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  • 1.
    Bernard-Oettel, Claudia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Temporary, self-employed and permanent workers: A Swedish study on work characteristics and individual well-being over time2013In: , 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Bernhard Oettel, Claudia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Psychology, University of Canterbury, New Zealand.
    Career continuance and transfer of competencies after job transitions: Insights from a Swedish study2015In: Handbook of research on sustainable careers / [ed] Ans de Vos, Beatrice I.J.M. van der Heijden, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015, p. 381-397Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Book information: What is a sustainable career and how can individuals and organizations develop pathways that lead to them? With current levels of global unemployment and the need for life-long learning and employability enhancement these questions assume a pressing significance. With twenty-eight chapters from leading scholars, the Handbook of Research on Sustainable Careers makes an important contribution to our understanding of sustainable careers and lays the foundation for the direction of future research.

  • 3.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Bergman, Louise
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Toivanen, Susanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences. Mälardalen University, Sweden .
    Flourish, fight or flight: Health and well-being in self-employment over time - associations with business success2019In: Abstract Book of the 19th European Association of Work and Organizational Psychology Congress: Working for the greater good - Inspiring people, designing jobs and leading organizations for a more inclusive society, 2019, p. 207-207Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Around 9% of the working population in Sweden consists of self-employed business owners, but a considerable amount of them struggle to consolidate or expand their businesses. Among the factors predicting business success the decisive role of long-term health of business owners has been acknowledged only recently, but longitudinal studies testing this assumption are scarce. Based on the conservation of resources theory, good health can be seen as a resource that helps business owners to tackle high workloads and make business succeed.

    Design: Data from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Health Survey is used. Starting in 2012, N=554 self-employed have answered three or more times in the biannual data collection. Latent growth curve modelling is employed to study general and mental health trajectories and their associations with business survival over time.

    Results: Preliminary descriptive analyses on biannual changes suggest that roughly one in ten self-employed leaves self-employment at follow-up. Job demands and emotional exhaustion are higher among those who leave compared to those who remain in business. After integrating new data collected in 2018, growth curve analyses are run over the whole longitudinal sample, and associations of health trajectories to business survival will be tested.

    Limitations: Data is collected with questionnaires, and business success is operationalized as business survival only.

    Research/Practical Implications: Study results increase knowledge on the self-employed’s health developments, vulnerable groups with poor health and risk of business failure can be detected.

    Originality/Value: This is one of few studies on longitudinal developments of health in selfemployed business owners.

  • 4.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Canivet, Catarina
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Stengård, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Östergren, P-O
    The role of social embeddedness for remaining in non-desired workplaces and mental health consequences: Results from Scania Public Health Cohort2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 334-343Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: The aim of the study was to investigate the role of social embeddedness on and off the job in relation to remaining in non-desired workplaces (NDWs) and the development of mental health. Method: The study used questionnaire data from the Scania Public Health cohort (N=2410) that were collected in 2000 (T1), 2005 (T2) and 2010 (T3). Logistic regression models were calculated to probe how NDWs and social embeddedness factors measured at baseline (T1) related to NDWs five years later (T2), and to investigate how NDWs and social embeddedness factors at T2 related to poor mental health at T3. Synergy indices were calculated in both analyses to test for additive v. interactive effects between NDWs and social embeddedness factors on the outcomes. Results: NDWs at baseline and low social embeddedness on and off the job was associated with NDWs at T2. For those in a desired workplace, low support from co-workers as well as low workplace affinity increased the risk to be in an NDW at T2. NDWs and low social embeddedness also associated with impaired mental health (T3). For those in an NDW, low support from co-workers as well as low workplace affinity increased the risk of poor mental health at T3. Conclusions: This study underlines the importance of social embeddedness for NDWs and the development of poor mental health over time. Particularly low social support from co-workers and low workplace affinity seem to be risk factors for future experience of an NDW and impaired mental health.

  • 5.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    De Cuyper, Nele
    Murphy, Megan
    Connelly, Catherine E.
    Flessibilità organizzativa e lavori atipici2019In: Introduzione alla psicologia delle organizzazioni: Una prospettiva internazionale / [ed] Nik Chmiel, Franco Fraccaroli, Magnus Sverke, Bologna: Societa Editrice Il Mulino, 2019, p. 285-303Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [it]

    In questo capitolo vedremo che cosa significa avere un lavoro atipico, cioè un lavoro che si discosta dai tradizionali impieghi a tempo pieno e indeterminato. I lavori atipici sono utilizzati frequentemente dalle odierne organizzazioni e spesso sono calibrati sulle necessità organizzative. Si è perciò sviluppata un’ampia varietà di fattispecie contrattuali, il che significa che le condizioni di assunzione e di lavoro e le loro conseguenze per l’individuo e per l’organizzazione possono variare considerevolmente. Il capitolo presenta anzitutto una tipologia dei contratti atipici utilizzati più spesso e considera fino a che punto siano tra loro comparabili al variare delle legislazioni nazionali sulla tutela occupazionale e dei mercati nazionali del lavoro. Il capitolo mostra inoltre che il significato che questi impieghi atipici assumono per i lavoratori varia secondo a) le strutture organizzative e del mercato del lavoro che determinano le condizioni lavorative in relazione ai diversi contratti, e b) la prospettiva individuale, che dipende dalle motivazioni e dalle percezioni individuali riguardo al rapporto di lavoro. Questi fattori strutturali e queste percezioni individuali possono ben spiegare la varietà di conseguenze, positive e negative, del lavoro atipico, che sono discusse in questo capitolo in termini di atteggiamenti lavorativi, comportamento organizzativo, salute e benessere individuali e sviluppo professionale.

  • 6.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    De Cuyper, Nele
    Murphy, Megan
    Connelly, Catherine E.
    How Do We Feel and Behave When We’re Not Permanent Full-Time Employees? The Case of the Diverse Forms of Non-Standard Work2017In: An Introduction to Work and Organizational Psychology: An International Perspective / [ed] Nik Chmiel, Franco Fraccaroli, Magnus Sverke, Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, 2017, 3, p. 258-275Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter discusses how it feels to work in non-standard employment that deviates from the traditional full-time permanent arrangement. Non-standard employmentis frequently used by organizations today and often tailored to organizational needs. Therefore, a diversity of arrangements has developed, which means that employment and working conditions and their consequences for the individual and the organization may vary a lot. The chapter first provides a typology of most commonly used non-standard contracts and discusses their comparability across national employment protection legislation and labour markets. It further illustrates that workers may view alternative employment differently, depending on organizational or labour market structures that create working conditions for specific contracts, and individual perspectives that are shaped by different needs and perceptions of the employment. These structural issues and individual perceptions may well explain the variety of consequences, positive as well as negative, which are discussed in this chapter in terms of work attitudes, organizational behaviour, individual health and well-being and career development.

  • 7.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    De Cuyper, Nele
    Schreurs, Bert
    De Witte, Hans
    Linking job insecurity to well-being and organizational attitudes in Belgian workers: The role of security expectations and fairness2011In: International Journal of Human Resource Management, ISSN 0958-5192, E-ISSN 1466-4399, Vol. 22, no 9, p. 1866-1886Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate how perceptions of job insecurity and fairness associate with individual well-being (job satisfaction and general health) and organizational attitudes (organizational commitment and turnover intention), under the condition that the psychological contract as perceived by the employee includes a promise on job security, or not. More specifically, we suggest that (H1) job insecurity is negatively related to individual well-being and organizational commitment and positively related to turnover intentions when job security is expected as part of the psychological contract, (H2) that job insecurity is negatively related to fairness perceptions when job security is expected as part of the psychological contract, (H3) that fairness associates positively with individual well-being and organizational commitment and negatively with turnover intentions and (H4) that the association between job insecurity, individual well-being and organizational outcomes is mediated by fairness under the condition that job security is expected as part of the psychological contract. Thus, we propose a model of mediated moderation. Results based on a sample of Belgian employees (N = 559) supported our hypotheses for organizational outcomes. For individual well-being, the mediation framework was not conditional upon a perceived promise of job security as part of the psychological contract. We conclude that employees' perceptions of job insecurity and fairness are important factors in employees' well-being and their attitudes towards the organization. More importantly, these perceptions can in part be shaped by organizational agents such as managers and supervisors. Additionally, the active utilization of the psychological contract in management strategies seems to have favourable results for the fostering of pro-organizational attitudes among employees.

  • 8.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Eib, Constanze
    Griep, Yannick
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. University of Calgary, Canada.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    How do Job Insecurity and Organisational Injustice relate to Mental Health Problems? A Multilevel Study on Synchronous and Delayed Effects2018In: Book of Proceedings: 13th Conference of the European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology: Adapting to rapid changes in today’s workplace / [ed] Kevin Teoh, Nathalie Saade, Vlad Dediu, Juliet Hassard, Luis Torres, Nottingham: European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology, 2018, p. 216-217, article id O15Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: With the continuous changing world of work towards more automatisation, and global competition that requires organisations to cut costs wherever possible, job insecurity is a concern of workers across many different occupations. Job insecurity is a stressful experience and its negative impact on wellbeing and health is well-documented. However, the exact mechanisms for the link between job insecurity and health need further study.

    We argue that job insecurity is a breach of the psychological contract for permanent workers, leading to perceptions that the employer acts unfairly, which is related to immediate (synchronous) and long-term (two years delayed) negative health effects. Thus, we firstly hypothesise indirect effects between job insecurity on depressive symptoms and sleep difficulties via organisational injustice at the within person level. Furthermore, because employees who often experience job insecurity may no longer have security expectations in their psychological contract, we suggest that the strength of the job insecurity-injustice relationship differs between individuals, such that the relationship is weaker for individuals with higher average levels of job insecurity over time. Finally, we hypothesised that the relationship between organisational injustice and depressive symptoms and sleep difficulties is stronger for individuals who experience more over time-variation in organisational injustice. We expect this pattern because recent research shows that injustice has stronger effects for individuals whose justice experiences vary as opposed to relatively stable injustice perceptions.

    Method: The study population consisted of participants in the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH) study, a nationally representative longitudinal cohort survey. We selected only permanent workers over four consecutive data waves (2010, 2012, 2014, 2016) and analyzed the data with multilevel analysis.

    Results: At the within-person level, we found significant direct effects of job insecurity on organisational injustice. Job insecurity and organisational injustice displayed direct synchronous effects on both health outcomes, but few delayed effects were found. The indirect effects were significant for synchronous but not for delayed health outcomes. Significant cross-level interactions were found for between-individual differences in job insecurity, but not for between- individual differences in organisational justice. In particular, as hypothesised, the link between job insecurity and organisational injustice at each wave was weaker for individuals with higher average levels of job insecurity perceptions but stronger for those who rarely experienced job insecurity during the time of the study.

    Discussion: This study is one of the few studies investigating within- and between-person mechanisms that link feelings of job insecurity to the experience of organisational injustice and health outcomes over time. It also adds to the debate whether job insecurity and organisational injustice associate with health via mediation or moderation mechanisms by showing that both mechanisms may operate simultaneously yet on different levels. Furthermore, this study highlights that permanent workers view their organisation as less fair when they experience job insecurity, the more so if their psychological contract is largely intact and builds on security expectations. Both job insecurity and injustice have rather direct effects for health.

  • 9.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Eib, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Griep, Yannick
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. University of Calgary, Canada.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    How Do Job Insecurity and Organizational Justice Relate to Depressive Symptoms and Sleep Difficulties: A Multilevel Study on Immediate and Prolonged Effects in Swedish Workers2019In: Psychologie Appliquee: Revue Internationale, ISSN 0269-994X, E-ISSN 1464-0597Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on stress and justice literature, we argue that perceptions of job insecurity induce feelings of low procedural justice, which has immediate and prolonged negative effects on health (depressive symptoms, sleep difficulties). Moreover, we explore whether the strength of the job insecurity-justice relationship differs between individuals as a function of their average level of job insecurity over time. Finally, we explore whether the procedural justice-health relationship differs between individuals as a function of variability in justice perceptions over time. We analyzed Swedish panel data from permanent workers over four consecutive waves (with a two-year time lag between waves) using multilevel analysis, separating within- and between-person variance. Results showed that job insecurity associated negatively with procedural justice at the same time point for all waves. Prolonged effects were less stable. We found immediate (but not prolonged) indirect effects of job insecurity on health outcomes via procedural justice. Average levels in job insecurity over time moderated the within-person job insecurity-justice relationship. However, variability in procedural justice over time did not moderate the within-person justice-health relationship. In conclusion, disentangling within- and between-person variability of job insecurity and justice perceptions contributes to the understanding of health effects.

  • 10.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Isaksson, Kerstin
    Bellaagh, Katalin
    Patterns of contract motives and work involvement in temporary work: Relations to work-related and general well-being2008In: Economic and Industrial Democracy, ISSN 0143-831X, E-ISSN 1461-7099, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 565-591Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Temporary work is characterized by heterogeneity, and contract motives and work involvement are believed to differentiate temporary workers, which may explain their divergence in terms of subjective well-being. Applying a person-oriented approach using questionnaire data from a sample of Swedish temporary workers (N = 184), this study identified six patterns, characterized by distinct combinations of voluntary and involuntary contract motives and work involvement. While controlling for demo-graphics, comparative analyses found differences between these patterns in terms of work-related and general well-being. These findings indicate that knowledge about temporary work and its various consequences is enhanced by considering whole patterns instead of single variables in a person-oriented approach.

  • 11.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Staying in or switching between permanent, temporary and self-employment during 2008-2010: Associations with changing job characteristics and emotional exhaustion2019In: Economic and Industrial Democracy, ISSN 0143-831X, E-ISSN 1461-7099, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 215-237Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Labour market segmentation theories suggest that permanent and temporary workers are exposed to economic risks to different degrees, and differ in their working life quality and well-being. However, few studies have tested these ideas during times of economic crisis. Also, little is known about how the self-employed compare to permanent and temporary workers and are affected by economic downturns. This study investigated Swedish workers in different labour market segments before and after the financial crisis (2008 and 2010). More specifically, it looked at job characteristics and strain differences between permanent, temporary and self-employed workers. Data (N = 6335) came from SLOSH, a longitudinal representative cohort study of the Swedish workforce. Contradicting segmentation theories, differences between permanent and temporary workers were small. The self-employed stood out with favourable job characteristics, but comparable strain levels. During the crisis, work demands and strain declined for many of the workers studied here.

  • 12.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stengård, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Östergren, P-O
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Berntson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Inlåsning, anställningsbarhet och välbefinnande efter en omorganisation2013In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 101-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under perioder där arbetsmarknaden erbjuder färre alternativ är det troligt att fler människor accepterar arbetsplatser där de inte trivs eller stannar kvar på arbeten som de inte vill ha och känner sig inlåsta i. Tidigare forskning har kopplat inlåsning till sämre välbefinnande. Hur inlåsning och välbefinnande förändras när människor byter jobb är mindre känt. Föreliggande studie belyser förändringar i inlåsning, upplevd anställningsbarhet och välbefinnande vid en svensk myndighet efter en organisationsförändring som medfört organisationsinterna arbetsplatsbyten. Resultaten visar på negativa effekter av inlåsning: att stanna kvar på eller flytta till en arbetsplats som man inte önskar ha i framtiden är inte gynnsamt för hälsan.

  • 13.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rigotti, Thomas
    Clinton, Michael
    de Jong, Jeroen
    Job insecurity and well-being in the temporary workforce: Testing volition and contract expectations as boundary conditions2013In: European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, ISSN 1359-432X, E-ISSN 1464-0643, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 203-217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates whether temporary contract volition and workers' expectations for contract renewal are boundary conditions to explain differences in temporary workers' job insecurity feelings and well-being. It is hypothesized that (1) low volition through higher job insecurity indirectly associates with lower well-being and that (2) temporary workers' expectations of contract renewal weakens the links between both low volition and high job insecurity and high job insecurity and impaired well-being. Results based on an international data set of 1755 temporary workers employed in the education, manufacturing, and service sectors supported the first hypothesis and partly also the second. More specifically, low preferences for temporary contracts associated via higher job insecurity with lower job satisfaction, impaired health, and higher irritation. Contract expectations placed a boundary condition upon this indirect relation; however, the negative association between high job insecurity and impaired well-being was not weakened but strengthened. In conclusion, particularly temporary workers with low contract volition and high job insecurity feelings, who have high expectations for contract renewal are at risk for impaired well-being. Hence, this study sheds light onto the question how volition for temporary work and expected contract renewal relate to job insecurity and associate with individual well-being.

  • 14.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stengård, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand.
    How Are They Now?: Managers’ Well-Being and Organizational Attitudes after the Restructuring of Their Job Positions in a Swedish Governmental Agency2014In: Book of Proceedings, 11th Conference of the European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology: Looking at the past-planning for the future: Capitalizing on OHP multidisciplinarity / [ed] N.J.A. Andreou, A. Jain, D. Hollis, J. Hassard & K. Teoh, Nottingham, UK: European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology , 2014, p. 257-258Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Planned organizational changes often aim to secure organizational sustainability through the means of optimising structures and strategies. However, for employees such organizational changes often imply job changes and the loss of familiar routines. 

    Plausibly, this increases perceived uncertainty and may have negative effects on employees’ organizational attitudes and well-being during the change. If levels of well-being and organizational attitudes are negatively affected in the long run, this may pose threats to the initial aim to secure organizational sustainability. This may even more so be the case if employees such as managers show long-term negative reactions, since managers are in key positions to promote the organizations aims vis à vis employees. Whereas there is much research on employees’ reactions towards organizational change, few studies have specifically analysed managers’ reactions at different organizational levels. Also, many studies focus on certain aspects of uncertainty, but few inspect the consequences of (unwanted) job, task or responsibility changes.

    Accordingly, this study aimed to investigate managers’ well-being and organizational attitudes after organizational changes of management structures. More specifically, it studied how changes in managers’ organizational attitudes and well-being related to changes in job positions, tasks and responsibilities shortly after the organizational restructuring, and more than a year later.

    The study used questionnaire data collected from managers in a Swedish governmental agency undergoing structural changes. During this period all managers had to go through a new recruitment process. Questionnaires were sent out at T1 (summer 2011, one month before the change process started), T2 (spring 2012, two months after the organizational change was finalised) and T3 (summer 2013, 18 months after the organizational change was finalised).

    Data are currently being analysed cross-sectionally (N = 173, 144, and 125) and longitudinally (N = 91 with complete date for t1, t2 and t3). The preliminary findings show the percentage of managers who rated their job positions favorably steadily decreased from T1 to T3, and this related to a significant decrease in self-rated health and job satisfaction. Interestingly, perceptions of tasks and responsibilities of their old and new jobs were still rather similar at T2. How the perceptions of changes in tasks and responsibilities relate to attitudes and well-being a year later (T3) is currently under analysis.

  • 15.
    Berntson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Christensen, Marit
    Clausen, Thomas
    Mauno, Saija
    The Launch of a New Scandinavian Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, E-ISSN 2002-2867, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 1-2Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 16.
    Berntson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    De Cuyper, Nele
    The Moderating Role of Employability in the Relationship between Organizational changes and job insecurity2007In: The XIIIth European Congress of Work, Stockholm, May 9-12, 2007, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been proposed that the world of work has changed substantially during the last decades, implying that reorganizing activities has become more common. In the same line of research it has been argued that during an organizational change working life becomes more volatile. It could thus be argued that individuals may perceive job insecurity during such changes. However, few researchers have investigated the moderating role of employability. The aim of our study is to investigate if individuals that has experienced organizational change also report more job insecurity than those individuals that has not experienced an change and also if employability has a moderating role. The present study used questionnaire data from a representative sample of Swedish citizens between 25 and 50 years of age in 2005. Preliminary results indicate that individuals that have experienced an organizational change are more likely to report high levels of job insecurity and also that individuals reporting low levels of employability are more likely to report higher levels of job insecurity. In addition we found an interaction effect between organizational change and employability indicating that the difference between experiencing a change and not when reporting low employability is greater than for those individuals reporting high employability. A possible explanation could be that individuals feeling employable are not affected by an organizational change because they have opportunities in the labour market.

  • 17.
    Berntson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Hellgren, Johnny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. University of Canterbury, New Zealand.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Enkätmetodik2016Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Enkätmetodik ger såväl teoretisk som praktisk kunskap om enkätundersökningar från att identifiera ett problem och formulera lämpliga frågor, till att analysera och tolka resultatet. Boken har ett evidensbaserat perspektiv där läsaren får lära sig olika verktyg som bidrar till undersökningens tillförlitlighet.

    Fokus ligger på metodiken, som förklaras och sätts in i sitt sammanhang med hjälp av många exempel, faktarutor och tydliga beskrivningar. Läsaren får således god förståelse för centrala områden såsom mätteori, reliabilitet, validitet och faktoranalys.

  • 18.
    Bujacz, Aleksandra
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Germany.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Rigotti, Thomas
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Task-level work engagement of self-employed and organizationally employed high-skilled workers2017In: Career Development International, ISSN 1362-0436, E-ISSN 1758-6003, Vol. 22, no 6, p. 724-738Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - Self-employed workers typically report higher well-being levels than employees. The purpose of this paper is to examine the mechanisms that lead to differences in work engagement between self-employed and organizationally employed high-skilled workers. Design/methodology/approach - Self-employed and organizationally employed high-skilled workers (N = 167) were compared using a multigroup multilevel analysis. Participants assessed their job control (general level) and reported their work engagement during work tasks (task level) by means of the Day Reconstruction Method. Aspects of job control (autonomy, creativity, and learning opportunities) and task characteristics (social tasks and core work tasks) were contrasted for the two groups as predictors of work engagement. Findings - Self-employed workers reported higher levels of job control and work engagement than organizationally employed workers. In both groups, job control predicted work engagement. Employees with more opportunities to be creative and autonomous were more engaged at work. Self-employed workers were more engaged when they had more learning opportunities. On the task level, the self-employed were more engaged during core work tasks and social tasks. Practical implications - The findings suggest that self-employment is an effective way for high-skilled workers to increase the amount of job control available to them, and to improve their work engagement. From an intervention perspective, self-employed workers may benefit most from more learning opportunities, more social tasks, and more core work tasks. Organizationally employed workers may appreciate more autonomy and opportunities for creativity. Originality/value - This study contributes to a better understanding of the role that job control and task characteristics play in predicting the work engagement of high-skilled self-employed and organizationally employed workers.

  • 19.
    Bujacz, Aleksandra
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Rigotti, Thomas
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Psychosocial Working Conditions Among High-Skilled Workers: A Latent Transition Analysis2018In: Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, ISSN 1076-8998, E-ISSN 1939-1307, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 223-236Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Theories of psychosocial working conditions assume an interaction of different work environment characteristics. Most studies detail various aspects of such interactions, while fewer investigate the comprehensive patterns of interrelated variables. This exploratory study distinguishes patterns of psychosocial working conditions, describes their characteristics, and investigates their change over 6 years. The working conditions of 1,744 high-skilled workers in Sweden, of a representative sample of the working population, were empirically classified into 4 distinct patterns: (a) the Supporting pattern with a very low workload, very low time pressure, medium learning opportunities, high creativity requirements, and very high autonomy; (b) the Constraining pattern with a very low workload, very low time pressure, low learning opportunities, medium creativity requirements, and very low autonomy; (c) the Demanding pattern with a high workload, high time pressure, medium learning opportunities, high creativity requirements, and very low autonomy; and (d) the Challenging pattern with a high workload, high time pressure, very high learning opportunities, very high creativity requirements, and very high autonomy. Importantly, these patterns were associated with significant differences in worker well-being. From an individual perspective, working conditions most often changed from patterns with a high workload and time pressure to patterns with lower levels of these demands. Over time, the prevalence of the Constraining pattern increased while that of the Challenging pattern decreased. To conclude, a person-centered approach broadens the understanding of the complex interplay between psychosocial working conditions and their longitudinal change, which can improve the tailoring of occupational health interventions.

  • 20. Canivet, Catarina
    et al.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Moghaddassi, Mahnaz
    Stengård, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Östergren, Per-Olof
    The negative effects on mental health of being in a non-desired occupation in an increasingly precarious labour market2017In: SSM - Population Health, ISSN 2352-8273, Vol. 3, p. 516-524Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Precarious employment has been associated with poor mental health. Moreover, increasing labour market precariousness may cause individuals to feel ‘locked-in’, in non-desired workplaces or occupations, out of fear of not finding a new employment. This could be experienced as a ‘loss of control’, with similar negative health consequences. It is plausible that the extent to which being in a non-desired occupation (NDO) or being in precarious employment (PE) has a negative impact on mental health differs according to age group. We tested this hypothesis using data from 2331 persons, 18–34, 35–44, and 45–54 years old, who answered questionnaires in 1999/2000, 2005, and 2010. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) were calculated for poor mental health (GHQ-12) in 2010, after exposure to NDO and PE in 1999/2000 or 2005. NDO and PE were more common in the youngest age group, and they were both associated with poor mental health. In the middle age group the impact of NDO was null, while in contrast the IRR for PE was 1.7 (95% CI: 1.3–2.3) after full adjustment. The pattern was completely the opposite in the oldest age group (adjusted IRR for NDO 1.6 (1.1–2.4) and for PE 0.9 (0.6–1.4)). The population attributable fraction of poor mental health was 14.2% and 11.6%, respectively, for NDO in the youngest and oldest age group, and 17.2% for PE in the middle age group. While the consequences of PE have been widely discussed, those of NDO have not received attention. Interventions aimed at adapting work situations for older individuals and facilitating conditions of job change in such a way as to avoid risking unemployment or precarious employment situations may lead to improved mental health in this age group.

  • 21. Clinton, Michael
    et al.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rigotti, Thomas
    de Jong, Jeroen
    Expanding the temporal context of research on non-permanent work: Previous experience, duration of and time remaining on contracts and employment continuity expectations2011In: Career Development International, ISSN 1362-0436, E-ISSN 1758-6003, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 114-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore an expanded temporal context of non-permanent work through an examination of the influence of previous experience of temporary working, contract duration and time remaining on contract and expectations of continued employment on reports of job insecurity, job satisfaction, in-role performance and organisational commitment. Design/methodology/approach - Hypotheses were tested using responses of 1,169 temporary workers from a multi-national, cross-sectional questionnaire study. Findings - Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that having previous experience of temporary work was associated with higher in-role performance. No significant effects were found for contract duration, but shorter time remaining on present contract was associated with greater job insecurity and also greater in-role performance. However the strongest effects were found for expectations of continued employment, with stronger expectations being linked to more positive reports of each outcome. A number of moderation effects were found that indicated interactions between temporal variables and revealed a moderating role of preference for temporary work. Originality/value - The paper is one of the first to formally consider the influence of a broader temporal context on attitudes and behaviours of temporary workers. Significant associations were found between elements relating to each of the past, present and future and important individual and organisational variables in the present. These effects were sustained above and beyond the influence of variables such as country, sector, preferences, skill level, contract type, and demographics that are known to affect temporary workers' attitudes and behaviours.

  • 22. De Cuyper, Nele
    et al.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Berntson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    De Witte, Hans
    Alarco, Barbara
    Employability and Employees' Well-Being: Mediation by Job Insecurity2008In: Applied Psychology, ISSN 0269-994X, Vol. 57, no 3, p. 488-509Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current study's aims are twofold: first, we investigate the relationship between employability and both work-related (engagement) and general (life satisfaction) well-being. Second, we study how employability may be relevant in times of high job insecurity. Specifically, we hypothesise (1) a positive relationship between employability and employees’ well-being, (2) a negative relationship between employability and job insecurity, and (3) a negative relationship between job insecurity and employees’ well-being, so that (4) job insecurity mediates the relationship between employability and employees’ well-being. Results based on a sample of 559 respondents from divisions of seven Belgian organisations support our hypotheses. We conclude that employability may be a means to secure one's labour market position, rather than a means to cope with job insecurity.

  • 23. de Jong, Jeroen
    et al.
    Clinton, Michael
    Rigotti, Thomas
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nonlinear associations between breached obligations and employee well-being2015In: Journal of Managerial Psychology, ISSN 0268-3946, E-ISSN 1758-7778, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 374-389Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to analyze the nonlinear association between proportions of breached obligations within the psychological contract (PC) and three dimensions of employee well-being, and the mediating role of contract violation in these relationships. With this study the authors gain a more detailed understanding of PC evaluations and their consequences for well-being. Design/methodology/approach - The authors build on asymmetry effects theory and affective events theory to propose that breached obligations outweigh fulfilled obligations in their association with well-being. The hypotheses are tested using a sample of 4,953 employees from six European countries and Israel. Findings - The results provide support for the hypotheses, as the effect sizes of the indirect relationships for breached obligations on well-being via violation are initially strong compared to fulfilled obligations, but decrease incrementally as the proportion of breached obligations become greater. At a certain point the effect sizes become nonsignificant. Research limitations/implications - The study shows that PC theory and research needs to better acknowledge the potential for asymmetrical effects of breach relative to fulfillment, such that the breach of obligations can sometimes have a stronger effect on employee well-being than the fulfillment of obligations. Practical implications - Those responsible for managing PCs in organizations should be aware of the asymmetrical effects of breach relative to fulfillment, as trusting on the acceptance or tolerance of employees in dealing with breached obligations may quickly result in lower well-being. Originality/value - The findings have implications for the understanding of PC breach and its associations with employee well-being.

  • 24. De Jong, Jeroen
    et al.
    De Cuyper, Nele
    De Witte, Hans
    Silla, Inmaculada
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Motives for accepting temporary employment: A typology2009In: International journal of manpower, ISSN 0143-7720, E-ISSN 1758-6577, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 237-252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – This paper aims to offer a typology of temporary workers, based on their motives for accepting their work arrangement, which includes voluntary, involuntary and stepping-stone motives, and relate this typology to various individual and work-related variables. Design/methodology/approach – Latent class analysis of 645 European workers was used to construct a typology of temporary workers. Variation of individual and work-related variables between types of temporary workers was analyzed using ANOVA. Findings – The analyses suggest that there are three types of workers: involuntary temporary workers highlight the involuntary motive and the stepping-stone motive; the stepping-stone type stresses the stepping-stone motive only, and the non-involuntary group disagrees with all three motives. Moreover, the groups differed significantly on important work-related variables such as occupational position, tenure, employability, and work-involvement. However, differences in individual variables were limited. Research limitations/implications – The research puts forward a more complex typology of temporary workers than is usually suggested. Moreover, the study shows a non-involuntary group for which temporary employment can become a trap, and hence these workers should be targeted by future policy and interventions. Originality/value – The research offers a typology of temporary workers, which is founded on motivation theory, and existing research on motives for accepting temporary employment.

  • 25. Eib, Constanze
    et al.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Peristera, Paraskevi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Time to leave? Organizational justice as predictor of early or late retirement2019In: Abstract Book of the 19th European Association of Work and Organizational Psychology Congress: Working for the greater good - Inspiring people, designing jobs and leading organizations for a more inclusive society, 2019, p. 1036-1036, article id 300Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Research has highlighted that a poor psychosocial work environment is associated with early retirement, which constitutes a drain of knowledge and resources. Organizational justice is one aspect of the work environment that can be addressed by management representatives. In this study, we focus on organizational justice as important job resource with substantial relations to work and health outcomes. Justice theories suggest that organizational justice communicates to employees that they are valued members of the work group. Also, when feeling fairly treated, employees are more likely to want to reciprocate fairness, with, for instance, keep working with the company. The aim of the current research is to investigate the relationship between organizational justice and early and late retirement.

    Methodology: The Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Health Survey (SLOSH) was used. A total of 1570 retirees were available who retired in 2012, 2014 or 2016. Of these, 509 retired before they were 65 years old, 551 when they were 65 years old, and 510 above 65 years of age. Procedural justice was assessed with 7 items from a validated scale.

    Results: Preliminary findings show that those who retired after the statutory retirement age of 65 years reported higher procedural justice one year before they retired than the other two groups.

    Implications: Results suggest that organizational justice may be a good predictor to gauge whether employees want to continue working after their statutory retirement age.

    Originality: One of the few studies investigating how organizational justice relates to actual retirement using longitudinal data in Sweden.

  • 26. Eib, Constanze
    et al.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Organizational justice and health: Studying mental preoccupation with work and social support as mediators for lagged and reversed relationships2018In: Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, ISSN 1076-8998, E-ISSN 1939-1307, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 553-567Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organizational justice perceptions are considered a predictor of health and well-being. To date, empirical evidence about whether organizational justice perceptions predict health or health predicts organizational justice perceptions is mixed. Furthermore, the processes underlying these relationships are largely unknown. In this article, we study whether bidirectional relationships can be explained by 2 different mediation mechanisms. First, based on the allostatic load model, we suggest that the relationships between organizational justice perceptions and different health indicators are mediated through mental preoccupation with work. Second, based on the affective perception and affective reaction assumption, we investigate if the relationships between different health indicators and organizational justice perceptions are mediated by social support at work. Using a large-scale Swedish panel study (N = 3,236), we test the bidirectional mediating relationships between procedural justice perceptions and self-rated health, depressive symptoms, and sickness absence with a cross-lagged design with 3 waves of data. Significant lagged effects from procedural justice to health were found for models predicting depressive symptoms and sickness absence. Mental preoccupation with work was not found to mediate the longitudinal relationship between procedural justice perceptions and indicators of health. Significant lagged effects from health indicators to procedural justice were found for models involving self-rated health, depressive symptoms, and sickness absence. Social support mediated the longitudinal relationships between all 3 health indicators and procedural justice. Results are discussed in light of previous studies and implications for theory and practice are outlined.

  • 27.
    Eib, Constanze
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The moderating influence of the demand-control-support model on the relationships between organisational justice and well-being2011In: 2nd International Workshop on Insights in Organisational Justice and Behavioural Ethics, 27-28 June 2011, Birmingham, UK, 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the post-industrial working life - characterised by job intensification, blurred boundaries between work life and non-work life and postponed statutory retirement age - it is more necessary than ever that organisations and employees find a way to work highly efficiently and at the same time in a sustainable manner.

  • 28.
    Eib, Constanze
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. North-West University, South Africa.
    The interaction between organizational justice and job characteristics: Associations with work attitudes and employee health cross-sectionally and over time2015In: Economic and Industrial Democracy, ISSN 0143-831X, E-ISSN 1461-7099, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 549-582Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigates to what extent main and interactive effects of overall organizational justice and job characteristics shape employees’ work attitudes (organizational commitment, intention to stay) and health (mental health, somatic health) cross-sectionally and after a period of one year. Questionnaire data from 429 Swedish accountants show that generally both organizational justice and job characteristics had main effects on all outcomes at both time points. Interactions between organizational justice and job characteristics were found for every job characteristic studied (demand, control, support), for both time points but mainly for intention to stay and somatic health. The results show that perceptions of organizational justice and job characteristics can have additive and multiplicative synergetic effects for work attitudes and employee health.

  • 29.
    Eib, Constanze
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Who does and who does not show the negative effects of informational injustice?2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Injustice at the workplace is known to be a serious stressor for workplace-related attitudes, behaviours and health. Earlier research shows that higher age and trust is important in preventing increased turnover intention. Others found that employees who engage in withdrawal behaviour indicate less emotional exhaustion when perceiving injustice. However, traditional coping behaviours have not been studied as moderators before. Yet, this could elucidate preventive factors of how to deal with injustice experiences at work. Finding coping strategies that buffer the expected negative effects of injustice might disclose more beneficial ways of handling injustice than withdrawal behaviour for the organisation and employees.

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of coping strategies as the moderators for the relation between supervisory informational injustice and its relation to job satisfaction, turnover intention and work-related health. We argue that employees with problem-focused coping (changing the situation) may have difficulties in applying this strategy within a hierarchical dependence relationship like the one to the supervisor. We predict that problem-focused coping does not attenuate the expected negative effects of perceived injustice. Employees with more emotion-focused coping strategies (avoidance and devaluation strategies) may perceive higher job satisfaction, lower turnover intention but impaired health. The analyses were also probed for the effect of gender.

    Method: Data from 373 Swedish accountants is used. The data collection was conducted in 2009.

    Results: We applied moderated hierarchical regression analyses. While change-oriented coping was found to moderate the relation between informational justice and turnover intention and work-related health, this coping strategy did not make a difference when informational justice was low. For women, the combination of high informational justice and high change-oriented coping was associated with lower levels of turnover intention and more positive work-related health.  Contrary to our predictions, avoidance and devaluation coping strategies had different effects from each other. Devaluation coping attenuated the negative association between informational injustice and job satisfaction as well as turnover intention. The opposite was true for avoidance coping which amplified the negative association between informational injustice and job satisfaction and turnover intention.

    Discussion: Based on these results two main conclusions can be made from this study. First, changing the situation seems to increase the positive effect of informational justice from the supervisor. Second, devaluing problems seems to work as a buffer factor for the negative effects of informational injustice whereas avoidance coping worsens these effects.

  • 30.
    Eib, Constanze
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Interaction effects of organisational justice and work characteristics: cross-sectional and longitudinal relations to work attitudes and employee’ well-being2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Work characteristics have often been the focus in research intending to understand organisational behaviour and how employee health and well-being may be shaped by characteristics of the work environment. Both perceptions of organisational justice as well as perceptions of work characteristics pertain to the work environment domain; both have also been handled as psychosocial predictors for health outcomes and shown to be related to relevant work and health outcomes. Missing from the current picture is how these two different domains of the work environment interact, and together shape work and health outcomes. When employees make a judgment about the organisation as a whole – that the organisation is fair and can be trusted – and because of this are inclined to engage in their work, and may even feel healthy and happy at their workplace, does it matter what work characteristics they face? Previous studies show a mixed picture, with only few studies available at all, some studies with no significant interaction effects, most of the studies done on the control component, very few studies that investigated the interplay with the demand and support component. Also, the previous studies only studied relations with cross-sectional data, and there is not one study that predicted work and health outcomes. The current study first reviews the limited available evidence on the combined effect of justice and work characteristics, and then tests interaction effects between organisational justice and the Job-Demand-Control-Support model components as predictors of two work outcomes (organisational commitment, intention to stay) and two health outcomes (mental health, somatic health). Data from Swedish accountants are used, cross-sectionally and longitudinally after one year. While not all interactions are significant, there are significant interactions for each of the work characteristics, for each of the four outcome variables and for both time points. The results are presented and interpreted with the help of four different mechanisms: reduction, amplification, aggravation, and compensation.

  • 31. Hagqvist, Emma
    et al.
    Toivanen, Susanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Balancing Work and Life When Self-Employed: The Role of Business Characteristics, Time Demands, and Gender Contexts2018In: Social Sciences, ISSN 2076-0760, E-ISSN 2076-0760, Vol. 7, no 8, article id 139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores individual and contextual risk factors in relation to work interfering with private life (WIL) and private life interfering with work (LIW) among self-employed men and women across European countries. It also studies the relationship between interference (LIW and WIL) and well-being among self-employed men and women. Drawing on data from the fifth round of the European Working Conditions Survey, a sample of self-employed men and women with active businesses was extracted. After applying multilevel regressions, results show that although business characteristics are important, the most evident risk factor for WIL and LIW is time demands. Both time demands and business characteristics also seem to be important factors in relation to gender differences in level of interference. There is a relationship between well-being and both WIL and LIW, and time demands is again an important factor. Gender equality in the labor market did not relate to level of interference, nor did it affect the relationship between interference and well-being. However, in gender-separated analyses, LIW and LIW interacted with gender equality in the labor market in different ways for women’s and men’s well-being. In conclusion, gender relations are important in interference and how interference relates to well-being.

  • 32. Isaksson, K.
    et al.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Country related differences: comparing manager’s perceptions of the psychological contract in Germany and Sweden2010In: Gesund mit und ohne Arbeit / [ed] Thomas Rigotti, Sabine Korek and Kathleen Otto, Lengerich: Pabst Science Publishers, 2010, p. 261-272Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Culture, values, and labour market conditions are among the contextual factors which can be assumed to lead to variations in the way leaders from different countries treat their subordinates. This paper aims at contributing to the exploration of country related differences in how managers from Germany and Sweden describe the psychological contract. A second aim is to celebrate and honour Professor Gisela Mohr by contributing to this book. The empirical data for the chapter comes from a European project where Gisela Mohr was the German research leader.

  • 33. Isaksson, Kerstin
    et al.
    De Cuyper, Nele
    Oettel, Claudia Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    De Witte, Hans
    The role of the formal employment contract in the range and fulfilment of the psychological contract: Testing a layered model2010In: European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, ISSN 1359-432X, E-ISSN 1464-0643, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 696-716Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the employment contract (temporary vs. permanent) in relation to psychological contract content and fulfilment. The psychological contract includes employees' perceptions of their obligations and their entitlements. We hypothesize that transactional elements constitute a common core that is shared both by temporary and permanent workers. Relational elements are added to this core to show employees' and employers' loyalty, and their intentions to do more than necessary. These elements are more likely to be perceived by permanent workers as compared to temporary workers. Additionally, we suggest that relational elements are difficult to fulfil. Accordingly, we expect lower levels of perceived fulfilment for permanent workers as compared to temporary workers. Based on exchange theory, we furthermore hypothesize that these perceptions follow a similar pattern in how employees report entitlements (i.e., what they receive from the company) and reports of their own obligations (i.e., what they give in return). Results based on a seven-country sample (Npermanent=3354; Ntemporary=1980) show that permanent workers as compared to temporary workers perceive more relational entitlements and obligations but a similar level of transactional entitlements and obligations. Thus, these results supported the idea of a layered model. The relationship between contract type and fulfilment of the psychological contract was only partly in line with expectations. Temporary workers reported higher fulfilment of entitlements and transactional obligations, but no difference was found for fulfilment of relational obligations.

  • 34. Isaksson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Peiró, José Maria
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Caballer, Amparo
    Gracia, Francisco J.
    Ramos, José
    Flexible employment and temporary contracts: the employer’s perspective2010In: Employment contracts, psychological contracts, and worker well-being: an international study / [ed] David E Guest, Kerstin Isaksson and Hans De Witte, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010, p. 45-64Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Temporary employment has become a focus of policy debate, theory, and research. This book addresses as its core concern the relationship between temporary employment contracts and employee well-being. Covering seven countries, it sheds new light on the nature and role of the psychological contract.

  • 35. Klug, Katharina
    et al.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Mäkikangas, Anne
    Kinnunen, Ulla
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Development of perceived job insecurity among young workers: a latent class growth analysis2019In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 92, no 6, p. 901-918Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Individual differences in the development of perceived job insecurity among young workers may be influenced by characteristics of the first job (contract type and sector) and individual background (education and previous unemployment), and can have implications for subsequent health and well-being. The aim of this study was to investigate the development of perceived job insecurity during the early career, as well as associations between different patterns of development (i.e., trajectories), predictors and outcomes.

    Methods: We conducted a latent class growth analysis to identify trajectories of perceived job insecurity and investigated their respective associations with predictors and outcomes across 6 years in a sample of 1711 German labor market entrants.

    Results: Six trajectories were identified: three showed stable job insecurity perceptions (stable moderate, 36%; stable low, 32%; stable high, 5%), two showed decrease (moderate to low, 12%; high to moderate, 3%), and one showed increasing job insecurity perceptions (low to moderate, 13%). Temporary contracts and previous unemployment predicted trajectories characterized by increasing, higher initial or higher overall levels of perceived job insecurity. In contrast, public sector employees and university graduates were less likely to experience persisting or increasing job insecurity. The trajectories differed in their overall levels of self-rated health and job satisfaction, but not with respect to change in these outcomes. Instead, increasing perceived job insecurity was associated with decreasing life satisfaction.

    Conclusions: The findings suggest that an insecure career start and individual risk factors may predispose young workers to an unfavorable development of both job insecurity perceptions and levels of well-being.

  • 36.
    Langhammer, Kristina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hellgren, Johnny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Individual Determinants of Behavioral Intentions: What tells us that practitioners really want to change hiring strategies?2012In: International Journal of Selection and Assessment, ISSN 0965-075X, E-ISSN 1468-2389, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 453-463Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current study investigated hiring managers' intentional readiness to change hiring procedures as a function of individual determinants, such as their self-efficacy beliefs, causal attributions, and past behaviors. Hiring managers from three large organizations were recruited to participate and provide information about their current hiring processes and personal experiences. Results showed that self-efficacy beliefs had a strong negative relationship with intentional readiness to change. Managers' past behavior, in terms of use of unstructured interviews and external attributions of failure, were negatively associated with intentional readiness to change, while use of unstructured interviews and external attribution of success were positively associated with intentional readiness to change. Furthermore, the interactive effect of causal attribution and use of selection methods played a significant role in explaining intentional readiness for change. The results indicated that recruiting managers who preferred using unstructured interviews and attributed failures to external causes were less willing to change hiring practices than those who made less use of unstructured interviews and explained their failure externally. Implications and limitations are discussed.

  • 37.
    Langhammer, Kristina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nolan, Kevin
    Hofstra University, NY, USA.
    Bernhard Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hellgren, Johnny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hiring Managers’ Prototype Beliefs and Their Use of Employee Selection PracticesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Current approaches in employee selection research suggest that understanding practitioners’ beliefs would help explain their resistance towards standardized employee selection practices. For this purpose we conducted a survey among hiring managers from the Swedish retail industry. Based on their answers we identified prototype beliefs about what it takes to be successful in employee selection and examined the relationships between these beliefs and hiring managers’ use of employee selection practices. The results indicate that the prototypical hiring manager is defined by three primary facets: professional experience, disposition, and importance of individual attributes. We also found that (a) beliefs about the importance of educational experiences are positively related to hiring managers’ use of standardized assessment methods, and (b) that hiring managers’ beliefs about the importance of disposition are positively related to their use of non-standardized assessment methods and negatively related to their use of standardized assessment methods. Moreover, individuals who frequently used standardized tests and structured interviews are significantly less likely to perceive employee selection as an ambiguous process. This study contributes to the theory of employee selection by demonstrating that hiring managers’ prototype beliefs are significantly related to their use of employee selection practices. The results also suggest that using standardized methods of assessment may improve practitioners’ ability to evaluate the effectiveness of their employee selection decisions. A practical contribution of this study is that it informs organizations about the characteristics that hiring managers believe are important for someone in their line of work to possess.

  • 38.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Peristera, Paraskevi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Eib, Constanze
    Nyberg, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Interactional justice at work is related to sickness absence: a study using repeated measures in the Swedish working population2017In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 17, article id 912Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Research has shown that perceived unfairness contributes to higher rates of sickness absence. While shorter, but more frequent periods of sickness absence might be a possibility for the individual to get relief from high strain, long-term sickness absence might be a sign of more serious health problems. The Uncertainty Management Model suggests that justice is particularly important in times of uncertainty, e.g. perceived job insecurity. The present study investigated the association between interpersonal and informational justice at work with long and frequent sickness absence respectively, under conditions of job insecurity.

    Methods: Data were derived from the 2010, 2012, and 2014 biennial waves of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH). The final analytic sample consisted of 19,493 individuals. We applied repeated measures regression analyses through generalized estimating equations (GEE), a method for longitudinal data that simultaneously analyses variables at different time points. We calculated risk of long and frequent sickness absence, respectively in relation to interpersonal and informational justice taking perceptions of job insecurity into account.

    Results: We found informational and interpersonal justice to be associated with risk of long and frequent sickness absence independently of job insecurity and demographic variables. Results from autoregressive GEE provided some support for a causal relationship between justice perceptions and sickness absence. Contrary to expectations, we found no interaction between justice and job insecurity.

    Conclusions: Our results underline the need for fair and just treatment of employees irrespective of perceived job insecurity in order to keep the workforce healthy and to minimize lost work days due to sickness absence.

  • 39.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Eib, Constanze
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Nyberg, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Trajectories in Effort-Reward Imbalance Over Time and their Associations with Health Complaints2018In: Book of Proceedings 13th Conference of the European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology: Adapting to rapid changes in today’s workplace / [ed] K. Teoh, N. Saade, V. Dediu, J. Hassard, L. Torres, Nottingham: European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology , 2018, p. 223-223, article id O23Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The effort-reward imbalance (ERI) model is one of the predominant models in contemporary stress research. It defines stress as a combination of high efforts at work and low work-related rewards. While ERI has been found to be related to a range of health outcomes, little is known about developments in ERI over time. The aim of this study is to (i) identify long- term patterns (trajectories) of effort-reward imbalance in the Swedish working population, to (ii) describe these trajectories with respect to background and work-related factors, and to (iii) evaluate health complaints associated with these trajectories.

    Methods: The study was based on panel data with four measurement points (2010, 2012, 2014, 2016) collected within the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health. Latent class growth modelling was conducted and differences in background and work factors as well as differences in health outcomes, covering self-rated health, sickness absence, depression, musculoskeletal disorder, migraine, cardiovascular heart disease, and blood pressure between trajectories, were analysed.

    Results: Four trajectories were found. A low imbalance trajectory characterised by moderate values of effort and reward comprised the majority of the study population (90%). The next largest trajectory, comprising 4% of all participants, showed the highest baseline value of effort and the lowest baseline value of reward. This trajectory was characterised by a decrease in ERI score followed by an increase and labelled as U-shaped imbalance. The third trajectory, which we called inverted U-shaped, represented 3% of all participants. It was characterised by moderate values of effort matched with moderate values of reward. Its development showed an increase in ERI followed by a decrease. The last trajectory also represented 3% of all participants and was characterised by a rather high mean value in effort in combination with a moderate mean value of reward. This trajectory showed an accelerating increase in ERI over time. We labelled it the increasing imbalance trajectory. The most favourable trajectory was dominated by men working in the private sector, while women were overrepresented in the less favourable ERI trajectories. Also, being in a less favourable trajectory was found to be associated with health complaints and diseases. For the increasing imbalance trajectory, this association remained stable also after controlling for baseline health.

    Conclusion: Our results indicate that about 10% of all employees experience an imbalance between efforts and received rewards at work. To a large extent, these workers are women working in the public sector. As effort-reward imbalance is a contributing factor to these workers’ill-health, measures should be taken to increase balance between efforts and rewards, particularly in the most vulnerable groups identified in this study.

  • 40.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Eib, Constanze
    University of East Anglia, UK.
    Peristera, Paraskevi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    The influence of and change in procedural justice on self-rated health trajectories: Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health results2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 42, no 4, p. 320-328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Procedural justice perceptions are shown to be associated with minor psychiatric disorders, long sickness absence spells, and poor self-rated health, but previous studies have rarely considered how changes in procedural justice influence changes in health. Methods: Data from four consecutive biennial waves of the Swedish Longitudinal Survey of Health (SLOSH) (N=5854) were used to examine trajectories of self-rated health. Adjusting for age, sex, socioeconomic position, and marital status, we studied the predictive power of change in procedural justice perceptions using individual growth curve models within a multilevel framework. Results: The results show that self-rated health trajectories slowly decline over time. The rate of change was influenced by age and sex, with older people and women showing a slower rate. After adjusting for age, sex, socioeconomic position, and marital status, procedural justice was significantly associated with self-rated health. Also, improvements in procedural justice were associated with improvements in self-rated health. Additionally, a reverse relationship with and change in self-rated health predicting procedural justice was found. Conclusions: Our findings support the idea that procedural justice at work is a crucial aspect of the psychosocial work environment and that changes towards more procedural justice could influence self-rated health positively. The reciprocal association of procedural justice and self-rated health warrants further research.

  • 41.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Peristera, Paraskevi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Eib, Constanze
    How is low interpersonal justice related to organizational turnover over time? Results from a longitudinal cohort study2019In: Abstract Book of the 19th European Association of Work and Organizational Psychology Congress: Working for the greater good - Inspiring people, designing jobs and leading organizations for a more inclusive society, 2019, p. 1184-1184, article id 638Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim of the current study is to investigate associations between justice perceptions and turnover behavior over time. We focus on interpersonal justice, which captures the respectful and dignified treatment from the supervisor, because it evokes strong emotional reactions. We relate interpersonal justice to two aspects of turnover (group, employer) over time.

    Design: The project is based on data collected in the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH) 2012-2016 (n=2450). We used autoregressive cross-lagged models within a multilevel structural equation modelling (MSEM) framework to address reciprocal influences on justice perceptions and turnover behavior.

    Results: We found that high interpersonal justice at tn-1 was associated with a decreased risk of having left the employer at tn (B=-.037 p≤.001) and having changed the workgroup (B=-.067 p≤.001). Having changed the employer during the past two years was related to higher perceived interpersonal justice at tn (B=.220, p≤.001). Also, having changed the workgroup was related to increased interpersonal justice (B=.082, p≤.017).

    Limitations: Causality cannot be proven despite the longitudinal design.

    Practical Implications: Interpersonal justice is a potential target for interventions in order to keep employees in the organization.

    Originality: We investigate cross-lagged associations between justice perceptions and two aspects of turnover behaviour taking four repeated measurements into account.

    Conclusion: Poor interpersonal justice is a risk factor for leaving the group and organization.

  • 42.
    Melin, Marika
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Astvik, Wanja
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    New work demands in higher education: a study of the relationship between excessive workload, coping strategies and subsequent health among academic staff2014In: Quality in Higher Education, ISSN 1353-8322, E-ISSN 1470-1081, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 290-308Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the relationship between the work conditions in higher education work settings, the academic staff’s strategies for handling excessive workload and impact on well-being and work-life balance. The results show that there is a risk that staff in academic work places will start using compensatory coping strategies to deal with excessive demands and that this might seriously impair their health. The compensatory strategy cluster emerged as a ‘risk group’ among the three identified strategy clusters, having a lower work-life balance and suffering from stress-related symptoms more often than the other two strategy clusters. The results also show that high educational level, management position and wide discretion as regards regulation of work in time and space (when and where to work) are factors that might contribute to a lower work-life balance. In practice, the results can contribute to create more sustainable work environments by detecting risk behaviours and risk factors.

  • 43.
    Nyberg, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Peristera, Paraskevi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Does Work-Personal Life Interference Predict Turnover Among Male and Female Managers, and do Depressive Symptoms Mediate the Association?2018In: Book of Proceedings 13th Conference of the European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology: Adapting to rapid changes in today’s workplace / [ed] K. Teoh, N. Saade, V. Dediu, J. Hassard, L. Torres, Nottingham: European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology , 2018, p. 308-309, article id O135Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: To increase possibilities for women and men to remain in leadership positions a better understanding of turnover processes among female and male managers appears important. Although the interface between work and personal life has been recognised as a key issue for managers, it has seldom been empirically investigated in relation to turnover. In the present study we used a longitudinal multi-group design to examine associations between work- personal life interference, managerial turnover and depressive symptoms, and their differences with respect to gender. We hypothesised that 1) work-personal life interference predict managerial turnover, 2) depressive symptoms mediate the association, which 3) differ by gender. 

    Methods: Data were drawn from four waves (2010, 2012, 2014 and 2016) of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH), a cohort of the Swedish working population. Participants who in any wave reported to have a managerial or other leading position were included (n=717 men and 741 women). Mediation models within a multilevel SEM framework, in which repeated measures were nested within individuals, were fitted. First, bivariate autoregressive and cross-lagged paths between the variables (t and t-1) were fitted in gender stratified models. Secondly, a full longitudinal gender stratified mediation model was built to estimate if the association between work-personal life interference (t-2) and turnover (t) was mediated through depressive symptoms (t-1). Gender differences in cross-lagged paths were estimated with multiple-group analysis. All analyses were adjusted for age, education, labour market sector, civil status and children living at home, and conducted in MPLUS 7.

    Results: In accordance with our first hypothesis, significant prospective paths between work- personal life interference and turnover were found among both male and female managers. In line with our second hypothesis, there were furthermore significant prospective associations between work-personal life interference and depressive symptoms as well as between depressive symptoms and turnover in both genders. However, no significant intermediate effect of depressive symptoms in the longitudinal association between work-personal life interference and turnover was found in any gender, and therefore our second hypothesis was not supported. We found gender differences in several of the estimated associations, lending partial support for our third hypothesis.

    Conclusions: Establishing organisational prerequisites for good work-personal life balance among managers may be a means to retain male and female managerial talent.

  • 44.
    Nyberg, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Peristera, Paraskevi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Does work-personal life interference predict turnover among male and female managers, and do depressive symptoms mediate the association? A longitudinal study based on a Swedish cohort2018In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 18, article id 828Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In the present study we used a longitudinal design to examine if work-personal life interference predicted managerial turnover, if depressive symptoms mediated the association, and if the relationships differed by gender.

    Methods: Data were drawn from four waves (2010, 2012, 2014 and 2016) of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH), a cohort of the Swedish working population. Participants who in any wave reported to have a managerial or other leading position were included (n = 717 men and 741 women). Autoregressive longitudinal mediation models within a multilevel structural equation modelling (MSEM) framework, in which repeated measures (level 1) were nested within individuals (level 2), were fitted to data. First, bivariate autoregressive and cross-lagged paths between the variables were fitted in gender stratified models. Secondly, a full gender stratified mediation model was built to estimate if the association between work-personal life interference and turnover was mediated through depressive symptoms. Gender differences in cross-lagged paths were estimated with multiple-group analysis. All analyses were adjusted for age, education, labour market sector, civil status and children living at home, and conducted in MPLUS 7.

    Results: In both genders there were significant paths between work-personal life interference and turnover. Depressive symptoms were, however, not found to mediate in the relationship between work-personal life interference and turnover. The models differed significantly between genders.

    Conclusions: Establishing organisational prerequisites for good work-personal life balance among managers may be a means to retain both male and female managerial talent.

  • 45.
    Richter, Anne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Stockholm Stress Center, Sweden; The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Sweden.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Stockholm Stress Center, Sweden; University of Canterbury, New Zealand.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Stockholm Stress Center, Sweden.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Stockholm Stress Center, Sweden; North-West University, South Africa.
    Job insecurity and well-being: The moderating role of job dependence2014In: European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, ISSN 1359-432X, E-ISSN 1464-0643, Vol. 23, no 6, p. 816-829Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Job insecurity has become more relevant during the last decades as more flexibility from the workforce and organizations is demanded in the labour market. It has frequently been suggested that job insecurity is a more severe stressor for those who are more dependent on their job. The present study investigates the association between job insecurity and employee well-being by focusing on how employees' dependence on the job moderates this relationship. Two types of financial dependence (subjective financial dependence and relative contribution to the household income) were studied, along with an indicator of a more psychological dependence on work in general (work involvement). In addition to this, both quantitative and qualitative job insecurity were included. The proposed relations were tested in a sample of Swedish accountancy firm employees. The results of moderated hierarchical regression analyses showed that subjective financial dependence, household contribution, and work involvement moderated the relation between both job insecurity dimensions and job satisfaction. No moderations were found with mental well-being as an outcome. This implies that the extent to which someone depends on their job is important for how job insecurity relates to job satisfaction.

  • 46.
    Sousa-Ribeiro, Marta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Stengård, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Are trajectories of prefered- and expected retirement ages associated with health and effort-impalance at work? Findings from a six-year Swedish longitudinal study2019In: Abstract Book of the 19th European Association of Work and Organizational Psychology Congress: Working for the greater good - Inspiring people, designing jobs and leading organizations for a more inclusive society, 2019, p. 1450-1450, article id 1307Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: One key dimension in the study of retirement decision making is the preferred retirement age (PR-A). Another relevant although less investigated indicator is the age at which one realistically expects to retire (ER-A). This study aimed at identifying trajectories of preferred- and expected retirement age and exploring their associations with changes in self-rated health, depressive symptoms and effortreward imbalance (ERI).

    Design/Methodology/Approach/Intervention: The study used data from four waves (2010, 2012, 2014, 2016) of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health. Sample consisted of 1440 workers aged 50–59 in 2010 who participated in all waves. Latent class growth modeling was used to estimate trajectories of PR-A and ER-A and their associations with self-rated health, depressive symptoms and ERI were investigated. Participants were divided in two groups according to age at T0 (50-54; 5559) and analyses were age stratified.

    Results: Preliminary results suggest both between-person and within-person variability in retirement age preferences and expectations over six years in the two groups. Trajectories characterised by lower PRA were associated with poorer health and higher levels of ERI. ER-A trajectories in turn seem to be less associated with health and ERI.

    Limitations: This study relies exclusively on self-report measures.

    Research/Practical Implications: The findings reinforce the importance of healthy work environments that facilitate a balance between efforts and rewards for promoting longer working lives.

    Originality/Value: Retirement longitudinal studies are scarce and this study is one of the first to investigate longitudinal relationships between PR-A and ER-A trajectories, and health and effort-reward imbalance at work.

  • 47.
    Stengård, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Berntson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Stuck in the job: Does helplessness precede being locked-in at the workplace or vice versa? An analysis of cross-lagged effects2017In: Journal of Vocational Behavior, ISSN 0001-8791, E-ISSN 1095-9084, Vol. 102, p. 15-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In today's rapidly changing and increasingly competitive labour market individuals need to take control over their own career more actively. However, some employees feel that they lack psychological suppositions to get another job, even though they wish to, and as a result feel stuck in a non-preferred workplace (being locked-in). The aim of this study was to investigate how helplessness are related to being locked-in at the workplace over time, since it can be argued that helplessness precedes, is reciprocally related to, or a consequence of being locked-in at the workplace. The sample consisted of 978 Swedish employees with permanent contracts and the data were collected at two time points (2012 and 2016). Results from a cross-lagged SEM analysis showed best fit statistics for a model of reciprocal relationships over time; helplessness associated with subsequent perceptions of being locked-in at the workplace and an association, although less substantial, was found in the reversed direction from locked-in status to helplessness. Results remained unchanged when job change, reorganization, gender, age and education were controlled for, which lends further credibility to the finding. Implications for future research and theory development are outlined in the discussion.

  • 48.
    Stengård, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Berntson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Stuck in a job: Being “locked-in” or at risk of becoming locked-in at the workplace and well-being over time2016In: Work & Stress, ISSN 0267-8373, E-ISSN 1464-5335, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 152-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, being “locked-in” at the workplace is conceptualized as being in a non-preferred workplace while at the same time perceiving low employability. The aim of the study was to investigate how being locked-in or at risk of becoming locked-in (being in a non-preferred workplace yet currently satisfied, combined with perceiving low employability) relates to well-being (subjective health and depressive symptoms). The hypotheses were tested in a Swedish longitudinal sample (T1 in 2010 and T2 in 2012) of permanent employees (N = 3491). The results showed that stability with regard to locked-in-related status (being non-locked-in, at risk of becoming locked-in, or locked-in at both T1 and T2) was related to significant and stable differences in well-being. The non-locked-in status was associated with better well-being than being at risk of becoming locked-in. Moreover, those at risk of becoming locked-in showed better well-being than those with stable locked-in status. Changes towards non-locked-in were accompanied by significant improvements in well-being, and changes towards locked-in were associated with impairments in well-being. The relationships that were found could not be attributed to differences in demographic variables and occupational preference. The findings indicate that being locked-in is detrimental to well-being. This has implications for preventative interventions.

  • 49.
    Stengård, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Häsänen, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Berntson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Importance of incentives and sufficient information level for displaced worker well-being and attitudes during plant closure2013In: Imagine the future world: how do we want to work tomorrow?: abstract proceedings of the 16th EAWOP Congress 2013 / [ed] G. Hertel, C. Binnewies, S. Krumm, H. Holling, & M. Kleinmann, 2013, p. 554-555Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Downsizing and plant closures are becoming increasingly common when organizations reduce expenditure. Research has shown that large organizational changes are associated with stress and negative job satisfaction, but the consequences of plant closure on the displaced workers health and attitudes toward their employer is scarce. The study aims at investigating personal factors, such as optimism and employment history, as well as management strategies, such as information and incentives, and their influence on maintaining workers well-being and facilitating their development of new future personal and careerrelated goals. Another aim is to investigate how management strategies affect the workers attitudes toward their organization during the closure process.

    Design/Methodology: To test these hypotheses, questionnaires from 131 employees working for a Swedish plant that is closing down were collected.

    Results: Data was analysed by means of moderated hierarchical regression analysis with wellbeing, coping goal-construct, felt obligations, and withdrawals cognitions as the outcome variables. In a stepwise procedure, the impact of personal employment history, optimism, perceived employability and management strategies was analyzed. As assumed, associations between the outcome variables and management strategies (information, incentives) as well as personal factors (optimism) were found. Partly, employability acted as a moderator.

    Limitations: Cross-sectional data was used and only one plant was examined.

    Research/Practical Implications: Both information and action package could be positively influenced by management.

  • 50.
    Stengård, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    University of Canterbury, New Zealand.
    Ishäll, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Berntson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Understanding the determinants of well-being and organizational attitudes during a plant closure: A Swedish case study2015In: Economic and Industrial Democracy, ISSN 0143-831X, E-ISSN 1461-7099, Vol. 36, no 4, p. 611-631Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigated to what extent perception of closure management (informational justice, severance package satisfaction) as well as individual resources and barriers (employability, tenure) were associated with well-being and organizational attitudes during plant closure. This was studied in a sample of 129 Swedish workers in a plant undergoing closure. The results showed that those who felt communication to be fair reported higher well-being and more positive attitudes. Those who were satisfied with the severance package reported lower intention to leave but also felt fewer obligations towards the organization. Those with higher employability reported higher subjective health. The results also indicated that tenure moderated the relation between informational justice and felt obligations, and employability moderated the relation between severance package satisfaction and organizational attitudes. It can be concluded that closure management together with employees’ different resources and barriers are vital for organizational attitudes and well-being during the closedown process.

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