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  • 1. Abunge, Caroline
    et al.
    Coulthard, Sarah
    Daw, Tim M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Connecting Marine Ecosystem Services to Human Well-being: Insights from Participatory Well-being Assessment in Kenya2013In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 42, no 8, p. 1010-1021Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The linkage between ecosystems and human well-being is a focus of the conceptualization of ecosystem services as promoted by the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. However, the actual nature of connections between ecosystems and the well-being of individuals remains complex and poorly understood. We conducted a series of qualitative focus groups with five different stakeholder groups connected to a small-scale Kenyan coastal fishery to understand (1) how well-being is understood within the community, and what is important for well-being, (2) how people's well-being has been affected by changes over the recent past, and (3) people's hopes and aspirations for their future fishery. Our results show that people conceive well-being in a diversity of ways, but that these can clearly map onto the MA framework. In particular, our research unpacks the freedoms and choices element of the framework and argues for greater recognition of these aspects of well-being in fisheries management in Kenya through, for example, more participatory governance processes.

  • 2. Balvanera, Patricia
    et al.
    Daw, Tim M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Gardner, Toby A.
    Martin-Lopez, Berta
    Norström, Albert V.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Speranza, Chinwe Ifejika
    Spierenburg, Marja
    Bennett, Elena M.
    Farfan, Michelle
    Hamann, Maike
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Kittinger, John N.
    Luthe, Tobias
    Maass, Manuel
    Peterson, Garry D.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Perez-Verdin, Gustavo
    Key features for more successful place-based sustainability research on social-ecological systems: a Programme on Ecosystem Change and Society (PECS) perspective2017In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 22, no 1, article id 14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The emerging discipline of sustainability science is focused explicitly on the dynamic interactions between nature and society and is committed to research that spans multiple scales and can support transitions toward greater sustainability. Because a growing body of place-based social-ecological sustainability research (PBSESR) has emerged in recent decades, there is a growing need to understand better how to maximize the effectiveness of this work. The Programme on Ecosystem Change and Society (PECS) provides a unique opportunity for synthesizing insights gained from this research community on key features that may contribute to the relative success of PBSESR. We surveyed the leaders of PECS-affiliated projects using a combination of open, closed, and semistructured questions to identify which features of a research project are perceived to contribute to successful research design and implementation. We assessed six types of research features: problem orientation, research team, and contextual, conceptual, methodological, and evaluative features. We examined the desirable and undesirable aspects of each feature, the enabling factors and obstacles associated with project implementation, and asked respondents to assess the performance of their own projects in relation to these features. Responses were obtained from 25 projects working in 42 social-ecological study cases within 25 countries. Factors that contribute to the overall success of PBSESR included: explicitly addressing integrated social-ecological systems; a focus on solutionand transformation-oriented research; adaptation of studies to their local context; trusted, long-term, and frequent engagement with stakeholders and partners; and an early definition of the purpose and scope of research. Factors that hindered the success of PBSESR included: the complexities inherent to social-ecological systems, the imposition of particular epistemologies and methods on the wider research group, the need for long periods of time to initiate and conduct this kind of research, and power asymmetries both within the research team and among stakeholders. In the self-assessment exercise, performance relating to team and context-related features was ranked higher than performance relating to methodological, evaluation, and problem orientation features. We discuss how these insights are relevant for balancing place-based and global perspectives in sustainability science, fostering more rapid progress toward inter-and transdisciplinary integration, redefining and measuring the success of PBSESR, and facing the challenges of academic and research funding institutions. These results highlight the valuable opportunity that the PECS community provides in helping build a community of practice for PBSESR.

  • 3.
    Biggs, Reinette
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Schlüter, Maja
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Germany.
    Biggs, Duan
    Bohensky, Erin L.
    BurnSilver, Shauna
    Cundill, Georgina
    Dakos, Vasilis
    Daw, Tim M.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of East Anglia, United Kingdom.
    Evans, Louisa S.
    Kotschy, Karen
    Leitch, Anne M.
    Meek, Chanda
    Quinlan, Allyson
    Raudsepp-Hearne, Ciara
    Robards, Martin D.
    Schoon, Michael L.
    Schultz, Lisen
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    West, Paul C.
    Toward Principles for Enhancing the Resilience of Ecosystem Services2012In: Annual Review Environment and Resources, ISSN 1543-5938, E-ISSN 1545-2050, Vol. 37, p. 421-448Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Enhancing the resilience of ecosystem services (ES) that underpin human well-being is critical for meeting current and future societal needs, and requires specific governance and management policies. Using the literature, we identify seven generic policy-relevant principles for enhancing the resilience of desired ES in the face of disturbance and ongoing change in social-ecological systems (SES). These principles are (P1) maintain diversity and redundancy, (P2) manage connectivity, (P3) manage slow variables and feedbacks, (P4) foster an understanding of SES as complex adaptive systems (CAS), (P5) encourage learning and experimentation, (P6) broaden participation, and (P7) promote polycentric governance systems. We briefly define each principle, review how and when it enhances the resilience of ES, and conclude with major research gaps. In practice, the principles often co-occur and are highly interdependent. Key future needs are to better understand these interdependencies and to operationalize and apply the principles in different policy and management contexts.

  • 4. Chaigneau, Tomas
    et al.
    Daw, Tim M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of Exeter, United Kingdom.
    Individual and village-level effects on community support for Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) in the Philippines2015In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 51, p. 499-506Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A crucial factor in the success of protected areas and conservation efforts in general is the support amongst the adjacent community. It is thought to be especially crucial for the success of small MPAs. Whilst the importance of community support has been highlighted in a number of studies, it has not yet been clearly defined or explicitly studied. Questionnaires were carried out (N=166) at three different villages within the Visayas region of the Philippines to determine individuals' support towards adjacent MPAs and individual characteristics that have previously been hypothesised to influence support. Multiple regressions analysis determined: (1) Which individual-level factors predict attitude towards MPAs, (2) whether attitudes of individuals are related to actions that benefit the adjacent MPA and (3) whether individual or community-level factors are better predictors of individual support for local community-based MPAs. Knowledge of MPA objectives, perceived participation in decision making, trust towards other fishers and differences between villages all significantly predicted attitudes towards MPAs. Weak relationships were found between attitudes and certain MPA related actions due to contextual factors. Village was not the only significant predictor of both attitudes and MPA related actions; individual characteristics irrespective of differences between villages, were also important in predicting support for the MPA. This study highlights the importance in distinguishing between attitudes and actions of individuals and suggests specific individual characteristics can be vital in influencing support towards MPAs.

  • 5. Cinner, Joshua E.
    et al.
    Daw, Tim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of East Anglia, United Kingdom.
    Huchery, Cindy
    Thoya, Pascal
    Wamukota, Andrew
    Cedras, Maria
    Abunge, Caroline
    Winners and Losers in Marine Conservation: Fishers' Displacement and Livelihood Benefits from Marine Reserves2014In: Society & Natural Resources, ISSN 0894-1920, E-ISSN 1521-0723, Vol. 27, no 9, p. 994-1005Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Marine reserves can create both benefits and costs to fishers. This article explores the perceptions of fishers in Kenya and Seychelles about displacement, spillover, and overall impacts of local marine reserves on their livelihoods. We test whether these perceptions are different among fishers from different geographic and socioeconomic conditions. Sixty-six percent of fishers had been displaced from marine reserves or coastal development and 90% believed they had caught fishes that spilled over from marine reserves. Poorer fishers in Kenya were both displaced from, and also felt like they benefited from, marine reserves. This highlights how people's experiences with marine reserves, both positive and negative, are affected by a range of social considerations that may not be incorporated in typical evaluations of ecological and economic marine reserve success.

  • 6. Cinner, Joshua E.
    et al.
    McClanahan, Tim R.
    MacNeil, M. Aaron
    Graham, Nicholas A. J.
    Daw, Tim M.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Mukminin, Ahmad
    Feary, David A.
    Rabearisoa, Ando L.
    Wamukota, Andrew
    Jiddawi, Narriman
    Campbell, Stuart J.
    Baird, Andrew H.
    Januchowski-Hartley, Fraser A.
    Hamed, Salum
    Lahari, Rachael
    Morove, Tau
    Kuange, John
    Comanagement of coral reef social ecological systems2012In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 109, no 14, p. 5219-5222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In an effort to deliver better outcomes for people and the ecosystems they depend on, many governments and civil society groups are engaging natural resource users in collaborative management arrangements (frequently called comanagement). However, there are few empirical studies demonstrating the social and institutional conditions conducive to successful comanagement outcomes, especially in small-scale fisheries. Here, we evaluate 42 comanagement arrangements across five countries and show that: (i) comanagement is largely successful at meeting social and ecological goals; (ii) comanagement tends to benefit wealthier resource users; (iii) resource overexploitation is most strongly influenced by market access and users' dependence on resources; and (iv) institutional characteristics strongly influence livelihood and compliance outcomes, yet have little effect on ecological conditions.

  • 7.
    Crona, Beatrice I.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Basurto, Xavier
    Squires, Dale
    Gelcich, Stefan
    Daw, Tim M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Khan, Ahmed
    Havice, Elizabeth
    Chomo, Victoria
    Troell, Max
    Buchary, Eny A.
    Allison, Edward H.
    Towards a typology of interactions between small-scale fisheries and global seafood trade2016In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 65, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fish and fish-related products are among the most highly traded commodities globally and the proportion of globally harvested fish that is internationally traded has steadily risen over time. Views on the benefits of international seafood trade diverge, partly as a result from adopting either an aggregate national focus or a focus on local market actors. However, both views generally assume that the trade in question is characterized by export of fisheries resources to international markets. This is potentially misleading as empirical evidence suggests that import of seafood can also have impacts on local SSF dynamics. A systematic analysis of the different ways in which local production systems connect to international seafood markets can therefore help shed more light on why small-scale fisheries exhibit such differences in outcomes as they engage in an increasingly global seafood trade. This paper conducts a synthesis across 24 cases from around the world and develops a typology of small-scale fisheries and how they connect to and interact with international seafood trade. The analysis is based on key features drawn from trade theory regarding how trade interacts with local production. The implications of the findings for social and ecological sustainability of small-scale fisheries are discussed with the aim of identifying further research topics which deserve attention to better inform trade policy for more sustainable fisheries and more just wealth distribution from their trade.

  • 8.
    Crona, Beatrice I.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Daw, Tim M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of East Anglia, UK.
    Swartz, Wilf
    Norström, Albert V.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Nyström, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Thyresson, Matilda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Hentati-Sundberg, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Österblom, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Deutsch, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Troell, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Masked, diluted and drowned out: how global seafood trade weakens signals from marine ecosystems2016In: Fish and Fisheries, ISSN 1467-2960, E-ISSN 1467-2979, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 1175-1182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nearly 40% of seafood is traded internationally and an even bigger proportion is affected by international trade, yet scholarship on marine fisheries has focused on global trends in stocks and catches, or on dynamics of individual fisheries, with limited attention to the link between individual fisheries, global trade and distant consumers. This paper examines the usefulness of fish price as a feedback signal to consumers about the state of fisheries and marine ecosystems. We suggest that the current nature of fisheries systems and global markets prevent transmission of such price signals from source fisheries to consumers. We propose several mechanisms that combine to weaken price signals, and present one example - the North Sea cod - to show how these mechanisms can be tested. The lack of a reliable price feedback to consumers represents a challenge for sustainable fisheries governance. We therefore propose three complimentary approaches to address the missing feedback: (i) strengthening information flow through improved traceability and visibility of individual fishers to consumers, (ii) capitalizing on the changing seafood trade structures and (iii) bypassing and complementing market mechanisms by directly targeting citizens and political actors regarding marine environmental issues through publicity and information campaigns. These strategies each havelimitations and thus need to be pursued together to address the challenge of sustainability in global marine fisheries.

  • 9.
    Crona, Beatrice I.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Van Holt, T.
    Petersson, M.
    Daw, Tim M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Buchary, Eny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Using social-ecological syndromes to understand impacts of international seafood trade on small-scale fisheries2015In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 35, p. 162-175Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Globalization has increased the speed and flow of people, information, and commodities across space, integrating markets and increasing interdependence of geographically dispersed places worldwide. Places historically driven by largely local forces and market demands are now increasingly affected by drivers at multiple scales. Trade is particularly important in driving these changes and more fish is now exported to international markets than ever before. When small-scale fisheries are integrated into global markets, local social-ecological systems change with potentially both positive and negative impacts on livelihoods, economics and ecology, but few studies systematically investigate how and why the outcomes of market integration vary from case to case. This paper systematically assesses multiple (social, ecological, economic and institutional) local effects of market integration in cases around the world by drawing on the global environmental change syndromes approach. Furthermore, we examine the factors contributing to the syndromes observed. Our analysis identifies three distinct social-ecological syndromes associated with international seafood trade. Results suggest that the presence of strong and well-enforced institutions is the principal factor behind the syndrome characterized by sustained fish stocks, while a combination of weak institutions, patron-client relationships, high demand from China and highly vulnerable target species explain the other two syndromes distinguished by declining stocks, conflict and debt among fishers. A key finding is that the factors emerging as important for explaining the different syndromes derive from different scales (e.g. local market structures vs distant market characteristics), indicating a need for multi-level governance approaches to deal with the effects of market integration. Furthermore, the meta-analysis shows that each syndrome encompasses fisheries from multiple continents. This suggests that the increasingly global nature of the seafood trade appears to be driving local dynamics by creating similar conditions for vulnerabilities in localities around the world, lending support to the notion of teleconnectivity across geographic space.

  • 10.
    Daw, Tim
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Brown, Katrina
    School of International Development, University of East Anglia.
    Rosendo, Sergio
    Faculdade de Ciências Sociais e Humanas, FCSH, Universidade Nova de Lisboa.
    Pomeroy, Robert
    Applying the ecosystem services concept to poverty alleviation: the need to disaggregate human well-being2011In: Environmental Conservation, ISSN 0376-8929, E-ISSN 1469-4387, Vol. 38, no 04, p. 370-379Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of ecosystem services (ES), the benefits humans derive from ecosystems, is increasingly applied to environmental conservation, human well-being and poverty alleviation, and to inform the development of interventions. Payments for ecosystem services (PES) implicitly recognize the unequal distribution of the costs and benefits of maintaining ES, through monetary compensation from ‘winners’ to ‘losers’. Some research into PES has examined how such schemes affect poverty, while other literature addresses trade-offs between different ES. However, much evolving ES literature adopts an aggregated perspective of humans and their well-being, which can disregard critical issues for poverty alleviation. This paper identifies four issues with examples from coastal ES in developing countries. First, different groups derive well-being benefits from different ES, creating winners and losers as ES, change. Second, dynamic mechanisms of access determine who can benefit. Third, individuals' contexts and needs determine how ES contribute to well-being. Fourth, aggregated analyses may neglect crucial poverty alleviation mechanisms such as cash-based livelihoods. To inform the development of ES interventions that contribute to poverty alleviation, disaggregated analysis is needed that focuses on who derives which benefits from ecosystems, and how such benefits contribute to the well-being of the poor. These issues present challenges in data availability and selection of how and at which scales to disaggregate. Disaggregation can be applied spatially, but should also include social groupings, such as gender, age and ethnicity, and is most important where inequality is greatest. Existing tools, such as stakeholder analysis and equity weights, can improve the relevance of ES research to poverty alleviation.

  • 11.
    Daw, Tim M.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Cinner, Joshua E.
    McClanahan, Timothy R.
    Brown, Katrina
    Stead, Selina M.
    Graham, Nicholas A. J.
    Maina, Joseph
    To Fish or Not to Fish: Factors at Multiple Scales Affecting Artisanal Fishers' Readiness to Exit a Declining Fishery2012In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 2, p. e31460-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Globally, fisheries are challenged by the combined impacts of overfishing, degradation of ecosystems and impacts of climate change, while fisheries livelihoods are further pressured by conservation policy imperatives. Fishers' adaptive responses to these pressures, such as exiting from a fishery to pursue alternative livelihoods, determine their own vulnerability, as well as the potential for reducing fishing effort and sustaining fisheries. The willingness and ability to make particular adaptations in response to change, such as exiting from a declining fishery, is influenced by economic, cultural and institutional factors operating at scales from individual fishers to national economies. Previous studies of exit from fisheries at single or few sites, offer limited insight into the relative importance of individual and larger-scale social and economic factors. We asked 599 fishers how they would respond to hypothetical scenarios of catch declines in 28 sites in five western Indian Ocean countries. We investigated how socioeconomic variables at the individual-, household- and site-scale affected whether they would exit fisheries. Site-level factors had the greatest influence on readiness to exit, but these relationships were contrary to common predictions. Specifically, higher levels of infrastructure development and economic vitality - expected to promote exit from fisheries - were associated with less readiness to exit. This may be due to site level histories of exit from fisheries, greater specialisation of fishing households, or higher rewards from fishing in more economically developed sites due to technology, market access, catch value and government subsidies. At the individual and household scale, fishers from households with more livelihood activities, and fishers with lower catch value were more willing to exit. These results demonstrate empirically how adaptive responses to change are influenced by factors at multiple scales, and highlight the importance of understanding natural resource-based livelihoods in the context of the wider economy and society.

  • 12.
    Daw, Tim M.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Cinner, Joshua E.
    McClanahan, Timothy R.
    Graham, Nicholas A. J.
    Wilson, Shaun K.
    Design Factors and Socioeconomic Variables Associated with Ecological Responses to Fishery Closures in the Western Indian Ocean:  2011In: Coastal Management, ISSN 0892-0753, E-ISSN 1521-0421, Vol. 39, no 4, p. 412-424Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We assessed the ability of socioeconomic variables (population size, perceived infringement, and community infrastructure) and design features (closure age and area) to predict ecological indicators of “success” in seventeen coral-reef fishery closures in the Western Indian Ocean. Success was measured as absolute fish biomass and coral cover in closures, and the response ratio of these variables indicating the level of difference relative to control sites outside closures. Fish biomass had a greater and more consistent response to protection than coral cover. Human population density had a strong positive association with the response of fish biomass, which was driven by lower biomass outside marine protected areas (MPAs) in high human population density sites, rather than higher biomass within MPAs. Perceived infringement was negatively associated with the absolute and response ratio of fish biomass. Coral cover was variable, weakly related to closure, and positively related to closure size and human population density. This, and previous regional studies, indicate that physical design features have a modest effect on the response of fish to MPAs, that design features interact with compliance, and that human population density around closures can indirectly influence the effect of MPAs on fish populations.

  • 13.
    Daw, Tim M.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of East Anglia, United Kingdom.
    Coulthard, Sarah
    Cheung, William W. L.
    Brown, Katrina
    Abunge, Caroline
    Galafassi, Diego
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Peterson, Garry D.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    McClanahan, Tim R.
    Omukoto, Johnstone O.
    Munyi, Lydiah
    Evaluating taboo trade-offs in ecosystems services and human well-being2015In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 112, no 22, p. 6949-6954Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Managing ecosystems for multiple ecosystem services and balancing the well-being of diverse stakeholders involves different kinds of trade-offs. Often trade-offs involve noneconomic and difficult-to-evaluate values, such as cultural identity, employment, the well-being of poor people, or particular species or ecosystem structures. Although trade-offs need to be considered for successful environmental management, they are often overlooked in favor of win-wins. Management and policy decisions demand approaches that can explicitly acknowledge and evaluate diverse trade-offs. We identified a diversity of apparent trade-offs in a small-scale tropical fishery when ecological simulations were integrated with participatory assessments of social-ecological system structure and stakeholders' well-being. Despite an apparent win-win between conservation and profitability at the aggregate scale, food production, employment, and well-being of marginalized stakeholders were differentially influenced by management decisions leading to trade-offs. Some of these trade-offs were suggested to be taboo trade-offs between morally incommensurable values, such as between profits and the well-being of marginalized women. These were not previously recognized as management issues. Stakeholders explored and deliberated over trade-offs supported by an interactive toy model representing key system trade-offs, alongside qualitative narrative scenarios of the future. The concept of taboo trade-offs suggests that psychological bias and social sensitivity may exclude key issues from decision making, which can result in policies that are difficult to implement. Our participatory modeling and scenarios approach has the potential to increase awareness of such trade-offs, promote discussion of what is acceptable, and potentially identify and reduce obstacles to management compliance.

  • 14.
    Daw, Tim M.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Hicks, Christina C.
    Brown, Katrina
    Chaigneau, Tomas
    Januchowski-Hartley, Fraser A.
    Cheung, William W. L.
    Rosendo, Sergio
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Science, Sweden.
    Coulthard, Sarah
    Sandbrook, Chris
    Perry, Chris
    Bandeira, Salomao
    Muthiga, Nyawira A.
    Schulte-Herbrüggen, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Bosire, Jared
    McClanahan, Tim R.
    Elasticity in ecosystem services: exploring the variable relationship between ecosystems and human well-being2016In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 21, no 2, article id 11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although ecosystem services are increasingly recognized as benefits people obtain from nature, we still have a poor understanding of how they actually enhance multidimensional human well-being, and how well-being is affected by ecosystem change. We develop a concept of ecosystem service elasticity (ES elasticity) that describes the sensitivity of human well-being to changes in ecosystems. ES Elasticity is a result of complex social and ecological dynamics and is context dependent, individually variable, and likely to demonstrate nonlinear dynamics such as thresholds and hysteresis. We present a conceptual framework that unpacks the chain of causality from ecosystem stocks through flows, goods, value, and shares to contribute to the well-being of different people. This framework builds on previous conceptualizations, but places multidimensional well-being of different people as the final element. This ultimately disaggregated approach emphasizes how different people access benefits and how benefits match their needs or aspirations. Applying this framework to case studies of individual coastal ecosystem services in East Africa illustrates a wide range of social and ecological factors that can affect ES elasticity. For example, food web and habitat dynamics affect the sensitivity of different fisheries ecosystem services to ecological change. Meanwhile high cultural significance, or lack of alternatives enhance ES elasticity, while social mechanisms that prevent access can reduce elasticity. Mapping out how chains are interlinked illustrates how different types of value and the well-being of different people are linked to each other and to common ecological stocks. We suggest that examining chains for individual ecosystem services can suggest potential interventions aimed at poverty alleviation and sustainable ecosystems while mapping out of interlinkages between chains can help to identify possible ecosystem service trade-offs and winners and losers. We discuss conceptual and practical challenges of applying such a framework and conclude on its utility as a heuristic for structuring interdisciplinary analysis of ecosystem services and human well-being.

  • 15.
    Daw, Tim
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Robinson, Jan
    Graham, Nicholas AJ
    Perceptions of trends in Seychelles artisanal trap fisheries: comparing catch monitoring, underwater visual census and fishers’ knowledge2011In: Environmental Conservation, ISSN 0376-8929, E-ISSN 1469-4387, Vol. 38, p. 75-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fisheries scientists and managers are increasingly engaging with fishers' knowledge (FK) to provide novel information and improve the legitimacy of fisheries governance. Disputes between the perceptions of fishers and scientists can generate conflicts for governance, but can also be a source of new perspectives or understandings. This paper compares artisanal trap fishers' reported current catch rates with landings data and underwater visual census (UVC). Fishers' reports of contemporary 'normal' catch per day tended to be higher than recent median landings records. However, fishers' reports of 'normal' catch per trap were not significantly different from the median CPUE calculated from landings data, and reports of 'good' and 'poor' catch rates were indicative of variability observed in landings data. FK, landings and UVC data all gave different perspectives of trends over a ten-year period. Fishers' perceptions indicated greater declines than statistical models fitted to landings data, while UVC evidence for trends varied between sites and according to the fish assemblage considered. Divergence in trend perceptions may have resulted from differences in the spatial, temporal or taxonomic focus of each dataset. Fishers may have experienced and understood behavioural changes and increased fishing power, which may have obscured declines from landings data. Various psychological factors affect memory and recall, and may have affected these memory-based estimates of trends, while different assumptions underlying the analysis of both interview data and conventional scientific data could also have led to qualitatively different trend perceptions. Differing perspectives from these three data sources illustrate both the potential for 'cognitive conflicts' between stakeholders who do not rely on the same data sources, as well as the importance of multiple information sources to understand dynamics of fisheries. Collaborative investigation of such divergence may facilitate learning and improve fisheries governance.

  • 16. Ditzel Faraco, Luiz Francisco
    et al.
    Andriguetto Filho, Jose Milton
    Daw, Tim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Lana, Paulo da Cunha
    Teixeira, Cristina Frutuoso
    Vulnerability Among Fishers in Southern Brazil and its Relation to Marine Protected Areas in a Scenario of Declining Fisheries2016In: Desenvolvimento e Meio Ambiente, ISSN 1518-952X, E-ISSN 2176-9109, Vol. 38, p. 51-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vulnerability of small-scale fishers in the north coast of Parana State, Southern Brazil, has been increasing due to a decline in catches and general problems of access to and management of natural resources, associated with biodiversity conservation policies. The predicted effects of climate change will represent an additional source of disturbance on local livelihoods. This study aimed to describe vulnerability of fishers and their adaptation strategies to ongoing reductions in catches, considered an analogue of possible responses to expected effects of climate change, and to evaluate the influence of no-take protected areas on them. Interviews were applied to 213 households, in 9 villages from Guaraquecaba, in the Paranagua Estuarine Complex. Results show that vulnerability varies in different spatial levels, mainly due to differences in the reliance on fisheries as a source of income, and in distribution of physical and social capital. Protected areas, if not adequately managed, can have a double negative effect on more vulnerable households, by restricting their access to mangrove resources in the present, and by limiting the viability of their favoured adaptation strategy for the future. These results are potentially useful for the development of biodiversity conservation and fisheries management actions adequate to the local level, and that contribute to reduce inequality and build resilience of fishers and the coastal ecosystems they rely on, in a scenario of declining fisheries and climate change.

  • 17.
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Cornell, Sarah
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Öhman, Marcus C.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Daw, Tim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Moberg, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Norström, Albert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Persson, Åsa
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Peterson, Garry
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Rockström, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Schultz, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Hermansson Török, Ellika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Global sustainability & human prosperity: contribution to the Post-2015 agenda and the development of Sustainable Development Goals2014Report (Other academic)
  • 18. Eriksson, Hampus
    et al.
    Adhuri, Dedi S.
    Adrianto, Luky
    Andrew, Neil L.
    Apriliani, Tenny
    Daw, Tim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Evans, Louisa
    Garces, Len
    Kamanyi, Egidius
    Mwaipopo, Rosemarie
    Purnomo, Agus H.
    Sulu, Reuben J.
    Beare, Doug J.
    An ecosystem approach to small-scale fisheries through participatory diagnosis in four tropical countries2016In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 36, p. 56-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Participatory diagnosis is an approach to identify, prioritize and mobilise around factors that constrain or enable effective governance and management in small-scale fisheries. Diagnostic frameworks are mostly designed and used for systematic scientific analysis or impact evaluation. Through participation they also have potential to guide contextually informed improvements to management in practice, including transitions to contemporary forms of governance like the ecosystem approach to fisheries (EAF) the focus of our study. We document and critically reflect on participatory diagnosis processes and outcomes at sites in Indonesia, Philippines, Solomon Islands and Tanzania. These sites were part of an international project on the implementation of the EAF and differed widely in institutional and operational contexts. The Participatory Diagnosis and Adaptive Management framework and the issue radar diagnosis map were used to identify, evaluate and address factors associated with navigating management transitions towards the EAF. We found that many challenges and priority actions identified by participants were similar across the four study countries. Participants emphasized habitat restoration, particularly mangrove rehabilitation, and livelihood enhancement. The importance of strengthening governance entities, networks and processes (e.g., harmonization of policies, education and awareness of policies) was also a prominent outcome of the diagnosis. Site-specific factors were also explored together with the differing views among stakeholders. We conclude that diagnosis frameworks are indeed useful tools for guiding management transitions in fisheries, particularly where they enable flexibility in approaches to diagnosing problems and applying solutions to local contexts.

  • 19.
    Galafassi, Diego
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Daw, Tim M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Munyi, Lydiah
    Brown, Katrina
    Barnaud, Cecile
    Fazey, Ioan
    Learning about social-ecological trade-offs2017In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 22, no 1, article id 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Trade-offs are manifestations of the complex dynamics in interdependent social-ecological systems. Addressing tradeoffs involves challenges of perception due to the dynamics of interdependence. We outline the challenges associated with addressing trade-offs and analyze knowledge coproduction as a practice that may contribute to tackling trade-offs in social-ecological systems. We discuss this through a case study in coastal Kenya in which an iterative knowledge coproduction process was facilitated to reveal social-ecological trade-offs in the face of ecological and socioeconomic change. Representatives of communities, government, and NGOs attended two integrative workshops in which methods derived from systems thinking, dialogue, participatory modeling, and scenarios were applied to encourage participants to engage and evaluate trade-offs. Based on process observation and interviews with participants and scientists, our analysis suggests that this process lead to increased appreciation of interdependences and the way in which trade-offs emerge from complex dynamics of interdependent factors. The process seemed to provoke a reflection of knowledge assumptions and narratives, and management goals for the social-ecological system. We also discuss how stakeholders link these insights to their practices.

  • 20.
    Galafassi, Diego
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Tim M., Daw
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Thyresson, Matilda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Rosendo, Sergio
    Chaigneau, Tomas
    Bandeira, Salomao
    Munyi, Lydiah
    Gabrielsson, Ida
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Brown, Katrina
    Stories in social-­ecological knowledge co­-creation2018In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 23, no 1, article id 23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transformations in social-ecological systems to overturn poverty and ecosystem degradation require approaches to knowledge synthesis that are inclusive and open to creative innovation. In this paper we draw on interviews with participants and in-depth process observation of an iterative knowledge co-creation process in Kenya and Mozambique that brought together scientists, community representatives, government representatives and practitioners with expertise or experience of poverty and/or coastal natural resource use and management. We analyze the communicative spaces opened by techniques of system diagrams and future scenarios and provide a rich account of the emergent process of developing a “shared conceptual repertoire” as a basis for effective communication and knowledge synthesis. Our results highlight the difficulties of challenging dominant narratives and the creative potential that exists in reflecting on their underpinning assumptions. In our analysis stories and lived experiences emerged as key means shaping the construction of shared concepts and ideas. We conclude by outlining the implications for designing knowledge co-creation processes that support the task of devising systemic interventions robust to a range of future scenarios. This includes embracing the role of stories in generating shared meanings and opening up spaces for exploration of knowledge assumptions embedded in intervention narratives.

  • 21.
    Hamann, Maike
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Biggs, Reinette
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Reyers, Belinda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, South Africa.
    Tengö, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Daw, Tim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of East Anglia, United Kingdom.
    Hahn, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Selomane, Odirilwe
    Polasky, Stephen
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Four perspectives on ecosystem servicesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Mahajan, Shauna L.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Daw, Tim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Perceptions of ecosystem services and benefits to human well-being from community-based marine protected areas in Kenya2016In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 74, p. 108-119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) have historically been implemented and managed in a top-down way, excluding resource-dependent users from planning and management. In response to conflict and non-compliance, the governance of marine resources is increasingly embracing community-based approaches, assuming that by putting communities at the forefront of planning and management, participation will increase, causing positive social and ecological impacts. Given the relative newness of community-based MPAs, this study explores how resource users perceive their impacts on ecosystem services (ES) and human well-being (HWB). This study, explores two community-based MPAs called tengefus in Kenya using mixed qualitative methods, including a participatory photography method called photovoice. Participation in and donor support for tengefus influences how resource users perceived tengefus and their impacts on ES and HWB. Individuals who were engaged in the tengefu from the inception or held official positions perceived more positive impacts on ES and HWB compared to those not as involved. Tengefus were often viewed by communities as attractors for external support and funding, positively influencing attitudes and feelings towards conservation. One site, the first tengefu in Kenya, had more external support and was surrounded by positive perceptions, while the other site had little external support and was surrounded by more conflict and mixed perceptions. This study exemplifies the complex social political dynamics that MPAs create and are embedded within. Community-based MPA initiatives could benefit from ensuring widespread engagement throughout the inception, implementation and management, recognizing and managing expectations around donor support, and not assuming that benefits spillover throughout the community.

  • 23. Matsue, Naomi
    et al.
    Daw, Tim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of East Anglia, England.
    Garrett, Lucy
    Fish Traders on the Kenyan Coast: Livelihoods, Bargaining Power, and Participation in Management2014In: Coastal Management, ISSN 0892-0753, E-ISSN 1521-0421, Vol. 42, no 6, p. 531-554Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although gender plays a key role in mediating social relations and livelihood dynamics in fisheries, women's roles have received little attention in many fisheries. Mama karanga are women on the Kenyan coast who buy and process fish for local markets from small-scale fishermen. Mama karanga provide a link between the fishery and poor fish consumers, but are also vulnerable to changes in the fishery due to a lack of education, alternative livelihoods, and capital. Despite their dependence on the fishery and potential importance for food security, mama karanga have been little studied, and this article presents a description of their livelihood and a contribution to the growing literature on gender, fisheries and natural resource management. The livelihoods framework is used to organize information on mama karanga's bargaining power and participation in fisheries management. Bargaining power and access to fish is determined mostly by financial capital, the level of fish catches, and social capital, including complex relations with each other, and fishermen. While mama karanga are aware of fisheries management issues, their active participation is limited due to lack of assets and highly imbalanced gender power relations. In order to integrate important actors such as mama karanga, fisheries governance needs to expand in scope and address gender-based barriers to participation.

  • 24. Milner-Gulland, E. J.
    et al.
    Mcgregor, J. A.
    Agarwala, M.
    Atkinson, G.
    Bevan, P.
    Clements, T.
    Daw, Tim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of East Anglia, England .
    Homewood, K.
    Kumpel, N.
    Lewis, J.
    Mourato, S.
    Fry, B. Palmer
    Redshaw, M.
    Rowcliffe, J. M.
    Suon, S.
    Wallace, G.
    Washington, H.
    Wilkie, D.
    Accounting for the Impact of Conservation on Human Well-Being2014In: Conservation Biology, ISSN 0888-8892, E-ISSN 1523-1739, Vol. 28, no 5, p. 1160-1166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conservationists are increasingly engaging with the concept of human well-being to improve the design and evaluation of their interventions. Since the convening of the influential Sarkozy Commission in 2009, development researchers have been refining conceptualizations and frameworks to understand and measure human well-being and are starting to converge on a common understanding of how best to do this. In conservation, the term human well-being is in widespread use, but there is a need for guidance on operationalizing it to measure the impacts of conservation interventions on people. We present a framework for understanding human well-being, which could be particularly useful in conservation. The framework includes 3 conditions; meeting needs, pursuing goals, and experiencing a satisfactory quality of life. We outline some of the complexities involved in evaluating the well-being effects of conservation interventions, with the understanding that well-being varies between people and over time and with the priorities of the evaluator. Key challenges for research into the well-being impacts of conservation interventions include the need to build up a collection of case studies so as to draw out generalizable lessons; harness the potential of modern technology to support well-being research; and contextualize evaluations of conservation impacts on well-being spatially and temporally within the wider landscape of social change. Pathways through the smog of confusion around the term well-being exist, and existing frameworks such as the Well-being in Developing Countries approach can help conservationists negotiate the challenges of operationalizing the concept. Conservationists have the opportunity to benefit from the recent flurry of research in the development field so as to carry out more nuanced and locally relevant evaluations of the effects of their interventions on human well-being. Consideracion del Impacto de la Conservacion sobre el Bienestar Humano

  • 25. Oteros-Rozas, Elisa
    et al.
    Martín-López, Berta
    Daw, Tim M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Bohensky, Erin L.
    Butler, James R. A.
    Hill, Rosemary
    Martin-Ortega, Julia
    Quinlan, Allyson
    Ravera, Federica
    Ruiz-Mallén, Isabel
    Thyresson, Matilda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Mistry, Jayalaxshmi
    Palomo, Ignacio
    Peterson, Garry
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Plieninger, Tobias
    Waylen, Kerry A.
    Beach, Dylan M.
    Bohnet, Iris C.
    Hamann, Maike
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Hanspach, Jan
    Hubacek, Klaus
    Lavorel, Sandra
    Vilardy, Sandra P.
    Participatory scenario planning in place-based social-ecological research: insights and experiences from 23 case studies2015In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 20, no 4, article id 32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Participatory scenario planning (PSP) is an increasingly popular tool in place-based environmental research for evaluating alternative futures of social-ecological systems. Although a range of guidelines on PSP methods are available in the scientific and grey literature, there is a need to reflect on existing practices and their appropriate application for different objectives and contexts at the local scale, as well as on their potential perceived outcomes. We contribute to theoretical and empirical frameworks by analyzing how and why researchers assess social-ecological systems using place-based PSP, hence facilitating the appropriate uptake of such scenario tools in the future. We analyzed 23 PSP case studies conducted by the authors in a wide range of social-ecological settings by exploring seven aspects: (1) the context; (2) the original motivations and objectives; (3) the methodological approach; (4) the process; (5) the content of the scenarios; (6) the outputs of the research; and (7) the monitoring and evaluation of the PSP process. This was complemented by a reflection on strengths and weaknesses of using PSP for the place-based social-ecological research. We conclude that the application of PSP, particularly when tailored to shared objectives between local people and researchers, has enriched environmental management and scientific research through building common understanding and fostering learning about future planning of social-ecological systems. However, PSP still requires greater systematic monitoring and evaluation to assess its impact on the promotion of collective action for transitions to sustainability and the adaptation to global environmental change and its challenges.

  • 26. Pascual, Unai
    et al.
    Palomo, Ignacio
    Adams, William M.
    Chan, Kai M. A.
    Daw, Tim M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Garmendia, Eneko
    Gomez-Baggethun, Erik
    de Groot, Rudolf S.
    Mace, Georgina M.
    Martin-Lopez, Berta
    Phelps, Jacob
    Off-stage ecosystem service burdens: A blind spot for global sustainability2017In: Environmental Research Letters, ISSN 1748-9326, E-ISSN 1748-9326, Vol. 12, no 7, article id 075001Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The connected nature of social-ecological systems has never been more apparent than in today's globalized world. The ecosystem service framework and associated ecosystem assessments aim to better inform the science-policy response to sustainability challenges. Such assessments, however, often overlook distant, diffuse and delayed impacts that are critical for global sustainability. Ecosystem-services science must better recognise the off-stage impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem services of place-based ecosystem management, which we term 'ecosystem service burdens'. These are particularly important since they are often negative, and have a potentially significant effect on ecosystem management decisions. Ecosystem-services research can better recognise these off-stage burdens through integration with other analytical approaches, such as life cycle analysis and risk-based approaches that better account for the uncertainties involved. We argue that off-stage ecosystem service burdens should be incorporated in ecosystem assessments such as those led by the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Taking better account of these off-stage burdens is essential to achieve a more comprehensive understanding of cross-scale interactions, a prerequisite for any sustainability transition.

  • 27. Sale, Peter F.
    et al.
    Agardy, Tundi
    Ainsworth, Cameron H.
    Feist, Blake E.
    Bell, Johann D.
    Christie, Patrick
    Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove
    Mumby, Peter J.
    Feary, David A.
    Saunders, Megan I.
    Daw, Tim M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of East Anglia, UK.
    Foale, Simon J.
    Levin, Phillip S.
    Lindeman, Kenyon C.
    Lorenzen, Kai
    Pomeroy, Robert S.
    Allison, Edward H.
    Bradbury, R. H.
    Corrin, Jennifer
    Edwards, Alasdair J.
    Obura, David O.
    de Mitcheson, Yvonne J. Sadovy
    Samoilys, Melita A.
    Sheppard, Charles R. C.
    Transforming management of tropical coastal seas to cope with challenges of the 21st century2014In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 85, no 1, p. 8-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over 1.3 billion people live on tropical coasts, primarily in developing countries. Many depend on adjacent coastal seas for food, and livelihoods. We show how trends in demography and in several local and global anthropogenic stressors are progressively degrading capacity of coastal waters to sustain these people. Far more effective approaches to environmental management are needed if the loss in provision of ecosystem goods and services is to be stemmed. We propose expanded use of marine spatial planning as a framework for more effective, pragmatic management based on ocean zones to accommodate conflicting uses. This would force the holistic, regional-scale reconciliation of food security, livelihoods, and conservation that is needed. Transforming how countries manage coastal resources will require major change in policy and politics, implemented with sufficient flexibility to accommodate societal variations. Achieving this change is a major challenge - one that affects the lives of one fifth of humanity.

  • 28. Stikvoort, Britt
    et al.
    Lindahl, Therese
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Daw, Tim M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Thou shalt not sell nature: How taboo trade-offs can make us act pro-environmentally, to clear our conscience2016In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 129, p. 252-259Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many nature/natural areas are threatened by economic development and urban expansion. Oftentimes nature is not considered part of the cost/benefit analyses preceding such economic development, and most people find it offensive to price-tag nature. To pit (sacred) nature-values against other monetized values (these are so-called taboo trade-offs) is seen as morally offensive. Non-nature related taboo trade-offs (e.g. between life-saving and money-saving) were found elsewhere to induce moral cleansing attempts to reaffirm one's own moral position by performing overly moral 'cleansing' behaviour. This study investigated whether trade-offs between nature as sacred value and money as secular induces such moral cleansing in shape of pro-environmental behaviour (PEB). A laboratory experiment measured self-reported (hypothetical) and real donations to an environmental cause, after participants were presented with a taboo or non-taboo trade-off. Taboo trade-offs affected participants' real, but not hypothetical behaviour. Findings support prior evidence that confrontation with certain trade-offs affects people's behaviour, and expand the scope of sacred values to include nature, and moral cleansing behaviour to PEB.

  • 29. Wamukota, A. W.
    et al.
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Osuka, K.
    Daw, Tim M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of East Anglia, United Kingdom.
    The Importance of Selected Individual Characteristics in Determining Market Prices for Fishers and Traders in Keny an Small-Scale Fisheries2015In: Society & Natural Resources, ISSN 0894-1920, E-ISSN 1521-0723, Vol. 28, no 9, p. 959-974Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines how selected socioeconomic characteristics of fishers and traders shape market prices at five coastal communities in Kenya. Focus groups elicited perceived factors affecting market prices, which were then tested using quantitative analysis. Ownership of fishing gear by fishers negatively influenced the prices taken. Fish traders who bought larger quantities paid a higher price. There was no significant relation between the choice of fish market by traders and fish price due to the diffused nature of the fish market. Although fish traders had relatively high income than fishers, the link between individual characteristics, market prices, and the outcomes of such interactions is more complicated than commonly perceived. The complexity is enhanced by the heterogeneity in different fisheries and of the prices at different markets and underlines the importance of continued documentation and exploration of the relationships between social and economic status and market prices for fishers and traders.

  • 30.
    Österblom, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Baltic Nest Institute.
    Sissenwine, M.
    Symes, D.
    Kadin, Martina
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Daw, Tim
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of East Anglia, England.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Science, The Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Sweden.
    Incentives, social-ecological feedbacks and European fisheries2011In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 35, no 5, p. 568-574Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) has failed to deliver on social, economic and ecological goals. This failure is in part the result of a number of social-ecological feedback mechanisms. The policy is currently undergoing reform, with unknown practical outcomes. Here, relatively successful fisheries policies outside the European Union are reviewed. Through interviews and workshops with scientists, managers and other stakeholders, complemented with literature reviews, practices that can create incentives for long-term sustainability are investigated. The focus is on how the provision of clear and trusted scientific evidence can stimulate defensible decisions, in turn creating incentives for compliance, leading to positive social-ecological outcomes. Despite differences between Europe and the investigated case studies, the prospects of an increased regionalization within the European CFP provides the best starting point for implementing best practice identified in this study.

1 - 30 of 30
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