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  • 1.
    Ahrens, Maryon
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Bohm, Christian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Conrad, Jan M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Dumm, Jonathan P.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Finley, Chad
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Flis, Samuel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Hultqvist, Klas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Walck, Christian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Zoll, Marcel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Meyer, Manuel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stanford University, USA.
    Rosswog, Stephan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Feindt, Ulrich
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Goobar, Ariel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Sollerman, Jesper
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Barbarino, Cristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Bulla, Mattia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Roy, Rupak
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Taddia, Francesco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Farnier, Christian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Morå, Knut
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Wagner, Robert M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Multi-messenger Observations of a Binary Neutron Star Merger2017In: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 848, no 2, article id L12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    On 2017 August 17 a binary neutron star coalescence candidate (later designated GW170817) with merger time 12:41:04 UTC was observed through gravitational waves by the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo detectors. The Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor independently detected a gamma-ray burst (GRB 170817A) with a time delay of similar to 1.7 s with respect to the merger time. From the gravitational-wave signal, the source was initially localized to a sky region of 31 deg(2) at a luminosity distance of 40(-8)(+8) Mpc and with component masses consistent with neutron stars. The component masses were later measured to be in the range 0.86 to 2.26 M-circle dot. An extensive observing campaign was launched across the electromagnetic spectrum leading to the discovery of a bright optical transient (SSS17a, now with the IAU identification of AT 2017gfo) in NGC 4993 (at similar to 40 Mpc) less than 11 hours after the merger by the One-Meter, Two Hemisphere (1M2H) team using the 1 m Swope Telescope. The optical transient was independently detected by multiple teams within an hour. Subsequent observations targeted the object and its environment. Early ultraviolet observations revealed a blue transient that faded within 48 hours. Optical and infrared observations showed a redward evolution over similar to 10 days. Following early non-detections, X-ray and radio emission were discovered at the transient's position similar to 9 and similar to 16 days, respectively, after the merger. Both the X-ray and radio emission likely arise from a physical process that is distinct from the one that generates the UV/optical/near-infrared emission. No ultra-high-energy gamma-rays and no neutrino candidates consistent with the source were found in follow-up searches. These observations support the hypothesis that GW170817 was produced by the merger of two neutron stars in NGC4993 followed by a short gamma-ray burst (GRB 170817A) and a kilonova/macronova powered by the radioactive decay of r-process nuclei synthesized in the ejecta.

  • 2. Bellm, Eric C.
    et al.
    Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.
    Barlow, Tom
    Feindt, Ulrich
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Graham, Matthew J.
    Goobar, Ariel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Kupfer, Thomas
    Ngeow, Chow-Choong
    Nugent, Peter
    Ofek, Eran
    Prince, Thomas A.
    Riddle, Reed
    Walters, Richard
    Ye, Quan-Zhi
    The Zwicky Transient Facility: Surveys and Scheduler2019In: Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, ISSN 0004-6280, E-ISSN 1538-3873, Vol. 131, no 1000, article id 068003Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a novel algorithm for scheduling the observations of time-domain imaging surveys. Our integer linear programming approach optimizes an observing plan for an entire night by assigning targets to temporal blocks, enabling strict control of the number of exposures obtained per field and minimizing filter changes. A subsequent optimization step minimizes slew times between each observation. Our optimization metric self-consistently weights contributions from time-varying airmass, seeing, and sky brightness to maximize the transient discovery rate. We describe the implementation of this algorithm on the surveys of the Zwicky Transient Facility and present its on-sky performance.

  • 3. Bellm, Eric C.
    et al.
    Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.
    Graham, Matthew J.
    Dekany, Richard
    Smith, Roger M.
    Riddle, Reed
    Masci, Frank J.
    Helou, George
    Prince, Thomas A.
    Adams, Scott M.
    Barbarino, Cristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Barlow, Tom
    Bauer, James
    Beck, Ron
    Belicki, Justin
    Biswas, Rahul
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Blagorodnova, Nadejda
    Bodewits, Dennis
    Bolin, Bryce
    Brinnel, Valery
    Brooke, Tim
    Bue, Brian
    Bulla, Mattia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Burruss, Rick
    Cenko, S. Bradley
    Chang, Chan-Kao
    Connolly, Andrew
    Coughlin, Michael
    Cromer, John
    Cunningham, Virginia
    De, Kishalay
    Delacroix, Alex
    Desai, Vandana
    Duev, Dmitry A.
    Eadie, Gwendolyn
    Farnham, Tony L.
    Feeney, Michael
    Feindt, Ulrich
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Flynn, David
    Franckowiak, Anna
    Frederick, S.
    Fremling, C.
    Gal-Yam, Avishay
    Gezari, Suvi
    Giomi, Matteo
    Goldstein, Daniel A.
    Golkhou, V. Zach
    Goobar, Ariel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Groom, Steven
    Hacopians, Eugean
    Hale, David
    Henning, John
    Ho, Anna Y. Q.
    Hover, David
    Howell, Justin
    Hung, Tiara
    Huppenkothen, Daniela
    Imel, David
    Ip, Wing-Huen
    Ivezic, Zeljko
    Jackson, Edward
    Jones, Lynne
    Juric, Mario
    Kasliwal, Mansi M.
    Kaspi, S.
    Kaye, Stephen
    Kelley, Michael S. P.
    Kowalski, Marek
    Kramer, Emily
    Kupfer, Thomas
    Landry, Walter
    Laher, Russ R.
    Lee, Chien-De
    Lin, Hsing Wen
    Lin, Zhong-Yi
    Lunnan, Ragnhild
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Giomi, Matteo
    Mahabal, Ashish
    Mao, Peter
    Miller, Adam A.
    Monkewitz, Serge
    Murphy, Patrick
    Ngeow, Chow-Choong
    Nordin, Jakob
    Nugent, Peter
    Ofek, Eran
    Patterson, Maria T.
    Penprase, Bryan
    Porter, Michael
    Rauch, Ludwig
    Rebbapragada, Umaa
    Reiley, Dan
    Rigault, Mickael
    Rodriguez, Hector
    van Roestel, Jan
    Rusholme, Ben
    van Santen, Jakob
    Schulze, S.
    Shupe, David L.
    Singer, Leo P.
    Soumagnac, Maayane T.
    Stein, Robert
    Surace, Jason
    Sollerman, Jesper
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Szkody, Paula
    Taddia, Francesco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Terek, Scott
    Van Sistine, Angela
    van Velzen, Sjoert
    Vestrand, W. Thomas
    Walters, Richard
    Ward, Charlotte
    Ye, Quan-Zhi
    Yu, Po-Chieh
    Yan, Lin
    Zolkower, Jeffry
    The Zwicky Transient Facility: System Overview, Performance, and First Results2019In: Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, ISSN 0004-6280, E-ISSN 1538-3873, Vol. 131, no 995, article id 018002Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF) is a new optical time-domain survey that uses the Palomar 48 inch Schmidt telescope. A custom-built wide-field camera provides a 47 deg(2) field of view and 8 s readout time, yielding more than an order of magnitude improvement in survey speed relative to its predecessor survey, the Palomar Transient Factory. We describe the design and implementation of the camera and observing system. The ZTF data system at the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center provides near-real-time reduction to identify moving and varying objects. We outline the analysis pipelines, data products, and associated archive. Finally, we present on-sky performance analysis and first scientific results from commissioning and the early survey. ZTF's public alert stream will serve as a useful precursor for that of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope.

  • 4.
    Bulla, Mattia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Goobar, Ariel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Amanullah, Rahman
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Feindt, Ulrich
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Ferretti, Raphael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Estimating dust distances to Type Ia supernovae from colour excess time evolution2018In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 473, no 2, p. 1918-1929Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a new technique to infer dust locations towards reddened Type Ia supernovae and to help discriminate between an interstellar and a circumstellar origin for the observed extinction. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we show that the time evolution of the light-curve shape and especially of the colour excess E(B - V) places strong constraints on the distance between dust and the supernova. We apply our approach to two highly reddened Type Ia supernovae for which dust distance estimates are available in the literature: SN 2006X and SN 2014J. For the former, we obtain a time-variable E(B - V) and from this derive a distance of 27.5(-4.9)(+ 9.0) or 22.1(-3.8)(+ 6.0) pc depending on whether dust properties typical of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) or the Milky Way (MW) are used. For the latter, instead, we obtain a constant E(B - V) consistent with dust at distances larger than similar to 50 and 38 pc for LMC-and MW-type dust, respectively. Values thus extracted are in excellent agreement with previous estimates for the two supernovae. Our findings suggest that dust responsible for the extinction towards these supernovae is likely to be located within interstellar clouds. We also discuss how other properties of reddened Type Ia supernovae - such as their peculiar extinction and polarization behaviour and the detection of variable, blue-shifted sodium features in some of these events - might be compatible with dust and gas at interstellar-scale distances.

  • 5.
    Dhawan, Suhail
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Goobar, Ariel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Mörtsell, Edvard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Amanullah, Rahman
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Feindt, Ulrich
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Narrowing down the possible explanations of cosmic acceleration with geometric probes2017In: Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, ISSN 1475-7516, E-ISSN 1475-7516, no 7, article id 040Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent re-calibration of the Type Ia supernova (SNe Ia) magnitude-redshift relation combined with cosmic microwave background (CMB) and baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) data have provided excellent constraints on the standard cosmological model. Here, we examine particular classes of alternative cosmologies, motivated by various physical mechanisms, e.g. scalar fields, modified gravity and phase transitions to test their consistency with observations of SNe Ia and the ratio of the angular diameter distances from the CMB and BAO. Using a model selection criterion for a relative comparison of the models (the Bayes Factor), we find moderate to strong evidence that the data prefer flat Lambda CDM over models invoking a thawing behaviour of the quintessence scalar field. However, some exotic models like the growing neutrino mass cosmology and vacuum metamorphosis still present acceptable evidence values. The bimetric gravity model with only the linear interaction term as well as a simplified Galileon model can be ruled out by the combination of SNe Ia and CMB/BAO datasets whereas the model with linear and quadratic interaction terms has a comparable evidence value to standard Lambda CDM. Thawing models are found to have significantly poorer evidence compared to flat Lambda CDM cosmology under the assumption that the CMB compressed likelihood provides an adequate description for these non-standard cosmologies. We also present estimates for constraints from future data and find that geometric probes from oncoming surveys can put severe limits on non-standard cosmological models.

  • 6.
    Feindt, Ulrich
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Nordin, Jakob
    Rigault, Mickael
    Brinnel, Valéry
    Dhawan, Suhail
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Goobar, Ariel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Kowalski, Marek
    simsurvey: estimating transient discovery rates for the Zwicky transient facility2019In: Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, ISSN 1475-7516, E-ISSN 1475-7516, no 10, article id 005Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When planning a survey for astronomical transients, many factors such as cadence, filter choice, sky coverage, and depth of observations need to be balanced in order to optimize the scientific gain of the survey. Here we present a software package called simsurvey for simulating the supernova lightcurves that are expected based on a survey strategy, which can then be used to determine the potential for discoveries of each strategy in question. The code is set up in a modular fashion that allows easy modification of small details of the survey and enables the user to adapt it to any survey design and transient template that they wish to use in planning their survey. As an example of its utility, we use simsurvey to simulate the lightcurve of several types of supernovae that the recently started Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF) is expected to find and compare the results to the discoveries made during its early operations. We conclude that ZTF will find thousands of bright supernovae per year, of which about 10 could potentially be found with two days of explosion. Over the course of three years the survey will obtain lightcurves of about 1800 type Ia supernovae with z < 0.1 that can be used as distance indicators in cosmology if they are spectroscopically classified using additional telescopes. In a comparison to detections from the ZTF public survey, we found good agreement with the numbers of detections expected from the simulations.

  • 7. Frederick, Sara
    et al.
    Gezari, Suvi
    Graham, Matthew J.
    Cenko, S. Bradley
    van Velzen, Sjoert
    Stern, Daniel
    Blagorodnova, Nadejda
    Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.
    Yan, Lin
    De, Kishalay
    Fremling, U. Christoffer
    Hung, Tiara
    Kara, Erin
    Shupe, David L.
    Ward, Charlotte
    Bellm, Eric C.
    Dekany, Richard
    Duev, Dmitry A.
    Feindt, Ulrich
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Giomi, Matteo
    Kupfer, Thomas
    Laher, Russ R.
    Masci, Frank J.
    Miller, Adam A.
    Neill, James D.
    Ngeow, Chow-Choong
    Patterson, Maria T.
    Porter, Michael
    Rusholme, Ben
    Sollerman, Jesper
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Walters, Richard
    A New Class of Changing-look LINERs2019In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 883, no 1, article id 31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report the discovery of six active galactic nuclei (AGNs) caught turning on during the first nine months of the Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF) survey. The host galaxies were classified as low-ionization nuclear emissionline region galaxies (LINERs) by weak narrow forbidden line emission in their archival SDSS spectra, and detected by ZTF as nuclear transients. In five of the cases, we found via follow-up spectroscopy that they had transformed into broad-line AGNs, reminiscent of the changing-look LINER iPTF16bco. In one case, ZTF18aajupnt/ AT2018dyk, follow-up Hubble Space Telescope ultraviolet and ground-based optical spectra revealed the transformation into a narrow-line Seyfert 1 with strong [Fe VII, X, XIV] and He II lambda 4686 coronal lines. Swift monitoring observations of this source reveal bright UV emission that tracks the optical flare, accompanied by a luminous soft X-ray flare that peaks similar to 60 days later. Spitzer follow-up observations also detect a luminous midinfrared flare, implying a large covering fraction of dust. Archival light curves of the entire sample from CRTS, ATLAS, and ASAS-SN constrain the onset of the optical nuclear flaring from a prolonged quiescent state. Here we present the systematic selection and follow-up of this new class of changing-look LINERs, compare their properties to previously reported changing-look Seyfert galaxies, and conclude that they are a unique class of transients well-suited to test the uncertain physical processes associated with the LINER accretion state.

  • 8. Graham, Matthew J.
    et al.
    Barbarino, Cristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Feindt, Ulrich
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Goobar, Ariel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Lunnan, Ragnhild
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Sollerman, Jesper
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Taddia, Francesco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Biswas, Rahul
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Bulla, Mattia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Zolkower, Jeffry
    The Zwicky Transient Facility: Science Objectives2019In: Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, ISSN 0004-6280, E-ISSN 1538-3873, Vol. 131, no 1001, article id 078001Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF), a public-private enterprise, is a new time-domain survey employing a dedicated camera on the Palomar 48-inch Schmidt telescope with a 47 deg(2) field of view and an 8 second readout time. It is well positioned in the development of time-domain astronomy, offering operations at 10% of the scale and style of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) with a single 1-m class survey telescope. The public surveys will cover the observable northern sky every three nights in g and r filters and the visible Galactic plane every night in g and r. Alerts generated by these surveys are sent in real time to brokers. A consortium of universities that provided funding (partnership) are undertaking several boutique surveys. The combination of these surveys producing one million alerts per night allows for exploration of transient and variable astrophysical phenomena brighter than r similar to 20.5 on timescales of minutes to years. We describe the primary science objectives driving ZTF, including the physics of supernovae and relativistic explosions, multi-messenger astrophysics, supernova cosmology, active galactic nuclei, and tidal disruption events, stellar variability, and solar system objects.

  • 9. Hachinger, S.
    et al.
    Roepke, F. K.
    Mazzali, P. A.
    Gal-Yam, A.
    Maguire, K.
    Sullivan, M.
    Taubenberger, S.
    Ashall, C.
    Campbell, H.
    Elias-Rosa, N.
    Feindt, Ulrich
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Greggio, L.
    Inserra, C.
    Miluzio, M.
    Smartt, S. J.
    Young, D.
    Type Ia supernovae with and without blueshifted narrow Na I D lines - how different is their structure?2017In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 471, no 1, p. 491-506Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In studies on intermediate-and high-resolution spectra of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), some objects exhibit narrow Na I D absorptions often blueshifted with respect to the rest wavelength within the host galaxy. The absence of these in other SNe Ia may reflect that the explosions have different progenitors: blueshifted Na I D features might be explained by the outflows of 'single-degenerate' systems (binaries of a white dwarf with a non-degenerate companion). In this work, we search for systematic differences among SNe Ia for which the Na I D characteristics have been clearly established in previous studies. We perform an analysis of the chemical abundances in the outer ejecta of 13 'spectroscopically normal' SNe Ia (five of which show blueshifted Na lines), modelling time series of photospheric spectra with a radiative-transfer code. We find only moderate differences between 'blueshifted-Na', 'redshifted-Na' and 'no-Na' SNe Ia, so that we can neither conclusively confirm a 'one-scenario' nor a 'two-scenario' theory for normal SNe Ia. Yet, some of the trends we see should be further studied using larger observed samples: models for blueshifted-Na SNe tend to show higher photospheric velocities than no-Na SNe, corresponding to a higher opacity of the envelope. Consistently, blueshifted-Na SNe show hints of a somewhat larger iron-group content in the outer layers with respect to the no-Na subsample (and also to the redshifted-Na subsample). This agrees with earlier work where it was found that the light curves of no-Na SNe - often appearing in elliptical galaxies - are narrower, that is, decline more rapidly.

  • 10. Huang, X.
    et al.
    Raha, Z.
    Aldering, G.
    Antilogus, P.
    Bailey, S.
    Baltay, C.
    Barbary, K.
    Baugh, D.
    Boone, K.
    Bongard, S.
    Buton, C.
    Chen, J.
    Chotard, N.
    Copin, Y.
    Fagrelius, P.
    Fakhouri, H. K.
    Feindt, Ulrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Fouchez, D.
    Gangler, E.
    Hayden, B.
    Hillebrandt, W.
    Kim, A. G.
    Kowalski, M.
    Leget, P. -F.
    Lombardo, S.
    Nordin, J.
    Pain, R.
    Pecontal, E.
    Pereira, R.
    Perlmutter, S.
    Rabinowitz, D.
    Rigault, M.
    Rubin, D.
    Runge, K.
    Saunders, C.
    Smadja, G.
    Sofiatti, C.
    Stocker, A.
    Suzuki, N.
    Taubenberger, S.
    Tao, C.
    Thomas, R. C.
    The Extinction Properties of and Distance to the Highly Reddened Type IA Supernova 2012cu2017In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 836, no 2, article id 157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Correcting Type Ia Supernova brightnesses for extinction by dust has proven to be a vexing problem. Here we study the dust foreground to the highly reddened SN 2012cu, which is projected onto a dust lane in the galaxy NGC 4772. The analysis is based on multi-epoch, spectrophotometric observations spanning from 3300-9200 A degrees, obtained by the Nearby Supernova Factory. Phase-matched comparison of the spectroscopically twinned SN 2012cu and SN 2011fe across 10 epochs results in the best-fit color excess of (E(B-V), RMS) = (1.00, 0.03) and total-to-selective extinction ratio of (RV, RMS) = (2.95, 0.08) toward SN 2012cu within its host galaxy. We further identify several diffuse interstellar bands and compare the 5780 angstrom band with the dust- to-band ratio for the Milky Way (MW). Overall, we find the foreground dust-extinction properties for SN 2012cu to be consistent with those of the MW. Furthermore, we find no evidence for significant time variation in any of these extinction tracers. We also compare the dust extinction curve models of Cardelli et al., O'Donnell,. and Fitzpatrick, and find the predictions of Fitzpatrick fit SN 2012cu the best. Finally, the distance to NGC4772, the host of SN 2012cu, at a redshift of z = 0.0035, often assigned to the Virgo Southern Extension, is determined to be 16.6 +/- 1.1 Mpc. We compare this result with distance measurements in the literature.

  • 11. Kasliwal, M. M.
    et al.
    Cannella, C.
    Bagdasaryan, A.
    Hung, T.
    Feindt, Ulrich
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Singer, L. P.
    Coughlin, M.
    Fremling, C.
    Walters, R.
    Duev, D.
    Itoh, R.
    Quimby, R. M.
    The GROWTH Marshal: A Dynamic Science Portal for Time-domain Astronomy2019In: Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, ISSN 0004-6280, E-ISSN 1538-3873, Vol. 131, no 997, article id 038003Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe a dynamic science portal called the GROWTH Marshal that allows time-domain astronomers to define science programs; program filters to save sources from different discovery streams; coordinate follow-up with various robotic or classical telescopes; analyze the panchromatic follow-up data; and generate summary tables for publication. The GROWTH marshal currently serves 137 scientists, 38 science programs, and 67 telescopes. Every night, in real time, several science programs apply various customized filters to the 105 nightly alerts from the Zwicky Transient Facility. Here, we describe the schematic and explain the functionality of the various components of this international collaborative platform.

  • 12. Kasliwal, M. M.
    et al.
    Nakar, E.
    Singer, L. P.
    Kaplan, D. L.
    Cook, D. O.
    Van Sistine, A.
    Lau, R. M.
    Fremling, C.
    Gottlieb, O.
    Jencson, J. E.
    Adams, S. M.
    Feindt, Ulrich
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Hotokezaka, K.
    Ghosh, S.
    Perley, D. A.
    Yu, P-C.
    Piran, T.
    Allison, J. R.
    Anupama, G. C.
    Balasubramanian, A.
    Bannister, K. W.
    Bally, J.
    Barnes, J.
    Barway, S.
    Bellm, E.
    Bhalerao, V.
    Bhattacharya, D.
    Blagorodnova, N.
    Bloom, J. S.
    Brady, P. R.
    Cannella, C.
    Chatterjee, D.
    Cenko, S. B.
    Cobb, B. E.
    Copperwheat, C.
    Corsi, A.
    De, K.
    Dobie, D.
    Emery, S. W. K.
    Evans, P. A.
    Fox, O. D.
    Frail, D. A.
    Frohmaier, C.
    Goobar, Ariel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Hallinan, G.
    Harrison, F.
    Helou, G.
    Hinderer, T.
    Ho, A. Y. Q.
    Horesh, A.
    Ip, W-H.
    Itoh, R.
    Kasen, D.
    Kim, H.
    Kuin, N. P. M.
    Kupfer, T.
    Lynch, C.
    Madsen, K.
    Mazzali, P. A.
    Miller, A. A.
    Mooley, K.
    Murphy, T.
    Ngeow, C-C.
    Nichols, D.
    Nissanke, S.
    Nugent, P.
    Ofek, E. O.
    Qi, H.
    Quimby, R. M.
    Rosswog, Stephan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Rusu, F.
    Sadler, E. M.
    Schmidt, P.
    Sollerman, Jesper
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Steele, I.
    Williamson, A. R.
    Xu, Y.
    Yan, L.
    Yatsu, Y.
    Zhang, C.
    Zhao, W.
    Illuminating gravitational waves: A concordant picture of photons from a neutron star merger2017In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 358, no 6370, p. 1559-+Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Merging neutron stars offer an excellent laboratory for simultaneously studying strong-field gravity and matter in extreme environments. We establish the physical association of an electromagnetic counterpart (EM170817) with gravitational waves (GW170817) detected from merging neutron stars. By synthesizing a panchromatic data set, we demonstrate that merging neutron stars are a long-sought production site forging heavy elements by r-process nucleosynthesis. The weak gamma rays seen in EM170817 are dissimilar to classical short gamma-ray bursts with ultrarelativistic jets. Instead, we suggest that breakout of a wide-angle, mildly relativistic cocoon engulfing the jet explains the low-luminosity gamma rays, the high-luminosity ultraviolet-optical-infrared, and the delayed radio and x-ray emission. We posit that all neutron star mergers may lead to a wide-angle cocoon breakout, sometimes accompanied by a successful jet and sometimes by a choked jet.

  • 13. Lamb, G. P.
    et al.
    Tanvir, N. R.
    Levan, A. J.
    de Ugarte Postigo, A.
    Kawaguchi, K.
    Corsi, A.
    Evans, P. A.
    Gompertz, B.
    Malesani, D. B.
    Page, K. L.
    Wiersema, K.
    Rosswog, Stephan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Shibata, M.
    Tanaka, M.
    van der Horst, A. J.
    Cano, Z.
    Fynbo, J. P. U.
    Fruchter, A. S.
    Greiner, J.
    Heintz, K.
    Higgins, A.
    Hjorth, J.
    Izzo, L.
    Jakobsson, P.
    Kann, D. A.
    O'Brien, P. T.
    Perley, D. A.
    Pian, E.
    Pugliese, G.
    Starling, R. L. C.
    Thöne, C. C.
    Watson, D.
    Wijers, R. A. M. J.
    Xu, D.
    Short GRB 160821B: A Reverse Shock, a Refreshed Shock, and a Well-sampled Kilonova2019In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 883, no 1, article id 48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report our identification of the optical afterglow and host galaxy of the short-duration gamma-ray burst sGRB 160821B. The spectroscopic redshift of the host is z = 0.162, making it one of the lowest redshift short-duration gamma-ray bursts (sGRBs) identified by Swift. Our intensive follow-up campaign using a range of ground-based facilities as well as Hubble Space Telescope, XMM-Newton, and Swift, shows evidence for a late-time excess of optical and near-infrared emission in addition to a complex afterglow. The afterglow light curve at X-ray frequencies reveals a narrow jet, theta(j) similar to 1.9(-0.03)(+0.10) deg, that is refreshed at >1 day post-burst by a slower outflow with significantly more energy than the initial outflow that produced the main GRB. Observations of the 5 GHz radio afterglow shows a reverse shock into a mildly magnetized shell. The optical and near-infrared excess is fainter than AT2017gfo associated with GW170817, and is well explained by a kilonova with dynamic ejecta mass M-dyn = (1.0 +/- 0.6) x 10(-3) M-circle dot and a secular (post-merger) ejecta mass with M-pm = (1.0 +/- 0.6) x 10(-2) M-circle dot, consistent with a binary neutron star merger resulting in a short-lived massive neutron star. This optical and near-infrared data set provides the best-sampled kilonova light curve without a gravitational wave trigger to date.

  • 14. Lombardo, S.
    et al.
    Kuesters, D.
    Kowalski, M.
    Aldering, G.
    Antilogus, P.
    Bailey, S.
    Baltay, C.
    Barbary, K.
    Baugh, D.
    Bongard, S.
    Boone, K.
    Buton, C.
    Chen, J.
    Chotard, N.
    Copin, Y.
    Dixon, S.
    Fagrelius, P.
    Feindt, Ulrich
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Fouchez, D.
    Gangler, E.
    Hayden, B.
    Hillebrandt, W.
    Mann, A. Ho Ff
    Kim, A. G.
    Leget, P. -F.
    McKay, L.
    Nordin, J.
    Pain, R.
    Pecontal, E.
    Pereira, R.
    Perlmutter, S.
    Rabinowitz, D.
    Reif, K.
    Rigault, M.
    Rubin, D.
    Runge, K.
    Saunders, C.
    Smadja, G.
    Suzuki, N.
    Taubenberger, S.
    Tao, C.
    Thomas, R. C.
    SCALA: In situ calibration for integral field spectrographs2017In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 607, article id A113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims. The scientific yield of current and future optical surveys is increasingly limited by systematic uncertainties in the flux calibration. This is the case for type Ia supernova (SN Ia) cosmology programs, where an improved calibration directly translates into improved cosmological constraints. Current methodology rests on models of stars. Here we aim to obtain flux calibration that is traceable to state-of-the-art detector-based calibration. Methods. We present the SNIFS Calibration Apparatus (SCALA), a color (relative) flux calibration system developed for the SuperNova integral field spectrograph (SNIFS), operating at the University of Hawaii 2.2 m (UH 88) telescope. Results. By comparing the color trend of the illumination generated by SCALA during two commissioning runs, and to previous laboratory measurements, we show that we can determine the light emitted by SCALA with a long-term repeatability better than 1%. We describe the calibration procedure necessary to control for system aging. We present measurements of the SNIFS throughput as estimated by SCALA observations. Conclusions. The SCALA calibration unit is now fully deployed at the UH 88 telescope, and with it color-calibration between 4000 angstrom and 9000 angstrom is stable at the percent level over a one-year baseline.

  • 15. Léget, P. -F.
    et al.
    Pruzhinskaya, M. V.
    Ciulli, A.
    Gangler, E.
    Aldering, G.
    Antilogus, P.
    Aragon, C.
    Bailey, S.
    Baltay, C.
    Barbary, K.
    Bongard, S.
    Boone, K.
    Buton, C.
    Childress, M.
    Chotard, N.
    Copin, Y.
    Dixon, S.
    Fagrelius, P.
    Feindt, Ulrich
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Fouchez, D.
    Gris, P.
    Hayden, B.
    Hillebrandt, W.
    Howell, D. A.
    Kim, A.
    Kowalski, M.
    Kuesters, D.
    Lombardo, S.
    Lin, Q.
    Nordin, J.
    Pain, R.
    Pecontal, E.
    Pereira, R.
    Perlmutter, S.
    Rabinowitz, D.
    Rigault, M.
    Runge, K.
    Rubin, D.
    Saunders, C.
    Says, L. -P.
    Smadja, G.
    Sofiatti, C.
    Suzuki, N.
    Taubenberger, S.
    Tao, C.
    Thomas, R. C.
    Correcting for peculiar velocities of Type la supernovae in clusters of galaxies2018In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 615, article id A162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are widely used to measure the expansion of the Universe. To perform such measurements the luminosity and cosmological redshift (z) of the SNe Ia have to be determined. The uncertainty on z includes an unknown peculiar velocity, which can be very large for SNe Ia in the virialized cores of massive clusters. Aims. We determine which SNe Ia exploded in galaxy clusters using 145 SNe Ia from the Nearby Supernova Factory. We then study how the correction for peculiar velocities of host galaxies inside the clusters improves the Hubble residuals. Methods. We found 11 candidates for membership in clusters. We applied the biweight technique to estimate the redshift of a cluster. Then, we used the galaxy cluster redshift instead of the host galaxy redshift to construct the Hubble diagram. Results. For SNe Ia inside galaxy clusters, the dispersion around the Hubble diagram when peculiar velocities are taken into account is smaller compared with a case without peculiar velocity correction, which has a wRMS = 0.130 +/- 0.038 mag instead of wRMS = 0.137 +/- 0.036 mag. The significance of this improvement is 3.58 sigma. If we remove the very nearby Virgo cluster member SN2006X (z < 0.01) from the analysis, the significance decreases to 1.34 sigma. The peculiar velocity correction is found to be highest for the SNe Ia hosted by blue spiral galaxies. Those SNe Ia have high local specific star formation rates and smaller stellar masses, which is seemingly counter to what might be expected given the heavy concentration of old, massive elliptical galaxies in clusters. Conclusions. As expected, the Hubble residuals of SNe Ia associated with massive galaxy clusters improve when the cluster redshift is taken as the cosmological redshift of the supernova. This fact has to be taken into account in future cosmological analyses in order to achieve higher accuracy for cosmological redshift measurements. We provide an approach to do so.

  • 16. Mahabal, Ashish
    et al.
    Rebbapragada, Umaa
    Walters, Richard
    Masci, Frank J.
    Blagorodnova, Nadejda
    van Roestel, Jan
    Ye, Quan-Zhi
    Biswas, Rahul
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Burdge, Kevin
    Chang, Chan-Kao
    Duev, Dmitry A.
    Golkhou, V. Zach
    Miller, Adam A.
    Nordin, Jakob
    Ward, Charlotte
    Adams, Scott
    Bellm, Eric C.
    Branton, Doug
    Bue, Brian
    Cannella, Chris
    Connolly, Andrew
    Dekany, Richard
    Feindt, Ulrich
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Hung, Tiara
    Fortson, Lucy
    Frederick, Sara
    Fremling, C.
    Gezari, Suvi
    Graham, Matthew
    Groom, Steven
    Kasliwal, Mansi M.
    Kulkarni, Shrinivas
    Kupfer, Thomas
    Lin, Hsing Wen
    Lintott, Chris
    Lunnan, Ragnhild
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Parejko, John
    Prince, Thomas A.
    Riddle, Reed
    Rusholme, Ben
    Saunders, Nicholas
    Sedaghat, Nima
    Shupe, David L.
    Singer, Leo P.
    Soumagnac, Maayane T.
    Szkody, Paula
    Tachibana, Yutaro
    Tirumala, Kushal
    van Velzen, Sjoert
    Wright, Darryl
    Machine Learning for the Zwicky Transient Facility2019In: Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, ISSN 0004-6280, E-ISSN 1538-3873, Vol. 131, no 997, article id 038002Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Zwicky Transient Facility is a large optical survey in multiple filters producing hundreds of thousands of transient alerts per night. We describe here various machine learning (ML) implementations and plans to make the maximal use of the large data set by taking advantage of the temporal nature of the data, and further combining it with other data sets. We start with the initial steps of separating bogus candidates from real ones, separating stars and galaxies, and go on to the classification of real objects into various classes. Besides the usual methods (e.g., based on features extracted from light curves) we also describe early plans for alternate methods including the use of domain adaptation, and deep learning. In a similar fashion we describe efforts to detect fast moving asteroids. We also describe the use of the Zooniverse platform for helping with classifications through the creation of training samples, and active learning. Finally we mention the synergistic aspects of ZTF and LSST from the ML perspective.

  • 17. Nordin, J.
    et al.
    Aldering, G.
    Antilogus, P.
    Aragon, C.
    Bailey, S.
    Baltay, C.
    Barbary, K.
    Bongard, S.
    Boone, K.
    Brinnel, V.
    Buton, C.
    Childress, M.
    Chotard, N.
    Copin, Y.
    Dixon, S.
    Fagrelius, P.
    Feindt, Ulrich
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Fouchez, D.
    Gangler, E.
    Hayden, B.
    Hillebrandt, W.
    Kim, A.
    Kowalski, M.
    Kuesters, D.
    Leget, P. -F.
    Lombardo, S.
    Lin, Q.
    Pain, R.
    Pecontal, E.
    Pereira, R.
    Perlmutter, S.
    Rabinowitz, D.
    Rigault, M.
    Runge, K.
    Rubin, D.
    Saunders, C.
    Smadja, G.
    Sofiatti, C.
    Suzuki, N.
    Taubenberger, S.
    Tao, C.
    Thomas, R. C.
    Understanding type Ia supernovae through their U-band spectra2018In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 614, article id A71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Observations of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) can be used to derive accurate cosmological distances through empirical standardization techniques. Despite this success neither the progenitors of SNe Ia nor the explosion process are fully understood. The U-band region has been less well observed for nearby SNe, due to technical challenges, but is the most readily accessible band for high-redshift SNe. Aims. Using spectrophotometry from the Nearby Supernova Factory, we study the origin and extent of U-band spectroscopic variations in SNe Ia and explore consequences for their standardization and the potential for providing new insights into the explosion process. Methods. We divide the U-band spectrum into four wavelength regions lambda(uNi), lambda(uTi), lambda(uSi) and lambda(uCa). Two of these span the Ca H&K lambda lambda 3934, 3969 complex. We employ spectral synthesis using SYNAPPS to associate the two bluer regions with Ni/Co and Ti. Results. The flux of the uTi feature is an extremely sensitive temperature/ luminosity indicator, standardizing the SN peak luminosity to 0.116 +/- 0.011 mag root mean square (RMS). A traditional SALT2. 4 fit on the same sample yields a 0.135 mag RMS. Standardization using uTi also reduces the difference in corrected magnitude between SNe originating from different host galaxy environments. Early U-band spectra can be used to probe the Ni + Co distribution in the ejecta, thus offering a rare window into the source of light curve power. The uCa flux further improves standardization, yielding a 0.086 +/- 0.010 mag RMS without the need to include an additional intrinsic dispersion to reach chi(2) /dof similar to 1. This reduction in RMS is partially driven by an improved standardization of Shallow Silicon and 91T-like SNe.

  • 18. Nordin, J.
    et al.
    Brinnel, V.
    van Santen, J.
    Bulla, Mattia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Feindt, Ulrich
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Franckowiak, A.
    Fremling, C.
    Gal-Yam, A.
    Giomi, M.
    Kowalski, M.
    Mahabal, A.
    Miranda, N.
    Rauch, L.
    Reusch, S.
    Rigault, M.
    Schulze, S.
    Sollerman, Jesper
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Stein, R.
    Yaron, O.
    van Velzen, S.
    Ward, C.
    Transient processing and analysis using AMPEL: alert management, photometry, and evaluation of light curves2019In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 631, article id A147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Both multi-messenger astronomy and new high-throughput wide-field surveys require flexible tools for the selection and analysis of astrophysical transients.

    Aims. Here we introduce the alert management, photometry, and evaluation of light curves (AMPEL) system, an analysis framework designed for high-throughput surveys and suited for streamed data. AMPEL combines the functionality of an alert broker with a generic framework capable of hosting user-contributed code; it encourages provenance and keeps track of the varying information states that a transient displays. The latter concept includes information gathered over time and data policies such as access or calibration levels.

    Methods. We describe a novel ongoing real-time multi-messenger analysis using AMPEL to combine IceCube neutrino data with the alert streams of the Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF). We also reprocess the first four months of ZTF public alerts, and compare the yields of more than 200 different transient selection functions to quantify efficiencies for selecting Type Ia supernovae that were reported to the Transient Name Server (TNS).

    Results. We highlight three channels suitable for (1) the collection of a complete sample of extragalactic transients, (2) immediate follow-up of nearby transients, and (3) follow-up campaigns targeting young, extragalactic transients. We confirm ZTF completeness in that all TNS supernovae positioned on active CCD regions were detected.

    Conclusions. AMPEL can assist in filtering transients in real time, running alert reaction simulations, the reprocessing of full datasets as well as in the final scientific analysis of transient data. This is made possible by a novel way of capturing transient information through sequences of evolving states, and interfaces that allow new code to be natively applied to a full stream of alerts. This text also introduces a method by which users can design their own channels for inclusion in the AMPEL live instance that parses the ZTF stream and the real-time submission of high-quality extragalactic supernova candidates to the TNS.

  • 19.
    Papadogiannakis, Seméli
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Goobar, Ariel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Amanullah, Rahman
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Bulla, Mattia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Dhawan, Suhail
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Doran, G.
    Feindt, Ulrich
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Ferretti, Raphael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Hangard, Laura
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Howell, D. A.
    Johansson, J.
    Kasliwal, M. M.
    Laher, R.
    Masci, F.
    Nyholm, A.
    Ofek, E.
    Sollerman, Jesper
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Yan, L.
    R-band light-curve properties of Type Ia supernovae from the (intermediate) Palomar Transient Factory2019In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 483, p. 5045-5076Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the best 265 sampled R-band light curves of spectroscopically identified Type Ia supernovae (SNe) from the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF; 2009-2012) survey and the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF; 2013-2017). A model-independent light-curve template is built from our data-set with the purpose to investigate average properties and diversity in our sample. We searched for multiple populations in the light-curve properties using machine learning tools. We also utilized the long history of our light curves, up to 4000 days, to exclude any significant pre- or post- supernova flares. From the shapes of light curves we found the average rise time in the R band to be 16.8&#x2212;0.6+0.5'>16.8 +0.5 −0.6  16.8−0.6+0.5 days. Although PTF/iPTF were single-band surveys, by modelling the residuals of the SNe in the Hubble–Lemaître diagram, we estimate the average colour excess of our sample to be 〈E(BV)〉 ≈ 0.05(2) mag and thus the mean corrected peak brightness to be MR = −19.02 ± 0.02 +5log&#x2061;(H0[kms&#x2212;1Mpc&#x2212;1]/70)'>+5log(H 0 [kms −1 Mpc −1 ]/70) +5log⁡(H0[kms−1Mpc−1]/70) mag with only weak dependennce on light–curve shape. The intrinsic scatter is found to be σR = 0.186 ± 0.033 mag for the redshift range 0.05 < z < 0.1, without colour corrections of individual SNe. Our analysis shows that Malmquist bias becomes very significant at z = 0.13. A similar limitation is expected for the ongoing Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF) survey using the same telescope, but new camera expressly designed for ZTF.

  • 20.
    Rosswog, Stephan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Feindt, Ulrich
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Korobkin, O.
    Wu, M-R
    Sollerman, Jesper
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Goobar, Ariel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Martinez-Pinedo, G.
    Detectability of compact binary merger macronovae2017In: Classical and quantum gravity, ISSN 0264-9381, E-ISSN 1361-6382, Vol. 34, no 10, article id 104001Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the optical and near-infrared luminosities and detectability of radioactively powered electromagnetic transients ('macronovae') occuring in the aftermath of binary neutron star and neutron star black hole mergers. We explore the transients that result from the dynamic ejecta and those from different types of wind outflows. Based on full nuclear network simulations we calculate the resulting light curves in different wavelength bands. We scrutinize the robustness of the results by comparing (a) two different nuclear reaction networks and (b) two macronova models. We explore in particular how sensitive the results are to the production of alpha-decaying trans-lead nuclei. We compare two frequently used mass models: the finite-range Droplet model (FRDM) and the nuclear mass model of Duflo and Zuker (DZ31). We find that the abundance of alpha-decaying trans-lead nuclei has a significant impact on the observability of the resulting macronovae. For example, the DZ31 model yields considerably larger abundances resulting in larger heating rates and thermalization efficiencies and therefore predicts substantially brighter macronova transients. We find that the dynamic ejecta from NSNS models can reach peak K-band magnitudes in excess of -15 while those from NSBH cases can reach beyond -16. Similar values can be reached by some of our wind models. Several of our models (both wind and dynamic ejecta) yield properties that are similar to the transient that was observed in the aftermath of the short GRB 130603B. We further explore the expected macronova detection frequencies for current and future instruments such as VISTA, ZTF and LSST.

  • 21.
    Rosswog, Stephan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Sollerman, Jesper
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Feindt, Ulrich
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Goobar, Ariel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Korobkin, O.
    Wollaeger, R.
    Fremling, C.
    Kasliwal, M. M.
    The first direct double neutron star merger detection: Implications for cosmic nucleosynthesis2018In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 615, article id A132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. The astrophysical r-process site where about half of the elements, heavier than iron are produced, has been a puzzle for several decades. Here we discuss the role of one of the leading ideas - neutron star mergers (NSMs) - in the light of the first direct detection of such an event in both gravitational (GW) and electromagnetic (EM) waves. Aims. Our aim is to understand the implications of the first GW/EM observations of a NSM for cosmic nucleosynthesis. Methods. We analyse bolometric and NIR lightcurves of the first detected double NSM and compare them to nuclear reaction network-based macronova models. Results. The slope of the bolometric lightcurve is consistent with the radioactive decay of neutron star ejecta with Y-e less than or similar to 0.3 (but not larger), which provides strong evidence for an r-process origin of the electromagnetic emission. This rules out in particular nickel winds as major source of the emission. We find that the NIR lightcurves can be well fitted either with or without lanthanide-rich ejecta. Our limits on the ejecta mass together with estimated rates directly confirm earlier purely theoretical or indirect observational conclusions that double neutron star mergers are indeed a major site of cosmic nucleosynthesis. If the ejecta mass was typical, NSMs can easily produce all of the estimated Galactic r-process matter, and - depending on the real rate - potentially even more. This could be a hint that the event ejected a particularly large amount of mass, maybe due to a substantial difference between the component masses. This would be compatible with the mass limits obtained from the GW-observation. Conclusions. The recent observations suggests that NSMs are responsible for a broad range of r-process nuclei and that they are at least a major, but likely the dominant r-process site in the Universe.

  • 22. Saunders, C.
    et al.
    Aldering, G.
    Antilogus, P.
    Bailey, S.
    Baltay, C.
    Barbary, K.
    Baugh, D.
    Boone, K.
    Bongard, S.
    Buton, C.
    Chen, J.
    Chotard, N.
    Copin, Y.
    Dixon, S.
    Fagrelius, P.
    Fakhouri, H. K.
    Feindt, Ulrich
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Fouchez, D.
    Gangler, E.
    Hayden, B.
    Hillebrandt, W.
    Kim, A. G.
    Kowalski, M.
    Kuesters, D.
    Leget, P. -F.
    Lombardo, S.
    Nordin, J.
    Pain, R.
    Pecontal, E.
    Pereira, R.
    Perlmutter, S.
    Rabinowitz, D.
    Rigault, M.
    Rubin, D.
    Runge, K.
    Smadja, G.
    Sofiatti, C.
    Suzuki, N.
    Tao, C.
    Taubenberger, S.
    Thomas, R. C.
    Vincenzi, M.
    SNEMO: Improved Empirical Models for Type Ia Supernovae2018In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 869, no 2, article id 167Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    SN Ia cosmology depends on the ability to fit and standardize observations of supernova magnitudes with an empirical model. We present here a series of new models of SN Ia spectral time series that capture a greater amount of supernova diversity than is possible with the models that are currently customary. These are entitled SuperNova Empirical MOdels (SNEMO; https://snfactory.lbl.gov/snemo). The models are constructed using spectrophotometric time series from 172 individual supernovae from the Nearby Supernova Factory, comprising more than 2000 spectra. Using the available observations, Gaussian processes are used to predict a full spectral time series for each supernova. A matrix is constructed from the spectral time series of all the supernovae, and Expectation Maximization Factor Analysis is used to calculate the principal components of the data. K-fold cross-validation then determines the selection of model parameters and accounts for color variation in the data. Based on this process, the final models are trained on supernovae that have been dereddened using the Fitzpatrick and Massa extinction relation. Three final models are presented here: SNEMO2, a two-component model for comparison with current Type Ia models; SNEMO7, a seven-component model chosen for standardizing supernova magnitudes, which results in a total dispersion of 0.100mag for a validation set of supernovae, of which 0.087 mag is unexplained (a total dispersion of 0.113 mag with an unexplained dispersion of 0.097 mag is found for the total set of training and validation supernovae); and SNEMO15, a comprehensive 15-component model that maximizes the amount of spectral time-series behavior captured.

  • 23. Yao, Yuhan
    et al.
    Miller, Adam A.
    Kulkarni, S. R.
    Bulla, Mattia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Masci, Frank J.
    Goldstein, Daniel A.
    Goobar, Ariel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Nugent, Peter
    Dugas, Alison
    Blagorodnova, Nadia
    Neill, James D.
    Rigault, Michael
    Sollerman, Jesper
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Nordin, J.
    Bellm, Eric C.
    Cenko, S. Bradley
    De, Kishalay
    Dhawan, Suhail
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Feindt, Ulrich
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Fremling, C.
    Gatkine, Pradip
    Graham, Matthew J.
    Graham, Melissa L.
    Ho, Anna Y. Q.
    Hung, T.
    Kasliwal, Mansi M.
    Kupfer, Thomas
    Laher, Russ R.
    Perley, Daniel A.
    Rusholme, Ben
    Shupe, David L.
    Soumagnac, Maayane T.
    Taggart, K.
    Walters, Richard
    Yan, Lin
    ZTF Early Observations of Type Ia Supernovae. I. Properties of the 2018 Sample2019In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 886, no 2, article id 152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Early-time observations of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are essential to constrain the properties of their progenitors. In this paper, we present high-quality light curves of 127 SNe Ia discovered by the Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF) in 2018. We describe our method to perform forced point-spread function photometry, which can be applied to other types of extragalactic transients. With a planned cadence of six observations per night (three g + three r), all of the 127 SNe Ia are detected in both g and r bands more than 10 days (in the rest frame) prior to the epoch of g-band maximum light. The redshifts of these objects range from z = 0.0181 to 0.165; the median redshift is 0.074. Among the 127 SNe, 50 are detected at least 14 days prior to maximum light (in the rest frame), with a subset of nine objects being detected more than 17 days before g-band peak. This is the largest sample of young SNe Ia collected to date; it can be used to study the shape and color evolution of the rising light curves in unprecedented detail. We discuss six peculiar events in this sample: one 02cx-like event ZTF18abclfee (SN 2018crl), one Ia-CSM SN ZTF18aaykjei (SN 2018cxk), and four objects with possible super-Chandrasekhar mass progenitors: ZTF18abhpgje (SN 2018eul), ZTF18abdpvnd (SN 2018dvf), ZTF18aawpcel (SN 2018cir), and ZTF18abddmrf (SN 2018dsx).

1 - 23 of 23
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