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  • 1.
    Alm, Charlotte
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Rehnberg, Nora Helmy
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Language and eyewitness suggestibility2019In: Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling, ISSN 1544-4759, E-ISSN 1544-4767, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 201-212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During forensic interviews, eyewitnesses are to retrieve correct information from memory. Cognitive load should be high, leading to risks of giving in to suggestive questions and difficulties in memory retrieval generally. Testifying in a non-native vs. native language may require even more cognitive effort due to the need to inhibit the interference of the native language. Such witnesses may also be more motivated to appear credible because they often belong to ethnic outgroups relative to forensic professionals, risking more scepticism. In this study, Swedish participants (N = 51) reported their memory of a simulated crime event either in English (non-native language) or in Swedish (native language) and were tested for suggestibility and accuracy. Results showed that English-speaking witnesses yielded to more suggestive questions, perceived themselves as less credible but were equally accurate. Results suggest that testifying in a non-native language is taxing cognitive resources, in turn increasing suggestibility and suboptimal memory search.

  • 2. Bäck, Emma A.
    et al.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Defending or Challenging the Status Quo: Position Effects on Biased Intergroup Perceptions2014In: The Journal of Social and Political Psychology, E-ISSN 2195-3325, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 77-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The default ideological position is status quo maintaining, and challenging the status quo is associated with increased efforts and risks. Nonetheless, some people choose to challenge the status quo. Therefore, to challenge the status quo should imply a strong belief in one’s position as the correct one, and thus efforts may be undertaken to undermine the position of others. Study 1 (N = 311) showed that challengers undermined, by ascribing more externality and less rationality, the position of defenders to a larger extent than defenders did of challengers’ position. Studies 2 (N = 135) and 3 (N= 109) tested if these effects were driven by the implied minority status of the challenging position. Results revealed no effects of experimentally manipulated numerical status, but challengers were again more biased than defenders. Study 3 also revealed that challengers felt more negatively toward their opponents (possibly due to greater social identification with like-minded others), and these negative emotions in turn predicted biased attributions. Results are important as they add to the understanding of how intergroup conflict may arise, providing explanations for why challengers are less tolerant of others’ point of view.

  • 3.
    Bäck, Emma A.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Svenson, Ola
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gilljam, Mikael
    Göteborgs universitet, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Esaisson, Peter
    Göteborgs universitet, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Post-decision consolidation in large group decision-making2011In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 52, no 4, p. 320-328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Decision-makers tend to change the psychological attractiveness of decision alternatives in favour of their own preferred alternative after the decision is made. In two experiments, the present research examined whether such decision consolidation occurs also among individual group members in a large group decision-making situation. High-school students were presented with a decision scenario on an important issue in their school. The final decision was made by in-group authority, out-group authority or by majority after a ballot voting. Results showed that individual members of large groups changed the attractiveness of their preferred alternative from a pre- to a post decision phase, that these consolidation effects increased when decisions were made by in-group members and when participants identified strongly with their school. Implications of the findings for understanding of group behavior and subgroup relations are discussed.

  • 4.
    Bäck, Emma
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Esaiasson, Peter
    Göteborgs universitet Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Gilljam, Mikael
    Göteborgs universitet, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Biased attributions regarding the origins of preferences in a group decision situation2010In: European Journal of Social Psychology, ISSN 0046-2772, E-ISSN 1099-0992, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 270-281Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current research investigated biases in attributions of the origins of others’ preferences in a group decision situation. In two experiments, students indicated their preferred alternative in a decision on an important issue in their school, and then explained the bases for preferences of those agreeing and disagreeing with them. Results showed that participants saw preferences of those who agreed as more rationally and less externally based than of those who disagreed. This effect increased with perceived issue importance, when the decision was made by in-group representatives, when the decision outcome was concordant with their own preference (Study 1), and, on the externality dimension, when their representatives were in the majority when deciding on an important issue (Study 2). Findings have important implications for our understanding of the tolerance of others and acceptance of group decisions, and ultimately, how group members behave and interact.

  • 5.
    Bäck, Emma
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gilljam, M.
    Esaiasson, P.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The role of issue importance in biased biases regarding the origins of preferences2008In: Annual Meeting of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Albuquerque, 2008, 2008Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Important issues seem to elicit attributional biases regarding origins of attitudes, such that people holding the same attitude as oneself (ingroup) is seen as more rational and less externally influenced than people holding an opposing attitude (outgroup) (Kenworthy & Miller, 2002). The current research examines the role of issue importance for such biases in three studies. In Study 1, students read about pros and cons of prohibiting religious symbols in Swedish schools. They stated their preferred alternative, issue importance, and rated origins of preferences for the ingroup and outgroup. Issue importance was related to biases. This relation was tested in two follow-up studies where high school students read about a hypothetical decision situation where their school was to decide whether to prohibit religious symbols or not. In both studies, participants stated preferred decision alternative and issue importance. Decision outcome was manipulated to concord or discord with participants’ preferences. In Study 2, decision-making form varied so the decision was made by the student council, school authorities or by voting. In Study 3, the student council of participants’ own and an adjacent school were going to make the decision together. School size and composition principle of the student council varied. Results showed that biases varied with target group and issue importance in both studies. In Study 2, biases also varied with decision-making form and outcome, although this was not replicated in Study 3. Importance seems to be decisive for biases, and decision-making form and outcome may under some circumstances influence biases.

  • 6.
    Bäck, Emma
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Status Quo Change: Bias Differences Between Pro and Con Positions2009In: XIth annual meeting of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Tampa, February 5-7, 2009, 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The default ideological position is status quo maintaining (Skitka et. al., 2002), and people typically perceive more self-interest in arguements undermining rather than maintaining the status quo (O’Brien & Crandall, 2005). However, it is not known how people pro status quo change perceive those disagree rather than agree with themselves. In three studies the current research explored how individuals pro and con a status quo change on a controversial issue (e. g., gay couples’ right to child adoption, prohibition of religious symbols in schools) perceived the externality and rationality of preferences among those who agreed and disagreed with their own preference (Kenworthy & Miller, 2002). In all three studies, individuals pro- as compared to con a status quo change showed more bias, that is more perceived externality and less rationality behind preferences of those disagreeing rather than agreeing with themselves. Individuals pro status quo change were more biased when a decision on the target issue was made that concorded rather than discorded with their own preference, whereas those against a change showed more bias with a discordant decision outcome. Because status quo is default position, people who challenge it take a risk, possibly inducing threat feelings which should increase biases (Stephan et. al., 2002). A concordant decision outcome in this situation may have a validating function, boosting self-enhancement and increase biases (Tajfel & Turner, 1986).

  • 7.
    Cancino-Montecinos, Sebastian
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Dissonance and abstraction: Cognitive conflict leads to higher level of construal2018In: European Journal of Social Psychology, ISSN 0046-2772, E-ISSN 1099-0992, Vol. 48, no 1, p. 100-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the effects of cognitive conflict on abstract thinking. According to action-identification theory, an ambiguous and unfamiliar situation might propel an individual to a more abstract mindset. Based on this premise, cognitive conflict was hypothesized to put people in an abstract mindset. The induced compliance paradigm, in which participants are asked to write a counter-attitudinal essay under either low choice (producing little dissonance) or high choice (producing more dissonance), was employed. Results showed that an abstract mindset was in fact activated in the induced compliance paradigm, and this effect was more pronounced for participants having a more concrete mindset to begin with. The results suggest that the experience of cognitive conflict is closely related to increased abstraction.

  • 8.
    Cancino-Montecinos, Sebastian
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Dissonance reduction as emotion regulation: Attitude change is related to positive emotions in the induced compliance paradigm2018In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 12, article id e0209012Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to clarify how positive and negative emotions are related to the common attitude-change effect in cognitive dissonance research. Drawing on appraisal theories of emotion, and emotion-regulation research, we predicted that negative emotions would be inversely related to attitude change, whereas positive emotions would be positively related to attitude change in the induced compliance paradigm. In two studies, participants (N = 44; N = 106) wrote a counter-attitudinal essay under the perception of high choice, and were later asked to state their emotions in relation to writing this essay, as well as to state their attitude. Results confirmed the predictions, even when controlling for baseline emotions. These findings untangled a previously unresolved issue in dissonance research, which in turn shows how important emotion theories are for the understanding of cognitive dissonance processes.

  • 9.
    Cancino-Montecinos, Sebastian
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Dissonance and abstraction: Cognitive conflict leads to higher level of construal2017In: 18th General Meeting of The European Association of Social Psychology: Programme and Abstract Book, European Association of Social Psychology , 2017, p. 123-123Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the effects of cognitive conflict on abstraction. Results revealed that an abstract mindset was in fact activated when participants experienced cognitive conflict. This suggest that cognitive conflicts are closely related to increased abstraction.

  • 10.
    Cancino-Montecinos, Sebastian
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Cognitive dissonance leads to an abstract mindset2016In: Book of abstract, 2016, p. 38-38Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the effects of cognitive dissonance on abstract thinking. According to action-identification theory, whenever people try to understand a situation in a new way, they activate an abstract mindset. Based on this premise, dissonance was hypothesized to put people in an abstract mindset. The induced compliance paradigm, in which participants are asked to write a counter-attitudinal essay under either low choice (producing little dissonance) or high choice (producing more dissonance), was employed. Results showed that dissonance did in fact activate a more abstract mindset, and this effect was more pronounced for participants having a more concrete mindset to begin with. This suggests that increasing abstraction, as a reaction to cognitive conflict, is a way for people to resolve inconsistencies.

  • 11.
    Cancino-Montecinos, Sebastian
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    The effects of cognitive dissonance on abstract thinking: Dissonance leads to an abstract mindset2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we investigated how individuals’ abstract thinking increases when experiencing dissonance. Dissonance theory holds that people reduce dissonance by accommodating their attitudes in order to fit their most recent behavior. This process resembles the reasoning of action-identification theory (AIT), which postulates that people usually try to understand their actions in a meaningful and coherent way, and also that actions can take on new meanings when people move from a low-level to a high-level understanding of the action. Thus, acting inconsistently threatens the coherent understanding of ones action; and in order to regain a sense of consonance, people will try to find a new meaning of their action (e.g., via attitude change). However, this occurs when moving to a high-level understanding (i.e., thinking more abstractly) of ones action. However, the effect of dissonance on abstraction should be stronger for individuals with low level of abstraction to begin with – since AIT holds that people who naturally tend to think abstractly already have high-level understandings of their actions. We predicted that: (1) dissonance puts people in a more abstract mindset, and (2) this effect will be more apparent for individuals low in abstraction. First, we established participants’ natural tendencies to abstract thinking with the Gestalt Completion Test (GCT). This variable was later split into low and high GCT. Several days later, we employed the induced compliance paradigm, in which participants were asked to write a counter-attitudinal essay under either low choice or high choice. High-choice participants usually experience more dissonance. We also created a neutral condition (to serve as a comparison to the other conditions) in which individuals were asked to write a pro-attitudinal essay. After the induced compliance manipulation, the Behavior Identification Form (BIF) was used to measure abstraction. The sample consisted of 125 non-psychology students. A 3 (condition: high-choice vs. low-choice vs. neutral) ˙ 2 (GCT: low vs. high) between subjects factorial ANOVA showed that participants in the high-choice condition (who experienced more dissonance) did exhibit a more abstract mindset, and level of GCT moderated this effect. The following simple effects analysis showed a significant effect for the low-GCT groups: (F(2, 119) = 6.607, p = .002, &#951;2 = .100) and the pairwise comparisons revealed that high-choice participants exhibited a significantly more abstract mindset (M = 16.65, SD = 4.54) compared to both the low-choice participants (M = 13.18, SD = 4.45) p = .013, d = .77 and the neutral participants (M = 12.25, SD = 4.71) p < .001, d = .95. No significant effects were found when comparing the high-GCT groups (p = .398). The present study demonstrated that dissonance activates abstract thinking, which is thought to facilitate people’s understanding their recent actions. This finding has important implication for the future study of consequences of cognitive conflicts, and also the study of how abstraction enables people to find new meanings of their own actions. Hence, investigation on these mechanisms could shed more light on how people regulate their thoughts, emotions and behavior in real time.

  • 12.
    Cederborg, Ann-Christin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lamb, Michael
    Norrman, Erik
    Evaluating the quality of investigative interviews after completion of training program2020In: Investigative Interviewing: Research and Practice, ISSN 2227-7420Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13. Conroy-Beam, Daniel
    et al.
    Buss, David M.
    Asao, Kelly
    Sorokowska, Agnieszka
    Sorokowski, Piotr
    Aavik, Toivo
    Akello, Grace
    Alhabahba, Mohammad Madallh
    Alm, Charlotte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Amjad, Naumana
    Anjum, Afifa
    Atama, Chiemezie S.
    Duyar, Derya Atamturk
    Ayebare, Richard
    Batres, Carlota
    Bendixen, Mons
    Bensafia, Aicha
    Bizumic, Boris
    Boussena, Mahmoud
    Butovskaya, Marina
    Can, Seda
    Cantarero, Katarzyna
    Carrier, Antonin
    Cetinkaya, Hakan
    Croy, Ilona
    Maria Cueto, Rosa
    Czub, Marcin
    Dronova, Daria
    Dural, Seda
    Duyar, Izzet
    Ertugrul, Berna
    Espinosa, Agustin
    Estevan, Ignacio
    Esteves, Carla Sofia
    Fang, Luxi
    Frackowiak, Tomasz
    Contreras Garduno, Jorge
    Ugalde Gonzalez, Karina
    Guemaz, Farida
    Gyuris, Petra
    Halamova, Maria
    Herak, Iskra
    Horvat, Marina
    Hromatko, Ivana
    Hui, Chin-Ming
    Jaafar, Jas Laile
    Jiang, Feng
    Kafetsios, Konstantinos
    Kavcic, Tina
    Kennair, Leif Edward Ottesen
    Kervyn, Nicolas
    Truong, Thi
    Khilji, Imran Ahmed
    Kobis, Nils C.
    Hoang, Moc
    Lang, Andras
    Lennard, Georgina R.
    Leon, Ernesto
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Trinh, Thi
    Lopez, Giulia
    Van Luot, Nguyen
    Mailhos, Alvaro
    Manesi, Zoi
    Martinez, Rocio
    McKerchar, Sarah L.
    Mesko, Norbert
    Misra, Girishwar
    Monaghan, Conal
    Mora, Emanuel C.
    Moya-Garofano, Alba
    Musil, Bojan
    Natividade, Jean Carlos
    Niemczyk, Agnieszka
    Nizharadze, George
    Oberzaucher, Elisabeth
    Oleszkiewicz, Anna
    Omar-Fauzee, Mohd Sofian
    Onyishi, Ike E.
    Ozener, Baris
    Pagani, Ariela Francesca
    Pakalniskiene, Vilmante
    Parise, Miriam
    Pazhoohi, Farid
    Pisanski, Annette
    Pisanski, Katarzyna
    Ponciano, Edna
    Popa, Camelia
    Prokop, Pavol
    Rizwan, Muhammad
    Sainz, Mario
    Salkicevic, Svjetlana
    Sargautyte, Ruta
    Sarmany-Schuller, Ivan
    Schmehl, Susanne
    Sharad, Shivantika
    Siddiqui, Razi Sultan
    Simonetti, Franco
    Stoyanova, Stanislava Yordanova
    Tadinac, Meri
    Varella, Marco Antonio Correa
    Vauclair, Christin-Melanie
    Diego Vega, Luis
    Widarini, Dwi Ajeng
    Yoo, Gyesook
    Zat'kova, Marta
    Zupančič, Maja
    Contrasting Computational Models of Mate Preference Integration Across 45 Countries2019In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, article id 16885Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Humans express a wide array of ideal mate preferences. Around the world, people desire romantic partners who are intelligent, healthy, kind, physically attractive, wealthy, and more. In order for these ideal preferences to guide the choice of actual romantic partners, human mating psychology must possess a means to integrate information across these many preference dimensions into summaries of the overall mate value of their potential mates. Here we explore the computational design of this mate preference integration process using a large sample of n = 14,487 people from 45 countries around the world. We combine this large cross-cultural sample with agent-based models to compare eight hypothesized models of human mating markets. Across cultures, people higher in mate value appear to experience greater power of choice on the mating market in that they set higher ideal standards, better fulfill their preferences in choice, and pair with higher mate value partners. Furthermore, we find that this cross-culturally universal pattern of mate choice is most consistent with a Euclidean model of mate preference integration.

  • 14. Conroy-Beam, Daniel
    et al.
    Roney, James R.
    Lukaszewski, Aaron W.
    Buss, David M.
    Asao, Kelly
    Sorokowska, Agnieszka
    Sorokowski, Piotr
    Aavik, Toivo
    Akello, Grace
    Alhabahba, Mohammad Madallh
    Alm, Charlotte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Amjad, Naumana
    Anjum, Afifa
    Atama, Chiemezie S.
    Duyar, Derya Atamturk
    Ayebare, Richard
    Batres, Carlota
    Bendixen, Mons
    Bensafia, Aicha
    Bertoni, Anna
    Bizumic, Boris
    Boussena, Mahmoud
    Butovskaya, Marina
    Can, Seda
    Cantarero, Katarzyna
    Carrier, Antonin
    Cetinkaya, Hakan
    Croy, Ilona
    Maria Cueto, Rosa
    Czub, Marcin
    Donato, Silvia
    Dronova, Daria
    Dural, Seda
    Duyar, Izzet
    Ertugrul, Berna
    Espinosa, Agustin
    Estevan, Ignacio
    Esteves, Carla Sofia
    Fang, Luxi
    Frackowiak, Tomasz
    Garduno, Jorge Contreras
    Ugalde Gonzalez, Karina
    Guemaz, Farida
    Gyuris, Petra
    Halamova, Maria
    Herak, Iskra
    Horvat, Marina
    Hromatko, Ivana
    Hui, Chin-Ming
    Iafrate, Raffaella
    Jaafar, Jas Laile
    Jiang, Feng
    Kafetsios, Konstantinos
    Kavcic, Tina
    Kennair, Leif Edward Ottesen
    Kervyn, Nicolas
    Truong, Thi
    Khilji, Imran Ahmed
    Kobis, Nils C.
    Hoang, Moc
    Lang, Andras
    Lennard, Georgina R.
    Leon, Ernesto
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Trinh, Thi
    Lopez, Giulia
    Nguyen, Van
    Mailhos, Alvaro
    Manesi, Zoi
    Martinez, Rocio
    McKerchar, Sarah L.
    Mesko, Norbert
    Misra, Girishwar
    Monaghan, Conal
    Mora, Emanuel C.
    Moya-Garofano, Alba
    Musil, Bojan
    Natividade, Jean Carlos
    Niemczyk, Agnieszka
    Nizharadze, George
    Oberzaucher, Elisabeth
    Oleszkiewicz, Anna
    Omar-Fauzee, Mohd Sofian
    Onyishi, Ike E.
    Ozener, Baris
    Pagani, Ariela Francesca
    Pakalniskiene, Vilmante
    Parise, Miriam
    Pazhoohi, Farid
    Pisanski, Annette
    Pisanski, Katarzyna
    Ponciano, Edna
    Popa, Camelia
    Prokop, Pavol
    Rizwan, Muhammad
    Sainz, Mario
    Salkicevic, Svjetlana
    Sargautyte, Ruta
    Sarmany-Schuller, Ivan
    Schmehl, Susanne
    Sharad, Shivantika
    Siddiqui, Razi Sultan
    Simonetti, Franco
    Stoyanova, Stanislava Yordanova
    Tadinac, Meri
    Correa Varella, Marco Antonio
    Vauclair, Christin-Melanie
    Diego Vega, Luis
    Widarini, Dwi Ajeng
    Yoo, Gyesook
    Zatkova, Marta
    Zupancic, Maja
    Assortative mating and the evolution of desirability covariation2019In: Evolution and human behavior, ISSN 1090-5138, E-ISSN 1879-0607, Vol. 40, no 5, p. 479-491Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mate choice lies dose to differential reproduction, the engine of evolution. Patterns of mate choice consequently have power to direct the course of evolution. Here we provide evidence suggesting one pattern of human mate choice-the tendency for mates to be similar in overall desirability-caused the evolution of a structure of correlations that we call the d factor. We use agent-based models to demonstrate that assortative mating causes the evolution of a positive manifold of desirability, d, such that an individual who is desirable as a mate along any one dimension tends to be desirable across all other dimensions. Further, we use a large cross-cultural sample with n = 14,478 from 45 countries around the world to show that this d-factor emerges in human samples, is a cross-cultural universal, and is patterned in a way consistent with an evolutionary history of assortative mating. Our results suggest that assortative mating can explain the evolution of a broad structure of human trait covariation.

  • 15.
    Eriksson, Kimmo
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Strimling, Pontus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution. Linköping University, Sweden; Institute for Futures Studies, Sweden.
    Andersson, Per A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Costly punishment in the ultimatum game evokes moral concern, in particular when framed as payoff reduction2017In: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, ISSN 0022-1031, E-ISSN 1096-0465, Vol. 69, p. 59-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ultimatum game is a common economic experiment in which some participants reject another's unfair offer of how to split some money, even though it leaves them both worse off. This costly behavior can be seen as enforcement of a fairness norm and has been labeled “altruistic punishment”, suggesting that it is a moral thing to do. But is this behavior viewed as moral by participants? Is it viewed as punishment? And are the payoff consequences of the behavior sufficient to determine the answers to these questions? To investigate this we framed costly punishment in two different ways: either as rejection of an offer (the standard ultimatum game framing) or as reduction of payoff. In a series of paid and hypothetical experiments we found that moral concerns about costly punishment depended on the framing. Specifically, the reduction frame elicited more moral concern about, and less use of, costly punishment than did the rejection frame. Several implications are discussed.

  • 16. Esaiasson, Peter
    et al.
    Persson, Mikael
    Gilljam, Mikael
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Reconsidering the Role of Procedures for Decision Acceptance2019In: British Journal of Political Science, ISSN 0007-1234, E-ISSN 1469-2112, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 291-314Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Procedural fairness theory posits that the way in which authoritative decisions are made strongly impacts people's willingness to accept them. This article challenges this claim by contending that democratic governments can achieve little in terms of acceptance of policy decisions by the procedural means at their disposal. Instead, outcome favorability is the dominant determinant of decision acceptance. The article explicates that while central parts of procedural fairness theory are true, outcome favorability is still overwhelmingly the strongest determinant of individuals' willingness to accept authoritative decisions. It improves on previous research by locating all key variables into one causal model and testing this model using appropriate data. Findings from a large number of experiments (both vignette and field) reproduce the expected relationships from previous research and support the additional predictions.

  • 17.
    Gilljam, Mikael
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Esaiasson, Peter
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The voice of the pupils: an experimental comparison of decisions made by elected pupil councils, pupils in referenda, and teaching staff2010In: Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability, ISSN 1874-8597, E-ISSN 1874-8600, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 73-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article tests whether the form of decision-making used in school environments affects pupils’ views on the legitimacy of the decisions made, and of the decision-making procedure. Building on political science theory on democratic decision-making, it compares pupils’ reactions towards decisions made by pupil councils, by pupils via referendum, and by the teaching staff. The data come from a series of randomized scenario-style experiments in which participants (Swedish pupils involved in upper secondary education) were exposed to a questionnaire describing a decision-making situation. The results show that the form of decisionmaking used matters for pupils’ acceptance of the decision-making procedure, but not necessarily for their willingness to accept the outcome of decisions. Pupil referenda in particular were effective in creating procedural legitimacy.

  • 18.
    Gruneau Brulin, Joel
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Attachment and Political Institutions: Attachment Style Predicts Lower Levels of Both Social and Institutional Trust2019Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Gustafsson, Philip
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Jönsson, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Effort in Memory Retrieval Predicts Accuracy in Eyewitness Testimonies2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Do sincere eyewitness testimonies contain objective markers of accuracy? Despite the importance of evaluating the accuracy of verbal eyewitness testimonies, the evidence for objective measures are scarce, and current accuracy measures unsatisfactory. We demonstrate that expressed effort during memory retrieval can predict accuracy in honest eyewitnesses. Incorrect memories are recalled with greater effort (e.g. more delays and disfluencies) than correct memories.

  • 20.
    Gustafsson, Philip
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Jönsson, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    'He was...uhm...bald': Retrieval effort predicts eyewitness accuracy2019In: Book of Abstracts: 21st Conference of the European Society for Cognitive Psychology, 2019, p. 327-327, article id PS4.69Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Evaluating eyewitness testimonies has proven a difficult task. We investigated if incorrect memories are more effortful to retrieve than correct memories. Participants watched a simulated crime and were interviewed as eyewitnesses. We then analysed retrieval effort cues in witness responses. Results showed that incorrect memories included more “effort cues” than correct memories, and also partially mediated the relationship between confidence and accuracy.

  • 21.
    Gustafsson, Philip
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Effort in Memory Retrieval Predicts Accuracy in Eyewitness Testimonies2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Do sincere eyewitness testimonies contain objective markers of accuracy? We show that expressions of effort in memory retrieval predict eyewitness accuracy. Incorrect memories are recalled with greater effort than correct memories.

  • 22.
    Gustafsson, Philip U.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Predicting Accuracy in Eyewitness Testimonies With Memory Retrieval Effort and Confidence2019In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, article id 703Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evaluating eyewitness testimonies has proven a difficult task. Recent research, however, suggests that incorrect memories are more effortful to retrieve than correct memories, and confidence in a memory is based on retrieval effort. We aimed to replicate and extend these findings, adding retrieval latency as a predictor of memory accuracy. Participants watched a film sequence with a staged crime and were interviewed about its content. We then analyzed retrieval effort cues in witness responses. Results showed that incorrect memories included more “effort cues” than correct memories. While correct responses were produced faster than incorrect responses, delays in responses proved a better predictor of accuracy than response latency. Furthermore, participants were more confident in correct than incorrect responses, and the effort cues partially mediated this confidence-accuracy relation. In sum, the results support previous findings of a relationship between memory accuracy and objectively verifiable cues to retrieval effort.

  • 23.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Sikström, Sverker
    Biases in news media as reflected by personal pronouns in evaluative contexts2014In: Social Psychology, ISSN 1864-9335, E-ISSN 2151-2590, Vol. 45, no 2, p. 103-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines whether pronouns in news media occurred in evaluative contexts reflecting psychological biases. Contexts of pronouns were measured by computerized semantic analysis. Results showed that self-inclusive personal pronouns (WeI) occurred in more positive contexts than self-exclusive pronouns (He/SheThey), reflecting self- and group-serving biases. Contexts of collective versus individual pronouns varied; Weoccurred in more positive contexts than I, and He/She in more positive contexts than They. The enhancement of collective relative to individual self-inclusive pronouns may reflect that media news is a public rather than private domain. The reversed pattern among self-exclusive pronouns corroborates suggestions that outgroup derogation is most pronounced at the category level. Implications for research on language and social psychology are discussed.

  • 24.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sikström, Sverker
    Selection Bias in Choice of Words:: Evaluations of "I" and "We" Differ Between Contexts, but "They" Are Always Worse2014In: Journal of language and social psychology, ISSN 0261-927X, E-ISSN 1552-6526, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 49-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In everyday life, people use language to communicate evaluative messages about social categories. A selection bias in language across two social dimensions not previously integrated was examined: a self-inclusive/self-exclusive dimension and an individual/collective dimension. Pronouns as markers for social categories were adopted (I, We, He/She, and They), and a new measure was developed (the Evaluative Sentence Generating task) to investigate the evaluative context selected for the pronouns. Results demonstrate that individuals select a more positive context for self-inclusive than self-exclusive pronouns and a more positive contexts for individual than collective pronouns. However, in an interpersonal context, evaluative differences between I and We diminished, whereas in an intergroup condition the evaluative gap between self-inclusive and self-exclusive pronouns was magnified.

  • 25.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sikstrom, Sverker
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    She and He in News Media Messages: Pronoun Use Reflects Gender Biases in Semantic Contexts2015In: Sex Roles, ISSN 0360-0025, E-ISSN 1573-2762, Vol. 72, no 1-2, p. 40-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown a male bias in the media. This study tests this statement by examining how the pronouns She and He are used in a news media context. More specifically, the study tests whether He occurs more often and in more positive semantic contexts than She, as well as whether She is associated with more stereotypically and essential labels than He is. Latent semantic analysis (LSA) was applied to 400 000 Reuters' news messages, written in English, published in 1996-1997. LSA is a completely data-driven method, extracting statistics of words from how they are used throughout a corpus. As such, no human coders are involved in the assessment of how pronouns occur in their contexts. The results showed that He pronouns were about 9 times more frequent than She pronouns. In addition, the semantic contexts of He were more positive than the contexts of She. Moreover, words associated with She-contexts included more words denoting gender, and were more homogeneous than the words associated with He-contexts. Altogether, these results indicate that men are represented as the norm in these media. Since these news messages are distributed on a daily basis all over the world, in printed newspapers, and on the internet, it seems likely that this presentation maintains, and reinforces prevalent gender stereotypes, hence contributing to gender inequities.

  • 26.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sikström, Sverker
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    She” and “He” in news media messages: Pronoun use reflects gender biases in frequencies, as well as in evaluative and semantic contextsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 27. Hirvikoski, Tatja
    et al.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lajic, Svetlana
    Nordenström, Anna
    Gender role behaviour in prenatally dexamethasone-treated children at risk for congenital adrenal hyperplasia - a pilot study2011In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 100, no 9, p. e112-E119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To investigate the effects of prenatal dexamethasone (DEX) exposure on gender role behaviour. Methods: The participants were 25 of the 40 children (62%, mean age 11 years) at risk for CAH treated with DEX prenatally during the years 1985-1995 in Sweden. The control group consisted of 35 sex- and age-matched healthy children. A new inventory, the Karolinska Inventory of Gender Role Behaviour (KI-GRB), was developed to assess directly school-age children's behaviour, and was evaluated using a separate sample of 160 school-age children. Results: DEX-treated CAH-unaffected boys showed more neutral behaviours than the controls (p = 0.04), while the DEX-treated CAH-unaffected girls did not differ from the controls after adjusting for the site of residence. There was a larger variation in the behaviour of the DEX-treated boys (p < 0.05) and a tendency for less-masculine behaviours in the DEX-treated CAH-unaffected children (p = 0.13). There were no between-group differences in the feminine behaviours. Recalculation of the analyses including the CAH-affected children showed analogous results. Conclusions: This pilot study indicates that the gender role behaviour may be affected in boys as an effect of DEX exposure in early pregnancy. Larger retrospective studies are needed for more conclusive results.

  • 28. Hirvikoski, Tatja
    et al.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nordenström, Anna
    Nordström, Anna-Lena
    Lajic, Svetlana
    High self-perceived stress and many stressors, but normal diurnal cortisol rhythm, in adults with ADHD (attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder).2009In: Hormones and Behavior, ISSN 0018-506X, E-ISSN 1095-6867, Vol. 55, no 3, p. 418-424Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults is associated with significant impairment in many life activities and may thus increase the risk of chronic stress in everyday life. We compared adults with a DSM-IV ADHD diagnosis (n=28) with healthy controls (n=28) regarding subjective stress and amounts of stressors in everyday life, diurnal salivary cortisol in the everyday environment and salivary cortisol before and after cognitive stress in a laboratory setting. The association between cortisol concentrations and impulsivity was also investigated. Consistent with assumptions, individuals with ADHD reported significantly more self-perceived stress than controls, and subjective stress correlated with the amount of stressors in everyday life. The two groups were comparable with respect to overall diurnal cortisol levels and rhythm, as well as in pre- and post-stress cortisol concentrations. Post-stress cortisol (but not baseline cortisol) concentration was positively correlated with impulsivity. The group with high post-stress cortisol also reported more symptoms of depression and anxiety, as well as self-perceived stress and stressors in everyday life. The diagnosis of ADHD significantly increased the risk of belonging to the group with high post-stress cortisol levels. The results in this study warrant a focus not only on the primary diagnosis of ADHD, but also calls for a broader assessment of stressors and subjective stress in everyday life, as well as support comprising stress management and coping skills.

  • 29. Hirvikoski, Tatja
    et al.
    Nordenstrom, Anna
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindblad, Frank
    Ritzen, E. Martin
    Wedell, Anna
    Lajic, Svetlana
    Cognitive functions in children at risk for congenital adrenal hyperplasia treated prenatally with dexamethasone2007In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0021-972X, E-ISSN 1945-7197, Vol. 92, no 2, p. 542-548Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context and Objective: In Sweden, from 1985 through 1995, 40 fetuses at risk for congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) were treated with dexamethasone (DEX) to prevent virilization of affected females. We report long-term effects on neuropsychological functions and scholastic performance of this controversial treatment. Design and Patients: Prenatally treated children, 7 to 17 yr old, were assessed with standardized neuropsychological tests (A Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment and Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children) and child-completed questionnaires measuring self-perceived scholastic competence (Self-Perception Profile for Children). A parent-completed questionnaire (Child Behavior Checklist/4-18 School Scale) was used to evaluate whether the treatment had any impact on the children's school performance. In addition, a child-completed questionnaire measuring social anxiety (The Social Anxiety Scale for Children-Revised) was completed by the prenatally treated children aged 8 to 17 yr (n = 21) and age- and sex-matched controls (n = 26). Results: Of 40 DEX-treated children, 26 (median age, 11 yr) participated in the study. Thirty-five sex- and age- matched healthy children were controls. There were no between-group differences concerning psychometric intelligence, measures of cerebral lateralization, memory encoding, and long-term memory. Short-term treated, CAH-unaffected children performed poorer than the control group on a test assessing verbal working memory (P = 0.003), and they rated lower on a questionnaire assessing self-perception of scholastic competence (P = 0.003). This group also showed increased self-rated social anxiety assessed by The Social Anxiety Scale for Children-Revised (P = 0.026). Prenatally treated, CAH-affected children performed poorer than controls on tests measuring verbal processing speed, although this difference disappeared when controlling for the child's full-scale IQ. Conclusions: This study indicates that prenatal DEX treatment is associated with previously not described long-term effects on verbal working memory and on certain aspects of self-perception that could be related to poorer verbal working memory. These findings may thus question future DEX treatment of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Therefore, we encourage additional retrospective studies of larger cohorts to either confirm or challenge the present findings.

  • 30. Hirvikoski, Tatja
    et al.
    Nordenström, Anna
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindblad, Frank
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Ritzén, E. Martin
    Lajic, Svetlana
    Long-term follow-up of prenatally treated children at risk for congenital adrenal hyperplasia: Does dexamethasone cause behavioural problems?2008In: European Journal of Endocrinology, ISSN 0804-4643, E-ISSN 1479-683X, Vol. 159, no 3, p. 309-316Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To investigate the long-term effects of prenatal treatment of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) with emphasis on behavioural problems and temperament.

    Design: A population-based long-term follow-up study of Swedish children at risk for virilising CAH, who had received treatment prenatally with dexamethasone (DEX). The questionnaire-based follow-up was performed when the children had reached school age.

    Methods: Standardised parent-completed questionnaires were used to evaluate adaptive functioning, behavioural/emotional problems and psychopathology, social anxiety and temperament in DEX-exposed school-aged children (<i>n</i>=26) and matched controls (<i>n</i>=35). In addition, the association between parental questionnaires and children's self-ratings was investigated.

    Results: There were no statistically significant differences between DEX-exposed children and controls in measures of psychopathology, behavioural problems and adaptive functioning. In a questionnaire on temperamental traits, DEX-exposed children were described by their parents as being more sociable than controls (<i>P</i>=0.042). The correlation analysis showed only modest parent–child agreement on social anxiety, i.e. the increased social anxiety in children's self-ratings was not confirmed by their parents.

    Conclusions: DEX-treated children showed good overall adjustment. The parent–child agreement with respect to social anxiety was modest, highlighting the importance of multiple information sources and assessment methods. The clinical significance of the observed difference in sociability cannot be determined within the frameworks of this study. Additional studies of larger cohorts are essential to make more decisive conclusions on the safety of the treatment. Until then, it is important that parents are thoroughly informed about the benefits and potential risks and uncertainties of this controversial treatment.

  • 31. Hirvikoski, Tatja
    et al.
    Olsson, Erik M. G.
    Nordenström, Anna
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nordström, Anna-Lena
    Lajic, Svetlana
    Deficient cardiovascular stress reactivity predicts poor executive functions in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder2011In: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, ISSN 1380-3395, E-ISSN 1744-411X, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 63-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Associations between cardiovascular stress markers, subjective stress reactivity, and executive functions were studied in 60 adults (30 with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, ADHD, and 30 controls) using the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT, a test of executive functions) as a cognitive stressor. Despite higher self-perceived stress, the adults with ADHD showed lower or atypical cardiovascular stress reactivity, which was associated with poorer performance on PASAT. Using cardiovascular stress markers, subjective stress, and results on PASAT as predictors in a logistic regression, 83.3% of the ADHD group and 86.9% of the controls could be classified correctly.

  • 32.
    Kusterer, Hanna Li
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Montgomery, Henry
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gender typing in stereotypes and evaluations of actual managers2013In: Journal of Managerial Psychology, ISSN 0268-3946, E-ISSN 1758-7778, Vol. 28, no 5, p. 561-579Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The pm-pose of this paper is to examine gender-related management stereotypes, perceived gender bias and evaluations of actual managers, and to directly compare stereotypes and ratings of actual managers. Design/methodology/approach - Questionnaires were distributed to employees in the bank and insurance sector, and 240 participants rated their actual managers and stereotypes of male and female managers. Findings - Men evaluated the female manager stereotype more positively on communal attributes, and the male manager stereotype more positively on agentic attributes. Women evaluated the female manager stereotype more positively on both communal and agentic attributes, but perceived a higher degree of gender bias in favor of male managers than men did. Actual male and female managers were rated similarly. Still, ratings of actual male managers corresponded more with stereotypes of male than female managers, and ratings of actual female managers corresponded more with stereotypes of female than male managers. Research limitations/implications - Future research needs to determine the direction of association between stereotypes and evaluations of actual managers, and the relative importance of agentic over communal attributes. Practical implications - While women appeared biased in favor of their own gender, men may underestimate the difficulties that female managers encounter. Managers and human resource practitioners should notice these different views, and recognize that gender equality is not achieved in Sweden. Originality/value - The present study contributes with data from an egalitarian society with a positive view of female managers, and a direct comparison of stereotypes and workplace evaluations.

  • 33.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Group-based biases and validity in eyewitness credibility judgments: Examining effects of witness ethnicity and presentation modality.2005In: Journal of Applied Social Psychology, ISSN 0021-9029, Vol. 35, no 7, p. 1474-1501Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To study how witness ethnicity and testimony presentation mode affected judgments of eyewitness credibility, testimonies from 6 immigrant and 6 Swedish accuracy-matched witnesses to a crime were presented to Swedish fact finders (N = 120) in videotape or as a transcript. Results showed that witnesses were perceived as more credible in the visual as compared to the written medium. Moreover, witness ethnicity affected judgments differentially depending on presentation mode for fact finders high in prejudice toward immigrants. Results also revealed that fact finders' judgments corresponded with the self-reported confidence of Swedish, but not immigrant witnesses and that in the transcript condition, judgmental validity was lower in estimates of Swedes' as compared to immigrants' accuracy. The findings indicate that presentation mode can function as a moderator of group-based effects in social judgments, and that both psychological theory and judicial systems need to consider thoroughly how different stimulus presentations compare in terms of the impact on perceivers.

  • 34.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Minnets påverkbarhet2013In: Kungl. Vitterhets historie och antikvitets akademiens årsbok, Stockholm: Kungl. Vitterhets Historie och Antikvitets Akademien, 2013, p. 63-73Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Jag vill i detta föredrag ge några exempel på minnets påverkbarhet, exempel som jag hoppas ska visa hur viktigt det är att vi förstår minnets funktioner, både utifrån ett vardagsperspektiv och från ett bredare samhällsperspektiv.

  • 35.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Own-age biases in verbal person memory.2005In: Memory, ISSN 0965-8211, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 21-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two experiments examined own-age biases in younger adults', older adults', and children's verbal person memory. In line with findings from face recognition studies, Experiment 1 showed that younger adults had a better recall of own-age than of other-age targets, while older adults were unaffected by target age. Participants' self-reported interest in targets did not predict target memory. Experiment 2, which examined children's and younger adults' memory of own- and other-age targets, showed an own-age advantage in children's but not in younger adults' verbal person memory. Differences in expertise of own-/other-age targets, in combination with a development of expertise throughout the Hfespan, may account for the findings, although alternative explanations should be considered. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  • 36.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Validity in judgments of high- and low-accurate witnesses of own and other ethnic groups2008In: Legal and Criminological Psychology, ISSN 1355-3259, E-ISSN 2044-8333, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 107-121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose. Research has shown that people often have difficulties estimating eyewitness accuracy correctly. In most previous studies examining validity in credibility judgments, participants have assessed the accuracy of witnesses who have been homogeneous in their memory performance. This study investigated validity in judgments of witnesses who varied widely in memory. A further purpose was to examine whether judgmental validity was moderated by the witnesses' ethnic in-group/ out-group status. Methods. Participants (N = 120) rated the reliability of videotaped testimonies of high- and low-accurate in-group (Swedish, N = 4) and out-group (immigrants, N = 4) witnesses who were genuinely trying to recall a criminal event. Results. Participants assigned more reliability to high- than to low-accurate in-group witnesses, while out-group witnesses received low reliability ratings regardless of their actual memory performance. Path analyses demonstrated that the subjective confidence of in-group, but not of out-group, witnesses predicted participants' accuracy judgments. Conclusions. The results indicate that the validity in judgments of in-group witnesses can be better than has previously been implied. Investigators may have difficulty distinguishing high- and low-accurate witnesses from other ethnic groups, and they may also systematically underestimate the reliability of ethnic out-group witnesses. Implications for legal practices are discussed.

  • 37.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Who can judge the accuracy of eyewitness statements? A comparison of professionals and lay-persons2008In: Applied Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 0888-4080, E-ISSN 1099-0720, Vol. 22, no 9, p. 1301-1314Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research suggests that people have difficulty estimating eyewitness accuracy. It is not known whether groups with professional experience of judging eyewitness memory are better at making such judgments than lay-persons. In the current study, police detectives, judges, and lay-persons judged accuracy of responses to cued recall questions from ethnic in- and out-group witnesses who genuinely tried to remember a crime. Responses were presented in videotape or as transcripts. Detectives outperformed the other groups in discrimination accuracy, and participants performed better when statements were presented in transcribed than in videotaped format. Judges used a liberal response criterion overall, whereas detectives and lay-persons were more liberal when judging out-group than in-group witnesses. Findings indicate that there are observable cues to witnesses’ accuracy, that specific professional groups have more knowledge of these cues than others, and that judgments of accuracy based on transcripts rather than live testimony would increase quality of legal decisions.

  • 38.
    Lindholm, Torun
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bergvall, Sylvia
    Diskriminering i vittnessammanhang.: Resultat från ett social-kognitivt forskningspojekt.2006In: Är rättvisan rättvis? Tio perspektiv på diskriminering av etniska och religiösa minoriteter inom rättssystemet.: Utredningen om makt, integration och strukturell diskriminering, SOU 2006:30, Integrations- och jämställdhetsdepartementet , 2006Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I kapitlet presenteras forsknings kring betydelsen av etnisk grupptillhörighet i vittnessammanhang. Studier som undersökt hur vittnen bedömer en brottsling, eller hur bedömningar av vittnens trovärdighet påverkas av etnicitet visar att etnisk bakgrund kan påverka rättsliga bedömningar. Konsekvenser för rättslig praxis diskuteras.

  • 39.
    Lindholm, Torun
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Blomkvist, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Cancino Montecinos, Sebastian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Yzerbyt, Vincent Y.
    Men’s and Women’s Self-Presentational Tactics Lead to Gender Biases in Manager Selection2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined how men’s and women’s self-presentational choices influenced perceived suitability for a senior position. We confronted applicants to job interview questions preferred by men or women. Regardless of their gender, applicants received better evaluations when they received questions initially selected by men than questions initially selected by women.

  • 40.
    Lindholm, Torun
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Christianson, Sven-Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Karlsson, Ingemar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Police Officers and Civilians as Witnesses: Intergroup Biases and Memory Performance1997In: Applied Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 0888-4080, Vol. 11, no 5, p. 431-444Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Lindholm, Torun
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Eriksson, K.
    Memon, A.
    Memory conformity in eyewitness situations:: Casual inferences and schematic gap-filling errors. Shared memories, shared beliefs: The formation and use of joint representations in social interactions2007In: EAESP, Small Group Meeting, Rapallo, Italien, 2007, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown that individuals who witness and then discuss a crime sequence, can influence each other’s memories of the event (Gabbert, Memon, & Allan, 2003; Gabbert, Memon, & Wright, 2006). It is also known that people may mistakenly infer having seen a cause if they have been presented with the effect of this cause, and that they often make memory errors based on schematic knowledge (Hannigan & Reinitz, 2001). The current study investigates whether conformity effects in eyewitness memory may be moderated by effect presentation and schematic relevance of the witnessed information. In the study, members of a dyad each watch a different video of the same event, a potential theft, where the prime suspect is a man present at the crime scene. Each video version contains unique details seen only by one of the witnesses in the dyad. One member of the dyad actually sees the man steal (the cause), whereas the other witness does not see the theft. Half of the witnesses who don’t see the man steal, see him with the stolen item (effect) and the other half does not. Participants either witness a suspect with a Scandinavian (low schema relevance), or with a southern, Middle eastern appearance (high schema relevance). In one condition, the dyads are encouraged to discuss the event before performing an individual recall test, while in a control condition dyads are not allowed to discuss the event prior to recall. The extent to which witnesses mistakenly remember having seen the theft as a function of activity before recall (discussion vs. no discussion), effect scene presentation, and of the schema relevance of information is examined. Potential mediators of conformity, such as trust in the other witness, and Need to belong will also be investigated.

  • 42.
    Lindholm, Torun
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Eriksson, Kimmo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution.
    Making gender matter: The role of gender-based expectancies and gender identification on women’s and men’s math performance in Sweden.2007In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 48, p. 329-338p. 329-338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well established that an emphasis on gender differences may have negative effect on women's math performance in USA, Germany and the Netherlands. It has further been found that an individual’s identification with the stereotyped group may moderate effects of negative stereotypes. The present study investigated how gender-based expectancies affected the math performance of women and men in Sweden, a nation with a smaller gender gap than in other countries, and a strong cultural emphasis on gender equality. Participants, 112 female and 74 male undergraduate math students from Swedish universities, completed a difficult math test in which their gender was either linked to their test performance or not. Men performed better than women when gender was made relevant among participants who did not see their gender as an important aspect of their identity, while participants high in gender identification were unaffected by gender identity relevance. Moreover, the gender relevance manipulation affected men's performance more than women's. The results deviate from findings on US samples, indicating that the role of group identification as a moderator of stereotype-based expectancy effects is complex, and that factors in the cultural context may interact with individual differences in identification to determine the impact of negative stereotypes.

  • 43.
    Lindholm, Torun
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Liuzza, Marco Tullio
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Effort Cues Predict Eyewitness Accuracy2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate whether retrieval effort cues are related to eyewitness accuracy, and the relative role of effort cues and witnesses’ confidence in predicting memory. The results demonstrate that verbal and paraverbal retrieval effort cues are strongly related to witnesses’ accuracy. Moreover, subjective confidence in memory rests on these cues.

  • 44.
    Lindholm, Torun
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Liuzza, Marco Tullio
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology. Magna Graecia University of Catanzaro, Italy.
    Retrieval effort cues predict eyewitness accuracy2018In: Journal of experimental psychology. Applied, ISSN 1076-898X, E-ISSN 1939-2192, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 534-542Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has documented that correct eyewitness memories are more rapidly recalled and recognized than are incorrect ones, suggesting that retrieval ease is diagnostic of memory accuracy. Building on these findings, the current research explores whether verbal and paraverbal cues to retrieval effort could be used to determine the accuracy of honestly reported eyewitness statements about a crime event. Moreover, we examine the relative role of such effort cues and witnesses’ subjective confidence in predicting memory accuracy. The results of 2 studies demonstrate that objectively verifiable verbal and paraverbal cues to retrieval effort are strongly related to honest witnesses’ memory accuracy and that several of these cues contribute uniquely to predict accuracy. Moreover, we show that subjective confidence in a memory rests on these effort cues and that the cues mediate the confidence−accuracy relation. Given research showing that most people have vast difficulties in judging the quality of others’ memories, combined with the scarcity of research on predictors of genuinely reported memories, these initial findings suggest unexplored alternatives that may prove highly useful for improving accuracy judgments, with potentially far-reaching significance not the least in the legal context.

  • 45.
    Lindholm, Torun
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Memon, Amina
    Svenson, Ola
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Social influences on dissonance reduction in medical decision making2016In: Book of abstracts, 2016, p. 28-28Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Two studies investigated social influences on dissonance reduction in medical decision making. Study 1 compared decision-consistent biases when individuals freely made-, or when another person made the decision. Participants read a scenario in which one of two patients should be prioritized for surgery. Facts about the patients were given on counter-balanced scales. Participants decided themselves whom to prioritize, or were told that a physician made the decision, and then reproduced the facts from memory. When choosing freely, participants distorted memories of facts to become more supportive of the choice. This effect was evident, albeit reduced, when the decision was made by a physician.

    Study 2 investigated majority/minority feedback effects on dissonance reduction for decisions concerning ingroup or outgroup members. Swedish participants decided whether a physician should comply or not to the request of a terminally ill patient, with a Swedish or a Turkish name, who asked for help to commit suicide. After making their decision, participants were informed that a majority or a minority had chosen the same alternative. Decisions about an in-group member were consolidated more if participants received minority, than majority feedback. This reversed for decisions on out-group member. Results suggest important social moderators of dissonance reduction strategies.

  • 46.
    Lindholm, Torun
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Memon, Amina
    Svenson, Ola
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    We Distort Memories of Other’s Decisions, and Other’s Decisions Distort Memories of What We Decided2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Research shows that after making a decision, people often distort the memory of the decision alternatives towards greater coherence with the chosen alternative. Given the pivotal role of sharing cognitive representations of reality with others, it seems reasonable that such decision consolidation may extend beyond decisions made by the individual him-/herself. The current research explores how people consolidate their own and another person’s decisions. Moreover, we examine how information about another person’s decisions affects an individual’s memory of his/her own decision. In Study 1 we presented participants with a medical case scenario in which one of two patients should be prioritized for surgery. They were given facts about the patients (e.g., probability of surviving surgery), and either decided themselves whom to prioritize, or were told that a physician made the decision. When later reproducing the facts from memory, participants distorted memories of facts to become more supportive both of their own and of the doctor’s choice. Study 2 investigated how feedback of other’s decisions affect people’s memory for their own decisions. Participants decided whether a physician should comply or not to the request of a terminally ill patient who asked for help to committ suicide. After making their decision, participants were informed that a majority or a minority had chosen the same alternative. When the patient was an in-group member participants consolidated their own decision more when receiving minority, rather than majority feedback. This reversed for decisions on out-group member. Results suggest important social psychological motivations and moderators of decision consolidation strategies.

  • 47.
    Lindholm, Torun
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sjöberg, Rickard L.
    Testimony as communication: An interactive analysis of eyewitness accuracy cues2008Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Studies have shown that descriptions of real and suggested or fabricated eyewitness memory may differ in ways that could be explained by differences in the formation and cognitive representations of these memories. However, the characteristics of an eyewitness’ description are likely to depend not only on the cognitive features of memory, but also on the witness’ social motivation to display meta-cognitive states to the investigator. Research shows that when answering general knowledge questions, self-presentational concerns drive speakers to signal their certainty in an answer by auditive and visual cues, that these cues are related to response accuracy, and that listeners can use the cues to estimate the speaker’s knowledge of the answer. The current research investigated whether similar communicative cues discriminated eyewitnesses’ accurate and inaccurate responses to questions about a crime event. Furthermore, we examined whether the relation between such cues and response accuracy differed between witnesses who delivered the testimony in their native tongue and those who did not. Native and non-native Swedish witnesses were videotaped while being interviewed about their memory of a simulated crime scenario. Responses to cued recall questions that provided correct or incorrect information about a specific detail were protocoled, and scored with respect to prosody (e.g., interjections, pauses, intonation), hedges, and visual (facial expressions and body movement) cues. Results confirmed a higher frequency of both auditive and visual “uncertainty” cues in witnesses’ incorrect as compared to correct responses, although this tendency was weaker among witnesses who did not testify in their native tongue.

  • 48.
    Lindholm, Torun
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sjöberg, Rickard L.
    Testimony as communication: An interactive analysis of eyewitness accuracy cues2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies have shown that descriptions of real and suggested or fabricated eyewitness memory may differ in ways that could be explained by differences in the formation and cognitive representations of these memories. However, the characteristics of an eyewitness’ description are likely to depend not only on the cognitive features of memory, but also on the witness’ social motivation to display meta-cognitive states to the investigator. For example, when a response to a question is delayed, this delay is open to several interpretations. It may mean that the respondent a) have difficulty understanding the question b) is retrieving the information c) is formulating her response d) is withdrawing from the interaction. To prevent misunderstanding, respondents need to account for their delays, uncertainties, and failures in answering. Linguistic research shows that when responding to general knowledge questions, people do this by using several markers (Brennan & Williams, 1995; Krahmer & Swerts, 2005; Smith & Clark, 1993). Respondents often use fillers like “uh” and “um” to indicate some trouble with processing. The fillers both signal the delay and offer a brief account for it.

    Lack of confidence can either be implied by rising intonation, or by hedges as “I think”, “I guess”, etc. Respondents can also account for delays with self-talk and explicit commentary.

    Both fillers and self-talk are showing the questioner that despite the delay, one is still actively trying to retrieve an answer. Both are ways to let the questioner in on how the retrieval is progressing, and show that the respondent is not uncooperative, ignorant, poor in judgment etc. Listeners have been shown to use these cues to make adequate assessments of the certainty or uncertainty of the speaker (Brennan & Williams, 1995; Krahmer & Swerts, 2005; 2006). This constitutes the Interactive view on question answering (Smith & Clark, 1993).

    The current research investigated whether similar communicative cues discriminated eyewitnesses’ accurate and inaccurate responses to questions about a crime event. Furthermore, we examined the extent to which groups differing in experience with judging eyewitness memory use these cues to estimate witness accuracy. Witnesses were videotaped while being interviewed about their memory of a simulated crime scenario. Responses to cued recall questions that provided correct or incorrect information about a specific detail were protocoled and scored with respect to linguistic and paralinguistic uncertainty cues (delays, fillers non-words/words, hedges, number of words). Results confirmed a higher frequency of “uncertainty” cues in witnesses’ incorrect as compared to correct responses. This finding points to the importance of taking the interactive component of the question-answering situation into account when analysing eyewitness memory. The eyewitness statements were presented to police detectives, chief judges, and lay-persons in written or in videotaped format. While all groups had difficulty determining accuracy, experienced police detectives, but not judges, had a better discrimination accuracy than lay-persons. Both professionals and lay-persons showed better discrimination when presented with statements in written than in videotaped format. This suggests that the visual format conveys information that interferes with the detection of valid accuracy cues.

  • 49.
    Lindholm, Torun
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sjöberg, Rickard L.
    Memon, Amina
    Misreporting signs of child abuse: The role of decision-making and outcome information2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 55, no 1, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two studies provided evidence that a decision to report an ambiguous case of child abuse affected subsequent memory of the case information, such that participants falsely recognized details that were not presented in the original information, but that are schematically associated with child abuse. Moreover, post-decision information that the child had later died from abuse influenced the memory reports of participants who had chosen not to report the case, increasing their reports of false schema-consistent details. This suggests that false decision-consistent memories are primarily due to sense-making, schematic processing rather than the motivation to justify the decision. The present findings points to an important mechanism by which decision information can become distorted in retrospect, and emphasize the difficulties of improving future decision-making by contemplating past decisions. The results also indicate that decisions may generate false memories in the apparent absence of external suggestion or misleading information. Implications for decision-making theory, and applied practices are discussed.

  • 50.
    Lindholm, Torun
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sjöberg, Rickard L.
    Pedroletti, Christophe
    Boman, Anders
    Olsson, Gunnar L.
    Sund, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Lindblad, Frank
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Infants and toddlers remembering and forgetting of a stressful medical procedure2009In: Journal of Pediatric Psychology, ISSN 0146-8693, E-ISSN 1465-735X, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 205-216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To examine whether a distressing medical procedure leaves lasting impressions in young children’s memories. Methods: Children 12- to 78-weeks old (Nfl172) received inhalation treatment through a face mask or underwent other interventions at a pediatric emergency department. They were randomized to be presented with neutral cues and cues from the inhalation 1 week or 6 months after the target event. Children’s reactions at cue presentation were scored from videotapes. Results: Across the age span tested, children treated with inhalation showed higher distress than controls when presented with cues from inhalation 1 week, but not 6 months after target treatment. Conclusions: Stress during medical procedures in preverbal children may develop as a result of prior experience of such procedures. These memories typically seem to fade within 6 months.

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