokkotas, Kostas
    Krolik, Julian
    Kunz, Jutta
    Lämmerzahl, Claus
    Lasky, Paul
    Lemos, José P. S.
    Said, Jackson Levi
    Liberati, Stefano
    Lopes, Jorge
    Luna, Raimon
    Ma, Yin-Zhe
    Maggio, Elisa
    Mangiagli, Alberto
    Montero, Marina Martinez
    Maselli, Andrea
    Mayer, Lucio
    Mazumdar, Anupam
    Messenger, Christopher
    Ménard, Brice
    Minamitsuji, Masato
    Moore, Christopher J.
    Mota, David
    Nampalliwar, Sourabh
    Nerozzi, Andrea
    Nichols, David
    Nissimov, Emil
    Obergaulinger, Martin
    Obers, Niels A.
    Oliveri, Roberto
    Pappas, George
    Pasic, Vedad
    Peiris, Hiranya
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Petrushevska, Tanja
    Pollney, Denis
    Pratten, Geraint
    Rakic, Nemanja
    Racz, Istvan
    Radia, Miren
    Ramazanoglu, Fethi M.
    Ramos-Buades, Antoni
    Raposo, Guilherme
    Rogatko, Marek
    Rosca-Mead, Roxana
    Rosinska, Dorota
    Rosswog, Stephan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Ruiz-Morales, Ester
    Sakellariadou, Mairi
    Sanchis-Gual, Nicolás
    Salafia, Om Sharan
    Samajdar, Anuradha
    Sintes, Alicia
    Smole, Majda
    Sopuerta, Carlos
    Souza-Lima, Rafael
    Stalevski, Marko
    Stergioulas, Nikolaos
    Stevens, Chris
    Tamfal, Tomas
    Torres-Forne, Alejandro
    Tsygankov, Sergey
    Ünlütürk, Kivanç I.
    Valiante, Rosa
    van de Meent, Maarten
    Velhinho, José
    Verbin, Yosef
    Vercnocke, Bert
    Vernieri, Daniele
    Vicente, Rodrigo
    Vitagliano, Vincenzo
    Weltman, Amanda
    Whiting, Bernard
    Williamson, Andrew
    Witek, Helvi
    Wojnar, Aneta
    Yakut, Kadri
    Yan, Haopeng
    Yazadjiev, Stoycho
    Zaharijas, Gabrijela
    Zilhão, Miguel
    Black holes, gravitational waves and fundamental physics: a roadmap2019In: Classical and quantum gravity, ISSN 0264-9381, E-ISSN 1361-6382, Vol. 36, no 14, article id 143001Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The grand challenges of contemporary fundamental physics dark matter, dark energy, vacuum energy, inflation and early universe cosmology, singularities and the hierarchy problem all involve gravity as a key component. And of all gravitational phenomena, black holes stand out in their elegant simplicity, while harbouring some of the most remarkable predictions of General Relativity: event horizons, singularities and ergoregions. The hitherto invisible landscape of the gravitational Universe is being unveiled before our eyes: the historical direct detection of gravitational waves by the LIGO-Virgo collaboration marks the dawn of a new era of scientific exploration. Gravitational-wave astronomy will allow us to test models of black hole formation, growth and evolution, as well as models of gravitational-wave generation and propagation. It will provide evidence for event horizons and ergoregions, test the theory of General Relativity itself, and may reveal the existence of new fundamental fields. The synthesis of these results has the potential to radically reshape our understanding of the cosmos and of the laws of Nature. The purpose of this work is to present a concise, yet comprehensive overview of the state of the art in the relevant fields of research, summarize important open problems, and lay out a roadmap for future progress. This write-up is an initiative taken within the framework of the European Action on 'Black holes, Gravitational waves and Fundamental Physics'.

  • 6.
    Camelio, Giovanni
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Dietrich, Tim
    Rosswog, Stephan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Disc formation in the collapse of supramassive neutron stars2018In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 480, no 4, p. 5272-5285Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Short gamma-ray bursts (sGRBs) show a large diversity in their properties. This suggests that the observed phenomenon can be caused by different 'central engines' or that the engine produces a variety of outcomes depending on its parameters, or possibly both. The most popular engine scenario, the merger of two neutron stars, has received support from the recent Fermi and INTEGRAL detection of a burst of gamma rays (GRB170817A) following the neutron star merger GW 170817, but at the moment, it is not clear how peculiar this event potentially was. Several sGRBs engine models involve the collapse of a supramassive neutron star that produces a black hole plus an accretion disc. We study this scenario for a variety of equations of states both via angular momentum considerations based on equilibrium models and via fully dynamical Numerical Relativity simulations. We obtain a broader range of disc forming configurations than earlier studies but we agree with the latter that none of these configurations is likely to produce a phenomenon that would be classified as an sGRB.

  • 7. Dan, M.
    et al.
    Guillochon, J.
    Brüggen, M.
    Ramirez-Ruiz, E.
    Rosswog, Stephan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Thermonuclear detonations ensuing white dwarf mergers2015In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 454, no 4, p. 4411-4428Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The merger of two white dwarfs (WDs) has for many years not been considered as the favoured model for the progenitor system of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). But recent years have seen a change of opinion as a number of studies, both observational and theoretical, have concluded that they should contribute significantly to the observed SN Ia rate. In this paper, we study the ignition and propagation of detonation through post-merger remnants and we follow the resulting nucleosynthesis up to the point where a homologous expansion is reached. In our study we cover the entire range of WD masses and compositions. For the emergence of a detonation we study three different setups. The first two are guided by the merger remnants from our earlier simulations, while for the third one the ignitions were set by placing hotspots with properties determined by spatially resolved calculations taken from the literature. There are some caveats to our approach which we investigate. We carefully compare the nucleosynthetic yields of successful explosions with SN Ia observations. Only three of our models are consistent with all the imposed constraints and potentially lead to a standard Type Ia event. The first one, a 0.45 M-circle dot helium (He) + 0.9 M-circle dot carbon-oxygen (CO) WD system produces a sub-luminous, SN 1991bg-like event while the other two, a 0.45M(circle dot) He+1.1 M-circle dot oxygen-neon WD system and a 1.05 + 1.05 M-circle dot system with two CO WDs, are good candidates for common SNe Ia.

  • 8. Dan, Marius
    et al.
    Rosswog, Stephan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Brueggen, Marcus
    Podsiadlowski, Philipp
    The structure and fate of white dwarf merger remnants2014In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 438, no 1, p. 14-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a large parameter study where we investigate the structure of white dwarf (WD) merger remnants after the dynamical phase. A wide range of WD masses and compositions are explored, and we also probe the effect of different initial conditions. We investigated the degree of mixing between the WDs, the conditions for detonations as well as the amount of gas ejected. We find that systems with lower mass ratios have more total angular momentum and as a result more mass is flung out in a tidal tail. Nuclear burning can affect the amount of mass ejected. Many WD binaries that contain a helium-rich WD achieve the conditions to trigger a detonation. In contrast, for carbon-oxygen-transferring systems, only the most massive mergers with a total mass M greater than or similar to 2.1 M-circle dot detonate. Even systems with lower mass may detonate long after the merger if the remnant remains above the Chandrasekhar mass and carbon is ignited at the centre. Finally, our findings are discussed in the context of several possible observed astrophysical events and stellar systems, such as hot subdwarfs, R Coronae Borealis stars, single massive WDs, supernovae of Type Ia and other transient events. A large data base containing 225 WD merger remnants is made available via a dedicated web page.

  • 9. Eichler, M.
    et al.
    Arcones, A.
    Kelic, A.
    Korobkin, Oleg
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Langanke, K.
    Marketin, T.
    Martinez-Pinedo, G.
    Panov, I.
    Rauscher, T.
    Rosswog, Stephan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Winteler, C.
    Zinner, N. T.
    Thielemann, F. -K.
    THE ROLE OF FISSION IN NEUTRON STAR MERGERS AND ITS IMPACT ON THE r-PROCESS PEAKS2015In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 808, no 1, article id 30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Comparing observational abundance features with nucleosynthesis predictions of stellar evolution or explosion simulations, we can scrutinize two aspects: (a) the conditions in the astrophysical production site and (b) the quality of the nuclear physics input utilized. We test the abundance features of r-process nucleosynthesis calculations for the dynamical ejecta of neutron star merger simulations based on three different nuclear mass models: The Finite Range Droplet Model, the (quenched version of the) Extended Thomas Fermi Model with Strutinsky Integral, and the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov mass model. We make use of corresponding fission barrier heights and compare the impact of four different fission fragment distribution models on the final r-process abundance distribution. In particular, we explore the abundance distribution in the second r-process peak and the rare-earth sub-peak as a function of mass models and fission fragment distributions, as well as the origin of a shift in the third r-process peak position. The latter has been noticed in a number of merger nucleosynthesis predictions. We show that the shift occurs during the r-process freeze-out when neutron captures and beta-decays compete and an (n,gamma)-(gamma,n) equilibrium is no longer maintained. During this phase neutrons originate mainly from fission of material above A = 240. We also investigate the role of beta-decay half-lives from recent theoretical advances, which lead either to a smaller amount of fissioning nuclei during freeze-out or a faster (and thus earlier) release of fission neutrons, which can (partially) prevent this shift and has an impact on the second and rare-earth peak as well.

  • 10. Evans, P. A.
    et al.
    Cenko, S. B.
    Kennea, J. A.
    Emery, S. W. K.
    Kuin, N. P. M.
    Korobkin, O.
    Wollaeger, R. T.
    Fryer, C. L.
    Madsen, K. K.
    Harrison, F. A.
    Xu, Y.
    Nakar, E.
    Hotokezaka, K.
    Lien, A.
    Campana, S.
    Oates, S. R.
    Troja, E.
    Breeveld, A. A.
    Marshall, F. E.
    Barthelmy, S. D.
    Beardmore, A. P.
    Burrows, D. N.
    Cusumano, G.
    D'Ai, A.
    D'Avanzo, P.
    D'Elia, V.
    De Pasquale, M.
    Even, W. P.
    Fontes, C. J.
    Forster, K.
    Garcia, J.
    Giommi, P.
    Grefenstette, B.
    Gronwall, C.
    Hartmann, D. H.
    Heida, M.
    Hungerford, A. L.
    Kasliwal, M. M.
    Krimm, H. A.
    Levan, A. J.
    Malesani, D.
    Melandri, A.
    Miyasaka, H.
    Nousek, J. A.
    O'Brien, P. T.
    Osborne, J. P.
    Pagani, C.
    Page, K. L.
    Palmer, D. M.
    Perri, M.
    Pike, S.
    Racusin, J. L.
    Rosswog, Stephan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Siegel, M. H.
    Sakamoto, T.
    Sbarufatti, B.
    Tagliaferri, G.
    Tanvir, N. R.
    Tohuvavohu, A.
    Swift and NuSTAR observations of GW170817: Detection of a blue kilonova2017In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 358, no 6370, p. 1565-1569Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the first direct detection of merging black holes in 2015, the era of gravitational wave (GW) astrophysics began. A complete picture of compact object mergers, however, requires the detection of an electromagnetic (EM) counterpart. We report ultraviolet (UV) and x-ray observations by Swift and the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array of the EM counter part of the binary neutron star merger GW170817. The bright, rapidly fading UV emission indicates a high mass (approximate to 0.03 solar masses) wind-driven outflow with moderate electron fraction (Y-e approximate to 0.27). Combined with the x-ray limits, we favor an observer viewing angle of approximate to 30 degrees away from the orbital rotation axis, which avoids both obscuration from the heaviest elements in the orbital plane and a direct view of any ultrarelativistic, highly collimated ejecta (a gamma-ray burst afterglow).

  • 11. Eyles, R. A. J.
    et al.
    O'Brien, P. T.
    Wiersema, K.
    Starling, R. L. C.
    Gompertz, B. P.
    Lamb, G. P.
    Lyman, J. D.
    Levan, A. J.
    Rosswog, Stephan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Tanvir, N. R.
    An unusual transient following the short GRB 0712272019In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 489, no 1, p. 13-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present X-ray and optical observations of the short duration gamma-ray burst GRB 071227 and its host at z= 0.381, obtained using Swift, Gemini South, and theVery Large Telescope. We identify a short-lived and moderately bright optical transient, with flux significantly in excess of that expected from a simple extrapolation of the X-ray spectrum at 0.2-0.3 d after burst. We fit the SED with afterglow models allowing for high extinction and thermal emission models that approximate a kilonova to assess the excess' origins. While some kilonova contribution is plausible, it is not favoured due to the low temperature and high luminosity required, implying superluminal expansion and a large ejectamass of similar to 0.1 M-circle dot. We find, instead, that the transient is broadly consistent with power-law spectra with additional dust extinction of E(B - V) similar to 0.4 mag, although a possibly thermal excess remains in the z band. We investigate the host, a spiral galaxy with an edge-on orientation, resolving its spectrum along its major axis to construct the galaxy rotation curve and analyse the star formation and chemical properties. The integrated host emission shows evidence for high extinction, consistent with the afterglow findings. The metallicity and extinction are consistent with previous studies of this host and indicate the galaxy is a typical, but dusty, late-type SGRB host.

  • 12. Fernandez, Rodrigo
    et al.
    Quataert, Eliot
    Schwab, Josiah
    Kasen, Daniel
    Rosswog, Stephan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    The interplay of disc wind and dynamical ejecta in the aftermath of neutron star-black hole mergers2015In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 449, no 1, p. 390-402Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We explore the evolution of the different ejecta components generated during the merger of a neutron star and a black hole. Our focus is the interplay between material ejected dynamically during the merger, and the wind launched on a viscous time-scale by the remnant accretion disc. These components are expected to contribute to an electromagnetic transient and to produce r-process elements, each with a different signature when considered separately. Here we introduce a two-step approach to investigate their combined evolution, using two-and three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations. Starting from the output of a merger simulation, we identify each component in the initial condition based on its phase-space distribution, and evolve the accretion disc in axisymmetry. The wind blown from this disc is injected into a three-dimensional computational domain where the dynamical ejecta is evolved. We find that the wind can suppress fallback accretion on time-scales longer than similar to 100 ms. Because of self-similar viscous evolution, the disc accretion at late times nevertheless approaches a power-law time dependence alpha t(-2.2). This can power some late-time gamma-ray burst engine activity, although the available energy is significantly less than in traditional fallback models. Inclusion of radioactive heating due to the r-process does not significantly affect the fallback accretion rate or the disc wind. We do not find any significant modification to the wind properties at large radius due to interaction with the dynamical ejecta. This is a consequence of the different expansion velocities of the two components.

  • 13. Fryer, Chris L.
    et al.
    Belczynski, Krzysztoff
    Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico
    Rosswog, Stephan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
    Shen, Gang
    Steiner, Andrew W.
    THE FATE OF THE COMPACT REMNANT IN NEUTRON STAR MERGERS2015In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 812, no 1, article id 24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Neutron star (binary neutron star and neutron star-black hole) mergers are believed to produce short-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). They are also believed to be the dominant source of gravitational waves to be detected by the advanced LIGO and advanced VIRGO and the dominant source of the heavy r-process elements in the universe. Whether or not these mergers produce short-duration GRBs depends sensitively on the fate of the core of the remnant (whether, and how quickly, it forms a black hole). In this paper, we combine the results of Newtonian merger calculations and equation of state studies to determine the fate of the cores of neutron star mergers. Using population studies, we can determine the distribution of these fates to compare to observations. We find that black hole cores form quickly only for equations of state that predict maximum non-rotating neutron star masses below 2.3-2.4 solar masses. If quick black hole formation is essential in producing GRBs, LIGO/Virgo observed rates compared to GRB rates could be used to constrain the equation of state for dense nuclear matter.

  • 14.
    Gafton, Emanuel
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes, Spain.
    Rosswog, Stephan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Tidal disruptions by rotating black holes: effects of spin and impact parameter2019In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 487, no 4, p. 4790-4808Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the results of relativistic smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of tidal disruptions of stars by rotating supermassive black holes, for a wide range of impact parameters and black hole spins. For deep encounters, we find that: relativistic precession creates debris geometries impossible to obtain with the Newtonian equations; part of the fluid can be launched on plunging orbits, reducing the fallback rate and the mass of the resulting accretion disc; multiple squeezings and bounces at periapsis may generate distinctive X-ray signatures resulting from the associated shock breakout; disruptions can occur inside the marginally bound radius, if the angular momentum spread launches part of the debris on non-plunging orbits. Perhaps surprisingly, we also find relativistic effects important in partial disruptions, where the balance between self-gravity and tidal forces is so precarious that otherwise minor relativistic effects can have decisive consequences on the stellar fate. In between, where the star is fully disrupted but relativistic effects are mild, the difference resides in a gentler rise of the fallback rate, a later and smaller peak, and longer return times. However, relativistic precession always causes thicker debris streams, both in the bound part (speeding up circularization) and in the unbound part (accelerating and enhancing the production of separate transients). We discuss various properties of the disruption (compression at periapsis, shape and spread of the energy distribution) and potential observables (peak fallback rate, times of rise and decay, duration of super-Eddington fallback) as a function of the impact parameter and the black hole spin.

  • 15.
    Gafton, Emanuel
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Tejeda, Emilio
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Guillochon, J.
    Korobkin, Oleg
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Rosswog, Stephan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Relativistic effects on tidal disruption kicks of solitary stars2015In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 449, no 1, p. 771-780Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solitary stars that wander too close to their galactic centres can become tidally disrupted, if the tidal forces due to the supermassive black hole residing there overcome the self-gravity of the star. If the star is only partially disrupted, so that a fraction survives as a self-bound object, this remaining core will experience a net gain in specific orbital energy, which translates into a velocity 'kick' of up to similar to 10(3) km s(-1). In this paper, we present the result of smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of such partial disruptions, and analyse the velocity kick imparted on the surviving core. We compare gamma = 5/3 and gamma = 4/3 polytropes disrupted in both a Newtonian potential, and a generalized potential that reproduces most relativistic effects around a Schwarzschild black hole either exactly or to excellent precision. For the Newtonian case, we confirm the results of previous studies that the kick velocity of the surviving core is virtually independent of the ratio of the black hole to stellar mass, and is a function of the impact parameter beta alone, reaching at most the escape velocity of the original star. For a given beta, relativistic effects become increasingly important for larger black holemasses. In particular, we find that the kick velocity increases with the black hole mass, making larger kicks more common than in the Newtonian case, as low-beta encounters are statistically more likely than high-beta encounters. The analysis of the tidal tensor for the generalized potential shows that our results are robust lower limits on the true relativistic kick velocities, and are generally in very good agreement with the exact results.

  • 16. Gall, Christa
    et al.
    Hjorth, Jens
    Rosswog, Stephan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Tanvir, Nial R.
    Levan, Andrew J.
    Lanthanides or Dust in Kilonovae: Lessons Learned from GW1708172017In: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 849, no 2, article id L19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The unprecedented optical and near-infrared lightcurves of the first electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitationalwave source, GW170817, a binary neutron star merger, exhibited a strong evolution from blue to near-infrared (a so-called kilonova or macronova). The emerging near-infrared component is widely attributed to the formation of r-process elements that provide the opacity to shift the blue light into the near-infrared. An alternative scenario is that the light from the blue component gets extinguished by dust formed by the kilonova and subsequently is reemitted at near-infrared wavelengths. We test here this hypothesis using the lightcurves of AT 2017gfo, the kilonova accompanying GW170817. We find that of the order of 10(-5) M-circle dot. of carbon is required to reproduce the optical/near-infrared lightcurves as the kilonova fades. This putative dust cools from similar to 2000. K at similar to 4 days after the event to similar to 1500 K over the course of the following week, thus requiring dust with a high condensation temperature, such as carbon. We contrast this with the nucleosynthetic yields predicted by a range of kilonova wind models. These suggest that at most 10(-9) M-circle dot of carbon is formed. Moreover, the decay in the inferred dust temperature is slower than that expected in kilonova models. We therefore conclude that in current models of the blue component of the kilonova, the near-infrared component in the kilonova accompanying GW170817 is unlikely to be due to dust.

  • 17.
    Gizzi, Davide
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    O’Connor, Evan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Rosswog, Stephan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Perego, A.
    Cabezon, R. M.
    Nativi, Lorenzo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    A multidimensional implementation of the Advanced Spectral neutrino Leakage scheme2019In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 490, no 3, p. 4211-4229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a new, multidimensional implementation of the Advanced Spectral Leakage (ASL) scheme with the purpose of modelling neutrino–matter interactions in neutron star mergers. A major challenge is the neutrino absorption in the semitransparent regime, which is responsible for driving winds from the merger remnant. The composition of such winds is crucial in the understanding of the electromagnetic emission in the recently observed macronova following GW170817. Compared to the original version, we introduce an optical-depth-dependent flux factor to model the average angle of neutrino propagation, and a modulation that accounts for flux anisotropies in non-spherical geometries. We scrutinize our approach by first comparing the new scheme against the original one for a spherically symmetric core-collapse supernova snapshot, both in 1D and in 3D, and additionally against a two-moment (M1) scheme as implemented in 1D into the code GR1D. The luminosities and mean energies agree to a few per cents in most tests. Finally, for the case of a binary merger remnant snapshot we compare the new ASL scheme with the M1 scheme that is implemented in the Eulerian adaptive mesh refinement code FLASH. We find that the neutrino absorption distribution in the semitransparent regime is overall well reproduced. Both approaches agree to within 15 per cent for the average energies and to better than ∼ 35 per cent in the total luminosities.

  • 18. Grossman, Doron
    et al.
    Korobkin, Oleg
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Rosswog, Stephan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Piran, Tsvi
    The long-term evolution of neutron star merger remnants - II. Radioactively powered transients2014In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 439, no 1, p. 757-770Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We use 3D hydrodynamic simulations of the long-term evolution of neutron star merger ejecta to predict the light curves of electromagnetic transients that are powered by the decay of freshly produced r-process nuclei. For the dynamic ejecta that are launched by tidal and hydrodynamic interaction, we adopt grey opacities of 10 cm(2) g(-1), as suggested by recent studies. For our reference case of a 1.3-1.4 M-circle dot merger, we find a broad IR peak 2-4 d after the merger. The peak luminosity is approximate to 2 x 10(40) erg s(-1) for an average orientation, but increased by up to a factor of 4 for more favourable binary parameters and viewing angles. These signals are rather weak and hardly detectable within the large error box (similar to 100 deg(2)) of a gravitational wave trigger. A second electromagnetic transient results from neutrino-driven winds. These winds produce 'weak' r-process material with 50 < A < 130 and abundance patterns that vary substantially between different merger cases. For an adopted opacity of 1 cm(2) g(-1), the resulting transients peak in the UV/optical about 6 h after the merger with a luminosity of approximate to 10(41) erg s(-1) (for a wind of 0.01 M-circle dot) These signals are marginally detectable in deep follow-up searches (e. g. using Hypersuprime camera on Subaru). A subsequent detection of the weaker but longer lasting IR signal would allow an identification of the merger event. We briefly discuss the implications of our results to the recent detection of a near infrared (nIR) transient accompanying GRB 130603B.

  • 19. Kasliwal, M. M.
    et al.
    Nakar, E.
    Singer, L. P.
    Kaplan, D. L.
    Cook, D. O.
    Van Sistine, A.
    Lau, R. M.
    Fremling, C.
    Gottlieb, O.
    Jencson, J. E.
    Adams, S. M.
    Feindt, Ulrich
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Hotokezaka, K.
    Ghosh, S.
    Perley, D. A.
    Yu, P-C.
    Piran, T.
    Allison, J. R.
    Anupama, G. C.
    Balasubramanian, A.
    Bannister, K. W.
    Bally, J.
    Barnes, J.
    Barway, S.
    Bellm, E.
    Bhalerao, V.
    Bhattacharya, D.
    Blagorodnova, N.
    Bloom, J. S.
    Brady, P. R.
    Cannella, C.
    Chatterjee, D.
    Cenko, S. B.
    Cobb, B. E.
    Copperwheat, C.
    Corsi, A.
    De, K.
    Dobie, D.
    Emery, S. W. K.
    Evans, P. A.
    Fox, O. D.
    Frail, D. A.
    Frohmaier, C.
    Goobar, Ariel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Hallinan, G.
    Harrison, F.
    Helou, G.
    Hinderer, T.
    Ho, A. Y. Q.
    Horesh, A.
    Ip, W-H.
    Itoh, R.
    Kasen, D.
    Kim, H.
    Kuin, N. P. M.
    Kupfer, T.
    Lynch, C.
    Madsen, K.
    Mazzali, P. A.
    Miller, A. A.
    Mooley, K.
    Murphy, T.
    Ngeow, C-C.
    Nichols, D.
    Nissanke, S.
    Nugent, P.
    Ofek, E. O.
    Qi, H.
    Quimby, R. M.
    Rosswog, Stephan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Rusu, F.
    Sadler, E. M.
    Schmidt, P.
    Sollerman, Jesper
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Steele, I.
    Williamson, A. R.
    Xu, Y.
    Yan, L.
    Yatsu, Y.
    Zhang, C.
    Zhao, W.
    Illuminating gravitational waves: A concordant picture of photons from a neutron star merger2017In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 358, no 6370, p. 1559-+Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Merging neutron stars offer an excellent laboratory for simultaneously studying strong-field gravity and matter in extreme environments. We establish the physical association of an electromagnetic counterpart (EM170817) with gravitational waves (GW170817) detected from merging neutron stars. By synthesizing a panchromatic data set, we demonstrate that merging neutron stars are a long-sought production site forging heavy elements by r-process nucleosynthesis. The weak gamma rays seen in EM170817 are dissimilar to classical short gamma-ray bursts with ultrarelativistic jets. Instead, we suggest that breakout of a wide-angle, mildly relativistic cocoon engulfing the jet explains the low-luminosity gamma rays, the high-luminosity ultraviolet-optical-infrared, and the delayed radio and x-ray emission. We posit that all neutron star mergers may lead to a wide-angle cocoon breakout, sometimes accompanied by a successful jet and sometimes by a choked jet.

  • 20. Korobkin, O.
    et al.
    Rosswog, Stephan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Arcones, A.
    Winteler, C.
    On the astrophysical robustness of the neutron star merger r process2012In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 426, no 3, p. 1940-1949Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we explore nucleosynthesis in the dynamic ejecta of compact binary mergers. We are particularly interested in the question how sensitive the resulting abundance patterns are to the parameters of the merging system. Therefore, we systematically investigate combinations of neutron star masses in the range from 1.0 to 2.0 M? and, for completeness, we compare the results with those from two simulations of a neutron star black hole merger. The ejecta masses vary by a factor of 5 for the studied systems, but all amounts are (within the uncertainties of the merger rates) compatible with being a major source of the cosmic r-process. The ejecta undergo robust r-process nucleosynthesis which produces all the elements from the second to the third peak in close-to-solar ratios. Most strikingly, this r-process is extremely robust, and all 23 investigated binary systems yield practically identical abundance patterns. This is mainly the result of the ejecta being extremely neutron rich (Ye similar to 0.04) and the r-process path meandering along the neutron drip line so that the abundances are determined entirely by nuclear rather than astrophysical properties. While further questions related to galactic chemical evolution need to be explored in future studies, we consider this robustness together with the ease with which both the second and third peak are reproduced as strong indications that compact binary mergers are prime candidates for the sources of the observed unique heavy r-process component.

  • 21.
    Korobkin, Oleg
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Abdikamalov, E.
    Stergioulas, N.
    Schnetter, E.
    Zink, B.
    Rosswog, Stephan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Ott, C. D.
    The runaway instability in general relativistic accretion discs2013In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 431, no 1, p. 349-354Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When an accretion disc falls prey to the runaway instability, a large portion of its mass is devoured by the black hole within a few dynamical times. Despite decades of effort, it is still unclear under what conditions such an instability can occur. The technically most advanced relativistic simulations to date were unable to find a clear sign for the onset of the instability. In this work, we present three-dimensional relativistic hydrodynamics simulations of accretion discs around black holes in dynamical space-time. We focus on the configurations that are expected to be particularly prone to the development of this instability. We demonstrate, for the first time, that the fully self-consistent general relativistic evolution does indeed produce a runaway instability.

  • 22. Levan, A. J.
    et al.
    Lyman, J. D.
    Tanvir, N. R.
    Hjorth, J.
    Mandel, I.
    Stanway, E. R.
    Steeghs, D.
    Fruchter, A. S.
    Troja, E.
    Schrøder, S. L.
    Wiersema, K.
    Bruun, S. H.
    Cano, Z.
    Cenko, S. B.
    de Ugarte Postigo, A.
    Evans, P.
    Fairhurst, S.
    Fox, O. D.
    Fynbo, J. P. U.
    Gompertz, B.
    Greiner, J.
    Im, M.
    Izzo, L.
    Jakobsson, P.
    Kangas, T.
    Khandrika, H. G.
    Lien, A. Y.
    Malesani, D.
    O'Brien, P.
    Osborne, J. P.
    Palazzi, E.
    Pian, E.
    Perley, D. A.
    Rosswog, Stephan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Ryan, R. E.
    Schulze, S.
    Sutton, P.
    Thöne, C. C.
    Watson, D. J.
    Wijers, R. A. M. J.
    The Environment of the Binary Neutron Star Merger GW1708172017In: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 848, no 2, article id L28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and Chandra imaging, combined with Very Large Telescope MUSE integral field spectroscopy of the counterpart and host galaxy of the first binary neutron star merger detected via gravitational-wave emission by LIGO and Virgo, GW170817. The host galaxy, NGC 4993, is an S0 galaxy at z - 0.009783. There is evidence for large, face-on spiral shells in continuum imaging, and edge-on spiral features visible in nebular emission lines. This suggests that NGC 4993 has undergone a relatively recent (less than or similar to 1 Gyr) dry merger. This merger may provide the fuel for a weak active nucleus seen in Chandra imaging. At the location of the counterpart, HST imaging implies there is no globular or young stellar cluster, with a limit of a few thousand solar masses for any young system. The population in the vicinity is predominantly old with less than or similar to 1% of any light arising from a population with ages <500 Myr. Both the host galaxy properties and those of the transient location are consistent with the distributions seen for short-duration gamma-ray bursts, although the source position lies well within the effective radius (r(e) similar to 3 kpc), providing an r(e)-normalized offset that is closer than similar to 90% of short GRBs. For the long delay time implied by the stellar population, this suggests that the kick velocity was significantly less than the galaxy escape velocity. We do not see any narrow host galaxy interstellar medium features within the counterpart spectrum, implying low extinction, and that the binary may lie in front of the bulk of the host galaxy.

  • 23. Lyman, J. D.
    et al.
    Lamb, G. P.
    Levan, A. J.
    Mandel, I.
    Tanvir, N. R.
    Kobayashi, S.
    Gompertz, B.
    Hjorth, J.
    Fruchter, A. S.
    Kangas, T.
    Steeghs, D.
    Steele, I. A.
    Cano, Z.
    Copperwheat, C.
    Evans, P. A.
    Fynbo, J. P. U.
    Gall, C.
    Im, M.
    Izzo, L.
    Jakobsson, P.
    Milvang-Jensen, B.
    O'Brien, P.
    Osborne, J. P.
    Palazzi, E.
    Perley, D. A.
    Pian, E.
    Rosswog, Stephan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Rowlinson, A.
    Schulze, S.
    Stanway, E. R.
    Sutton, P.
    Thöne, C. C.
    de Ugarte Postigo, A.
    Watson, D. J.
    Wiersema, K.
    Wijers, R. A. M. J.
    The optical afterglow of the short gamma-ray burst associated with GW1708172018In: Nature astronomy, ISSN 2397-3366, Vol. 2, no 9, p. 751-754Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The binary neutron star merger GW170817 was the first multi-messenger event observed in both gravitational and electromagnetic waves(1,2). The electromagnetic signal began approximately two seconds post-merger with a weak, short burst of gamma rays(3), which was followed over the next hours and days by the ultraviolet, optical and near-infrared emission from a radioactively powered kilonova(4-11). Later, non-thermal rising X-ray and radio emission was observed(12,13). The low luminosity of the gamma rays and the rising non-thermal flux from the source at late times could indicate that we are outside the opening angle of the beamed relativistic jet. Alternatively, the emission could be arising from a cocoon of material formed from the interaction between a jet and the merger ejecta(13-15). Here we present late-time optical detections and deep near-infrared limits on the emission from GW170817 at 110 days post-merger. Our new observations are at odds with expectations of late-time emission from kilonova models, being too bright and blue(16,17). Instead, the emission arises from the interaction between the relativistic ejecta of GW170817 and the interstellar medium. We show that this emission matches the expectations of a Gaussian-structured relativistic jet, which would have launched a high-luminosity, short gamma-ray burst to an aligned observer. However, other jet structure or cocoon models can also match current data-the future evolution of the afterglow will directly distinguish the origin of the emission.

  • 24. MacLeod, Morgan
    et al.
    Guillochon, James
    Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico
    Kasen, Daniel
    Rosswog, Stephan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    OPTICAL THERMONUCLEAR TRANSIENTS FROM TIDAL COMPRESSION OF WHITE DWARFS AS TRACERS OF THE LOW END OF THE MASSIVE BLACK HOLE MASS FUNCTION2016In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 819, no 1, article id 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we model the observable signatures of tidal disruptions of white dwarf (WD) stars using massive black holes (MBHs) of moderate mass, approximate to 10(3)-10(5) M-circle dot. When the WD passes deep enough within the MBH's tidal field, these signatures include thermonuclear transients from burning during maximum compression. We combine a hydrodynamic simulation that includes nuclear burning of the disruption of a 0.6 M-circle dot C/O WD with a Monte Carlo radiative transfer calculation to synthesize the properties of a representative transient. The transient's emission emerges in the optical, with light. curves and spectra reminiscent of Type I supernovae. The properties are strongly viewing. angle dependent, and key spectral signatures are approximate to 10,000 km s(-1) doppler shifts, due to the orbital motion of the unbound ejecta. Disruptions of He WDs likely produce large quantities of intermediate-mass elements, offering a possible production mechanism for Ca-rich transients. Accompanying multi-wavelength transients are fueled by accretion and arise from the nascent accretion disk and relativistic jet. If MBHs of moderate mass exist with number densities similar to those of supermassive BHs, both high-energy wide-field monitors and upcoming optical surveys should detect tens to hundreds of WD tidal disruptions per year. The current best strategy for their detection may therefore be deep optical follow-up of high-energy transients of unusually long duration. The detection rate or the nondetection of these transients by current and upcoming surveys can thus be used to place meaningful constraints on the extrapolation of the MBH mass function to moderate masses.

  • 25. Martin, D.
    et al.
    Perego, A.
    Arcones, A.
    Thielemann, F. -K.
    Korobkin, Oleg
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
    Rosswog, Stephan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
    NEUTRINO-DRIVEN WINDS IN THE AFTERMATH OF A NEUTRON STAR MERGER: NUCLEOSYNTHESIS AND ELECTROMAGNETIC TRANSIENTS2015In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 813, no 1, article id 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a comprehensive nucleosynthesis study of the neutrino-driven wind in the aftermath of a binary neutron star merger. Our focus is the initial remnant phase when a massive central neutron star is present. Using tracers from a recent hydrodynamical simulation, we determine total masses and integrated abundances to characterize the composition of unbound matter. We find that the nucleosynthetic yields depend sensitively on both the life time of the massive neutron star and the polar angle. Matter in excess of up to 9 x 10(-3) M-circle dot becomes unbound until similar to 200 ms. Due to electron fractions of Y-e approximate to 0.2-0.4, mainly nuclei with mass numbers A < 130 are synthesized, complementing the yields from the earlier dynamic ejecta. Mixing scenarios with these two types of ejecta can explain the abundance pattern in r-process enriched metal-poor stars. Additionally, we calculate heating rates for the decay of the freshly produced radioactive isotopes. The resulting light curve peaks in the blue band after about 4 hr. Furthermore, high opacities due to heavy r-process nuclei in the dynamic ejecta lead to a second peak in the infrared after 3-4 days.

  • 26. Matteucci, F.
    et al.
    Romano, D.
    Arcones, A.
    Korobkin, Oleg
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Rosswog, Stephan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Europium production: neutron star mergers versus core-collapse supernovae2014In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 438, no 3, p. 2177-2185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have explored the Eu production in the Milky Way by means of a very detailed chemical evolution model. In particular, we have assumed that Eu is formed in merging neutron star (or neutron star-black hole) binaries as well as in Type II supernovae. We have tested the effects of several important parameters influencing the production of Eu during the merging of two neutron stars, such as (i) the time-scale of coalescence, (ii) the Eu yields and (iii) the range of initial masses for the progenitors of the neutron stars. The yields of Eu from Type II supernovae are very uncertain, more than those from coalescing neutron stars, so we have explored several possibilities. We have compared our model results with the observed rate of coalescence of neutron stars, the solar Eu abundance, the [Eu/Fe] versus [Fe/H] relation in the solar vicinity and the [Eu/H] gradient along the Galactic disc. Our main results can be summarized as follows: (i) neutron star mergers can be entirely responsible for the production of Eu in the Galaxy if the coalescence time-scale is no longer than 1 Myr for the bulk of binary systems, the Eu yield is around 3 x 10(-7) M-circle dot and the mass range of progenitors of neutron stars is 9-50 M-circle dot; (ii) both Type II supernovae and merging neutron stars can produce the right amount of Eu if the neutron star mergers produce 2 x 10(-7) M-circle dot per system and Type II supernovae, with progenitors in the range 20-50 M-circle dot, produce yields of Eu of the order of 10(-8)-10(-9) M-circle dot; (iii) either models with only neutron stars producing Eu or mixed ones can reproduce the observed Eu abundance gradient along the Galactic disc.

  • 27. Murguia-Berthier, Ariadna
    et al.
    Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico
    Montes, Gabriela
    De Colle, Fabio
    Rezzolla, Luciano
    Rosswog, Stephan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Takami, Kentaro
    Perego, Albino
    Lee, William H.
    The Properties of Short Gamma-Ray Burst Jets Triggered by Neutron Star Mergers2017In: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 835, no 2, article id L34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The most popular model for short gamma-ray bursts (sGRBs) involves the coalescence of binary neutron stars. Because the progenitor is actually hidden from view, we must consider under which circumstances such merging systems are capable of producing a successful sGRB. Soon after coalescence, winds are launched from the merger remnant. In this paper, we use realistic wind profiles derived from global merger simulations in order to investigate the interaction of sGRB jets with these winds using numerical simulations. We analyze the conditions for which these axisymmetric winds permit relativistic jets to break out and produce an sGRB. We find that jets with luminosities comparable to those observed in sGRBs are only successful when their half-opening angles are below approximate to 20 degrees. This jet collimation mechanism leads to a simple physical interpretation of the luminosities and opening angles inferred for sGRBs. If wide, low-luminosity jets are observed, they might be indicative of a different progenitor avenue such as the merger of a neutron star with a black hole. We also use the observed durations of sGRB to place constraints on the lifetime of the wind phase, which is determined by the time it takes the jet to break out. In all cases we find that the derived limits argue against completely stable remnants for binary neutron star mergers that produce sGRBs.

  • 28. Perego, A.
    et al.
    Rosswog, Stephan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
    Cabezón, R. M.
    Korobkin, Oleg
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
    Käppeli, R.
    Arcones, A.
    Liebendörfer, M.
    Neutrino-driven winds from neutron star merger remnants2014In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 443, no 4, p. 3134-3156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a detailed, three-dimensional hydrodynamic study of the neutrino-driven winds emerging from the remnant of a neutron star merger. Our simulations are performed with the Newtonian, Eulerian code FISH, augmented by a detailed, spectral neutrino leakage scheme that accounts for neutrino absorption. Consistent with earlier two-dimensional studies, a strong baryonic wind is blown out along the original binary rotation axis within approximate to 100 ms. From this model, we compute a lower limit on the expelled mass of 3.5 x 10(-3) M-circle dot, relevant for heavy element nucleosynthesis. Because of stronger neutrino irradiation, the polar regions show substantially larger electron fractions than those at lower latitudes. The polar ejecta produce interesting r-process contributions from A approximate to 80 to about 130, while the more neutron-rich, lower latitude parts produce elements up to the third r-process peak near A approximate to 195. We calculate the properties of electromagnetic transients powered by the radioactivity in the wind, in addition to the 'macronova' transient stemming from the dynamic ejecta. The polar regions produce ultraviolet/optical transients reaching luminosities up to 10(41) erg s(-1), which peak around 1 d in optical and 0.3 d in bolometric luminosity. The lower latitude regions, due to their contamination with high-opacity heavy elements, produce dimmer and more red signals, peaking after similar to 2 d in optical and infrared.

  • 29. Perego, Albino
    et al.
    Gafton, Emanuel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Cabezon, Ruben
    Rosswog, Stephan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Liebendoerfer, Matthias
    MODA: a new algorithm to compute optical depths in multidimensional hydrodynamic simulations2014In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 568, p. A11-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims, We introduce the multidimensional optical depth algorithm (MODA) for the calculation of optical depths in approximate multidimensional radiative transport schemes, equally applicable to neutrinos and photons. Motivated by (but not limited to) neutrino transport in three-dimensional simulations of core-collapse supernovae and neutron star mergers. our method makes no assumptions about the geometry of the matter distribution, apart from expecting optically transparent boundaries. Methods. Based on local information about opacities, the algorithm figures out an escape route that tends to minimize the optical depth without assuming any predefined paths for radiation. Its adaptivity makes it suitable for a variety of astrophysical settings with complicated geometry (e.g., core-collapse supernovae, compact baldly mergers, tidal disruptions, star formation, etc.). We implement the MODA algorithm into both a Eulerian hydrodynamics code with a fixed, uniform grid and into an SPH code where we use a tree structure that is otherwise used for searching neighbors and calculating gravity. Results. In a series of numerical experiments, we compare the MODA results with analytically known solutions. We also use snapshots from actual 3D simulations and compare the results of MODA with those obtained with other methods, such as the global and local ray-by-ray method. It turns out that MODA achieves excellent accuracy at a moderate computational cost In appendix we also discuss implementation details and parallelization strategies.

  • 30. Piran, Tsvi
    et al.
    Nakar, Ehud
    Rosswog, Stephan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
    The electromagnetic signals of compact binary mergers2013In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 430, no 3, p. 2121-2136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Compact binary mergers are prime sources of gravitational waves (GWs), targeted by current and next generation detectors. The question 'what is the observable electromagnetic (EM) signature of a compact binary merger?' is an intriguing one with crucial consequences to the quest for GWs. We present a large set of numerical simulations that focus on the EM signals that emerge from the dynamically ejected subrelativistic material. These outflows produce on a time-scale of a day macronovae - short-lived infrared (IR) to ultraviolet (UV) signals powered by radioactive decay. Like in regular supernovae the interaction of this outflow with the surrounding matter inevitably leads to a long-lasting remnant. We calculate the expected radio signals of these remnants on time-scales longer than a year, when the subrelativistic ejecta dominate the emission. We discuss their detectability in 1.4 GHz and 150 MHz and compare it with an updated estimate of the detectability of short gamma-ray bursts' orphan afterglows (which are produced by a different component of this outflow). We find that mergers with characteristics similar to those of the Galactic neutron star binary population (similar masses and typical circummerger Galactic disc density of similar to 1 cm(-3)) that take place at the detection horizon of advanced GW detectors (300 Mpc) yield 1.4 GHz [150 MHz] signals of similar to 50 [300] mu Jy, for several years. The signal on time-scales of weeks is dominated by the mildly and/or ultrarelativistic outflow, which is not accounted for by our simulations, and is expected to be even brighter. Upcoming all sky surveys are expected to detect a few dozen, and possibly more, merger remnants at any given time thereby providing robust lower limits to the mergers rate even before the advanced GW detectors become operational. The macronovae signals from the same distance peak in the IR to UV range at an observed magnitude that may be as bright as 22-23 about 10 h after the merger but dimmer, redder and longer if the opacity is larger.

  • 31.
    Rosswog, Stephan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    A gravitational-wave standard siren measurement of the Hubble constant2017In: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 551, no 7678, p. 85-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    On 17 August 2017, the Advanced LIGO(1) and Virgo(2) detectors observed the gravitational-wave event GW170817-a strong signal from the merger of a binary neutron-star system(3). Less than two seconds after the merger, a gamma-ray burst (GRB 170817A) was detected within a region of the sky consistent with the LIGO-Virgo-derived location of the gravitational-wave source(4-6). This sky region was subsequently observed by optical astronomy facilities(7), resulting in the identification(8-13) of an optical transient signal within about ten arcseconds of the galaxy NGC 4993. This detection of GW170817 in both gravitational waves and electromagnetic waves represents the first 'multi-messenger' astronomical observation. Such observations enable GW170817 to be used as a 'standard siren'(14-18) (meaning that the absolute distance to the source can be determined directly from the gravitational-wave measurements) to measure the Hubble constant. This quantity represents the local expansion rate of the Universe, sets the overall scale of the Universe and is of fundamental importance to cosmology. Here we report a measurement of the Hubble constant that combines the distance to the source inferred purely from the gravitational-wave signal with the recession velocity inferred from measurements of the redshift using the electromagnetic data. In contrast to previous measurements, ours does not require the use of a cosmic 'distance ladder'(19): the gravitational-wave analysis can be used to estimate the luminosity distance out to cosmological scales directly, without the use of intermediate astronomical distance measurements. We determine the Hubble constant to be about 70 kilometres per second per megaparsec. This value is consistent with existing measurements(20,21), while being completely independent of them. Additional standard siren measurements from future gravitational-wave sources will enable the Hubble constant to be constrained to high precision.

  • 32.
    Rosswog, Stephan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Jacobs University Bremen, Germany; University of California, USA.
    Boosting the accuracy of SPH techniques: Newtonian and special-relativistic tests2015In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 448, no 4, p. 3628-3664Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the impact of different discretization choices on the accuracy of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) and we explore them in a large number of Newtonian and special-relativistic benchmark tests. As a first improvement, we explore a gradient prescription that requires the (analytical) inversion of a small matrix. For a regular particle distribution, this improves gradient accuracies by approximately 10 orders of magnitude and the SPH formulations with this gradient outperform the standard approach in all benchmark tests. Secondly, we demonstrate that a simple change of the kernel function can substantially increase the accuracy of an SPH scheme. While the 'standard' cubic spline kernel generally performs poorly, the best overall performance is found for a high-order Wendland kernel which allows for only very little velocity noise and enforces a very regular particle distribution, even in highly dynamical tests. Thirdly, we explore new SPH volume elements that enhance the treatment of fluid instabilities and, last, but not least, we design new dissipation triggers. They switch on near shocks and in regions where the flow - without dissipation - starts to become noisy. The resulting new SPH formulation yields excellent results even in challenging tests where standard techniques fail completely.

  • 33.
    Rosswog, Stephan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    The dynamic ejecta of compact object mergers and eccentric collisions2013In: Philosophical Transactions. Series A: Mathematical, physical, and engineering science, ISSN 1364-503X, E-ISSN 1471-2962, Vol. 371, no 1992, p. 20120272-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Compact object mergers eject neutron-rich matter in a number of ways: by the dynamical ejection mediated by gravitational torques, as neutrino-driven winds, and probably also a good fraction of the resulting accretion disc finally becomes unbound by a combination of viscous and nuclear processes. If compact binary mergers indeed produce gamma-ray bursts, there should also be an interaction region where an ultra-relativistic outflow interacts with the neutrino-driven wind and produces moderately relativistic ejecta. Each type of ejecta has different physical properties, and therefore plays a different role for nucleosynthesis and for the electromagnetic (EM) transients that go along with compact object encounters. Here, we focus on the dynamic ejecta and present results for over 30 hydrodynamical simulations of both gravitational wave-driven mergers and parabolic encounters as they may occur in globular clusters. We find that mergers eject approximately 1 per cent of a Solar mass of extremely neutron-rich material. The exact amount, as well as the ejection velocity, depends on the involved masses with asymmetric systems ejecting more material at higher velocities. This material undergoes a robust r-process and both ejecta amount and abundance pattern are consistent with neutron star mergers being a major source of the 'heavy' (A > 130) r-process isotopes. Parabolic collisions, especially those between neutron stars and black holes, eject substantially larger amounts of mass, and therefore cannot occur frequently without overproducing galactic r-process matter. We also discuss the EM transients that are powered by radioactive decays within the ejecta ('macronovae'), and the radio flares that emerge when the ejecta dissipate their large kinetic energies in the ambient medium.

  • 34.
    Rosswog, Stephan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
    The multi-messenger picture of compact binary mergers2015In: International Journal of Modern Physics D, ISSN 0218-2718, Vol. 24, no 5, article id 1530012Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the last decade, enormous progress has been achieved in the understanding of the various facets of coalescing double neutron star and neutron black hole binary systems. One hopes that the mergers of such compact binaries can be routinely detected with the advanced versions of the ground-based gravitational wave detector facilities, maybe as early as in 2016. From the theoretical side, there has also been mounting evidence that compact binary mergers could be major sources of heavy elements and these ideas have gained recent observational support from the detection of an event that has been interpreted as a macronova, an electromagnetic transient powered by freshly produced, radioactively decaying heavy elements. In addition, compact binaries are the most plausible triggers of short gamma-ray bursts (sGRBs) and the last decade has witnessed the first detection of a sGRB afterglow and subsequent observations have delivered a wealth of information on the environments in which such bursts occur. To date, compact binary mergers can naturally explain most -though not all -of the observed sGRB properties. This paper reviews major recent developments in various areas related to compact binary mergers.

  • 35.
    Rosswog, Stephan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Feindt, Ulrich
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Korobkin, O.
    Wu, M-R
    Sollerman, Jesper
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Goobar, Ariel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Martinez-Pinedo, G.
    Detectability of compact binary merger macronovae2017In: Classical and quantum gravity, ISSN 0264-9381, E-ISSN 1361-6382, Vol. 34, no 10, article id 104001Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the optical and near-infrared luminosities and detectability of radioactively powered electromagnetic transients ('macronovae') occuring in the aftermath of binary neutron star and neutron star black hole mergers. We explore the transients that result from the dynamic ejecta and those from different types of wind outflows. Based on full nuclear network simulations we calculate the resulting light curves in different wavelength bands. We scrutinize the robustness of the results by comparing (a) two different nuclear reaction networks and (b) two macronova models. We explore in particular how sensitive the results are to the production of alpha-decaying trans-lead nuclei. We compare two frequently used mass models: the finite-range Droplet model (FRDM) and the nuclear mass model of Duflo and Zuker (DZ31). We find that the abundance of alpha-decaying trans-lead nuclei has a significant impact on the observability of the resulting macronovae. For example, the DZ31 model yields considerably larger abundances resulting in larger heating rates and thermalization efficiencies and therefore predicts substantially brighter macronova transients. We find that the dynamic ejecta from NSNS models can reach peak K-band magnitudes in excess of -15 while those from NSBH cases can reach beyond -16. Similar values can be reached by some of our wind models. Several of our models (both wind and dynamic ejecta) yield properties that are similar to the transient that was observed in the aftermath of the short GRB 130603B. We further explore the expected macronova detection frequencies for current and future instruments such as VISTA, ZTF and LSST.

  • 36.
    Rosswog, Stephan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Korobkin, Oleg
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Arcones, A.
    Thielemann, F. -K
    Piran, T.
    The long-term evolution of neutron star merger remnants - I. The impact of r-process nucleosynthesis2014In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 439, no 1, p. 744-756Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We follow the long-term evolution of the dynamic ejecta of neutron star mergers for up to 100 years and over a density range of roughly 40 orders of magnitude. We include the nuclear energy input from the freshly synthesized, radioactively decaying nuclei in our simulations and study its effects on the remnant dynamics. Although the nuclear heating substantially alters the long-term evolution, we find that running nuclear networks over purely hydrodynamic simulations (i.e. without heating) yields actually acceptable nucleosynthesis results. The main dynamic effect of the radioactive heating is to quickly smooth out inhomogeneities in the initial mass distribution, subsequently the evolution proceeds self-similarly and after 100 years the remnant still carries the memory of the initial binary mass ratio. We also explore the nucleosynthetic yields for two mass ejection channels. The dynamic ejecta very robustly produce 'strong' r-process elements with A > 130 with a pattern that is essentially independent of the details of the merging system. From a simple model we find that neutrino-driven winds yield 'weak' r-process contributions with 50 < A < 130 whose abundance patterns vary substantially between different merger cases. This is because their electron fraction, set by the ratio of neutrino luminosities, varies considerably from case to case. Such winds do not produce any Ni-56, but a range of radioactive isotopes that are long-lived enough to produce a second, radioactively powered electromagnetic transient in addition to the 'macronova' from the dynamic ejecta. While our wind model is very simple, it nevertheless demonstrates the potential of such neutrino-driven winds for electromagnetic transients and it motivates further, more detailed neutrino-hydrodynamic studies. The properties of the mentioned transients are discussed in more detail in a companion paper.

  • 37.
    Rosswog, Stephan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). University of Bremen .
    Piran, T.
    Nakar, E.
    The multimessenger picture of compact object encounters: binary mergers versus dynamical collisions2013In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 430, no 4, p. 2585-2604Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We explore the multimessenger signatures of encounters between two neutron stars (ns(2)) and between a neutron star and a stellar mass black hole (nsbh). We focus on the differences between gravitational-wave-driven binary mergers and dynamical collisions that occur, for example, in globular clusters. Our discussion is based on Newtonian hydrodynamics simulations that incorporate a nuclear equation of state and a multiflavour neutrino treatment. For both types of encounters we compare the gravitational wave and neutrino emission properties. We also calculate the rates at which nearly unbound mass is delivered back to the central remnant in a ballistic-fallback-plus-viscous-disc model and we analyse the properties of the dynamically ejected matter. Last but not least we address the electromagnetic transients that accompany each type of encounter. We find that dynamical collisions are at least as promising as binary mergers for producing (short) gamma-ray bursts, but they also share the same possible caveats in terms of baryonic pollution. All encounter remnants produce peak neutrino luminosities of at least similar to 10(53) erg s(-1), some of the collision cases exceed this value by more than an order of magnitude. The canonical ns(2) merger case ejects more than 1 per cent of a solar mass of extremely neutron-rich (Y-e similar to 0.03) material, an amount that is consistent with double neutron star mergers being a major source of r-process in the galaxy. nsbh collisions eject very large amounts of matter (similar to 0.15 M-circle dot) which seriously constrains their admissible occurrence rates. The compact object collision rate (sum of ns(2) and nsbh) must therefore be less, likely much less, than 10 per cent of the ns(2) merger rate. The radioactively decaying ejecta produce optical-ultraviolet 'macronova' which, for the canonical merger case, peak after similar to 0.4 d with a luminosity of similar to 5 x 10(41) erg s(-1). ns(2) (nsbh) collisions reach up to two (four) times larger peak luminosities. The dynamic ejecta deposit a kinetic energy comparable to a supernova in the ambient medium. The canonical merger case releases approximately 2 x 10(50) erg, the most extreme (but likely rare) cases deposit kinetic energies of up to 10(52) erg. The deceleration of this mildly relativistic material by the ambient medium produces long lasting radio flares. A canonical ns(2) merger at the detection horizon of advanced LIGO/Virgo produces a radio flare that peaks on a time-scale of 1 yr with a flux of similar to 0.1 mJy at 1.4 GHz. Collisions eject more material at higher velocities and therefore produce brighter and longer lasting flares.

  • 38.
    Rosswog, Stephan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Sollerman, Jesper
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Feindt, Ulrich
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Goobar, Ariel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Korobkin, O.
    Wollaeger, R.
    Fremling, C.
    Kasliwal, M. M.
    The first direct double neutron star merger detection: Implications for cosmic nucleosynthesis2018In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 615, article id A132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. The astrophysical r-process site where about half of the elements, heavier than iron are produced, has been a puzzle for several decades. Here we discuss the role of one of the leading ideas - neutron star mergers (NSMs) - in the light of the first direct detection of such an event in both gravitational (GW) and electromagnetic (EM) waves. Aims. Our aim is to understand the implications of the first GW/EM observations of a NSM for cosmic nucleosynthesis. Methods. We analyse bolometric and NIR lightcurves of the first detected double NSM and compare them to nuclear reaction network-based macronova models. Results. The slope of the bolometric lightcurve is consistent with the radioactive decay of neutron star ejecta with Y-e less than or similar to 0.3 (but not larger), which provides strong evidence for an r-process origin of the electromagnetic emission. This rules out in particular nickel winds as major source of the emission. We find that the NIR lightcurves can be well fitted either with or without lanthanide-rich ejecta. Our limits on the ejecta mass together with estimated rates directly confirm earlier purely theoretical or indirect observational conclusions that double neutron star mergers are indeed a major site of cosmic nucleosynthesis. If the ejecta mass was typical, NSMs can easily produce all of the estimated Galactic r-process matter, and - depending on the real rate - potentially even more. This could be a hint that the event ejected a particularly large amount of mass, maybe due to a substantial difference between the component masses. This would be compatible with the mass limits obtained from the GW-observation. Conclusions. The recent observations suggests that NSMs are responsible for a broad range of r-process nuclei and that they are at least a major, but likely the dominant r-process site in the Universe.

  • 39. Sadowski, Aleksander
    et al.
    Tejeda, Emilio
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico.
    Gafton, Emanuel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Rosswog, Stephan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Abarca, David
    Magnetohydrodynamical simulations of a deep tidal disruption in general relativity2016In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 458, no 4, p. 4250-4268Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We perform hydro- and magnetohydrodynamical general-relativistic simulations of a tidal disruption of a 0.1 M-circle dot red dwarf approaching a 10(5) M-circle dot non-rotating massive black hole on a close (impact parameter beta = 10) elliptical (eccentricity e = 0.97) orbit. We track the debris self-interaction, circularization and the accompanying accretion through the black hole horizon. We find that the relativistic precession leads to the formation of a self-crossing shock. The dissipated kinetic energy heats up the incoming debris and efficiently generates a quasi-spherical outflow. The self-interaction is modulated because of the feedback exerted by the flow on itself. The debris quickly forms a thick, almost marginally bound disc that remains turbulent for many orbital periods. Initially, the accretion through the black hole horizon results from the self-interaction, while in the later stages it is dominated by the debris originally ejected in the shocked region, as it gradually falls back towards the hole. The effective viscosity in the debris disc stems from the original hydrodynamical turbulence, which dominates over the magnetic component. The radiative efficiency is very low because of low energetics of the gas crossing the horizon and large optical depth that results in photon trapping. Although the parameters of the simulated tidal disruption are probably not representative of most observed events, it is possible to extrapolate some of its properties towards more common configurations.

  • 40. Schwab, Josiah
    et al.
    Shen, Ken J.
    Quataert, Eliot
    Dan, Marius
    Rosswog, Stephan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    The viscous evolution of white dwarf merger remnants2012In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 427, no 1, p. 190-203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The merger of two white dwarfs (WDs) creates a differentially rotating remnant which is unstable to magnetohydrodynamic instabilities. These instabilities can lead to viscous evolution on a time-scale short compared to the thermal evolution of the remnant. We present multidimensional hydrodynamic simulations of the evolution of WD merger remnants under the action of an alpha-viscosity. We initialize our calculations using the output of eight WD merger simulations from Dan et al., which span a range of mass ratios and total masses. We generically find that the merger remnants evolve towards spherical states on time-scales of hours, even though a significant fraction of the mass is initially rotationally supported. The viscous evolution unbinds only a very small amount of mass (less than or similar to 10(-5)M(circle dot)). Viscous heating causes some of the systems we study with He WD secondaries to reach conditions of nearly-dynamical burning. It is thus possible that the post-merger viscous phase triggers detonation of the He envelope in some WD mergers, potentially producing a Type Ia supernova via a double-detonation scenario. Our calculations provide the proper initial conditions for studying the long-term thermal evolution of WD merger remnants. This is important for understanding WD mergers as progenitors of Type Ia supernovae, neutron stars, R Coronae Borealis stars and other phenomena.

  • 41.
    Setzer, Christian N.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Biswas, Rahul
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Peiris, Hiranya V.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). University College London, UK.
    Rosswog, Stephan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Korobkin, Oleg
    Wollaeger, Ryan T.
    Serendipitous discoveries of kilonovae in the LSST main survey: maximizing detections of sub-threshold gravitational wave events2019In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 485, no 3, p. 4260-4273Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the ability of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) to discover kilonovae (kNe) from binary neutron star (BNS) and neutron star-black hole (NSBH) mergers, focusing on serendipitous detections in the Wide-Fast-Deep (WFD) survey. We simulate observations of kNe with proposed LSST survey strategies, focusing on cadence choices that are compatible with the broader LSST cosmology programme. If all kNe are identical to GW170817, we find the baseline survey strategy will yield 58 kNe over the survey lifetime. If we instead assume a representative population model of BNS kNe, we expect to detect only 27 kNe. However, we find the choice of survey strategy significantly impacts these numbers and can increase them to 254 and 82 kNe over the survey lifetime, respectively. This improvement arises from an increased cadence of observations between different filters with respect to the baseline. We then consider the detectability of these BNS mergers by the Advanced LIGO/Virgo (ALV) detector network. If the optimal survey strategy is adopted, 202 of the GW170817-like kNe and 56 of the BNS population model kNe are detected with LSST but are below the threshold for detection by the ALV network. This represents, for both models, an increase by a factor greater than 4.5 in the number of detected sub-threshold events over the baseline strategy. These subthreshold events would provide an opportunity to conduct electromagnetic-triggered searches for signals in gravitational-wave data and assess selection effects in measurements of the Hubble constant from standard sirens, e.g. viewing angle effects.

  • 42. Tanvir, N. R.
    et al.
    Levan, A. J.
    Gonzalez-Fernandez, C.
    Korobkin, O.
    Mandel, I.
    Rosswog, Stephan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Hjorth, J.
    D'Avanzo, P.
    Fruchter, A. S.
    Fryer, C. L.
    Kangas, T.
    Milvang-Jensen, B.
    Rosetti, S.
    Steeghs, D.
    Wollaeger, R. T.
    Cano, Z.
    Copperwheat, C. M.
    Covino, S.
    D'Elia, V.
    de Ugarte Postigo, A.
    Evans, P. A.
    Even, W. P.
    Fairhurst, S.
    Jaimes, R. Figuera
    Fontes, C. J.
    Fujii, Y. I.
    Fynbo, J. P. U.
    Gompertz, B. P.
    Greiner, J.
    Hodosan, G.
    Irwin, M. J.
    Jakobsson, P.
    Jorgensen, U. G.
    Kann, D. A.
    Lyman, J. D.
    Malesani, D.
    McMahon, R. G.
    Melandri, A.
    O'Brien, P. T.
    Osborne, J. P.
    Palazzi, E.
    Perley, D. A.
    Pian, E.
    Piranomonte, S.
    Rabus, M.
    Rol, E.
    Rowlinson, A.
    Schulze, S.
    Sutton, P.
    Thone, C. C.
    Ulaczyk, K.
    Watson, D.
    Wiersema, K.
    Wijers, R. A. M. J.
    The Emergence of a Lanthanide-rich Kilonova Following the Merger of Two Neutron Stars2017In: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 848, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report the discovery and monitoring of the near-infrared counterpart (AT2017gfo) of a binary neutron-star merger event detected as a gravitational wave source by Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO)/Virgo (GW170817) and as a short gamma-ray burst by Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) and Integral SPI-ACS (GRB 170817A). The evolution of the transient light is consistent with predictions for the behavior of a kilonova/ macronova powered by the radioactive decay of massive neutron-rich nuclides created via r-process nucleosynthesis in the neutron-star ejecta. In particular, evidence for this scenario is found from broad features seen in Hubble Space Telescope infrared spectroscopy, similar to those predicted for lanthanide-dominated ejecta, and the much slower evolution in the near-infrared K-s-band compared to the optical. This indicates that the late-time light is dominated by high-opacity lanthanide-rich ejecta, suggesting nucleosynthesis to the third r-process peak (atomic masses A approximate to 195). This discovery confirms that neutron-star mergers produce kilo-/macronovae and that they are at least a major-if not the dominant-site of rapid neutron capture nucleosynthesis in the universe.

  • 43. Tao, Y.
    et al.
    Rosswog, Stephan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Bruggen, M.
    A simulation modeling approach to hydrothermal plumes and its comparison to analytical models2013In: Ocean Modelling, ISSN 1463-5003, E-ISSN 1463-5011, Vol. 61, p. 68-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the dynamics of hydrothermal plumes with the 3D time-dependent, Eulerian, adaptive mesh refinement code GERRIS, which solves the equations of viscous, incompressible hydrodynamics. We have implemented a new module into Gerris that treats buoyancy-driven turbulence by means of a subgrid mode. Our model is validated in numerical experiment and applied to the dynamics of a rising plume. First we simulate hydrothermal plumes in a static environment and compare our results to the widely used integral models (MTT or Briggs' model). The entrainment coefficient that we deduce from simulations falls into the range of the experimentally determined values. We also investigate the ratio between the level of the neutral-buoyancy layer and the maximum plume height. This ratio is frequently used to estimate plume heat flux via the measured level of neutral buoyancy. Although the ratio is only moderately (less than 10%) higher than the one predicted by the integral model, heat flux estimations can be substantially different. Finally, we explore the importance of background currents. We find that the simulated trajectories agree with integral models in the rising stage but the subsequent oscillations around the neutral-buoyancy layer are damped much more quickly and the level of the neutral buoyancy is also higher, same as the calm environment cases. By simulating the oscillation of a plume with suppressed transported turbulence and find a stronger oscillation than the original simulation, we suggest that a significant fraction of the difference between our model and the integral model can be explained by the absence of the turbulent transport of the latter.

  • 44.
    Tejeda, Emilio
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México.
    Gafton, Emanuel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Nordic Optical Telescope, Spain.
    Rosswog, Stephan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Miller, John C.
    Tidal disruptions by rotating black holes: relativistic hydrodynamics with Newtonian codes2017In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 469, no 4, p. 4483-4503Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose an approximate approach for studying the relativistic regime of stellar tidal disruptions by rotating massive black holes. It combines an exact relativistic description of the hydrodynamical evolution of a test fluid in a fixed curved space-time with a Newtonian treatment of the fluid's self-gravity. Explicit expressions for the equations of motion are derived for Kerr space-time using two different coordinate systems. We implement the new methodology within an existing Newtonian smoothed particle hydrodynamics code and show that including the additional physics involves very little extra computational cost. We carefully explore the validity of the novel approach by first testing its ability to recover geodesic motion, and then by comparing the outcome of tidal disruption simulations against previous relativistic studies. We further compare simulations in Boyer-Lindquist and Kerr-Schild coordinates and conclude that our approach allows accurate simulation even of tidal disruption events where the star penetrates deeply inside the tidal radius of a rotating black hole. Finally, we use the new method to study the effect of the black hole spin on the morphology and fallback rate of the debris streams resulting from tidal disruptions, finding that while the spin has little effect on the fallback rate, it does imprint heavily on the stream morphology, and can even be a determining factor in the survival or disruption of the star itself. Our methodology is discussed in detail as a reference for future astrophysical applications.

  • 45. Wollaeger, Ryan T.
    et al.
    Korobkin, Oleg
    Fontes, Christopher J.
    Rosswog, Stephan K.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Even, Wesley P.
    Fryer, Christopher L.
    Sollerman, Jesper
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Hungerford, Aimee L.
    Van Rossum, Daniel R.
    Wollaber, Allan B.
    Impact of ejecta morphology and composition on the electromagnetic signatures of neutron star mergers2018In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 478, no 3, p. 3298-3334Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The electromagnetic transients accompanying compact binary mergers (gamma-ray bursts, after-glows and 'macronovae') are crucial to pinpoint the sky location of gravitational wave sources. Macronovae are caused by the radioactivity from freshly synthesized heavy elements, e.g. from dynamic ejecta and various types of winds. We study macronova signatures by using multidimensional radiative transfer calculations. We employ the radiative transfer code SUPERNU and state-of-the-art LTE opacities for a few representative elements from the wind and dynamical ejecta (Cr, Pd, Se, Te, Br, Zr, Sm, Ce, Nd, U) to calculate synthetic light curves and spectra for a range of ejecta morphologies. The radioactive power of the resulting macronova is calculated with the detailed input of decay products. We assess the detection prospects for our most complex models, based on the portion of viewing angles that are sufficiently bright, at different cosmological redshifts (z). The brighter emission from the wind is unobscured by the lanthanides (or actinides) in some of the models, permitting non-zero detection probabilities for redshifts up to z = 0.07. We also find that the nuclear mass model and the resulting radioactive heating rate are crucial for the detectability. While for the most pessimistic heating rate (from the finite range droplet model) no reasonable increase in the ejecta mass or velocity, or wind mass or velocity, can possibly make the light curves agree with the observed near-infrared excess after GRB130603B, a more optimistic heating rate (from the Duflo-Zuker model) leads to good agreement. We conclude that future reliable macronova observations would constrain nuclear heating rates, and consequently help constrain nuclear mass models.

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