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  • 1. Ahmed, N
    et al.
    Troell, Max
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Allison, E.H.
    Muir, J.F.
    Prawn postlarvae fishing in coastal Bangladesh: Challenges for sustainable livelihoods2010In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 218-227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fishing for prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) postlarvae is a major contributor to the livelihoods of the coastal poor in Bangladesh, including women. A study of coastal livelihoods along the lower Pasur River in southwest Bangladesh indicates that on average 40% of total annual income comes from postlarvae fishing during the few months involved. However, indiscriminate fishing of wild postlarvae, with high levels of by-catch, has an impact on biodiversity in coastal ecosystems. This has provoked imposition of restrictions on postlarvae collection. The ban has, however, not been firmly enforced because of the lack of alternative livelihoods for coastal poor. A conceptual framework, drawn from an approach to poverty reduction known as the sustainable livelihoods approach, is applied to understanding the role of prawn postlarvae fishing. Evidence from this study suggests that postlarvae fishers faced a number of livelihood constraints, including poor livelihood assets. This paper concludes that wider livelihood options need to be found for postlarvae fishers to support their livelihoods.

  • 2.
    Crona, Beatrice I.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Daw, Tim M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of East Anglia, UK.
    Swartz, Wilf
    Norström, Albert V.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Nyström, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Thyresson, Matilda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Hentati-Sundberg, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Österblom, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Deutsch, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Troell, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Masked, diluted and drowned out: how global seafood trade weakens signals from marine ecosystems2016In: Fish and Fisheries, ISSN 1467-2960, E-ISSN 1467-2979, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 1175-1182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nearly 40% of seafood is traded internationally and an even bigger proportion is affected by international trade, yet scholarship on marine fisheries has focused on global trends in stocks and catches, or on dynamics of individual fisheries, with limited attention to the link between individual fisheries, global trade and distant consumers. This paper examines the usefulness of fish price as a feedback signal to consumers about the state of fisheries and marine ecosystems. We suggest that the current nature of fisheries systems and global markets prevent transmission of such price signals from source fisheries to consumers. We propose several mechanisms that combine to weaken price signals, and present one example - the North Sea cod - to show how these mechanisms can be tested. The lack of a reliable price feedback to consumers represents a challenge for sustainable fisheries governance. We therefore propose three complimentary approaches to address the missing feedback: (i) strengthening information flow through improved traceability and visibility of individual fishers to consumers, (ii) capitalizing on the changing seafood trade structures and (iii) bypassing and complementing market mechanisms by directly targeting citizens and political actors regarding marine environmental issues through publicity and information campaigns. These strategies each havelimitations and thus need to be pursued together to address the challenge of sustainability in global marine fisheries.

  • 3.
    Crépin, Ann-Sophie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Science, Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Sweden.
    Norberg, Jon
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Science, Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Sweden.
    Kautsky, Nils
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Troell, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Science, Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Sweden.
    Social-ecological systems as complex adaptive systems: modeling and policy implications2013In: Environment and Development Economics, ISSN 1355-770X, E-ISSN 1469-4395, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 111-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Systems linking people and nature, known as social-ecological systems, are increasingly understood as complex adaptive systems. Essential features of these complex adaptive systems – such as nonlinear feedbacks, strategic interactions, individual and spatial heterogeneity, and varying time scales – pose substantial challenges for modeling. However, ignoring these characteristics can distort our picture of how these systems work, causing policies to be less effective or even counterproductive. In this paper we present recent developments in modeling social-ecological systems, illustrate some of these challenges with examples related to coral reefs and grasslands, and identify the implications for economic and policy analysis.

  • 4. Da, Chau Thi
    et al.
    Phuoc, Le Huu
    Duc, Huynh Ngoc
    Troell, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Berg, Håkan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Use of Wastewater from Striped Catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) Pond Culture for Integrated Rice-Fish-Vegetable Farming Systems in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam2015In: Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems, ISSN 2168-3565, E-ISSN 2168-3573, Vol. 39, no 5, p. 580-597Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates the feasibility of reusing wastewater from striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) pond culture as nutrient input for integrated rice-Nile tilapia-green bean farming systems, and to what extent this could contribute to decreasing the environmental impacts on water quality from the striped catfish industry in the Mekong Delta. Four treatments in triplicates were used to investigate the growth of rice and green bean varieties under different combinations of inorganic fertilizer and water from the river and a striped catfish pond culture. The Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) was cultured at low density without feeding in a canal adjacent to the rice field. Rice yields ranged from 3,514 to 4,023 kg ha(-1) with no significant differences between treatments (p > 0.05). The yield of green bean ranged from 2,671 to 3,282 kg ha(-1) (p < 0.05), with the highest yields for beans only receiving water from the striped catfish pond. The water quality concentrations decreased significantly when passing through the rice plots for almost all treatments (p < 0.05). Total phosphorus and nitrogen levels in the outflowing water were reduced by almost 50% compared to the inflowing water from the striped catfish pond. Overall, the results indicated that an integrated system generates both economic and environmental benefits as compared to monocultures.

  • 5.
    Deutsch, Lisa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology. Naturresurshushållning.
    Gräslund, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Troell, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Huitric, Miriam
    Kautsky, Nils
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Lebel, L
    Feeding aquaculture growth through globalization: exploitation of marine ecosystems for fishmeal2007In: Global Environmental Change, Vol. 17, p. 238-249Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Deutsch, Lisa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Troell, Max
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Limburg, Karin
    Huitric, Miriam
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Global Trade of Fisheries Products-implications for marine ecosystems and their services2011In: Ecosystem Services and Global Trade of Natural Resources: ecology, economics and policies / [ed] Thomas Köellner, New York: Routledge, 2011, p. 120-147Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Eriksson, Hampus
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Robinson, Georgina
    Slater, Matthew
    Troell, Max
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Sea Cucumber Aquaculture in the Western Indian Ocean:  Challenges for Sustainable Livelihood and Stock Improvement2012In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 109-121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The decline in sea cucumber fisheries that serve the Asian dried seafood market has prompted an increase in global sea cucumber aquaculture. The tropical sandfish (Holothuria scabra) has in this context been reared and produced with mixed success. In the Western Indian Ocean, villagers often participate in the export fishery for sea cucumbers as a source of income. However, with a growing concern of depleted stocks introduction of hatcheries to farm sandfish as a community livelihood and to replenish wild stocks is being promoted. This review identifies and discusses a number of aspects that constitute constraints or implications with regard to development of sandfish farming in the region. The conclusion is that for sandfish farming to live up to its expectations the possible impacts need to be further studied, and that improved evaluation of ongoing projects is required. In the interim a precautionary approach towards new enterprise activities is suggested. 

  • 8. Eriksson, Hampus
    et al.
    Österblom, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Troell, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Andrew, Neil
    Wilen, James
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Contagious exploitation of marine resources2015In: Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, ISSN 1540-9295, E-ISSN 1540-9309, Vol. 13, no 8, p. 435-440Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Global seafood sourcing networks are expanding to meet demand. To describe contemporary fishery expansion patterns, we analyzed the worldwide exploitation of sea cucumber (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) traded via Hong Kong for consumers in China. In just 15 years (1996-2011), the sea cucumber sourcing network expanded from 35 to 83 countries; sea cucumber fisheries serving the Chinese market now operate within countries cumulatively spanning over 90% of the world's tropical coastlines. The emergence of such fisheries in nations where they were previously absent could not be explained either by their national governance capacity or by their distance from Hong Kong. Surging imports from these new fisheries have compensated for declines in long-standing fisheries elsewhere. The case of commercial sea cucumber trade for the Chinese market exemplifies a new global extraction phenomenon that we call contagious resource exploitation - a fast-moving system resembling a disease epidemic, where long-distance transport expedites large-scale expansion followed by diffusive local spread into neighboring areas. Multi-level and multi-scale decision making is urgently needed to control and mitigate the effects of contagious exploitation.

  • 9. Gephart, Jessica A.
    et al.
    Deutsch, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Pace, Michael L.
    Troell, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Seekell, David A.
    Shocks to fish production: Identification, trends, and consequences2017In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 42, p. 24-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sudden disruptions, or shocks, to food production can adversely impact access to and trade of food commodities. Seafood is the most traded food commodity and is globally important to human nutrition. The seafood production and trade system is exposed to a variety of disruptions including fishery collapses, natural disasters, oil spills, policy changes, and aquaculture disease outbreaks, aquafeed resource access and price spikes. The patterns and trends of these shocks to fisheries and aquaculture are poorly characterized and this limits the ability to generalize or predict responses to political, economic, and environmental changes. We applied a statistical shock detection approach to historic fisheries and aquaculture data to identify shocks over the period 1976-2011. A complementary case study approach was used to identify possible key social and political dynamics related to these shocks. The lack of a trend in the frequency or magnitude of the identified shocks and the range of identified causes suggest shocks are a common feature of these systems which occur due to a variety, and often multiple and simultaneous, causes. Shocks occurred most frequently in the Caribbean and Central America, the Middle East and North Africa, and South America, while the largest magnitude shocks occurred in Asia, Europe, and Africa. Shocks also occurred more frequently in aquaculture systems than in capture systems, particularly in recent years. In response to shocks, countries tend to increase imports and experience decreases in supply. The specific combination of changes in trade and supply are context specific, which is highlighted through four case studies. Historical examples of shocks considered in this study can inform policy for responding to shocks and identify potential risks and opportunities to build resilience in the global food system.

  • 10. Gephart, Jessica A.
    et al.
    Troell, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Henriksson, Patrik J. G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. WorldFish, Penang, Malaysia.
    Beveridge, Malcolm C. M.
    Verdegem, Marc
    Metian, Marc
    Mateos, Lara D.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Deutsch, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    The 'seafood gap' in the food-water nexus literature-issues surrounding freshwater use in seafood production chains2017In: Advances in Water Resources, ISSN 0309-1708, E-ISSN 1872-9657, Vol. 110, p. 505-514Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Freshwater use for food production is projected to increase substantially in the coming decades with population growth, changing demographics, and shifting diets. Ensuring joint food-water security has prompted efforts to quantify freshwater use for different food products and production methods. However, few analyses quantify freshwater use for seafood production, and those that do use inconsistent water accounting. This inhibits water use comparisons among seafood products or between seafood and agricultural/livestock products. This 'seafood gap' in the food-water nexus literature will become increasingly problematic as seafood consumption is growing globally and aquaculture is one of the fastest growing animal food sectors in the world. Therefore, the present study 1) reviews freshwater use concepts as they relate to seafood production; 2) provides three cases to highlight the particular water use concerns for aquaculture, and; 3) outlines future directions to integrate seafood into the broader food-water nexus discussion. By revisiting water use concepts through a focus on seafood production systems, we highlight the key water use processes that should be considered for seafood production and offer a fresh perspective on the analysis of freshwater use in food systems more broadly. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license.

  • 11.
    Gordon, Line J.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Bignet, Victoria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Henriksson, Patrik J. G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. WorldFish, Penang, Malaysia.
    Van Holt, Tracy
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden; Center for Sustainable Business, United States of America.
    Jonell, Malin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Lindahl, Therese
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Troell, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Deutsch, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Haider, L. Jamila
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Rockström, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Queiroz, Cibele
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Rewiring food systems to enhance human health and biosphere stewardship2017In: Environmental Research Letters, ISSN 1748-9326, E-ISSN 1748-9326, Vol. 12, no 10, article id 100201Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Food lies at the heart of both health and sustainability challenges. We use a social-ecological framework to illustrate how major changes to the volume, nutrition and safety of food systems between 1961 and today impact health and sustainability. These changes have almost halved undernutrition while doubling the proportion who are overweight. They have also resulted in reduced resilience of the biosphere, pushing four out of six analysed planetary boundaries across the safe operating space of the biosphere. Our analysis further illustrates that consumers and producers have become more distant from one another, with substantial power consolidated within a small group of key actors. Solutions include a shift from a volume-focused production system to focus on quality, nutrition, resource use efficiency, and reduced antimicrobial use. To achieve this, we need to rewire food systems in ways that enhance transparency between producers and consumers, mobilize key actors to become biosphere stewards, and re-connect people to the biosphere.

  • 12.
    Hansen, Joakim
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany. Växtekologi.
    Robertson-Andersson, Deborah
    Troell, Max
    Department of Systems Ecology.
    Control of the herbivorous gastropod Fissurella mutabilis (Sow.) in a land-based integrated abalone-seaweed culture2006In: Aquaculture, Vol. 255, no 1-4, p. 384-388Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Henriksson, Patrik J. G.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. WorldFish, Malaysia.
    Jarviö, Natasha
    Jonell, Malin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Guinée, Jeroen B.
    Troell, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    The devil is in the details - the carbon footprint of a shrimp2018In: Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, ISSN 1540-9295, E-ISSN 1540-9309, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 10-11Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 14. Homer-Dixon, Thomas
    et al.
    Walker, Brian
    Biggs, Reinette
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Crépin, Anne-Sophie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Lambin, Eric F.
    Peterson, Garry D.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Rockström, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Scheffer, Marten
    Steffen, Will
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Australian National University, Australia.
    Troell, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Synchronous failure: the emerging causal architecture of global crisis2015In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 20, no 3, article id 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent global crises reveal an emerging pattern of causation that could increasingly characterize the birth and progress of future global crises. A conceptual framework identifies this pattern's deep causes, intermediate processes, and ultimate outcomes. The framework shows how multiple stresses can interact within a single social-ecological system to cause a shift in that system's behavior, how simultaneous shifts of this kind in several largely discrete social-ecological systems can interact to cause a far larger intersystemic crisis, and how such a larger crisis can then rapidly propagate across multiple system boundaries to the global scale. Case studies of the 2008-2009 financial-energy and food-energy crises illustrate the framework. Suggestions are offered for future research to explore further the framework's propositions.

  • 15.
    Jonell, Malin
    et al.
    Gotland University, Sweden; Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Phillips, Michael
    Rönnbäck, Patrik
    Troell, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Beijer Institute, Swedish Royal Academy of Sciences, Sweden .
    Eco-certification of Farmed Seafood: Will it Make a Difference?2013In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 42, no 6, p. 659-674Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eco-certification is widely considered a tool forreducing environmental impacts of aquaculture, but whatare the likely environmental outcomes for the world’sfastest growing animal-food production sector? This articleanalyzes a number of eco-certification schemes based onspecies choice, anticipated share of the global seafoodmarket, size of eligible producers, and targeted environ-mental impacts. The potential of eco-certification to reducethe negative environmental impacts of aquaculture at scalepresently appears uncertain as: (a) certification schemescurrently focus on species predominantly consumed in theEU and US, with limited coverage of Asian markets; (b)the share of certified products in the market as currentlyprojected is too low; (c) there is an inequitable and non-uniform applicability of certification across the sector; (d)mechanisms or incentives for improvement among theworst performers are lacking; and (e) there is incompletecoverage of environmental impacts, with biophysical sus-tainability and ecosystem perspectives generally lacking.

  • 16.
    Jonell, Malin
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Sverige.
    Rönnbäck, Patrik
    Uppsala universitet, Sverige.
    Troell, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Beijer institutet, Sverige.
    Miljömärkning av fisk och skaldjur - hur långt räcker det?2015In: Havsutsikt, ISSN 1104-0513, no 2, p. 8-10Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 17. Krause, Gesche
    et al.
    Brugere, Cecile
    Diedrich, Amy
    Ebeling, Michael W.
    Ferse, Sebastian C. A.
    Mikkelsen, Eirik
    Agundez, Jose A. Perez
    Stead, Selina M.
    Stybel, Nardine
    Troell, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    A revolution without people? Closing the people-policy gap in aquaculture development2015In: Aquaculture, ISSN 0044-8486, E-ISSN 1873-5622, Vol. 447, p. 44-55Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Failure of the blue revolutionis a global risk. The international problem is that there is a gap in knowledge exchange between the aquaculture industry, policy makers trying to support aquaculture development and people who depend on aquaculture for a job and/or food source. Thus, governments and international organizations promoting aquaculture as the solution to improving food security, nutrition and income are failing to optimise production of natural aquatic resources. We identify a people-policy gap, and suggest that this is an understudied constraint, which needs to be overcome before worldwide food security can be achieved from aquatic environments. We argue that this gap leads to uneven distribution of benefits, a disconnection between benefits and local needs, and detrimental effects on human health and food security, all of which can have negative repercussions on human communities and ecosystems. In order to address this need, we present an analytical framework to guide context specific, policy-relevant assessments of the social, economic and ecological dimensions of aquaculture on a case-by-case basis. The framework is designed to make best use of existing data and scientific tools for decision-making. In conclusion, we argue for: equal consideration of ecological, social and economic issues in aquaculture policy-making; pre-emptive identification of likely social impacts; integration of people-and context-specific social framing conditions into planning and policy review; addressing the social disconnection between global consumption and production; and, encouragement of creative combinations of theories and methods to assess and interpret the social dimensions of aquaculture in multiple contexts.

  • 18.
    Lilliesköld Sjöö, Gustaf
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Andersson, Simon
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Troell, Max
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Seaweed farming in the tropical seascape – implications for coral reefs and nutrients in Chwaka Bay, TanzaniaManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Malin, Jonell
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Brown, Kelsey
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Rönnbäck, Patrik
    Troell, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Beijer Institute, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Eco-labeled Seafood: Determinants for (Blue) Green Consumption2016In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 8, article id 884Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eco-certification has become an increasingly popular market-based tool in the endeavor to reduce negative environmental impacts from fisheries and aquaculture. In this study, we aimed at investigating which psychological consumer characteristics influence demand for eco-labeled seafood by correlating consumers’ stated purchasing of eco-labeled seafood to nine variables: environmental knowledge regarding seafood production, familiarity with eco-labels, subjective knowledge, pro-environmental self-identification, sense of personal responsibility, concern for negative environmental impacts from seafood production, perceived consumer effectiveness, gender and education. Questionnaires were distributed to consumers in Stockholm, Sweden, and the data were tested with multiple regression analysis using linear modeling and model averaging (n = 371). Two variables were the best predictors of stated purchasing of eco-labeled seafood: (i) recognition and understanding of eco-labels for seafood (Marine Stewardship Council, Fish for Life, Aquaculture Stewardship Council and KRAV); and (ii) concern for negative environmental impacts associated with seafood production. Meanwhile, consumer environmental knowledge was a weaker predictor. Results from this study suggest that strengthening the emotional component of consumer decision-making and improving the level of consumer familiarity with seafood eco-labels could stimulate more pro-environmental seafood consumption.

  • 20.
    Malin, Jonell
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Rönnbäck, Patrik
    Troell, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Sustainable Seafood Purchasing in Sweden - Unpacking Drivers and BarriersManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - This study focuses on drivers and barriers for furthering consumer driven demand for eco-labeled seafood in Sweden. The purpose was to increase the understanding of two internal variables identified in earlier work as particularly important for pro-environmental seafood consumption: (1) concern for negative environmental impacts from seafood production and (2), recognition and understanding of seafood eco-labels.

    Design/methodology/approach - Data was collected through semi-structured interviews with 15 seafood consumers in Stockholm, Sweden.

    Findings - The majority expressed concern about how seafood is produced but few stated that they buy eco-labeled seafood. A number of potential barriers against increased consumer demand for eco-labeled seafood were delineated: (i) limited knowledge of how seafood is produced, (ii) lack of affective narratives stimulating concern, (iii) animal welfare is less of a concern for seafood in comparison to other animal sourced foods, (vi) lack of familiarity with seafood eco-labels, and (v) a mismatch between motives for eco-labeled food purchase and criteria for eco-labeled seafood.

    Practical implications - The results suggest that consumer demand likely is a limited driver for a transformation towards seafood sustainability. The burden of responsibility for environmentally sound seafood production may therefore need to be shifted towards large market actors and governmental institutions.

    Originality/value - To the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first to investigate internal drives and barriers for increased demand for eco-labeled seafood in Sweden. Moreover, qualitative studies on consumer perceptions of sustainable seafood have to date been rare. 

  • 21.
    Metian, Marc
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Pouil, Simon
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Boustany, André
    Troell, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Sweden.
    Farming of Bluefin Tuna-Reconsidering Global Estimates and Sustainability Concerns2014In: Reviews in Fisheries Science & Aquaculture, ISSN 2330-8249, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 184-192Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased global demand for bluefin tuna has triggered unsustainable fishing and many wild stocks have seen dramatic declines. Improved fisheries governance is now slowly stabilizing many stocks and recently bluefin aquaculture has emerged as an economic alternative route for supplying the market. Most of captured bluefin tuna directly enters the global seafood market, but an increasing part of catches are destined to aquaculture (17-37%) as bluefin aquaculture almost exclusively depends on wild specimens for stocking. Farming is mainly being performed in the Mediterranean region, Mexico, Australia, and Japan. Few studies have focused on the global importance and future role of bluefin aquaculture and there are confounding uncertainties related to production volumes and trends. This study provides an overview of global bluefin tuna aquaculture and identifies its direct and indirect interactions with wild fish stocks, outlines some of the challenges for future expansion as well as pointing out significant mismatch of production statistics.

  • 22. Moksnes, Per-Olav
    et al.
    Oersted Mirera, David
    Björkvik, Emma
    Hamad, Muumin Iddi
    Mahudi, Humphrey Matalu
    Nyqvist, Daniel
    Jiddawi, Narriman
    Troell, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Sweden.
    Stepwise function of natural growth for Scylla serrata in East Africa: a valuable tool for assessing growth of mud crabs in aquaculture2015In: Aquaculture Research, ISSN 1355-557X, E-ISSN 1365-2109, Vol. 46, no 12, p. 2938-2953Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Predicting growth is critical in aquaculture, but models of growth are largely missing for mud crab species. Here, we present the first model of natural growth in juvenile and adult mud crabs Scylla serrata from East Africa using a stepwise growth function based on data on intermoult periods and growth at moult from field mark-recapture, pond and laboratory studies. The results showed a sigmoid growth pattern in carapace width and suggest that S.serrata in East Africa will reach 300g and sexual maturity similar to 9.9months after settlement, and a commercial size of 500g after 12.4months. Analyses of the literature identified several issues with the common praxis to compare standard growth measures between aquaculture studies with different initial size or growing periods. Using the new growth function to estimate the proportional difference between modelled and obtained growth as an alternative method, we show that growth rates of S.serrata cultured in cage systems, which are dominant in East Africa, was <40% of the estimated natural growth and growth obtained in pond systems. The analysis also indicated that growth rates of S.serrata in Southeast Asia was over 50% higher compared with similar culture systems in East Africa, and that different species of mud crabs had large differences in growth rates. This study shows that growth in the present mud crab aquaculture systems in East Africa is below their expected potential. Further work is needed to identify the factors behind this observation.

  • 23. Neori, A
    et al.
    Troell, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology. marin ekotoxikologi.
    Chopin, T
    Yarish, C
    Critchley, A
    Buschmann, A
    The need for a balanced ecosystem approach to blue revolution aquaculture2007In: Environment, Vol. 49, no 3, p. 37-43Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Norling, Pia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Kautsky, Nils
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Eklöf, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Rönnbäck, Patrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Troell, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    The role of the blue mussel (Mytilus sp.) for ecosystem functioning, generation of ecosystem services and ecological resilience in the Baltic SeaManuscript (Other academic)
  • 25. Oyinlola, Muhammed A.
    et al.
    Reygondeau, Gabriel
    Wabnitz, Colette C. C.
    Troell, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Swedish Royal Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Cheung, William W. L.
    Global estimation of areas with suitable environmental conditions for mariculture species2018In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 1, article id e0191086Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aquaculture has grown rapidly over the last three decades expanding at an average annual growth rate of 5.8% (2005-2014), down from 8.8% achieved between 1980 and 2010. The sector now produces 44% of total food fish production. Increasing demand and consumption from a growing global population are driving further expansion of both inland and marine aquaculture (i.e., mariculture, including marine species farmed on land). However, the growth of mariculture is dependent on the availability of suitable farming areas for new facilities, particularly for open farming practices that rely on the natural oceanic environmental parameters such as temperature, oxygen, chlorophyll etc. In this study, we estimated the marine areas within the exclusive economic zones of all countries that were suitable for potential open ocean mariculture activities. To this end, we quantify the environmental niche and inferred the global habitat suitability index (HSI) of the 102 most farmed marine species using four species distribution models. The average weighted HSI across the four models suggests that 72,000,000 km(2) of ocean are to be environmentally suitable to farm one or more species. About 92% of the predicted area (66,000,000 km(2)) is environmentally suitable for farming finfish, 43% (31,000,000 km(2)) for molluscs and 54% (39,000,000 km(2)) for crustaceans. These predictions do not consider technological feasibility that can limit crustaceans farming in open waters. Suitable mariculture areas along the Atlantic coast of South America and West Africa appear to be most under-utilized for farming. Our results suggest that factors other than environmental considerations such as the lack of socio-economic and technological capacity, as well as aqua feed supply are currently limiting the potential for mariculture expansion in many areas.

  • 26. Pelletier, Nathan
    et al.
    Troell, Max
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Beijer Institute, Swedish Royal Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Energy Intensity of Agriculture and Food Systems2011In: Annual Review Environment and Resources, ISSN 1543-5938, E-ISSN 1545-2050, Vol. 36, p. 223-246Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relationships between energy use in food systems, food system productivity, and energy resource constraints are complex. Moreover, ongoing changes in food production and consumption norms concurrent with urbanization, globalization, and demographic changes underscore the importance of energy use in food systems as a food security concern. Here, we review the current state of knowledge with respect to the energy intensity of agriculture and food systems. We highlight key drivers and trends in food system energy use along with opportunities for and constraints on improved efficiencies. In particular, we point toward a current dearth of research with respect to the energy performance of food systems in developing countries and provide a cautionary note vis-à-vis increasing food system energy dependencies in the light of energy price volatility and concerns as to long-term fossil energy availabilities.

  • 27. Rist, L.
    et al.
    Felton, A.
    Nyström, M.
    Troell, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Sponseller, R. A.
    Bengtsson, J.
    Österblom, H.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Tidåker, P.
    Angeler, D. G.
    Milestad, R.
    Moen, J.
    Applying resilience thinking to production ecosystems2014In: Ecosphere, ISSN 2150-8925, E-ISSN 2150-8925, Vol. 5, no 6, p. 73-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Production ecosystems typically have a high dependence on supporting and regulating ecosystem services and while they have thus far managed to sustain production, this has often been at the cost of externalities imposed on other systems and locations. One of the largest challenges facing humanity is to secure the production of food and fiber while avoiding long-term negative impacts on ecosystems and the range of services that they provide. Resilience has been used as a framework for understanding sustainability challenges in a range of ecosystem types, but has not been systematically applied across the range of systems specifically used for the production of food and fiber in terrestrial, freshwater, and marine environments. This paper applied a resilience lens to production ecosystems in which anthropogenic inputs play varying roles in determining system dynamics and outputs. We argue that the traditional resilience framework requires important additions when applied to production systems. We show how sustained anthropogenic inputs of external resources can lead to a coercion'' of resilience and describe how the global interconnectedness of many production systems can camouflage signals indicating resilience loss.

  • 28. Robertson-Andersson, Deborah V.
    et al.
    Potgieter, Michelle
    Hansen, Joakim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Bolton, John J.
    Troell, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology. Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Anderson, Robert J.
    Halling, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Probyn, Trevor
    Integrated seaweed cultivation on an abalone farm in South Africa2008In: Journal of Applied Phycology, ISSN 0921-8971, E-ISSN 1573-5176, Vol. 20, no 5, p. 579-595Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Land-based abalone aquaculture in South Africa, based on the local species Haliotis midae, started in the early 1990s and has grown rapidly in the last decade, with 13 commercial farms now producing over 850 t per annum. Over 6,000 t per annum of kelp Ecklonia maxima are now harvested for this purpose, and some kelp beds are reaching maximum sustainable limits. Research into seaweed aquacultureas feed (Ulva and some Gracilaria) for abalone started in the late 1990s on the southeast coast (where thereare no kelp beds) using abalone waste water. A growing body of evidence suggests that a mixed diet of kelp plus other seaweeds can give growth rates at least as good ascompound feed, and can improve abalone quality and reduce parasite loads. A pilot scale Ulva lactuca and abalone integrated recirculation unit using 25% recirculation was designed and built on the south west coast of South Africa using one 12,000-L abalone tank containing 13,200 15±2.5 g abalone, connected to two 3,000-L seaweed tanks containing an initial starting biomass of 10 kg of seaweed, replicated 3 times. In an 18-month period, there were no significant differences in abalone health or growth rates, sediment build up and composition, mobile macro fauna densities and species between the recirculation or the flowthroug hunits. Transfer of oxygen generated by the seaweeds to the abalone tanks was poor, resulting in the recirculated abalone tanks having lower (33%) dissolved oxygen concentrations than a comparable flow-through abalone unit. Seaweed nutrient content and specific growth rates in the units were comparable to seaweeds cultivated in fertilized effluent (SGR=3.2±3.4%.day−1; Yield=0.2±0.19 kg.m2.day−1). Indications were that at this low recirculation ratio the seaweeds in the units were nutrient limited and that there were no negative effects to the abalone being cultivated insuch a recirculation unit at this recirculation ratio.

  • 29.
    Rönnbäck, Patrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology. marin ekotoxikologi.
    Kautsky, Nils
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology. marin ekotoxikologi.
    Pihl, L
    Troell, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Söderqvist, Tore
    Wennhage, H
    Ecosystem goods and services from Swedish coastal habitats: Identification, valuation, and implications of ecosystem shifts2007In: Ambio, Vol. 36, no 7, p. 534-544Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Rönnbäck, Patrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Kautsky, Nils
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Troell, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Havets naturkapital: Gratis men livsnödvändigt arbete2007In: Mat, råvaror och energi - en kunskapsresa i Linnés anda, FORMAS , 2007, p. 71-90Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 31.
    Rönnbäck, Patrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Kautsky, Nils
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Troell, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    The natural capital of the sea. Ecosystem services - free of cost but priceless in worth2007In: Food, raw materials and energy: A knowledge journey in the spirit of Linnaeus, FORMAS , 2007, p. 71-90Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 32.
    Sarà, G.
    et al.
    Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra e del Mare, Università di Palermo.
    Reid, G.
    Canadian Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture Network, University of New Brunswick/Fisheries and Oceans Canada.
    Rinaldi, A.
    Dipartimento di Ecologia Marina, Università di Messina.
    Troell, Max
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Palmeri, V.
    Univ Palermo, Dipartimento Sci Terra & Mare, I-90133 Palermo, Italy .
    Kooijman, S.A.L.M.
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Dept Theoret Biol, Amsterdam, Netherlands .
    Growth and reproductive simulation of candidate shellfish species at fish cages in the Southern Mediterranean: dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) modelling for integrated multi-trophic aquaculture2012In: Aquaculture, ISSN 0044-8486, E-ISSN 1873-5622, Vol. 324, p. 259-266Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model is used to simulate growth and reproduction of the shellfish Mytilus galloprovincialis and Crassostrea gigas in an integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) farm scenario situated in the Southern Mediterranean (the Gulf of Castellammare, Sicily). We modelled the effect of primary production enrichment at fish cages on shellfish growth and life history traits using 4 years-hourly temperature data (01 January 2006–31 December 2009) at a depth of 1 m. Outputs of the DEB simulations were: the maximum theoretical total shell length of shellfish, the potential reproductive outputs and the mean annual von Bertalanffy growth rate. There was a mean increase in empirically measured suspended chlorophyll-a of approximately 45% close (within about 100 m) to fish cages (2.3 ± 1.1 μg l− 1) compared to sites away (about 1.5 km) from the cages (1.3 ± 0.6 μg l− 1). DEB simulations using localised CHL-a measures showed that mussels close to cages could reach greater maximum length at the end of 4th year than those far from cages and in open-sea. Simulations of oyster growth close to cage sites resulted in double growth rate (12 cm in 4 years) compared to oysters at far sites (6.5 cm in 4 years). The present study improves knowledge of the application of DEB models to predict the potential fitness of shellfish starting from First Principles. This is an innovative approach with potential for application at larger scales than those of local facilities.

  • 33.
    Troell, Max
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Eide, Arne
    Isaksen, John
    Hermansen, Øystein
    Crépin, Anne-Sophie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Seafood from a changing Arctic2017In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 46, p. 368-386Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We review current knowledge about climate change impacts on Arctic seafood production. Large-scale changes in the Arctic marine food web can be expected for the next 40-100 years. Possible future trajectories under climate change for Arctic capture fisheries anticipate the movement of aquatic species into new waters and changed the dynamics of existing species. Negative consequences are expected for some fish stocks but others like the Barents Sea cod (Gadus morhua) may instead increase. Arctic aquaculture that constitutes about 2% of global farming is mainly made up of Norwegian salmon (Salmo salar) farming. The sector will face many challenges in a warmer future and some of these are already a reality impacting negatively on salmon growth. Other more indirect effects from climate change are more uncertain with respect to impacts on the economic conditions of Arctic aquaculture.

  • 34.
    Troell, Max
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Engström, Gustav
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Jansson, Åsa
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Crépin, Anne-Sophie
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Klimathotet består2011Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 35.
    Troell, Max
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Hecht, T.
    Beveridge, M.
    Stead, S.
    Mariculture in the WIO region: challenges and Prospects2011In: WIOMSA Book Series: Proceedings from Workshop on Mariculture,December 2009, Zanzibar, WIOMSA , 2011Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Troell, Max
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Science, Sweden.
    Naylor, Rosamond L.
    Metian, Marc
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Beveridge, Malcolm
    Tyedmers, Peter H.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Science, Sweden.
    Arrow, Kenneth J.
    Barrett, Scott
    Crépin, Anne-Sophie
    Ehrlich, Paul R.
    Gren, Åsa
    Kautsky, Nils
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Levin, Simon A.
    Nyborg, Karine
    Österblom, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Polasky, Stephen
    Scheffer, Marten
    Walker, Brian H.
    Xepapadeas, Tasos
    de Zeeuw, Aart
    Does aquaculture add resilience to the global food system?2014In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 111, no 37, p. 13257-13263Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aquaculture is the fastest growing food sector and continues to expand alongside terrestrial crop and livestock production. Using portfolio theory as a conceptual framework, we explore how current interconnections between the aquaculture, crop, livestock, and fisheries sectors act as an impediment to, or an opportunity for, enhanced resilience in the global food system given increased resource scarcity and climate change. Aquaculture can potentially enhance resilience through improved resource use efficiencies and increased diversification of farmed species, locales of production, and feeding strategies. However, aquaculture's reliance on terrestrial crops and wild fish for feeds, its dependence on freshwater and land for culture sites, and its broad array of environmental impacts diminishes its ability to add resilience. Feeds for livestock and farmed fish that are fed rely largely on the same crops, although the fraction destined for aquaculture is presently small (similar to 4%). As demand for high-value fed aquaculture products grows, competition for these crops will also rise, as will the demand for wild fish as feed inputs. Many of these crops and forage fish are also consumed directly by humans and provide essential nutrition for low-income households. Their rising use in aquafeeds has the potential to increase price levels and volatility, worsening food insecurity among the most vulnerable populations. Although the diversification of global food production systems that includes aquaculture offers promise for enhanced resilience, such promise will not be realized if government policies fail to provide adequate incentives for resource efficiency, equity, and environmental protection.

  • 37.
    Österblom, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Crona, Beatrice I.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Nyström, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Troell, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Marine Ecosystem Science on an Intertwined Planet2017In: Ecosystems (New York. Print), ISSN 1432-9840, E-ISSN 1435-0629, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 54-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Marine ecosystem science has developed since the 1940s, when humans obtained the ability to spend substantial time underneath the surface of the ocean. Since then, and drawing on several decades of scientific advances, a number of exciting research frontiers have emerged. We find: Understanding interacting drivers of change, Identifying thresholds in ecosystems, and Investigating social-ecological dynamics to represent particularly interesting frontiers, which we speculate will soon emerge as new mainstreams in marine ecosystem science. However, increasing human impacts on ecosystems everywhere and a new level of global connectivity are shifting the context for studying, understanding, and managing marine ecosystems. As a consequence, we argue that ecosystem scientists today also need to address a number of critical challenges and devote new energy and expertise to Modeling the Anthropocene, Operationalizing resilience, and Understanding social-ecological dynamics across scales. This new deep dive into unknown waters requires a number of strategies to be successful. We suggest that marine ecosystem scientists need to actively: Prepare for the unexpected, cross boundaries, and understand our cognitive limitations to further develop the exciting field of marine ecosystem science.

  • 38.
    Österblom, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Merrie, Andrew
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Metian, Marc
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Boonstra, Wiebren J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Blenckner, Thorsten
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Watson, James R.
    Rykaczewski, Ryan R.
    Ota, Yoshitaka
    Sarmiento, Jorge L.
    Christensen, Villy
    Schlüter, Maja
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Birnbaum, Simon
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Gustafsson, Bo G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre, Baltic Nest Institute.
    Humborg, Christoph
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre, Baltic Nest Institute.
    Mörth, Carl-Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre, Baltic Nest Institute.
    Muller-Karulis, Bärbel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre, Baltic Nest Institute.
    Tomczak, Maciej T.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre, Baltic Nest Institute.
    Troell, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Modeling Social—Ecological Scenarios in Marine Systems2013In: BioScience, ISSN 0006-3568, E-ISSN 1525-3244, Vol. 63, no 9, p. 735-744Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human activities have substantial impacts on marine ecosystems, including rapid regime shifts with large consequences for human well-being. We highlight the use of model-based scenarios as a scientific tool for adaptive stewardship in the face of such consequences. The natural sciences have a long history of developing scenarios but rarely with an in-depth understanding of factors influencing human actions. Social scientists have traditionally investigated human behavior, but scholars often argue that behavior is too complex to be repre-ented by broad generalizations useful for models and scenarios. We address this scientific divide with a framework for integrated marine social ecological scenarios, combining quantitative process-based models from the biogeochemical and ecological disciplines with qualitative studies on governance and social change. The aim is to develop policy-relevant scenarios based on an in-depth empirical understanding from both the natural and the social sciences, thereby contributing to adaptive stewardship of marine social-ecological systems.

1 - 38 of 38
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