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  • 1.
    Alm, Susanne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Dreams meeting reality? A gendered perspective on the relationship between occupational preferences in early adolescence and actual occupation in adulthood2015In: Journal of Youth Studies, ISSN 1367-6261, E-ISSN 1469-9680, Vol. 18, no 8, p. 1077-1095Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    On the basis of longitudinal data from Sweden (n = 15,211), the article offers a gendered perspective on the relationship between occupational preferences during early adolescence and actual occupations in adulthood. Theoretically the study is based on socialisation theory and devaluation theory. The analyses show that preferences for one's future occupation were stronger among those who came to make gender-typical choices, than among those who chose a gender-atypical occupation. However, a gender difference was also found in that girls who came to choose a male dominated occupation showed a stronger preference for their future occupation in adolescence, than boys who came to choose a female dominated occupation. Results also showed that at a general level, the occupations in adulthood were even more gender segregated than the preferences in adolescence. This was particularly true for girls, who in adolescence expressed a stronger preference to work in a male dominated occupations, than they would later actually do.

  • 2.
    Alm, Susanne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Drug abuse and life-chances—Do childhood conditions matter? Results from a Swedish life course study2017In: Advances in Life Course Research, ISSN 1569-4909, E-ISSN 1879-6974, Vol. 32, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well known that people whose childhoods are characterized by various types of resource deficiencies are at significantly higher risk than others of developing serious drug-abuse. Having confirmed the existence of this correlation in the study's data set, this study asked whether the different childhood conditions experienced by individuals with serious drug-abuse problems continue to affect their life chances once these problems have become established, or whether the drug abuse appears to produce such radically new life conditions that childhood conditions no longer play a significant role. Analyses were based on the Stockholm Birth Cohort study which includes data on a cohort of individuals (n = 15,117) from birth to middle age, and in addition to measurements of social and economic problems during childhood, the analysis also included a measurement of the family's socio-economic status and a measurement of the individual's own childhood resources in the form of school performance. Drug abuse was measured using an indicator of whether the individual had been admitted for inpatient treatment with a drug-related diagnosis at least once at ages 16–30 (n = 229). On basis of Cox and OLS regression models, the most important conclusion from the study was that heavy drug-abuse seems to involve such a fundamental change to individuals' life situation that variations in childhood conditions lose a substantial amount of their power to explain subsequent life course outcomes. However, the study did find a tendency for SES of family of origin to be related to mortality risk up to age 56, in that those from less privileged homes died to a somewhat higher extent. Individuals from more privileged homes did not manage to recover to a higher extent though, but tended to remain in heavy abuse. The study found no relationship between childhood conditions and recovery from heavy abuse.

  • 3.
    Alm, Susanne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Isolating the effect of eviction on criminal convictions: Results from a Swedish study2018In: Acta Sociologica, ISSN 0001-6993, E-ISSN 1502-3869, Vol. 61, no 3, p. 263-282Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    On an individual level, criminal offending is linked to resource deficiencies. Since evictions tend to affect society’s weakest groups, we would expect evicted individuals to be convicted of crime to a higher degree than others even before eviction. But is there also a direct effect of eviction on criminal convictions? The aim of this study was to isolate the effect of eviction on criminal convictions. Propensity score matching was used and the analyses included all individuals evicted in Sweden from 2009 to 2010 (n = 5050), and a 10% sample of the adult population (n = 770,000). After matching based on relevant background factors, the analyses showed a significant increase in criminal convictions from the year of eviction until the end of the period studied, two to three years later. The pattern was similar for men and women. Future research should investigate eviction in relation to different types of crime.

  • 4.
    Alm, Susanne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Jag ska bli professor jag, tralala. Ett genusperspektiv på vad 1960-talets unga ville bli och vad de senare blev2019In: Att odla kriminologi. Perspektiv på brott och utsatthet: En festskrift till Eva Tiby / [ed] Anita Heber, Lena Roxell, Kriminologiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet , 2019, p. 293-307Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Alm, Susanne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Jag ska bli professor jag, tralala: Ett genusperspektiv på vad 1960-talets unga ville bli och vad de senare blev2019In: Att odla kriminologi: Perspektiv på brott och utsatthet. En festskrift till Eva Tiby / [ed] Anita Heber, Lena Roxell, Stockholm: Kriminologiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet , 2019, p. 293-307Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Alm, Susanne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Sibling configuration and the right to fail – parental and children’s own scholastic aspirations in different types of families2019In: International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, ISSN 0267-3843, E-ISSN 2164-4527Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to explore the life circumstances of singletons and first-born children, and the importance of the size of the sibling group, by focusing on scholastic aspirations, both on part of the children themselves, but also of their parents. The study used data collected with around 3650 children and their parents, and apart from information on the children’s and their parents’ explicit aspirations, there was also information on the children’s estimation of their parents’ aspirations. While only small differences in parental explicit aspirations were found, substantial differences were found with respect to the children’s own aspirations and their estimations of those of their parents. Only children were more likely to estimate high scholastic aspirations on part of their parents, as were first-borns with siblings. First- also tended to express higher scholastic aspirations themselves. Theoretically, strategic parenting and role specialization were used to explain the results.

  • 7.
    Alm, Susanne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Ungas framtidstro2014In: Den långa vägen till arbetsmarknaden: om unga utanför / [ed] Jonas Olofsson, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2014, 1, p. 297-309Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Alm, Susanne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    What happened to the Swedish problem drug users of the 1960's and 1970's?2015In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 109-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS & DESIGN - In this study we follow a Stockholm birth cohort born in 1953 (n = 14 294) from youth to middle age. The cohort members were in their teenage years when drug abuse was established as a considerable threat to Swedish society and some of the cohort members themselves became drug abusers (n=431). RESULTS - As expected, life became dramatically worse for those with documented drug abuse when young, than for the rest of the cohort members. While 72 percent of those without documented drug abuse were socially included at the age of 56, the corresponding share among those with documented drug abuse was 18 per cent. And while 5 percent in the former group were diseased at 56, this was true for 38 percent in the latter group. Supplementary analyses showed that social inclusion was also less stable among those with documented drug abuse than among the rest of the cohort, and that the flow from exclusion to inclusion was virtually nonexistent, which was not the case for those without experience of drug abuse. CONCLUSIONS - Gender specific analyses showed that the situation, at least in absolute terms, tended to be even worse for male drug abusers than for women. Gender differences in alcohol abuse, criminality, and with respect to parenthood are suggested as possible explanations to be further studied in future research.

  • 9.
    Alm, Susanne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Future orientation climate in the school class: Relations to adolescent delinquency, heavy alcohol use, and internalizing problem2016In: Children and youth services review, ISSN 0190-7409, E-ISSN 1873-7765, Vol. 70, p. 324-331Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well known, based on previous research, that adolescents' thoughts and feelings about their future are related to the risk of delinquency, alcohol use as well as health. However, other well-known facts are that adolescents' actions are substantially shaped in interaction with peers and that, during adolescence, individuals spend a considerable amount of the day at school, in interaction with classmates. Despite this, there is an almost complete lack of studies exploring to what extent the school climate, as measured by thoughts and feelings about the future, can influence individual adolescents. The aim of the current study is to investigate whether the future orientation (FO) climate, measured at the school class level, is related to delinquency, alcohol use and internalizing problems at the individual level, among a sample of Swedish students 14–15 years of age. The data used come from the Swedish part of the Youth in Europe (YES!) study, which is part of the larger project Children of Immigrants - Longitudinal Survey in Four European Countries (CILS4EU). In the present paper, we use data from the first wave, collected among 8th grade students in 2010/11 (n = 4119–4364). The method used was multilevel modeling (linear probability models (LPM) and linear regression analysis). The results showed that, in school classes where a high proportion of students had a positive future orientation, the risk of heavy alcohol use at the individual level was lower, also after adjusting for individual FO and for individual- and class-level socioeconomic conditions. A similar, but not statistically significant, tendency was found for delinquency. In addition, having a high proportion of students with a positive FO in a school class was associated with fewer internalizing problems, also after controlling for individual FO and socioeconomic conditions at the individual and school class level. We conclude that the surrounding school class, in terms of its general future orientation climate, may play a role for individual outcomes in the form of problem behaviors and mental health.

  • 10.
    Alm, Susanne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    The Gendered Mirror on the Wall: Satisfaction with Physical Appearance and Its Relationship to Global Self-esteem and Psychosomatic Complaints Among Adolescent Boys and Girls2018In: Young - Nordic Journal of Youth Research, ISSN 1103-3088, E-ISSN 1741-3222, Vol. 26, no 5, p. 525-541Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study investigated gender differences in satisfaction with physical appearance as a domain-specific aspect of self-esteem, and its association with global self-esteem and psychosomatic complaints. The data used was from the Stockholm School Survey, conducted among ninth grade students (15–16 years), with pooled information from six cross-sectional surveys in 2004–2014 (n = 32,117). Girls reported lower satisfaction with their appearance than boys. Satisfaction with appearance was more strongly associated with global self-esteem among girls, while the association with psychosomatic complaints was similar for both genders. There was a tendency towards a decline in satisfaction with appearance at the end of the study period for both genders, albeit more strong for girls. We conclude that satisfaction with appearance may contribute to our understanding of poor mental well-being among adolescent girls.

  • 11.
    Alm, Susanne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Bohman, Hannes
    Poor Family Relationships in Adolescence and the Risk of Premature Death: Findings from the Stockholm Birth Cohort Study2019In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, no 10, article id 1690Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Poor family relationships during childhood have been shown to have long-term negative effects on an offspring’s health. However, few studies have followed the offspring to retirement age, and relatedly, knowledge about the link between poor family relationships and premature death is scarce. The aim of this study was to examine the association between poor family relationships in adolescence and the risk of premature death, even when considering other adverse childhood conditions. Prospective data from the Stockholm Birth Cohort study were used, with 2636 individuals born in 1953 who were followed up until age 65. Information on family relations was based on interviews with the participants’ mothers in 1968. Information on mortality was retrieved from administrative register data from 1969–2018. Cox proportional hazards regressions showed that poor family relationships in adolescence were associated with an increased risk of premature death, even when adjusting for childhood conditions in terms of household social class, household economic poverty, contact with the child services, parental alcohol abuse, and parental mental illness (Hazard Ratio (HR), 2.08, 95% Confidence Interval (CI), 1.40–3.09). The findings show that poor family relationships in adolescence can have severe and long-lasting health consequences, highlighting the importance of early interventions.

  • 12.
    Alm, Susanne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Sandahl, Julia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    School effectiveness and students' future orientation: A multilevel analysis of upper secondary schools in Stockholm, Sweden2019In: Journal of Adolescence, ISSN 0140-1971, E-ISSN 1095-9254, Vol. 70, p. 62-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Future orientation (FO) refers to individuals' beliefs and feelings about their future. Earlier research has primarily investigated correlates of FO at the individual and family level, but it seems likely that FO is also shaped by other central agents or institutions, such as the school. Earlier studies have found positive associations between “school effectiveness” and student performance, and negative associations in relation to e.g., bullying, delinquency, and health risk behaviors. The current study investigated three teacher-reported features of school effectiveness - school leadership, teacher cooperation and consensus, and school ethos - and their links with student-reported FO.

    Methods

    Survey data were collected in 2016 among 5131 students (aged 17–18 years) and 1061 teachers in 46 upper secondary schools in Stockholm, Sweden, and merged with school-level register data. Two-level binary logistic regression analyses were performed.

    Results

    The analyses showed that higher teacher ratings of school leadership and school ethos were associated with a greater likelihood of reporting an optimistic FO among students. Teacher cooperation and consensus was however not associated with students' FO.

    Conclusion

    The findings indicate that the school environment contributes to shaping students' beliefs about their future. Thus, enhancing features of school effectiveness may be a way of promoting a positive development and brighter objective future prospects for the young, via pathways such as good student-teacher relations and academic motivation and achievement.

  • 13.
    Alm, Susanne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Bäckman, Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Openness to Gender Atypical Occupations in Youth: Do Peer Groups and School Classes Matter?2015In: Journal of Early Adolescence, ISSN 0272-4316, E-ISSN 1552-5449, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 97-119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article analyses aspects of gender composition and social dominance in peer groups and school classes and their effects on the degree of openness to gender-atypical occupations in young adolescents. The data set used contains information for some 13,000 girls and boys living in Stockholm in the early 1960s. Results from multi-level regressions show that gender composition is significantly related to openness to gender-atypical occupations at peer-group level only. As the causal direction of this relationship can be questioned, the result should be interpreted with caution. Concerning aspects of dominance, quite substantive effects on individual openness to gender-atypical occupations are found for girls, albeit not for boys. Thus, for girls, the degree of openness to gender-atypical occupations of the most central girl in the school class significantly affects the degree of openness to gender-atypical occupations of individual girls in that school class.

  • 14.
    Alm, Susanne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI). Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Estrada, Felipe
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Future Prospects, Deprivation, and Criminality – A Longitudinal Birth Cohort Study2018In: Deviant behavior, ISSN 0163-9625, E-ISSN 1521-0456, Vol. 39, no 10, p. 1280-1293Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article explores the longitudinal relationship between subjective and objective deprivation in early adolescence on the one hand, and criminal offending in adolescence and early adulthood on the other. Data from the Stockholm Birth Cohort Study (n = 15,117), containing information from surveys and registers are used. Bivariate analyses confirm a relationship between low socioeconomic status and both subjective and objective deprivation. Subjective deprivation alone is related to offending only for those from less privileged background. Subjective and objective deprivation in combination is associated with a higher risk of offending for all individuals, although the less privileged background, the higher the risk.

  • 15.
    Alm, Susanne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Nelson, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Nieuwenhuis, Rense
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    The Diminishing Power of One? Welfare State Retrenchment and Rising Poverty of Single-Adult Households in Sweden 1988-20112019In: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we analyse the sharp rise in poverty among working-age singles and single parents in Sweden. In a dual-earner society like Sweden, we show that the return of mass unemployment in combination with the retreat of a generous and inclusive welfare state have substantially increased the poverty risks of single-adult households, who cannot rely on the income buffering effect of the family. Whereas cutbacks to unemployment benefits have been detrimental for the relative income position of single-adult households, the poverty risks of couples with and without children are much less affected. Individual-level characteristics of the poor persons themselves provide little explanatory leverage for why trends in poverty diverge by family form. Our results raise a number of issues of relevance for the wider academic debate about the capacity of the welfare state to adequately respond to both old and new social risk groups.

  • 16.
    Alm, Susanne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Palme, Joakim
    Westholm, Erik
    Att utforska framtiden: valda perspektiv2012 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Visst går det att utforska framtiden på vetenskaplig grund! I boken ges exempel på hur perspektiv från såväl humaniora som samhälls- och naturvetenskap kan berika studiet även av det forskningsobjekt som ännu inte finns.

  • 17.
    Alm, Susanne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Roxell, Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Your Own Personal Jesus? Doctrinal Beliefs versus Personal Spirituality Among Inmates Involved in the Monastery Route in Swedish Prisons2019In: Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, ISSN 0021-8294, E-ISSN 1468-5906, Vol. 58, no 1, p. 192-209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies, mainly from the United States, have indicated that religious beliefs can help inmates to cope with imprisonment and to build hopes for the future. The purpose of this study was to examine if this is the case also in Sweden, which is usually considered to be one of the most secular countries in the world. The data consist of semistructured interviews with 14 prisoners participating in the so‐called Monastery Route activities within Swedish prisons. Although the activities are based on Christianity, the explicit aim is to invite individuals from all religions, as well as those with an open attitude toward spirituality. How do the inmates formulate their beliefs (if any) along the lines of doctrinal religiousness and personal spirituality, respectively? And, how does this orientation affect the ability to cope with imprisonment, as well as the views of the future? The results show that a small number of the participants defined themselves as Christian, but that the majority had instead developed a more personal form of spirituality. This provided them with a means of working with themselves and gave them a sense of inner calm. The study's findings are contrasted against conflicting results from the United States.

  • 18.
    B. Låftman, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Alm, Susanne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Sandahl, Julia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Future Orientation among Students Exposed to School Bullying and Cyberbullying Victimization2018In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 15, no 4, article id 605Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Future orientation can be defined as an individual’s thoughts, beliefs, plans, and hopes for the future. Earlier research has shown adolescents’ future orientation to predict outcomes later in life, which makes it relevant to analyze differences in future orientation among youth. The aim of the present study was to analyze if bullying victimization was associated with an increased likelihood of reporting a pessimistic future orientation among school youth. To be able to distinguish between victims and bully-victims (i.e., students who are both bullies and victims), we also took perpetration into account. The data were derived from the Stockholm School Survey performed in 2016 among ninth grade students (ages 15–16 years) (n = 5144). Future orientation and involvement in school bullying and in cyberbullying were based on self-reports. The statistical method used was binary logistic regression. The results demonstrated that victims and bully-victims of school bullying and of cyberbullying were more likely to report a pessimistic future orientation compared with students not involved in bullying. These associations were shown also when involvement in school bullying and cyberbullying were mutually adjusted. The findings underline the importance of anti-bullying measures that target both school bullying and cyberbullying.

  • 19.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Alm, Susanne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Olsson, Gabriella
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Sundqvist, Kristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Wennberg, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden .
    Future orientation, gambling and risk gambling among youth: A study of adolescents in Stockholm2019In: International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, ISSN 0267-3843, E-ISSN 2164-4527Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to analyze the association between adolescents’ future orientation and their engagement in gambling and in risk gambling, respectively. The data used come from the Stockholm School Survey, collected in 2016 among students in the ninth grade in elementary school (15–16 years) and in the second grade of upper secondary school (17–18 years) in Stockholm municipality (n = 11,661). The results showed that adolescents who expected their future to be ‘much worse’ than that of others were more inclined to engage in gambling and in risk gambling compared with adolescents who expected their future to be similar to that of others. Furthermore, adolescents who expected their future to be ‘much better’ than that of others had an increased likelihood of engaging in gambling but not in risk gambling. The results are discussed in the light of elements from rational choice theory.

  • 20.
    Nelson, Kenneth
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Nieuwenhuis, Rense
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Alm, Susanne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Sweden: Adjoining the Guarantee Pension with NDC2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes old-age incomes in Sweden from a pension policy perspective, focusing on both the economic position of elderly citizens and the redistributive effects of the pension system’s different parts. The empirical analyses show that each subsequent cohort that reaches retirement age faces higher relative poverty risks than previous cohorts. The relative decline in the value of the guaranteed minimum pension vis-à-vis the real income growth of wage earners brings to the forefront the issues of indexation of the guarantee and the ceiling on the means-tested housing benefits like the basic safety net for pensioners.

  • 21.
    Nelson, Kenneth
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Nieuwenhuis, Rense
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Alm, Susanne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Sweden: Adjoining the Guarantee Pension with NDC2020In: Progress and Challenges of Nonfinancial Defined Contribution Pension Schemes: Volume 1. Addressing Marginalization, Polarization, and the Labor Market / [ed] Robert Holzmann, Edward Palmer, Robert Palacios, Stefano Sacchi, World Bank, 2020, p. 215-239Chapter in book (Other academic)
1 - 21 of 21
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