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  • 1. Barber, J.L.
    et al.
    Berger, Urs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Chaemfa, C.
    Huber, S.
    Jahnke, Annika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Temme, C.
    Jones, K.C.
    Analysis of per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances in air samples from Northwest Europe2007In: J. Environ. Monit., Vol. 9, p. 530-541Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Berger, U
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Holmström, K
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Bignert, A.
    Perfluorinated compounds in guillemot eggs from the Baltic Sea (method comparison and time trend) and in herring liver along the Swedish coast (spatial distribution)2008Report (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Berger, U
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Holmström, K
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Bignert, A.
    Temporal trends of perfluorinated compounds in guillemot eggs from the Baltic Sea – an update2008In: 18th Annual Meeting of SETAC-Europe: Warzaw, Poland, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Berger, Urs
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Glynn, Anders
    Holmström, Katrin E
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Berglund, Marika
    Ankarberg, Emma Halldin
    Törnkvist, Anna
    Fish consumption as a source of human exposure to perfluorinated alkyl substances in Sweden: analysis of edible fish from Lake Vättern and the Baltic Sea2009In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 76, no 6, p. 799-804Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS) were analyzed in muscle tissue from edible fish species caught in the second largest freshwater lake in Sweden, Lake Vättern (LV), and in the brackish water Baltic Sea (BS). Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was the predominant PFAS found. PFOS concentrations were higher in LV (medians 2.9-12 ng g(-1) fresh weight) than in BS fish (medians 1.0-2.5 ng g(-1) fresh weight). Moreover, LV fish was more contaminated with several other PFAS than BS fish. This may be due to anthropogenic discharges from urban areas around LV. The PFAS pattern differed between LV and BS fish, indicating different sources of contamination for the two study areas. Human exposure to PFOS via fish intake was calculated for three study groups, based on consumption data from literature. The groups consisted of individuals that reported moderate or high consumption of BS fish or high consumption of LV fish, respectively. The results showed that PFOS intake strongly depended on individual fish consumption as well as the fish catchment area. Median PFOS intakes were estimated to 0.15 and 0.62 ng kg(-1) body weight (bw) d(-1) for the consumers of moderate and high amounts of BS fish, respectively. For the group with high consumption of LV fish a median PFOS intake of 2.7 ng kg(-1)bw d(-1) was calculated. Fish consumption varied considerably within the consumer groups, with maximum PFOS intakes of 4.5 (BS fish) or 9.6 ng kg(-1)bw d(-1) (LV fish). Comparison of our results with literature data on PFOS intake from food suggests that fish from contaminated areas may be a significant source of dietary PFOS exposure.

  • 5.
    Berger, Urs
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Holmström,
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Glynn, A.
    Berglund, M.
    Ankarberg, E.
    Törnkvist, A.
    Perfluorinated alkyl substances in market basket food samples and fish from Lake Vättern and the Baltic Sea2007Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 6.
    Berger, Urs
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Kaiser, Mary A.
    Karrman, Anna
    Barber, Jonathan L.
    van Leeuwen, Stefan P. J.
    Recent developments in trace analysis of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances2011In: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, ISSN 1618-2642, E-ISSN 1618-2650, Vol. 400, no 6, p. 1625-1635Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent developments, improvements, and trends in the ultra-trace determination of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in environmental and human samples are highlighted and the remaining challenges and uncertainties are outlined and discussed. Understanding the analytical implications of such things as adsorption of PFASs to surfaces, effects of differing matrices, varying PFAS isomer response factors, potential bias effects of sampling, sample preparation, and analysis is critical to measuring highly fluorinated compounds at trace levels. These intricate analytical issues and the potential consequences of ignoring to deal with them correctly are discussed and documented with examples. Isomer-specific analysis and the development of robust multi-chemical methods are identified as topical trends in method development for an ever-increasing number of PFASs of environmental and human interest. Ultimately, the state-of-the-art of current analytical method accuracy is discussed on the basis of results from interlaboratory comparison studies.

  • 7. Bignert, A.
    et al.
    Nyberg, E.
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Eriksson, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Berger, Urs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Wilander, A.
    Haglund, P.
    Metaller och organiska miljögifter i marin biota, trend- och områdesövervakning - Comments Concerning the National Swedish Contaminant Monitoring Programme in Marine Biota 20072007Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 8. Bizkarguenaga, Ekhine
    et al.
    Zabaleta, Itsaso
    Iparraguirre, Arantza
    Aguirre, Josu
    Angel Fernandez, Luis
    Berger, Urs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Prieto, Ailette
    Zuloaga, Olatz
    Enrichment of perfluorinated alkyl substances on polyethersulfone using 1-methylpyperidine as ion-pair reagent for the clean-up of carrot and amended soil extracts2015In: Talanta: The International Journal of Pure and Applied Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0039-9140, E-ISSN 1873-3573, Vol. 143, p. 263-270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of a simple, cheap and environment friendly analytical method for the simultaneous determination of different perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) including seven perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids, three perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids and perfluorooctanesulfonamide in carrot and amended soil was carried out in the present work. The method was based on focused ultrasound solid-liquid extraction followed by extract clean-up through enrichment of the target compounds on a polymeric material using an ion-pair reagent and detection by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The following variables affecting the clean-up step were evaluated: the nature of the polymeric material (polyethersulfone, PES, versus silicone rod), the amount of the polymeric material (from 1 to 9 mg), the ion-pair reagent (1-methylpyperidine, 1-MP, versus tetrabutylammonium salts), the concentration of the ion-pair reagent (from 5 to 50 mM) and the extraction time (from 15 min to 24 h). Optimum clean-up conditions were obtained using preconcentration on 9 mg of PES polymeric material combined with 5 mM 1-MP as ion-pair reagent for 3 h. The method was validated in terms of apparent recoveries in the range of 77-140% and 95-137% at the low concentration (50 ng g(-1)) and in the range of 70-136% and 79-132% at the high concentration (290 ng g(-1)) for amended soil and carrot, respectively, after correction with the corresponding labeled standards. Precision, as relative standard deviation, was within 2-23%, while method detection limits were 0.31-2.85 ng g(-1) for amended soil and 0.11-1.83 ng g(-1) for carrot. In the absence of a certified reference material for the target analytes in the matrices studied, inter-method comparison was carried out and the same samples were processed using two independent clean-up procedures, the one developed in the present work and a classical based on solid-phase extraction. Statistically comparable results were obtained according to the one-way analysis of variance for peel, core, leaves as well as amended soil (F-Calc= 2.59, 5.06, 5.82 and 2.34 < F-Crit= 7.71). Finally, the method was applied for the determination of PFASs in uptake experiments where carrots were cultivated in an amended soil polluted with perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) at 500 ng g(-1) level. The highest concentration was measured in the carrot leaves (669 ng g(-1)), while the concentrations in peel and core were at the same level (72 ng g(-1) and 62 ng g(-1) respectively), concluding that translocation of PFOS from the soil to the leaves had occurred.

  • 9. Bogdal, Christian
    et al.
    Alsberg, Tomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Diefenbacher, Pascal S.
    MacLeod, Matthew
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Berger, Urs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Fast Quantification of Chlorinated Paraffins in Environmental Samples by Direct Injection High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry with Pattern Deconvolution2015In: Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0003-2700, E-ISSN 1520-6882, Vol. 87, no 5, p. 2852-2860Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are high production volume chemicals, but data about their environmental fate are scarce. CP mixtures composed of thousands of isomers represent a major challenge for quantification at low levels in environmental samples. Here, we present a novel analytical method for analysis of short-chain, medium-chain, and long-chain CPs in a single injection, that also yields information about congener group pattern. Our detection method is based on direct injection into an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source operated in negative ion mode under chlorine-enhanced conditions, followed by quadrupole time-of-flight high-resolution mass spectrometry (APCI-qTOF-HRMS) operated in full-scan mode. A mathematical algorithm is applied to deconvolute the CP patterns in the analyzed samples into a linear combination of patterns of technical CP mixtures and to quantify CPs using technical mixtures as external calibration standards. For CP mixtures with known composition, the new method provided concentrations that were within a factor of 1.2 of the target value. Accuracies for CPs spiked to sediment and fish extracts were between 91% and 123%. Concentrations determined in unspiked field samples were within a factor of 5 for short-chain CPs and a factor of 16 for medium-chain CPs of results obtained with an independent method based on gas chromatography/electron capture negative ionization high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC/ECNI-HRMS). The presented APCI-qTOF-HRMS pattern deconvolution method is an interesting alternative for CP analysis in environmental samples. It is particularly sensitive for medium- and long-chain CPs and has the advantage of being extremely fast (instrumental analysis time, less than 1 min).

  • 10. Brändli, R.C.
    et al.
    Kupper, T.
    Bucheli, T.D.
    Zennegg, M.
    Huber, S.
    Ortelli, D.
    Müller, J.
    Schaffner, C.
    Iozza, S.
    Schmid, P.
    Berger, Urs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Edde, P.
    Oehme, M.
    Stadelmann, F.X.
    Tarradellas, J.
    Organic pollutants in compost and digestate. Part 2. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and -furans, dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls, brominated flame retardants, perfluorinated alkyl substances, pesticides, and other compounds2007In: J. Environ. Monit., Vol. 9, p. 465-472Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11. Butt, Craig M.
    et al.
    Berger, Urs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Bossi, Rossana
    Tomy, Gregg T.
    Levels and trends of poly- and perfluorinated compounds in the arctic environment2010In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 408, no 15, p. 2936-2965Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Poly- and perfluorinated organic compounds (PFCs) are ubiquitous in the Arctic environment. Several modeling studies have been conducted in attempt to resolve the dominant transport pathway of PFCs to the arctic-atmospheric transport of precursors versus direct transport via ocean currents. These studies are generally limited by their focus on perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) fluxes to arctic seawater and thus far have only used fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) and sulfonamide alcohols as inputs for volatile precursors. There have been many monitoring studies from the North American and European Arctic, however, almost nothing is known about PFC levels from the Russian Arctic. In general, there are very few measurements of PFCs from the abiotic environment. Atmospheric measurements show the widespread occurrence of PFC precursors, FTOHs and perfluorinated sulfonamide alcohols. Further, PFCAs and PFSAs have been detected on atmospheric particles. The detection of PFCAs and PFSAs in snow deposition is consistent with the volatile precursor transport hypothesis. There are very limited measurements of PFCs in seawater. PFOA is generally detected in the greatest concentrations. Additional seawater measurements are needed to validate existing model predications. The bulk of the monitoring efforts in biological samples have focused on the perfluorinated carboxylates (PFCAs) and sulfonates (PFSAs), although there are very few measurements of PFC precursors. The marine food web has been well studied, particularly the top predators. In contrast, freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems have been poorly studied. Studies show that in wildlife perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is generally measured in the highest concentration, followed by either perfluorononanoate (PFNA) or perfluoroundecanoate (PFUnA). However, some whale species show relatively high levels of perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) and seabirds are typically characterized by high proportions of the C-11-C-15 PFCAs. PFOA is generally infrequently detected and is present in low concentrations in arctic biota. Food web studies show high bioaccumulation in the upper trophic-level animals, although the mechanism of PFC biomagnification is not understood. Spatial trend studies show some differences between populations, although there are inconsistencies between PFC trends. The majority of temporal trend studies are from the Northern American Arctic and Greenland. Studies show generally increasing levels of PFCs from the 1970s, although some studies from the Canadian Arctic show recent declines in PFOS levels. In contrast, ringed seals and polar bears from Greenland continue to show increasing PFOS concentrations. The inconsistent temporal trends between regions may be representative of differences in emissions from source regions.

  • 12.
    Cousins, I
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Berger, U
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Overview of Research on Perfluorinated Compounds at ITM2008In: Naturvårdsverket: 27 May, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13. de Voogt, P.
    et al.
    Berger, Urs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    de Coen, W.
    de Wolf, W.
    Helmstad, E.
    McLachlan,
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    van Leeuwen, S.
    van Roon, A.
    PERFORCE: Perfluorinated Organic Compounds in the European Environment2007In: Organohalogen Compd., Vol. 69, p. 153-156Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14. Evenset, A.
    et al.
    Christensen, G.N.
    Carroll, J.
    Zaborska, A.
    Berger, Urs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Herzke, D.
    Gregor, D.
    Historical Trends in Persistent Organic Pollutants and Metals Recorded in Sediment from Lake Ellasjøen, Bjørnøya, Norwegian Arctic2007In: Environ. Pollut., Vol. 146, p. 196-205Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Filipovic, Marko
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Berger, Urs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Are perfluoroalkyl acids in waste water treatment plant effluents the result of primary emissions from the technosphere or of environmental recirculation?2014In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 129, p. 74-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) have been suggested to be one of the major pathways of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) from the technosphere to the aquatic environment. The origin of PFAAs in WWTP influents is either from current primary emissions or a result of recirculation of PFAAs that have been residing and transported in the environment for several years or decades. Environmental recirculation can then occur when PFAAs from the environment enter the wastewater stream in, e.g., tap water. In this study 13 PFAAs and perfluorooctane sulfonamide were analyzed in tap water as well as WWTP influent, effluent and sludge from three Swedish cities: Bromma (in the metropolitan area of Stockholm), Bollebygd and Umeå. A mass balance of the WWTPs was assembled for each PFAA. Positive mass balances were observed for PFHxA and PFOA in all WWTPs, indicating the presence of precursor compounds in the technosphere. With regard to environmental recirculation, tap water was an important source of PFAAs to the Bromma WWTP influent, contributing >40% for each quantified sulfonic acid and up to 30% for the carboxylic acids. The PFAAs in tap water from Bollebygd and Umeå did not contribute significantly to the PFAA load in the WWTP influents. Our results show that in order to estimate current primary emissions from the technosphere, it may be necessary to correct the PFAA emission rates in WWTP effluents for PFAAs present in tap water, especially in the case of elevated levels in tap water.

  • 16.
    Filipovic, Marko
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Berger, Urs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    McLachlan, Michael S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Mass Balance of Perfluoroalkyl Acids in the Baltic Sea2013In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 47, no 9, p. 4088-4095Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A mass balance was assembled for perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) in the Baltic Sea. Inputs (from riverine discharge, atmospheric deposition, coastal wastewater discharges, and the North Sea) and outputs (to sediment burial, transformation of the chemical, and the North Sea), as well as the inventory in the Baltic Sea, were estimated from recently published monitoring data. Formation of the chemicals in the water column from precursors was not considered. River inflow and atmospheric deposition were the dominant inputs, while wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents made a minor contribution (<5%). A mass balance of the Oder River watershed was assembled to explore the sources of the perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in the river inflow. It indicated that WWTP effluents made only a moderate contribution to riverine discharge (21% for PFOA, 6% for PFOS), while atmospheric deposition to the watershed was 1-2 orders of magnitude greater than WWTP discharges. The input to the Baltic Sea exceeded the output for all four PFAAs, suggesting that inputs were higher during 2005-2010 than during the previous 20 years despite efforts to reduce emissions of PFAAs. One possible explanation is the retention and delayed release of PFAAs from atmospheric deposition in the soils and groundwater of the watershed.

  • 17.
    Filipovic, Marko
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    McLachlan, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Berger, Urs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Mass Balance of Perfluorinated Alkyl Acids (PFAAs) in a Pristine Boreal CatchmentManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Mass balances of ten individual PFAAs in two nested pristine catchments in Northern Sweden with different sizes and hydrological functions were assembled for 2011-2012. Concentrations of PFAAs in rain and snowmelt, as well as in stream water at the outlet of the two watersheds were measured and used to calculate PFAA inputs and outputs to the catchments. The results generally showed a great excess of PFAA inputs for both catchments. During spring flow the stream water showed PFAA patterns resembling the patterns in rain (as opposed to snowmelt) and the mass balances were roughly closed for several PFAAs, suggesting that snowmelt water infiltrating the ground had displaced water from the previous summer. Comparison of PFAA mass balances between the two catchments further suggested that atmospheric inputs of short-chain (replacement) perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids had increased in the years before sampling, while inputs of the legacy perfluorooctane sulfonic acid had decreased. The overall positive mass balances indicate that a considerable portion of the PFAAs deposited from the atmosphere are stored in soil and may be released to surface and marine water environments in the future.

  • 18.
    Filipovic, Marko
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    McLachlan, Michael S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Berger, Urs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research—UFZ, Germany.
    Mass Balance of Perfluorinated Alkyl Acids in a Pristine Boreal Catchment2015In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 49, no 20, p. 12127-12135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mass balances of ten individual perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) in two nested pristine catchments in Northern Sweden with different sizes and hydrological functions were assembled for 2011-2012. Concentrations of PFAAs in rain and snowmelt, as well as in streamwater at the outlet of the two watersheds were measured and used to calculate PFAA atmospheric inputs to and riverine outputs from the catchments. The results generally showed a great excess of PFAA inputs for both catchments over the whole study year. However, during the spring flood period, the inputs and outputs were within a factor of 2 for several PFAAs and the streamwater showed PFAA patterns resembling the patterns in rain (as opposed to snowmelt), suggesting that snowmelt water infiltrating the ground had displaced water from the previous summer. Comparison of PFAA mass balances between the two catchments further suggested that atmospheric inputs of short-chain (replacement) perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids had increased in the years before sampling, while inputs of the legacy perfluorooctane sulfonic acid had decreased. Overall, the mass balances indicate that a considerable portion of the PFAAs deposited from the atmosphere are stored in soil and may be released to surface and marine water environments in the future.

  • 19.
    Fridén, Ulrika E.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    McLachlan, Michael S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Berger, Urs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Chlorinated paraffins in indoor air and dust: Concentrations, congener patterns, and human exposure2011In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 37, no 7, p. 1169-1174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are large production volume chemicals used in a wide variety of commercial applications. They are ubiquitous in the environment and humans. Human exposure via the indoor environment has, however, been barely investigated. In the present study 44 indoor air and six dust samples from apartments in Stockholm, Sweden, were analyzed for CPs. and indoor air concentrations are reported for the first time. The sumCP concentration (short chain CPs (SCCPs) and medium chain CPs (MCCPs)) in air ranged from <5-210 ng m(-3) as quantified by gas chromatography coupled to electron ionization tandem mass spectrometry (GC/EI-MS/MS). Congener group patterns were studied using GC with electron capture negative ionization MS (GC/ECNI-MS). The air samples were dominated by the more volatile SCCPs compared to MCCPs. SumCPs were quantified by GC/EI-MS/MS in the dust samples at low mu g g(-1) levels, with a chromatographic pattern suggesting the prevalence of longer chain CPs compared to air. The median exposure to sumCPs via the indoor environment was estimated to be similar to 1 mu g day(-1) for both adults and toddlers. Adult exposure was dominated by inhalation, while dust ingestion was suggested to be more important for toddlers. Comparing these results to literature data on dietary intake indicates that human exposure to CPs from the indoor environment is not negligible.

  • 20.
    Gebbink, Wouter A.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Berger, Urs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Cousins, Ian T.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Estimating human exposure to PFOS isomers and PFCA homologues: The relative importance of direct and indirect (precursor) exposure2015In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 74, p. 160-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contributions of direct and indirect (via precursors) pathways of human exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) isomers and perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) are estimated using a Scenario-Based Risk Assessment (SceBRA) modelling approach. Monitoring data published since 2008 (including samples from 2007) are used. The estimated daily exposures (resulting from both direct and precursor intake) for the general adult population are highest for PFOS and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), followed by perfluorohexanoic add (PFHxA) and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), while lower daily exposures are estimated for perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) and perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoDA). The precursor contributions to the individual perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAA) daily exposures are estimated to be 11-33% for PFOS, 0.1-2.5% for PFBA, 3.7-34% for PFHxA, 13-64% for PFOA, 5.2-66% for PFDA, and 0.7-25% for PFDoDA (ranges represent estimated precursor contributions in a low- and high-exposure scenario). For PFOS, direct intake via diet is the major exposure pathway regardless of exposure scenario. For PFCAs, the dominant exposure pathway is dependent on perfluoroalkyl chain length and exposure scenario. Modelled PFOS and PFOA concentrations in human serum using the estimated intakes from an intermediate-exposure scenario are in agreement with measured concentrations in different populations. The isomer pattern of PFOS resulting from total intakes (direct and via precursors) is estimated to be enriched with linear PFOS (84%) relative to technical PFOS (70% linear). This finding appears to be contradictory to the observed enrichment of branched PFOS isomers in recent human serum monitoring studies and suggests that either external exposure is not fully understood (e.g. there are unknown precursors, missing or poorly quantified exposure pathways) and/or that there is an incomplete understanding of the isomer-specific human pharmacokinetic processes of PFOS, its precursors and intermediates.

  • 21.
    Gebbink, Wouter A.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Glynn, Anders
    Berger, Urs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Temporal changes (1997-2012) of perfluoroalkyl acids and selected precursors (including isomers) in Swedish human serum2015In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 199, p. 166-173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concentrations (including isomer patterns) and temporal changes (1997-2012) of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and selected perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acid (PFCA) precursors were determined in serum samples from Swedish women. Perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA) and perfluorooctane sulfonamidoacetic acid (FOSAA), as well as its N-methyl and N-ethyl derivatives (MeFOSAA and EtFOSAA) were consistently detected. Highest PFOS precursor concentrations were found for EtFOSAA (before year 2000) or MeFOSAA and FOSAA (after 2000). Disappearance half-lives for all PFOS precursors were shorter compared to PFOS. 4:2/6:2 and 6:2/6:2 polyfluoroalkyl phosphate diesters (diPAPs) were detected in <60% of the samples, whereas 6:2/8:2 and 8:2/8:2 diPAPs were detected in >60% of the samples, but showed no significant change in concentrations over time. Linear and sumbranched isomers were quantified separately for three PFAAs and three precursors. Significant changes between 1997 and 2012 in the % linear isomer were observed for PFOA and FOSA (increase) and PFOS (decrease).

  • 22.
    Gebbink, Wouter A.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Glynn, Anders
    Darnerud, Per Ola
    Berger, Urs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Perfluoroalkyl acids and their precursors in Swedish food: The relative importance of direct and indirect dietary exposure2015In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 198, p. 108-115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyzed food market basket samples obtained in Sweden from 1999, 2005, and 2010 for perfluoroallcyl acids (PFAAs) and a range of precursor compounds. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) precursors were detected in all food year pools with the highest concentrations in 1999. Six polyfluoroalkyl phosphate diesters (diPAPs, 4:2/6:2, 6:2/6:2, 6:2/8:2, 8:2/8:2, 6:2/10:2, and 10:2/10:2) were detected in the year pools with the highest Sigma diPAP concentrations in 1999 and 2005. All precursors were predominantly found in meat, fish, and/or eggs based on analysis of individual food groups from 1999. Based on year pools, PFOS precursors contributed between 4 and 1% as an indirect source to total dietary PFOS intakes between 1999 and 2010. Perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) exposure originated entirely from diPAPs, whereas for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), diPAPs contributed between 1 and 19% to total exposure. The lowest precursor contributions were generally seen in food samples from 2010.

  • 23.
    Gebbink, Wouter A.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Ullah, Shahid
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Sandblom, Oskar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Berger, Urs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters and perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids in target food samples and packaging - method development and screening2013In: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, Vol. 20, no 11, p. 7949-7958Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polyfluoroalkyl phosphate mono-, di-, and tri-esters (mono-, di-, and triPAPs) are used to water- and grease-proof food packaging materials, and these chemicals are known precursors to perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs). Existing analytical methods for PAPs lack sample clean-up steps in the sample preparation. In the present study, a method based on ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS/MS) was developed and optimized for the analysis of mono-, di-, and triPAPs, including a clean-up step for the raw extracts. The method was applied to food samples and their PAP-containing packaging materials. The optimized UPLC/MS/MS method enabled the separation and identification of a total of 4 monoPAPs, 16 diPAPs, and 7 triPAPs in the technical mixture Zonyl®-RP. For sample clean-up, weak anion exchange solid phase extraction columns were tested. PAPs standard solutions spiked onto the columns were separated into a fraction containing neutral compounds (triPAPs) and a fraction with ionic compounds (mono- and diPAPs) with recoveries between 72–110 %. Method limits of quantification for food samples were in the sub to low picogram per gram range. For quantitative analysis of PAPs, compound-specific labeled internal standards showed to be essential as sorption and matrix effects were observed. Mono-, di-, and/or triPAPs were detected in all food packaging materials obtained from the Swedish market. Up to nine diPAPs were detected in the food samples, with the 6:2/6:2 and 6:2/8:2 diPAPs as the dominant compounds. DiPAP concentrations in the food samples ranged from 0.9 to 36 pg/g, which was comparable to individual PFCA concentrations in the same samples. Consumption of food packed in PAP-containing materials could be an indirect source of human exposure to PFCAs.

  • 24. Glynn, Anders
    et al.
    Berger, Urs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Bignert, Anders
    Ullah, Shahid
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Aune, Marie
    Lignell, Sanna
    Darnerud, Per Ola
    Perfluorinated Alkyl Acids in Blood Serum from Primiparous Women in Sweden: Serial Sampling during Pregnancy and Nursing, And Temporal Trends 1996-20102012In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 46, no 16, p. 9071-9079Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated temporal trends of blood serum levels of 13 perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA) in primiparous women (N = 413) from Uppsala County, Sweden, sampled 3 weeks after delivery 1996-2010. Levels of the short-chain perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) increased 11%/y and 8.3%/y, respectively, and levels of the long-chain perfluorononanoate (PFNA) and perfluorodecanoate (PFDA) increased 4.3%/y and 3.8%/y, respectively. Concomitantly, levels of FOSA (22%/y), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS, 8.4%/y), perfluorodecane sulfonate (PFDS, 10%/y), and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA, 3.1%/y) decreased. Thus, one or several sources of exposure to the latter compounds have been reduced or eliminated, whereas exposure to the former compounds has recently increased. We explored if maternal levels of PFOS, PFOA, and PFNA during the early nursing period are representative for the fetal development period, using serial maternal serum samples, including cord blood (N = 19). PFAA levels in maternal serum sampled during pregnancy and the nursing period as well as in cord blood were strongly correlated. Strongest correlations between cord blood levels and maternal levels were observed for maternal serum sampled shortly before or after the delivery (r = 0.70-0.89 for PFOS and PFOA). A similar pattern was observed for PFNA, although the correlations were less strong due to levels close to the method detection limit in cord blood.

  • 25. Gyllenhammar, Irina
    et al.
    Berger, Urs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ, Germany.
    Sundström, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    McCleaf, Philip
    Euren, Karin
    Eriksson, Sara
    Ahlgren, Sven
    Lignell, Sanna
    Aune, Marie
    Kotova, Natalia
    Glynn, Anders
    Influence of contaminated drinking water on perfluoroalkyl acid levels in human serum - A case study from Uppsala, Sweden2015In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 140, p. 673-683Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2012 a contamination of drinking water with perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) was uncovered in the City of Uppsala, Sweden. The aim of the present study was to determine how these substances have been distributed from the contamination source through the groundwater to the drinking water and how the drinking water exposure has influenced the levels of PFAAs in humans over time. The results show that PFAA levels in groundwater measured 2012-2014 decreased downstream from the point source, although high Sigma PFAA levels (> 100 ng/L) were still found several kilometers from the point source in the Uppsala aquifer. The usage of aqueous film forming fire-fighting foams (AFFF) at a military airport in the north of the city is probably an important contamination source. Computer simulation of the distribution of PFAA-contaminated drinking water throughout the City using a hydraulic model of the pipeline network suggested that consumers in the western and southern parts of Uppsala have received most of the contaminated drinking water. PFAA levels in blood serum from 297 young women from Uppsala County, Sweden, sampled during 1996-1999 and 2008-2011 were analyzed. Significantly higher concentrations of perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS) and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) were found among women who lived in districts modeled to have received contaminated drinking water compared to unaffected districts both in 1996-1999 and 2008-2011, indicating that the contamination was already present in the late 1990s. Isomer-specific analysis of PFHxS in serum showed that women in districts with contaminated drinking water also had an increased percentage of branched isomers. Our results further indicate that exposure via contaminated drinking water was the driving factor behind the earlier reported increasing temporal trends of PFBS and PFHxS in blood serum from young women in Uppsala.

  • 26. Gyllenhammar, Irina
    et al.
    Diderholm, Barbro
    Gustafsson, Jan
    Berger, Urs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ, Germany.
    Ridefelt, Peter
    Benskin, Jonathan P.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Lignell, Sanna
    Lampa, Erik
    Glynn, Anders
    Perfluoroalkyl acid levels in first-time mothers in relation to offspring weight gain and growth2018In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 111, p. 191-199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated if maternal body burdens of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) at the time of delivery are associated with birth outcome and if early life exposure (in utero/nursing) is associated with early childhood growth and weight gain. Maternal PFAA body burdens were estimated by analysis of serum samples from mothers living in Uppsala County, Sweden (POPUP), sampled three weeks after delivery between 1996 and 2011. Data on child length and weight were collected from medical records and converted into standard deviation scores (SDS). Multiple linear regression models with appropriate covariates were used to analyze associations between maternal PFAA levels and birth outcomes (n = 381). After birth Generalized Least Squares models were used to analyze associations between maternal PFAA and child growth (n = 200). Inverse associations were found between maternal levels of perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA), and birth weight SDS with a change of - 0.10 to - 0.18 weight SDS for an inter-quartile range (IQR) increase in ng/g PFAA. After birth, weight and length SDS were not significantly associated with maternal PFAA. However, BMI SDS was significantly associated with PFOA, PFNA, and PFHxS at 3 and 4 years of age, and with PFOS at 4 and 5 years of age. If causal, these associations suggest that PFAA affects fetal and childhood body development in different directions.

  • 27. Haukås, M.
    et al.
    Berger, Urs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Hop, H.
    Gulliksen, B.
    Gabrielsen, G.W.
    Bioaccumulation of per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS) in selected species from the Barents Sea food web2007In: Environ. Pollut., Vol. 148, p. 360-371Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28. Herzke, D.
    et al.
    Nygard, T.
    Berger, Urs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Huber, S.
    Rov, N.
    Perfluorinated and other persistent halogenated organic compounds in European shag (Phalacrocorax aristotelis) and common eider (Somateria mollissima) from Norway: A suburban to remote pollutant gradient2009In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 408, no 2, p. 340-348Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Samples of two marine bird species, European shag (Phalacrocorax aristotelis) and common eider (Somateria mollissima) sampled at a remote coastal site in Norway were analysed for POPs and PFCs. Additionally samples of common eider were analysed from two other locations in Norway, representing a gradient from "densely populated" to "remote". The variety, concentration and distribution of lipophilic POPs in comparison to PFCs were investigated. PCBs were the dominating group of contaminants in the analysed egg samples. Shag eggs had median sum PCBs levels of 4580 ng/g l.w. in 2004. Six different PBDE congeners could be detected in the shag eggs. BDE 47 and 100 were the main contributors with 24 and 27 ng/g l.w. respectively, sum PBDEs was 90 ng/g l.w. Relatively high concentrations of chlordanes were found witha total sum of 903 ng/g l.w. Of other OCs, toxaphene 26 and 52 together (sum 657 ng/g l.w.) and HCB (165 ng/g l.w.) were contributing majorly to the egg burden. Sum HCHs were low; only 54 ng/g l.w. PFOS was the main PFC in egg, plasma and liver samples. Similar median levels of 29,32 and 27 ng/g w.w. were observed. PFOSA, PFHxS, and PFDcA were observed additionally in all shag samples at minor concentrations with the exception of elevated levels observed in liver for PFOSA and PFDcA with median levels of 7.6 and 7.9 ng/g w.w., respectively. In common eider eggs, the POP concentrations decreased up to 1/8th along the sampled spatial gradient from suburban to remote. of the 9 detected PFCs, PFOS dominated all samples by one order of magnitude, followed by PFOA. Sum PFC concentrations were twice as high at the two fjord sites compared to the remote site. Shorter chained PFCAs like PFOA and PFNA could be detected in the eider eggs whilst being absent in shag eggs.

  • 29.
    Holmstrom, Katrin E.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Johansson, Anna-Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Bignert, Anders
    Lindberg, Peter
    Berger, Urs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Temporal Trends of Perfluorinated Surfactants in Swedish Peregrine Falcon Eggs (Falco peregrinus), 1974-20072010In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 44, no 11, p. 4083-4088Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perfluorinated alkyl substances (PEAS) are today known to be globally distributed environmental contaminants. In the present study, concentrations of PFAS were analyzed in Swedish peregrine falcon eggs (Falco peregrinus), collected between 1974 and 2007. Analytes included in the study were perfluorinated carboxylates (PFCAs; carbon chain lengths C6-C15), perfluorinated sulfonates (PFSAs; C4, C6, C8, and C10), and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA). The predominant PEAS was perfluorooctane sulfonate, PFOS (83 ng/g wet weight (w wt) mean concentration in samples from 2006), followed by perfluorotridecanoate, PFTriA (7.2 ng/g w wt) and perfluoroundecanoate, PFUnA (4.2 ng/g w wt). PFCA concentrations increased exponentially over the studied time. In contrast, concentrations of PFOS and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) increased initially but leveled off after the mid 1980s. This is different from previously observed temporal trends in marine organisms. The present study is the first to establish temporal trends for PFAS in terrestrial biota. The results indicate potential differences between marine and terrestrial biota regarding sources of PFAS exposure and response to emission changes. The toxicological implications of PFAS exposure for the falcons are not known, but according to recent findings impaired hatching success and sublethal toxicological effects from PFOS exposure in the Swedish peregrine falcon cannot be ruled out.

  • 30.
    Holmström, K.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Berger, U.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Tissue Distribution of Perfluorinated Surfactants in Common Guillemot (Uria aalge) from the Baltic Sea2008In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 42, no 16, p. 5879-5884Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perfluorinated alkyl surfactants (PFAS) were investigated in tissues and organs of the common guillemot (Uria aalge) from the Baltic Sea. Concentrations of 11 perfluorinated carboxylates, four perfluorinated sulfonates, and perfluorooctane sulfonamide were determined in egg, liver, kidney, and muscle of adult guillemot, as well as in liver from chicks, all sampled in 1989. Additionally, whole herring homogenates from 2005 were analyzed, herring comprising a large part of guillemot’s diet. Quantifiable concentrations of PFAS were found in all samples. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was predominant, followed by perfluorotridecanoate (PFTriDA) and perfluoroundecanoate (PFUnDA). The median concentration of PFOS was highest in eggs (325 ng/g wet weight (w wt)) followed by chick liver (309 ng/g w wt), kidney (127 ng/g w wt), adult liver (121 ng/g w wt), and muscle (14 ng/g w wt). Comparatively low levels of PFOS were found in herring, leaving a blurred picture of uptake routes. PFAS concentrations in livers of male and female guillemots did not differ significantly. Some PFAS showed higher concentrations in eggs than in female livers. The ratio of levels in egg/female liver, indicating mother-to-egg transfer capacity, increased with increasing PFAS chain length. PFOS showed a higher tendency for transfer than carboxylates of carbon chain lengths C9−C13.

  • 31.
    Jacobson, Therese
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Holmström, Katrin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Yang, Gongda
    Ford, Alex T.
    Berger, Urs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Sundelin, Brita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Perfluorooctane sulfonate accumulation and parasite infestation in a field population of the amphipod Monoporeia affinis after microcosm exposure2010In: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 98, no 1, p. 99-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is the focus of intense toxicity research due to its persistence and widespread occurrence in biota. Studies on benthic invertebrates have shown them to be subjects of high PFOS exposure. However, effects on benthic invertebrates exposed to PFOS in the field are still far from elucidated. To fill a knowledge gap on concentrations and effects in benthic invertebrates, a microcosm study on the benthic amphipod Monoporeia affinis was performed. Field collected M. affinis were analysed for PFOS and showed average background concentrations 39 and 58 ng/g (wet weight) in two different samplings. The field collected animals were exposed to three concentrations of PFOS (50, 200 and 5000 μg PFOS/L water) for 3 weeks during gonad development. Body burdens of PFOS were determined after experiment termination. Results showed negative effects on survival and reproduction effects such as decreased sexual maturation and decreased oocyte viability caused by PFOS exposure. Additionally, a follow-up experiment demonstrated a significant increase in the infection incidence by a microsporidian muscle parasite in animals exposed to PFOS at tissue concentrations in the range of concentrations found in field collected benthic amphipods. This is the first study to demonstrate increased microsporidian infection with pollutant exposure and it suggests that ecologically relevant PFOS concentrations could be sufficient to elicit these effects.

  • 32.
    Jahnke,
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Huber, S.
    Temme, C.
    Kylin, H.
    Berger, Urs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Development and application of a simplified sampling method for volatile polyfluorinated alkyl substances in indoor and environmental air2007In: J. Chromatogr. A, Vol. 1164, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Jahnke, Annika
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Ahrens, L.
    Ebinghaus, R.
    Berger, Urs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Barber, J.L.
    Temme, C.
    An improved method for the analysis of volatile polyfluorinated alkyl substances in environmental air samples2007In: Anal. Bioanal. Chem., Vol. 387, p. 965-975Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Jahnke, Annika
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Berger, Urs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Trace analysis of per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances in various matrices-how do current methods perform?2009In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1216, no 3, p. 410-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS) are a group of industrial chemicals, some of which have been produced for over 50 years. Scarcely one decade ago, their ubiquity in wildlife, humans and the global environment was discovered. This urged the need for robust and reliable, yet very sensitive analytical methods allowing for their determination in various matrices. This article reviews the state-of-the-art in trace analysis of ionic and neutral PFAS in humans as well as environmental samples such as wildlife, water, solid matrices and air. Analytical protocols for PFAS determination in food and consumer products are also included. The methods are critically discussed in terms of their advantages, shortcomings, possibilities, limitations, and potential for further development.

  • 35.
    Jahnke, Annika
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Berger, Urs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Ebinghaus, R.
    Temme, C.
    Latitudinal gradient of airborne polyfluorinated alkyl substances in the marine atmosphere between Germany and South Africa (53°N-33°S)2007In: Environ. Sci. Technol., Vol. 41, p. 3055-3061Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Johansson, Jana H.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Berger, Urs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Vestergren, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM). Norwegian Institute for Air Resarch NILU, Norway.
    Cousins, Ian T.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Bignert, Anders
    Glynn, Anders
    Darnerud, Per Ola
    Temporal trends (1999-2010) of perfluoroalkyl acids in commonly consumed food items2014In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 188, p. 102-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to determine how dietary exposure to PFAAs has changed over the period when major production changes occurred. Archived samples (1999-2010) of eggs, milk and farmed rainbow trout were analyzed by ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Statistically significant decreasing trends were observed for concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) in fish (p < 0.002 and p < 0.032, respectively) and eggs (p < 0.001 for both compounds). Concentrations of PFOS in fish and eggs decreased by a factor of 10 and 40, respectively. In eggs there was also a statistically significant decreasing trend in concentrations of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). The results of this study demonstrate that PFAA concentrations in food items from agricultural food chains and aquatic food chains close to sources respond rapidly to changes in environmental emissions. Implications for the overall understanding of human exposure are discussed.

  • 37. Kupper, T.
    et al.
    Brändli, R.C.
    Bucheli, T.D.
    Stämpfli, C.
    Zennegg, M.
    Berger, U
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Edder, P.
    Pohl, M.
    Niang, F.
    Iozza, S.
    Müller, J.
    Schaffner, C.
    Schmid, P.
    Huber, S.
    Ortelli, D.
    Becker-van Slooten, K
    Mayer, J.
    Bachmann, H.J.
    Stadelmann, F.X.
    Tarradellas, J.
    Organic pollutants in compost and digestate: occurrence, fate and impacts2008In: CODIS 2008: Solothurn, Switzerland, 2008, p. 27-34Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 38. Langlois, I.
    et al.
    Berger, Urs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Zencak, Z.
    Oehme, M.
    Mass spectral studies of perfluorooctane sulfonate derivatives separated by high-resolution gas chromatography2007In: Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom., Vol. 21, p. 3547-3553Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 39. Liu, Yanna
    et al.
    Pereira, Alberto S.
    Beesoon, Sanjay
    Vestergren, Robin
    Berger, Urs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Olsen, Geary W.
    Glynn, Anders
    Martin, Jonathan W.
    Temporal trends of perfluorooctanesulfonate isomer and enantiomer patterns in archived Swedish and American serum samples2015In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 75, p. 215-222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) body burdens are attributable to both direct PFOS and indirect PFOS precursor (PreFOS) exposure. The relative importance of these two pathways has been estimated, but the relative temporal trajectory of exposure to PFOS and PreFOS has not been examined. Here, two hypothesized biomarkers of PreFOS exposure, PFOS isomer profiles (quantified as percent branched PFOS, %br-PFOS) and chiral 1m-PFOS enantiomer fractions (1m-PFOS EF) were analyzed in archived human serum samples of individual American adults (1974-2010) and pooled samples of Swedish primiparous women (1996-2010). After correcting for potential confounders, significant correlations between %br-PFOS and 1m-PFOS EFs were observed in American samples and in Swedish samples for the 1996-2000 period, supporting the hypothesis that both %br-PFOS and 1m-PFOS EF are biomarkers of PreFOS exposure. Significant trends of increasing %br-PFOS, from 2000 to 2010, and increasingly non-racemic 1m-PFOS EFs, from 1996 to 2000, were detected in Swedish samples. No statistically significant trend for %br-PFOS or 1m-PFOS EF was observed in American samples, but American males had significantly higher %br-PFOS and significantly lower 1m-PFOS EF (i.e. more non-racemic) than females, and a similar significant difference was shown in the older age group, relative to the younger age group. These temporal trends in %br-PFOS and 1m-PFOS EF are not easily explained and the results highlight uncertainties about how humans are exposed to PFOS.

  • 40.
    McLachlan,
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Berger,
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Cousins,
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Perfluorinated chemical research at ITM2007In: Kemikalieinspektionen: 9 November, 2007Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 41.
    McLachlan,
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Holmström,
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Reth, M.
    Berger, Urs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    (2007): Riverine discharge of perfluorinated carboxylic acids in Europe2007In: SETAC 17:th Annual Meeting in Europe, Porto, Portugal: 20-24 May, 2007Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 42.
    McLachlan,
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Holmström,
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Reth, M.
    Berger, Urs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Discharge of perfluorinated carboxylic acid from major European rivers2007In: EMCON2007 International Conferance 'Analysis of Emerging Contaminants in the Environment', York, England.: 7-9 March, 2007Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 43.
    McLachlan,
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Holmström,
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Reth, M.
    Berger, Urs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Riverine Discharge of Perfluorinated Carboxylates from the European Continent2007In: Environ. Sci. Technol., Vol. 41, p. 7260-7265Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 44. Moe, Morten K.
    et al.
    Huber, Sandra
    Svenson, Johan
    Hagenaars, An
    Pabon, Martial
    Trumper, Monika
    Berger, Urs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Knapen, Dries
    Herzke, Dorte
    The structure of the fire fighting foam surfactant Forafac (R) 1157 and its biological and photolytic transformation products2012In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 89, no 7, p. 869-875Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For several decades, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) has widely been used as a fluorinated surfactant in aqueous film forming foams used as hydrocarbon fuel fire extinguishers. Due to concerns regarding its environmental persistence and toxicological effects, PFOS has recently been replaced by novel fluorinated surfactants such as Forafac (R) 1157, developed by the DuPont company. The major component of Forafac (R) 1157 is a 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonamide alkylbetaine (6:2 FTAB), and a link between the trade name and the exact chemical structure is presented here to the scientific community for the first time. In the present work, the structure of the 6:2 FTAB was elucidated by H-1, C-13 and F-19 nuclear magnetic resonance Spectroscopy and high-resolution mass spectrometry. Moreover, its major metabolites from blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) and turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) and its photolytic transformation products were identified. Contrary to what has earlier been observed for PFOS, the 6:2 FTAB was extensively metabolized by blue mussel and turbot exposed to Forafac (R) 1157. The major metabolite was a deacetylated betaine species, from which mono- and di-demethylated metabolites also were formed. Another abundant metabolite was the 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonamide. In another experiment, Forafac (R) 1157 was subjected to UV-light induced photolysis. The experimental conditions aimed to simulate Arctic conditions and the deacetylated species was again the primary transformation product of 6:2 FTAB. A 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonamide was also formed along with a non-identified transformation product. The environmental presence of most of the metabolites and transformation products was qualitatively demonstrated by analysis of soil samples taken in close proximity to an airport fire training facility.

  • 45. Nilsen, A.J.
    et al.
    Landin, M.A.
    Haug, K.H,
    Fonnum, F.
    Berger, U
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Osmundsen, H.
    Comparative hepatic gene expression profiling of rats treated with 1H,1H,2H,2H-heptadecafluorodecan-1-ol or with pentadecafluorooctanoic acid2008In: Physiol. Genomics, Vol. 34, p. 285-303Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 46. Norden, Marcus
    et al.
    Berger, Urs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Engwall, Magnus
    High levels of perfluoroalkyl acids in eggs and embryo livers of great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) and herring gull (Larus argentatus) from Lake Vanern, Sweden2013In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 20, no 11, p. 8021-8030Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the eggs and developing chick livers in the two wild bird species, great cormorant and herring gull, the concentrations of a range of 15 perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) were determined. Eggs of the two species were collected from Lake Vanern, Sweden, and analysed either as undeveloped egg (whole egg or separated into yolk and albumen) or incubated until start of the hatching process when the chick liver was removed and analysed. High levels of PFAAs were found in all matrixes except albumen. The predominant PFAA was perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), which was found in the mu g/g wet weight (ww) range in some samples of cormorant whole egg, yolk and liver and herring gull egg yolk and liver. The average concentration in yolk was 1,506 ng/g ww in cormorant and 589 ng/g ww in herring gull. The average liver concentrations of PFOS were 583 ng/g ww in cormorant and 508 ng/g ww in herring gull. At these concentrations, biochemical effects in the developing embryo or effects on embryo survival cannot be ruled out. For perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs), the liver/egg and liver/yolk concentration ratios increased with PFCA chain length in cormorant but not in herring gull, indicating that chain length could possibly affect egg-to-liver transfer of PFCAs and that species differences may exist.

  • 47.
    Plassmann, M
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Berger, U
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Mass Spectrometric Studies of Semifluorinated n-Alkanes Used in Ski Waxes2008In: Organohalogen Compd., Vol. 70, p. 1795-1798Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Plassmann, M
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Berger, U
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    McLachlan, M
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Analysis and environmental fate of semifluorinated n-alkanes in cold regions – A project description.2008In: 1st International Workshop Fluorinated Surfactants: New Developments: Idstein, 26-28 June, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Plassmann, Merle M.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Berger, Urs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids with up to 22 carbon atoms in snow and soil samples from a ski area2013In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 91, no 6, p. 832-837Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of fluorinated ski waxes as a direct input route of perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) to the environment was investigated. PFCA homologues with 6-22 carbon atoms (C6-22 PFCAs) were detected in fluorinated ski waxes and their raw materials by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Snow and soil samples from a ski area in Sweden were taken after a skiing competition and after snowmelt, respectively. In both snow and soil samples C6-22 PFCAs were detected, representing the first report of PFCAs with up to 22 carbon atoms in environmental samples. Single analyte concentrations in snow (analyzed as melt water) and soil ranged up to 0.8 mu g L-1 and 5 ng g(-1) dry weight, respectively. Sigma PFCA concentrations in snow and soil decreased from the start to the finish of the ski trail. Distinct differences in PFCA patterns between snow (prevalence of C14-20 PFCAs) and soil samples (C6-14 PFCAs dominating) were observed. Additionally, a PFCA pattern change from the start to about two third of the distance of the ski trail was found both for snow and soil, with a larger fraction of longer chain homologues present in samples from the start. These observations are probably a result of differences in PFCA homologue patterns present in different types of waxes. The calculated PFCA input from snow affected by the skiing competition was smaller than the PFCA inventory in soil for all chain lengths and markedly smaller for C6-15 PFCAs, presenting evidence for long-term accumulation in soil.

  • 50.
    Plassmann, Merle M.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Berger, Urs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Trace Analytical Methods for Semifluorinated n-Alkanes in Snow, Soil, and Air2010In: Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0003-2700, E-ISSN 1520-6882, Vol. 82, no 11, p. 4551-4557Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Semifluorinated n-alkanes (SFAs) are anthropogenic chemicals that are used in ski waxes and, thus, are released directly into the environment, but their subsequent fate and distribution are as yet unknown. Therefore, simple, selective, and sensitive methods were developed for analyzing trace amounts of SFAs in snow/water, soil, and air samples by gas chromatography coupled to electron capture negative ionization mass spectrometry (GC/ECNI-MS). Recoveries were generally in the range of 70-120%, depending on the compound and matrix. The analytical sensitivity was higher for SFAs with longer fluorinated chains, and the instrumental limits of detection ranged from 0.3 to 260 pg injected, providing method detection limits of 0.54-311 ng L-1, 0.004-9.86 ng g(-1), and 0.4-531 ng m(-3) for snow (analyzed as its meltwater), soil, and air samples, respectively. Using the developed procedures, SFAs were found in snow (meltwater) and soil samples from a small cross-country ski area in Sweden at concentrations up to 1.3 mu g L-1 and 47 pg g(-1), respectively.

12 1 - 50 of 68
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