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  • 1.
    Asplund, L
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    Löfstrand, K
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    Malmvärn, A
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    Nylund, K
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Eriksson, U
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    OH-PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs in swedish marine and fresh water environment- an overview2010In: Organohalogen Compounds, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Asplund, Lillemor
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Nylund,
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Eriksson, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Bignert, A.
    Monitoring of PBDE, metoxylated PBDE and PCB in blue mussels from the swedish coast line.2007In: Organohalogen Compd., Vol. 69, p. 1713-1716Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3. Bignert, A.
    et al.
    Nyberg, E.
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Eriksson, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Berger, Urs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Wilander, A.
    Haglund, P.
    Metaller och organiska miljögifter i marin biota, trend- och områdesövervakning - Comments Concerning the National Swedish Contaminant Monitoring Programme in Marine Biota 20072007Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 4.
    Bignert, Anders
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Nyberg, Elisabeth
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Miller, Aroha
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Danielsson, Sara
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Consequences of using pooled versus individual samples for designing environmental monitoring sampling strategies2014In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 94, p. 177-182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Choosing an appropriate sampling strategy for chemical analysis within environmental monitoring includes the important decision of whether to sample and store individual or pooled samples. This choice impacts on future analyses from Environmental Specimen Bank samples. A number of advantages exist to support using either individual or pooled samples for temporal trend studies. However, it is important to know the total and analytical variance to be able to design the best sampling strategy. Statistical power in temporal or spatial studies is determined by the random/unexplained sample variation. The relationship between chemical analytical error and other sources of variation, as well as the cost for collection, preparation of samples and chemical analysis, will determine the number of individuals in each pool, and the number of pools that should be analysed to achieve high cost efficiency and good statistical power. Various scenarios of different numbers of individual samples, different numbers of pooled samples containing various numbers of individual specimens, the relationships between chemical analytical error and other sources of sample variance, have been compared by simulating random sampling from computer generated populations using realistic measures of variation from ongoing monitoring activities. These results offer guidance in the design of a cost-efficient, statistically sound sampling strategy.

  • 5. Bignert, Anders
    et al.
    Olsson, Mats
    Persson, Wawa
    Jensen, Sören
    Zakrisson, Susanne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Litzén, Kerstin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Eriksson, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Häggberg, Lisbeth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Alsberg, Tomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Temporal trends of organochlorines in Northern Europe, 1967–1995. Relation to global fractionation, leakage from sediments and international measures1998In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 99, no 2, p. 177-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The time trend monitoring of organochlorine pollution was carried out in Sweden since the late 1960s. This report presents data on concentrations of DDT, PCB, HCHs and HCB in biota samples collected and analysed annually. All the matrices and compounds studied show a significant decrease over time. The data cover severely polluted Swedish marine and fresh water in southern Sweden as well as locally unpolluted waters in remote northern Arctic regions of Sweden. A total of 13 time series representing different locations and species are presented for the different pollutants. The period studied covers the time when pollution was serious as well as the time of recovery. All monitoring activities were carried out at the same laboratories over the entire study period, which means that comparability over time is good in the sets of data presented. The various time trends show a convincing agreement with trends and annual change over time, although the concentrations differ between the species and locations investigated, the highest concentrations being in the south. Since the annual changes are normally similar regardless of locations and species, spatial variations in concentrations remain over time, although concentrations are lower today. The onset of changes in concentrations over time can be related to international measures or other circumstances that lowered releases into the environment. Similarities in the annual changes, as well as the time when changes began, are discussed with respect to suggested hypotheses on the fate of the investigated organochlorines. It was not possible to verify that the oxygenation of anoxic sediments mobilised old pollution in Baltic sediments. Neither was it possible to conclude that eutrophication has caused a measurable effect on the rate and timing of the decreases. Finally, long-range transport to Arctic regions seems to be due more to a one step transport than to the ‘Grass-hopper’ effect. The comprehensive database used, clearly shows how important it is to have datasets big enough to describe between-year variation before attempting to evaluate the time trend. In addition, if between-year variation is not known, it is then also difficult to evaluate spatial variation on the basis of single year observations.

  • 6.
    de Wit,
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Nylund, Kerstin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Eriksson, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Haglund, M.
    Kierkegaard,
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Brominated flame retardants in sludge from 50 Swedish sewage treatment plants: Evidence of anaerobic degradation of HBCD and TBBPA.2007In: Dioxin 2007, Tokyo, Japan: 2-7 September, 2007Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 7.
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Nylund, Kerstin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Eriksson, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Haglund, Malin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Kierkegaard, Amelie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Brominated flame retardants in sludge from 50 Swedish sewage treatment plants: Evidence of anaerobic degradation of HBCD and TBBPA.2007In: Fourth International Worskhop on Brominated Flame Retardants BFR 2007: Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 24-27 April., 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8.
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Nylund, Kerstin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Eriksson, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Haglund, Malin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Kierkegaard, Amelie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Brominated flame retardants in sludge from 50 Swedish sewage treatment plants: Evidence of anaerobic degradation of HBCD and TBBPA.2007In: The 27th International Symposium on Halogenated Persistent Organic Pollutants (Dioxin 2007), Tokyo, Japan, 2-7 September, 2007., 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Eriksson, Ulla
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Hoikkala, H.
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Bäcklin, B.M.
    Czub,
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Olsson, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) in Inner and Outer Blubber Layers in Baltic Grey Seal. Poster.2007In: Fourth International Worskhop on Brominated Flame Retardants BFR 2007, Amsterdam, the Netherlands: 24-27 April, 2007Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 10.
    Nordlöf, Ulrika
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Helander, Björn
    Eriksson, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Zebühr, Yngve
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Comparison of organohalogen compounds in a white-tailed sea eagle egg laid in 1941 with five eggs from 1996 to 20012012In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 88, no 3, p. 286-291Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eggs laid by white-tailed sea eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla), one in 1941 and five eggs between 1996 and 2001, all from the same geographical region of the Baltic Sea, were screened for organohalogen substances. The 1941 egg contained hexachlorobenzene (HCB), but did not contain either of the pesticides hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) or p,p'-DDT, nor any metabolites of the latter. In contrast, the more recent eggs (REs) contained all of these compounds. Of the seven polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) analyzed (CB28, -52, -101, -118, -138/-163, -153 and 180), only the more highly chlorinated congeners were detected in the 1941 sample, with CB153 followed by CB180 showing the highest concentrations. All eggs demonstrated the same congener pattern with respect to the more highly chlorinated PCBs, but concentrations were approximately 70-230 times higher in the REs. All of the polychlorinated-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/Fs) congeners analyzed were detected in the eggs, with the dominant congener being 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF (1250pg/gl.w. in 1941 and 1540pg/gl.w. (GM) for the REs, respectively). None of the other congeners exceeded 400pg/gl.w., and the concentrations of 2,3,7,8-TCDD, 2,3,7,8-TCDF and 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDF were all lower in the REs. None of five congeners of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) found in the REs was detected in the egg from 1941. The three methoxylated brominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-BDEs) analyzed were found at similar levels and with a similar congener pattern in REs as in the egg from 1941. In conclusion, this study has shown the absence of DDE and PBDE and the presence of HCB and PCBs in a white-tailed sea eagle egg laid in 1941, and a strong increase of PCBs, DDE and PBDE in white-tailed sea eagle eggs from the same area in 1996-2001. The MeO-BDEs were found in similar concentrations in the analyzed eggs. The 1941 sample shows substantial concentrations of PCDD/Fs, noteworthy in the same magnitude as in the recent samples, illustrating the historical and recent exposure of these compounds.

  • 11. Nyberg, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Danielsson, Sara
    Eriksson, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Faxneld, Suzanne
    Miller, Aroha
    Bignert, Anders
    Spatio-temporal trends of PCBs in the Swedish freshwater environment 1981-20122014In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 43, p. 45-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been monitored in perch (Perca fluviatilis), pike (Esox lucius), and Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) in reference lakes since the late 1960s. Temporal trends and spatial patterns are currently monitored in nine and 32 lakes, respectively. Overall, PCB concentrations are decreasing. However, this is not consistent for all congeners across all lakes and species. Perch has comparatively low PCB concentrations relative to suggested target levels, but individual congener concentrations in some lakes are concerningly high. No temporal trend is seen for CB-118 and CB-153 in perch, but significant decreasing trends exist for Arctic char and pike, for which monitoring started earlier than for perch. The lower/higher chlorinated congener ratio decreased over time in most lakes, indicating fewer new emissions. CB-118 and CB-153 concentrations in perch show spatial gradients across Sweden, with higher concentrations found near urban/industrial areas.

  • 12. Nyberg, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Faxneld, Suzanne
    Danielsson, Sara
    Eriksson, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Miller, Aroha
    Bignert, Anders
    Temporal and spatial trends of PCBs, DDTs, HCHs, and HCB in Swedish marine biota 1969-20122015In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 44, p. 484-497Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the 1960s, the Baltic Sea was severely polluted by organic contaminants such as PCBs, HCHs, HCB, and DDTs. Elevated concentrations caused severe adverse effects in Baltic biota. Since then, these substances have been monitored temporally and spatially in Baltic biota, primarily in herring (Clupea harengus) and in guillemot (Uria aalge) egg, but also in cod (Gadus morhua), perch (Perca fluviatilis), eelpout (Zoarces viviparous), and blue mussel (Mytilus edulis). These chemicals were banned in Sweden in the late 1970s/early 1980s. Since the start of monitoring, overall significant decreases of about 70-90 % have been observed. However, concentrations are still higher in the Baltic Sea than in, for example, the North Sea. CB-118 and DDE exceed the suggested target concentrations (24 lg kg(-1) lipid weight and 5 lg kg(-1) wet weight, respectively) at certain sites in some of the monitored species, showing that concentrations may still be too high to protect the most sensitive organisms.

  • 13. Roos, Anna M.
    et al.
    Backlin, Britt-Marie V. M.
    Helander, Bjorn O.
    Riget, Frank E.
    Eriksson, Ulla C.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Improved reproductive success in otters (Lutra lutra), grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) and sea eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) from Sweden in relation to concentrations of organochlorine contaminants2012In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 170, p. 268-275Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied indices of reproductive outcome in three aquatic species in relation to organochlorine concentrations during four decades. In female otters, the frequency of signs of reproduction increased after 1990. In grey seals, pregnancy rate increased 1990-2010 and uterine obstructions ceased after 1993. The frequency of uterine tumours was highest 1980-2000. The number of sea eagle nestlings per checked nest increased 1985-2000, while the frequency of desiccated eggs decreased. Organochlorine concentrations decreased at annual rates between 3.5 and 10.2%. The estimated mean concentration (mg/kg lw) for total-PCB decreased from 70 to 8 (otters), from 110 to 15 (seals) and from 955 to 275 (eagles). The corresponding concentrations for Sigma DDT decreased from 3.4 to 0.2 (otters), from 192 to 2.8 (seals) and from 865 to 65 (eagles). This study adds evidence to support the hypothesis that PCBs and DDTs have had strong negative effects on the reproduction and population levels of these species.

  • 14. Schwesig, D.
    et al.
    Borchers, U.
    Chancerelle, L.
    Eriksson, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Goksoy, A.
    Lamoree, M.
    Leonards, P.
    Leverett, D.
    McLachlan,
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Poulsen, V.
    Robinson, R.
    Silharova, K.
    Tolgyessy, P.
    Tutundijan, R.
    Westwood, D.
    Development of Harmonized Protocols for Method Validation for Monitoring and Bio-Monitoring of Emerging Pollutants. Poster.2007In: WFD-conferance: 12-14 mars, 2007Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 15. Schwesig, David
    et al.
    Borchers, Ulrich
    Chancerelle, Laure
    Dulio, Valeria
    Eriksson, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Farre, Marinella
    Goksoyr, Anders
    Lamoree, Marja
    Leonards, Pim
    Lepom, Peter
    Leverett, Dean
    O'Neill, Anne
    Robinson, Rod
    Silharova, Katarina
    Slobodnik, Jaroslav
    Tolgyessy, Peter
    Tutundjian, Renaud
    Wegener, Jan-Willem
    Westwood, David
    A harmonized European framework for method validation to support research on emerging pollutants2011In: TrAC. Trends in analytical chemistry, ISSN 0165-9936, E-ISSN 1879-3142, Vol. 30, no 8, p. 1233-1242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Any investigation of environmental processes related to chemical substances or their effects depends on reliable, comparable analytical data. This also holds true for the impact of climate change on occurrence, distribution and effects of emerging pollutants, with respect to which there is particular concern regarding the reliability of analytical data, due to lack of harmonization in method validation and requirements for quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC). We present a recent European approach to developing a harmonized framework for method validation, QA/QC and provision of environmental data on emerging pollutants. The validation approach has been tested and improved by three case studies. We outline the main concept of the validation approach as well as the results of the case studies. This European validation framework turned out to be a feasible tool to check the fitness for purpose of analytical methods and to improve the reliability of environmental analytical data, particularly for emerging pollutants.

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