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  • 1.
    Balk, Lennart
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Hylland, Ketil
    Hansson, Tomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Berntssen, Marc H. G.
    Beyer, Jonny
    Jonsson, Grete
    Melbye, Alf
    Grung, Merete
    Torstensen, Bente E.
    Borseth, Jan Fredrik
    Skarphedinsdottir, Halldora
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Klungsoyr, Jarle
    Biomarkers in Natural Fish Populations Indicate Adverse Biological Effects of Offshore Oil Production2011In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 6, no 5, p. e19735-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Despite the growing awareness of the necessity of a sustainable development, the global economy continues to depend largely on the consumption of non-renewable energy resources. One such energy resource is fossil oil extracted from the seabed at offshore oil platforms. This type of oil production causes continuous environmental pollution from drilling waste, discharge of large amounts of produced water, and accidental spills. Methods and principal findings: Samples from natural populations of haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in two North Sea areas with extensive oil production were investigated. Exposure to and uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were demonstrated, and biomarker analyses revealed adverse biological effects, including induction of biotransformation enzymes, oxidative stress, altered fatty acid composition, and genotoxicity. Genotoxicity was reflected by a hepatic DNA adduct pattern typical for exposure to a mixture of PAHs. Control material was collected from a North Sea area without oil production and from remote Icelandic waters. The difference between the two control areas indicates significant background pollution in the North Sea. Conclusion: It is most remarkable to obtain biomarker responses in natural fish populations in the open sea that are similar to the biomarker responses in fish from highly polluted areas close to a point source. Risk assessment of various threats to the marine fish populations in the North Sea, such as overfishing, global warming, and eutrophication, should also take into account the ecologically relevant impact of offshore oil production.

  • 2.
    Balk, Lennart
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Hägerroth, Per-Ake
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Åkerman, Gun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Hanson, Marsha
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Tjärnlund, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Hansson, Tomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Hallgrimsson, Gunnar Thor
    Zebühr, Yngve
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Broman, Dag
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Mörner, Torsten
    Sundberg, Henrik
    Wild birds of declining European species are dying from a thiamine deficiency syndrome.2009In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 106, no 29, p. 12001-12006Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wild birds of several species are dying in large numbers from an idiopathic paralytic disease in the Baltic Sea area. Here, we demonstrate strong relationships between this disease, breeding failure, and thiamine (vitamin B(1)) deficiency in eggs, pulli, and full-grown individuals. Thiamine is essential for vertebrates, and its diphosphorylated form functions as a cofactor for several life sustaining enzymes, whereas the triphosphorylated form is necessary for the functioning of neuronal membranes. Paralyzed individuals were remedied by thiamine treatment. Moreover, thiamine deficiency and detrimental effects on thiamine-dependent enzymes were demonstrated in the yolk, liver, and brain. We propose that the mortality and breeding failure are part of a thiamine deficiency syndrome, which may have contributed significantly to declines in many bird populations during the last decades.

  • 3.
    Balk, Lennart
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Hägerroth, Per-Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Gustavsson, Hanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Sigg, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Åkerman, Gun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Ruiz Munoz, Yolanda
    Honeyfield, Dale C.
    Tjärnlund, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Oliveira, Kenneth
    Ström, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    McCormick, Stephen D.
    Karlsson, Simon
    Ström, Marika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    van Manen, Mathijs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Utrecht University, Germany.
    Berg, Anna-Lena
    Halldorsson, Halldor P.
    Strömquist, Jennie
    Collier, Tracy K.
    Börjeson, Hans
    Mörner, Torsten
    Hansson, Tomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Widespread episodic thiamine deficiency in Northern Hemisphere wildlife2016In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, article id 38821Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many wildlife populations are declining at rates higher than can be explained by known threats to biodiversity. Recently, thiamine (vitamin B-1) deficiency has emerged as a possible contributing cause. Here, thiamine status was systematically investigated in three animal classes: bivalves, ray-finned fishes, and birds. Thiamine diphosphate is required as a cofactor in at least five life-sustaining enzymes that are required for basic cellular metabolism. Analysis of different phosphorylated forms of thiamine, as well as of activities and amount of holoenzyme and apoenzyme forms of thiaminedependent enzymes, revealed episodically occurring thiamine deficiency in all three animal classes. These biochemical effects were also linked to secondary effects on growth, condition, liver size, blood chemistry and composition, histopathology, swimming behaviour and endurance, parasite infestation, and reproduction. It is unlikely that the thiamine deficiency is caused by impaired phosphorylation within the cells. Rather, the results point towards insufficient amounts of thiamine in the food. By investigating a large geographic area, by extending the focus from lethal to sublethal thiamine deficiency, and by linking biochemical alterations to secondary effects, we demonstrate that the problem of thiamine deficiency is considerably more widespread and severe than previously reported.

  • 4.
    Eklund, Britta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Hansson, Tomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Bengtsson, Henrik
    Eriksson Wiklund, Ann-Kristin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Pollutant Concentrations and Toxic Effects on the Red Alga Ceramium tenuicorne of Sediments from Natural Harbors and Small Boat Harbors on the West Coast of Sweden2016In: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, ISSN 0090-4341, E-ISSN 1432-0703, Vol. 70, no 3, p. 583-594Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This investigation set out to analyze the toxicity of surface sediments in a number of natural harbors and small boat harbors on the west coast of Sweden. This was done with the growth inhibition method with Ceramium tenuicorne. Also, concentrations of copper (Cu), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), irgarol, organotin compounds, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the sediments were analyzed. The small boat harbors were heavily polluted by Cu, Zn, butyltins, and PAHs, and to a lesser extent by Pb. The Cu, Pb, Zn, and butyltins probably originated from their past and/or present use in antifouling paints, whereas the PAHs probably had multiple sources, including boat motor exhausts. The measured toxicity of the sediment was generally related to their Cu, Zn, and butyltin content, although other toxic substances than those analyzed here probably contributed to the toxicity in some of the harbors. The natural harbor sediments contained less pollutants and were less toxic than the small boat harbor sediments. Nevertheless, our data indicate that the boating pressure today may be high enough to produce toxic effects even in natural harbors in pristine areas. The strongest relationship between toxicity and the major pollutants was obtained when the sediment toxicity was expressed as gram wet weight per liter compared with gram dry weight per liter and gram total organic carbon per liter. Hence, for pollutants that can be elutriated with natural sea water, sediment toxicity expressed as gram wet weight per liter appears preferable.

  • 5.
    Hansson, Tomas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Barsiene, Janina
    Tjärnlund, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Åkerman, Gun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Linderoth, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM). Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, Sweden.
    Zebühr, Yngve
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Stembeck, John
    Järnberg, Ulf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM). Bengt Dahlgren Stockholm AB, Sweden.
    Balk, Lennart
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Cytological and biochemical biomarkers in adult female perch (Perca fluviatilis) in a chronically polluted gradient in the Stockholm recipient (Sweden)2014In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 81, no 1, p. 27-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By measuring a battery of cytological and biochemical biomarkers in adult female perch (Perca fluviatilis), the city of Stockholm (Sweden) was investigated as a point source of anthropogenic aquatic pollution. The investigation included both an upstream gradient, 46 km westwards through Lake Malaren, and a downstream gradient, 84 km eastwards through the Stockholm archipelago. Indeed, there was a graded response for most of the biomarkers and for the muscle concentrations of Sigma PBDE, four organotin compounds and PFOS in the perch. The results indicated severe pollution in central Stockholm, with poor health of the perch, characterised by increased frequency of micronucleated erythrocytes, altered liver apoptosis, increased liver catalase activity, decreased brain aromatase activity, and decreased liver lysosomal membrane stability. Some biomarker responses were lowest in the middle archipelago and increased again eastwards, indicating a second, partly overlapping, gradient of toxic effects from the Baltic Sea.

  • 6.
    Hansson, Tomas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Hansen, Wenche
    Tjärnlund, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Balk, Lennart
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Bengtsson, Bengt-Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Biomarker Investigations in Adult Female Perch (Perca fluviatilis) From Industrialised Areas in Northern Sweden in 20032014In: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, ISSN 0090-4341, E-ISSN 1432-0703, Vol. 66, no 2, p. 237-247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the new millennium, a notion has developed in certain parts of society that environmental pollutants and their associated effects are under control. The primary objective of this investigation, performed in 2003, was to test whether this was actually the case in an industrialised region in the County of Vasternorrland in northern Sweden with well-documented environmental pollution from past and present activities. This was performed by measuring a moderate battery of simple biomarkers in adult female perch at several stations. The point sources included sewage-treatment plants, pulp and paper mills, as well as other industries. The biomarkers included growth, somatic indices, gonad maturation status, gonad pigmentation, fin erosion, skin ulcers, and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity in the liver. The results showed that the environmental pollutants and their associated effects were not under control. In fact, the health of the perch was impaired at all of the polluted stations. Many responses were unspecific with respect to underlying cause, whereas some effects on EROD activity and gonad maturation status were attributed to historical creosote pollution and current kraft pulp mill effluents, respectively. The data presented may also be used as reference values for future investigations of health effects in perch.

  • 7. Mörner, Torsten
    et al.
    Hansson, Tomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Carlsson, Le
    Berg, Anna-Lena
    Ruiz Muñoz, Yolanda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. University of Vigo, Spain.
    Gustavsson, Hanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Mattsson, Roland
    Balk, Lennart
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Thiamine deficiency impairs common eider (Somateria mollissima) reproduction in the field2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, article id 14451Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Baltic Sea population of the common eider (Somateria mollissima) has declined dramatically during the last two decades. Recently, widespread episodic thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency has been demonstrated in feral birds and suggested to contribute significantly to declining populations. Here we show that the decline of the common eider population in the Baltic Sea is paralleled by high mortality of the pulli a few days after hatch, owing to thiamine deficiency and probably also thereby associated abnormal behaviour resulting in high gull predation. An experiment with artificially incubated common eider eggs collected in the field revealed that thiamine treatment of pulli had a therapeutic effect on the thiamine status of the brain and prevented death. The mortality was 53% in untreated specimens, whereas it was only 7% in thiamine treated specimens. Inability to dive was also linked to brain damage typical for thiamine deficiency. Our results demonstrate how thiamine deficiency causes a range of symptoms in the common eider pulli, as well as massive die-offs a few days after hatch, which probably are the major explanation of the recent dramatic population declines.

  • 8.
    Skarphedinsdottir, Halldora
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Hallgrimsson, Gunnar Thor
    Hansson, Tomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Hägerroth, Per-Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Liewenborg, Birgitta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Tjärnlund, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Åkerman, Gun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Barsiene, Janina
    Balk, Lennart
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Genotoxicity in herring gulls (Larus argentatus) in Sweden and Iceland2010In: Mutation research. Genetic toxicology and environmental mutagenesis, ISSN 1383-5718, E-ISSN 1879-3592, Vol. 702, no 1, p. 24-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adult and young herring gulls (Larus argentatus) in Sweden and Iceland were investigated with respect to DNA adducts, analysed with the nuclease-P1 version of the P-32-postlabelling method, and micronucleated erythrocytes. Three important aims were: (1) to estimate the degree of exposure to genotoxic environmental pollutants in the Baltic Sea area and Iceland, (2) to evaluate the utility of the investigated biomarkers in birds, and (3) to investigate if there was any relationship between genotoxic effects and thiamine deficiency. The results demonstrate that both Swedish and Icelandic herring gulls are exposed to genotoxic pollution. Urban specimens have higher levels of DNA adducts than rural specimens, but background exposure to genotoxic environmental pollutants, such as PAHs, is also significant. In the herring gull the general level of DNA adducts in the liver seems to be higher than in fish. DNA adducts were most abundant in the liver, followed by the kidney, intestinal mucosa, and whole blood, in decreasing order. The frequency of micronucleated erythrocytes was probably slightly elevated in all the investigated sites, reflecting a significant background exposure. The level of DNA adducts was unrelated to the frequency of micronucleated erythrocytes, and both these variables were unrelated to symptoms of thiamine deficiency. The investigation confirmed the utility of DNA adducts, and probably also micronucleated erythrocytes, as biomarkers of genotoxicity in birds.

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