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  • 1.
    B Almquist, Ylva
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Grotta, Alessandra
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Vågerö, Denny
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Stenberg, Sten-Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Cohort Profile Update: The Stockholm Birth Cohort Study2019Inngår i: International Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0300-5771, E-ISSN 1464-3685Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 2. Bruckner, Tim .A.
    et al.
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Vågerö, Denny
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Cold ambient temperature in utero and birth outcomes in Uppsala, Sweden, 1915 to 19292014Inngår i: Annals of Epidemiology, ISSN 1047-2797, E-ISSN 1873-2585, Vol. 24, nr 2, s. 116-121Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    Although the literature reports adverse birth outcomes following ambient heat, less work focuses on cold. We, moreover, know of no studies of cold that examine stillbirth. We tested the relation between cold ambient temperature during pregnancy in Sweden and four outcomes: stillbirth, preterm, birth weight for gestational age, and birth length. We examined births from 1915 to 1929 in Uppsala, Sweden, which—unlike most societies today—experienced substandard indoor-heating and fewer amenities to provide shelter from cold.

    Methods

    We retrieved data on almost 14,000 deliveries from the Uppsala Birth Cohort Study. We linked a validated, daily ambient temperature series to all pregnancies and applied Cox proportional hazards (stillbirth and preterm) and linear regression models (birth weight and length). We tested for nonlinearity using quadratic splines.

    Results

    The risk of stillbirth rose as ambient temperature during pregnancy fell (hazard ratio for a 1°C decrease in temperature, 1.08; 95% confidence interval, 1.00 to 1.17). Cold extremes adversely affected preterm and birth length, whereas warm extremes increased preterm risk. We observed no relation between cold and birth weight for gestational age.

    Conclusion

    In historical Sweden, cold temperatures during pregnancy increased stillbirth and preterm risk and reduced birth length among live births.

  • 3. Carlsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Andersson, Tomas
    Michaëlsson, Karl
    Vågerö, Denny
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Ahlbom, Anders
    Late retirement is not associated with increased mortality, results based on all Swedish retirements 1991-20072012Inngår i: European Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0393-2990, E-ISSN 1573-7284, Vol. 27, nr 6, s. 483-486Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 4. de-Graft Aikins, Ama
    et al.
    Wikler, Dan
    Allotey, Pascale
    Beisel, Uli
    Cooper, Melinda
    Eyal, Nir
    Hausman, Dan
    Lutz, Wolfgang
    Norheim, Ole F.
    Roberts, Elisabeth
    Vågerö, Denny
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Jebari, Karim
    Global Health and the Changing Contours of Human Life2018Inngår i: Rethinking Society for the 21st Century: Report of the International Panel on Social Progress: Volume 3: Transformations in Values, Norms, Cultures, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018, s. 713-752Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The contours of human life – birth, childhood, maturity, reproduction, the experiences of health, illness, and disability, and death – have been and will remain nearly universal; but their duration and texture are undergoing great changes. In this chapter, we chart the transformations and make projections into the near future. Many of the trends are favorable: fewer children are dying, and many enjoy greater longevity. But these advances are not distributed uniformly among and within countries and regions. Furthermore, the value of longevity is compromised by an increasing number of people living with diminished health under inequitable systems of health and social care. A more just future can be achieved by a continuing emphasis on equity in global health systems even as human lives continue to be extended and enhanced.

  • 5. Farahmand, B.
    et al.
    Broman, G.
    de Faire, U.
    Vågerö, Denny
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Ahlbom, A.
    Golf- a game of life and death. Reduced mortality in Swedish golf players2009Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine in Science and Sports, Vol. 19, nr 3, s. 419-424Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 6.
    Fors, Stefan
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI). Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Koupil, Ilona
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Vågerö, Denny
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Socioeconomic inequalities in circulatory and all-cause mortality after retirement: the impact of mid-life income and old-age pension. Evidence from the Uppsala Birth Cohort Study2012Inngår i: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 66, nr 7, s. e16-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The aim of this study was to explore the impact of mid-life income and old-age pensions on the risk of mortality in later life. Furthermore, the study explored whether income inequalities in old-age mortality can be explained by differences in early childhood development, social class during childhood, education or marital status.

    Methods: The study sample comprises all individuals born at Uppsala Academic Hospital during the period 1915–1924 who had retired but not died or emigrated by 1991 (n=4156). Information on social and biological conditions was retrieved from national registries.

    Results: The results show that income during mid-life and income during retirement were associated with old-age mortality. However, mutually adjusted models showed that income in mid-life was more important for women's late-life mortality and that income during retirement was more important for men's late-life mortality. Furthermore, differences in education and marital status seemed to explain a substantial part of income inequalities in late-life mortality.

    Conclusions: It is unlikely that egalitarian social policies aimed at older populations can eradicate health inequalities accumulated over the life course. However, retirement income appears to have an effect on late-life mortality that is independent of the effect of income in mid-life, suggesting that egalitarian pension schemes could affect health inequalities in later life or, at the very least, slow down further accumulation of inequalities.

  • 7. Friel, S.
    et al.
    Marmot, M.
    McMichael, A.
    Kjellstrom, T.
    Vågerö, Denny
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Global health equity and climate stabilisation: a common agenda2008Inngår i: Lancet, Vol. 372, nr 9650, s. 1677-1683Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 8.
    Garcy, Anthony M.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Vågerö, Denny
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    The length of unemployment predicts mortality, differently in men and women, and by cause of death: A six year mortality follow-up of the Swedish 1992-1996 recession2012Inngår i: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 74, nr 12, s. 1911-1920Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the relationship between the total amount of accumulated unemployment during the deep Swedish recession of 1992-1996 and mortality in the following 6 years. Nearly 3.4 million Swedish men and women, born between 1931 and 1965 who were gainfully employed at the time of the 1990 census were included. Almost 23% of these individuals were unemployed at some point during the recession. We conduct a prospective cohort study utilizing Cox proportional hazard regression with a mortality follow-up from January 1997 to December 2002. We adjust for health status (1982-1991), baseline (1991) social, family, and employer characteristics of individuals before the recession. The findings suggest that long-term unemployment is related to elevated all-cause mortality for men and women. The excess mortality effects were small for women and attributable to a positive, linear increase in the hazard of alcohol disease-related mortality and external causes-of-death not classified as suicides or transport accidents. For men, the excess hazard of all-cause mortality was best represented by a cubic, non-linear shape. The predicted hazard increases rapidly with the shortest and longest accumulated levels of unemployment. However, the underlying pattern differed by cause-of-death. The cancer, circulatory, and alcohol disease-related analyses suggest that mortality peaks with mid-levels of accumulated unemployment and then declines with longer duration unemployment. For men, we observed a positive, linear increase in the hazard ratios associated with transport and suicide mortality, and a very steep non-linear increase in the excess hazard ratio associated with other external causes of death that were not classified as suicide or transport accidents. In conclusion, mortality risk increases with the duration of unemployment among men and women. This was best described by a cubic function for men and a linear function for women. Behind this pattern, different causes-of-death varied in their relation to the accumulation of unemployment.

  • 9.
    Garcy, Anthony
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Vågerö, Denny
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Unemployment and suicide during and after a deep recession: a longitudinal study of 3.4 million Swedish men and women2013Inngår i: American Journal of Public Health, ISSN 0090-0036, E-ISSN 1541-0048, Vol. 103, nr 6, s. 1031-1038Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. We tested 2 hypotheses found in studies of the relationship between suicide and unemployment: causal (stress and adversity) and selective interpretation (previous poor health).

    Methods. We estimated Cox models for adults (n = 3 424 550) born between 1931 and 1965. We examined mortality during the recession (1993–1996), postrecession (1997–2002), and a combined follow-up. Models controlled for previous medical problems, and social, family, and employer characteristics.

    Results. During the recession there was no excess hazard of mortality from suicide or events of undetermined intent. Postrecession, there was an excess hazard of suicide mortality for unemployed men but not unemployed women. However, for unemployed women with no health-problem history there was a modest hazard of suicide. Finally, there was elevated mortality from events of undetermined intent for unemployed men and women postrecession.

    Conclusions. A small part of the relationship may be related to health selection, more so during the recession. However, postrecessionary period findings suggest that much of the association could be causal. A narrow focus on suicide mortality may understate the mortality effects of unemployment in Sweden.

  • 10.
    Helgertz, Jonas
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Lund University, Sweden.
    Vågerö, Denny
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Small for gestational age and adulthood risk of disability pension: the contribution of childhood and adulthood conditions2014Inngår i: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 119, s. 249-257Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Early exiting from the labor force and into disability pension (DP) represents a major social problem in Sweden and elsewhere. We examined how being asymmetric (A-SGA) or symmetric (S-SGA) small for gestational age predicts transitioning into DP. We analyzed a longitudinal sample of 8125 men and women from the Stockholm Birth Cohort (SBC), born in 1953 and not on DP in 1990. The SBC consists of data from various sources, including self-reported information and data from administrative registers. The follow-up period was from 1991 to 2009. Yearly information on the receipt of DP benefits from register data was operationalized as a dichotomous variable. 13 percent of the sample moved into DP during follow-up. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine whether disadvantageous fetal growth - A-SGA and S-SGA - predicted DP. Men and women born A-SGA had a substantially increased hazard of DP. The full model suggested a hazard ratio of 1.68 (CI: 1.11-2.54), only being affected slightly by adulthood conditions. Several childhood conditions were also associated with DP. Such factors, however, mainly affected DP risk through adulthood conditions. The effect of SGA on DP appeared particularly strong among individuals from socioeconomically disadvantaged backgrounds. The evidence presented suggests that being A-SGA influences the risk of DP, independent of childhood and adulthood conditions, and similarly for men and women. Due to A-SGA being rather infrequent, reducing the occurrence of A-SGA would, however, only have a marginal impact on the stock of DP pensioners. For the individual affected, the elevation in the risk of DP was nevertheless substantial. Other childhood conditions exercised a larger influence on the stock of DP recipients, but they mostly operated through adulthood attainment. The importance of socioeconomic resources in childhood for the long term health consequences of SGA is interesting from a policy perspective and warrants further research.

  • 11. Jasilionis, Domantas
    et al.
    Shkolnikov, Vladimir M.
    Andreev, Evgueni M.
    Jdanov, Dmitri A.
    Vågerö, Denny
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Meslé, France
    Vallin, Jacques
    L’avant-garde en matière d’espérance de vie montre-t-elle la voie au reste de la population?2014Inngår i: Population, ISSN 0032-4663, E-ISSN 1957-7966, Vol. 69, nr 4, s. 589-615Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Do vanguard populations open new frontiers of survival and longevity that will eventually be reached by others? The main aim of this study is to identify the extent to which the non-vanguard populations in Finland, Norway, and Sweden might follow the mortality trajectories of the vanguard groups in these countries for different age ranges and for the major causes of death. The results show no systematic convergence between vanguard and non-vanguard sub-populations. On the contrary, they confirm the theory whereby each major epidemiological development initially gives rise to divergence in mortality trends. Our study found that at the sub-national level, rather than simply following (with a certain time lag) the same path as the vanguard groups, non-vanguard groups have their own pathways to low mortality which are related to specific determinants of mortality change. The study also found that a long time is needed for the non-vanguard group to attain the mortality levels already reached by the vanguard group at the start of the observation period. This is notably the case for the treatment and prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

  • 12.
    Khanolkar, Amal
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Vågerö, Denny
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Koupil, Ilona
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Social determinants of cardiac disease biomarkers: Investigating a Swedish male cohort at ages 50 and 702012Inngår i: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, ISSN 2047-4873, Vol. 19, nr 3, s. 523-533Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: To investigate relationships between socioeconomic position (SEP) and common CVD biomarkers including adiponectin not previously investigated in a Swedish-population sample, and to assess if these associations changed with age. Design: Population-based longitudinal cohort study of men born 1920-24 with clinical measurements, blood samples, questionnaire data, and register-based information on SEP and cause of death. Methods: A total of 2322 men attended an investigation at age 50 of which 1221 attended a reinvestigation at age 70. Association between SEP and CVD biomarkers [cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein/high-density lipoprotein (LDL/HDL), apolipoprotein (Apo) ApoB/ApoA1, and adiponectin] were analysed by linear regression (adjusted for age, body mass index, and physical activity). SEP was measured as occupational class and educational level. CVD mortality over 36 years of follow-up was analysed by Cox regression. Results: At age 50, we found a significant inverse association of education with cholesterol level, LDL/HDL ratio and ApoB/ApoA1 ratio. Cholesterol was also associated with occupational class, statistically significant after adjustment for all covariates. At age 70, no significant associations were found between either measurement of SEP and any of the biomarkers studied. Highest educated men had decreased risk for CVD mortality during follow-up. Conclusions: Associations of SEP with cholesterol levels and LDL/HDL ratio that exist at age 50 are no longer apparent in the same group of men at age 70. We found no significant association between SEP and adiponectin levels at age 70.

  • 13. Koupil, Ilona
    et al.
    Mann, Vera
    Leon, David A.
    Lundberg, Ulf
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Byberg, Liisa
    Vågerö, Denny
    Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Morning cortisol does not mediate the association of size at birth with blood pressure in children born from full-term pregnancies.2005Inngår i: Clinical Endocrinology, ISSN 0300-0664, Vol. 62, nr 6, s. 661-666Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It had been suggested that programming of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis may underlie the associations of reduced size at birth with raised blood pressure in later life. We investigated whether morning salivary cortisol mediates the inverse association of birthweight with systolic blood pressure in children.Subjects and measurements– a historical cohort study involving 1152 Swedish children aged 5–14 years, who took part in a family study comprised of mother, father, and two full-sibs delivered in 1987–1995 after 38–41 weeks gestation within 36 months of each other. Birthweight and gestational age were available from obstetric records. Blood pressure, weight, height and puberty stage were measured at a clinic. Cortisol was measured by radioimmunoassay in morning salivary samples taken at home, within 30 min of waking.Morning cortisol showed a weak negative association with length of gestation in siblings, was not related to birthweight or to systolic or diastolic blood pressure. There was no change in the strength of the negative association between birthweight and systolic blood pressure on adjustment for cortisol (−1·4 mmHg/kg, 95% CI−2·7,−0·2; adjusted for age, sex, puberty stage, weight and height, and cortisol).Morning cortisol was not associated with size at birth, and did not mediate the birthweight–blood pressure association in children born from full-term pregnancies. It is possible that basal cortisol levels are of more importance in explaining associations of size at birth with later blood pressure in older subjects, or in populations with more varied length of gestation. Alternatively, our results may be caused by misclassification of the hypothalamo–pituitary-adrenal activity.

  • 14.
    Koupil, Ilona
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Plavinskaja, S.
    Parfenova, N.
    Shestov, D.B.
    Danziger, P.D.
    Vågerö, Denny
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Cancer mortality in women and men who survived the siege of Leningrad (1941-1944)2009Inngår i: Int J Cancer, Vol. 124, nr 6, s. 1416-1421Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 15.
    Lager, Anton
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Bremberg, S.
    Vågerö, Denny
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Intelligence and mortality Only ignorance stops progress2010Inngår i: BMJ. British Medical Journal, E-ISSN 1756-1833, Vol. 340, s. c2765-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 16.
    Lager, Anton
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Bremberg, S.
    Vågerö, Denny
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    The association of early IQ and education with mortality: 65 year longitudinal study in Malmö, Sweden2009Inngår i: BMJ. British Medical Journal, E-ISSN 1756-1833, Vol. 339, s. b5282-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives To establish whether differences in early IQ explain why people with longer education live longer, or whether differences in father’s or own educational attainment explain why people with higher early IQ live longer.

    Design Population based longitudinal study. Mortality risks were estimated with Cox proportional hazards regressions.

    Setting Malmö, Sweden.

    Participants 1530 children who took IQ tests at age 10 and were followed up until age 75.

    Results Own educational attainment was negatively associated with all cause mortality in both sexes, even when early IQ and father’s education were adjusted for (hazard ratio (HR) for each additional year in school 0.91 (95% CI 0.85 to 0.97) for men and HR 0.88 (95 % CI 0.78 to 0.98) for women). Higher early IQ was linked with a reduced mortality risk in men, even when own educational attainment and father’s education were adjusted for (HR for one standard deviation increase in IQ 0.85 (95 % CI 0.75 to 0.96)). In contrast, there was no crude effect of early IQ for women, and women with above average IQ had an increased mortality risk when own educational attainment was adjusted for, but only after the age of 60 (HR 1.60 (95 % CI 1.06 to 2.42)). Adding measures of social career over and above educational attainment to the model (for example, occupational status at age 36 and number of children) only marginally affected the hazard ratio for women with above average IQ (<5%).

    Conclusions Mortality differences by own educational attainment were not explained by early IQ. Childhood IQ was independently linked, albeit differently, to male adult mortality and to female adult mortality even when father’s education and own educational attainment was adjusted for, thus social background and own social career seem unlikely to be responsible for mortality differences by childhood IQ. The clear difference in the effect of IQ between men and women suggests that the link between IQ and mortality involves the social and physical environment rather than simply being a marker of a healthy body to begin with. Cognitive skills should, therefore, be addressed in our efforts to create childhood environments that promote health.

  • 17.
    Lager, Anton
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    De Stavola, B
    Vågerö, Denny
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Social origin, schooling and individual change in intelligence during childhood influence long-term mortality: a 68-year follow-up study2011Inngår i: International Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0300-5771, E-ISSN 1464-3685, Vol. 41, nr 2, s. 398-404Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Intelligence at a single time-point has been linked to health outcomes. An individual's IQ increases with longer schooling, but the validity of such increase is unclear. In this study, we assess the hypothesis that individual change in the performance on IQ tests between ages 10 and 20 years is associated with mortality later in life.

    Methods The analyses are based on a cohort of Swedish boys born in 1928 (n = 610) for whom social background data were collected in 1937, IQ tests were carried out in 1938 and 1948 and own education and mortality were recorded up to 2006. Structural equation models were used to estimate the extent to which two latent intelligence scores, at ages 10 and 20 years, manifested by results on the IQ tests, are related to paternal and own education, and how all these variables are linked to all-cause mortality.

    Results Intelligence at the age of 20 years was associated with lower mortality in adulthood, after controlling for intelligence at the age of 10 years. The increases in intelligence partly mediated the link between longer schooling and lower mortality. Social background differences in adult intelligence (and consequently in mortality) were partly explained by the tendency for sons of more educated fathers to receive longer schooling, even when initial intelligence levels had been accounted for.

    Conclusions The results are consistent with a causal link from change in intelligence to mortality, and further, that schooling-induced changes in IQ scores are true and bring about lasting changes in intelligence. In addition, if both these interpretations are correct, social differences in access to longer schooling have consequences for social differences in both adult intelligence and adult health.

  • 18. Leinsalu, M.
    et al.
    Stirbu, I.
    Vågerö, Denny
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Kalediene, R.
    Kovacs, K.
    Wojtyniak, B.
    Wroblewska, W.
    Mackenbach, J.P.
    Kunst, A.E.
    Educational inequalities in mortality in four Eastern European countries: divergence in trends during the post-communist transition from 1990 to 20002009Inngår i: Int J Epidemiol, Vol. 38, s. 512-525Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 19.
    Lundberg, Olle
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Albin, Maria
    Hartman, Laura
    Nilsson, Ingvar
    Sjögren, Anna
    Wieselgren, Ing-Marie
    Bergmark, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Kristenson, Margareta
    Nilsson, Per
    Vågerö, Denny
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Östergren, Per-Olof
    Det handlar om jämlik hälsa: utgångspunkter för Kommissionens vidare arbete2016Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 20.
    Lundberg, Olle
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Yngwe Åberg, Monika
    Kölegård Stjärne, Maria
    Vågerö, Denny
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Generös familjepolitik minskar spädbarnsdöd2007Inngår i: Dagens Nyheter debatt: (2007-10-18)Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 21.
    Modin, Bitte
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Erikson, Robert
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Vågerö, Denny
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Intergenerational continuity in school performance: do grandparents matter?2013Inngår i: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672, Vol. 29, nr 4, s. 858-870Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate whether present-day ninth grade students with top marks in Swedish and mathematics tend to descend from grandparents who did well in these school-subjects too. We also examine the extent to which such inheritance is domain-specific and works through the educational attainment of the previous two generations. The study is based on grandsons (n = 6,110) and granddaughters (n = 5,658) of subjects born in Uppsala 1915–1929. Results show that the odds of students receiving top marks in mathematics and Swedish tend to increase the higher the marks their grandparents achieved in these subjects. However, associations differ by the specific school-subject and according to the gender-specific intergenerational line of transmission. In broad terms, our results indicate that grandfathers are important for the transmission of mathematical and linguistic ability to their granddaughters and grandsons. Grandmothers appear to play a smaller role in the transmission of abilities, with the distinct exception of the transmission of linguistic ability from maternal grandmothers to their granddaughters. The fact that associations vary quite strongly according to type of ability and the gender-specific line of intergenerational transmission implies that we should be looking to historical context and learning environments rather than to a simple genetic transmission model to explain our findings.

  • 22.
    Modin, Bitte
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Vågerö, Denny
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Hallqvist, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Koupil, Ilona
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    The contribution of parental and grandparental childhood social disadvantage to circulatory disease diagnosis in young Swedish men2008Inngår i: Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 66, s. 822-834Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 23.
    Modin, Bitte
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Vågerö, Denny
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Koupil, Ilona
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    The impact of early twentieth century illegitimacy across three generations. Longevity and inter-generational health correlates2009Inngår i: Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 68, nr 9, s. 1633-1640Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 24.
    Moran, Paul
    et al.
    Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, UK.
    af Klinteberg, Britt
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Batty, G. David
    University of Glasgow, and University of Edinburgh, UK.
    Vågerö, Denny
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Childhood Intelligence Predicts Hospitalization with Personality Disorder in Adulthood: Evidence from a Population-Based Study in Sweden2009Inngår i: Journal of Personality Disorders, ISSN 0885-579x, Vol. 23, nr 5, s. 535-540Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Although low pre-morbid IQ is an established risk factor for severe mental illness, its association with personality disorder (PD) is unclear. We set out to examine whether there is a prospective association between childhood intelligence and PD in adulthood. Using a population-based prospective cohort study, we linked childhood IQ scores to routinely collected hospital discharge records in adulthood. Lower IQ scores were related to higher risk of being hospitalized with a PD across the full range of IQ scores, (odds ratio per one SD increase in IQ was 0.60; 95% CI: 0.49–0.75; p(trend) = 0.001). Adjusting for potential confounding variables had virtually no impact. We conclude that low childhood IQ predicts hospitalization with PD and may be an important factor in the development of PD.

  • 25.
    Rajaleid, Kristiina
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Hallqvist, Johan
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Vågerö, Denny
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    The role of cognitive ability in the association between size at birth and ischemic heart disease mortality2010Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 26.
    Rajaleid, Kristiina
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Vågerö, Denny
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Stress resilience in young men mediates the effect of childhood trauma on their offspring's birth weight: An analysis of 250,000 families2019Inngår i: SSM - Population Health, ISSN 2352-8273, Vol. 8Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Experiencing the death of a parent during childhood is a severe trauma that seems to affect the next generation's birth weight. We studied the consequences of parental loss during childhood for men's psychological and physiological characteristics at age 18, and whether these were important for their first-born offspring's birth outcomes. We used a structured life-course approach and four-way decomposition analysis to analyse data for 250,427 three-generation families retrieved from nationwide Swedish registers and found that psychological resilience was impaired and body mass index was higher in men who had experienced parental death. Both characteristics were linked to offspring birth weight. This was lower by 18.0 g (95% confidence interval: 5.7, 30.3) for men who lost a parent at ages 8-17 compared to other ages. Resilience mediated 40% of this influence. Mediation by body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressure was negligible, as was the effect of parental loss on length of gestation. There was no mediation by the education of the men's future spouse. Previous literature has indicated that the period before puberty, the "slow growth period", is sensitive. Our evidence suggests that this may be too narrow a restriction: boys aged 8-17 appear to be particularly likely to respond to parental loss in a way which affects their future offspring's birth weight. We conclude that the observed transgenerational influence on birth weight is mediated by the father's psychological resilience but not by his body mass index or blood pressure.

  • 27. Shkolnikov, Vladimir M.
    et al.
    Andreev, Evgueni M.
    Jdanov, Dmitri A.
    Jasilionis, Domantas
    Kravdal, Øystein
    Vågerö, Denny
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Valkonen, Tapani
    Increasing absolute mortality disparities by education in Finland, Norway and Sweden, 1971-20002012Inngår i: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 66, nr 4, s. 372-378Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and objectives Studies on socioeconomic health disparities often suffer from a lack of uniform data and methodology. Using high quality, census-linked data and sensible inequality measures, this study documents the changes in absolute and relative mortality differences by education in Finland, Norway and Sweden over the period 1971 to 2000.

    Methods The age-standardised mortality rates and the population exposures for three educational categories were computed from detailed data provided by the national statistical offices. Mortality disparities by education were assessed using two range measures (rate differences and rate ratios), and two Gini-like measures (the average inter-group difference (AID) and the Gini coefficient (G)). The formulae for the decomposition of the change in the AID into (1) the contribution of change in population composition by education, and (2) the contribution of mortality change were introduced.

    Results Mortality decreases were often greater for high than for medium and low education. Both relative and absolute mortality disparities tend to increase over time. The magnitude and timing of the increases in absolute disparities vary by country. Both the rate differences and the AIDs have increased since the 1970s in Norway and Sweden, and since the 1980s in Finland. The contributions of the changes in population composition to the total AID increase were substantial in all countries, and for both sexes. The mortality contributions were substantial for males in Norway and Sweden.

    Conclusions The study reports increases in absolute mortality disparity, and its components. This trend needs to be further studied and addressed by policies.

  • 28.
    Stenberg, Sten-Åke
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Vågerö, Denny
    Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Österman, Reidar
    Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Arvidsson, E.
    von Otter, Cecilia
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Janson, C-E
    Stockholm Birth Cohort Study 1953-2003: A new tool for life-courses studies2007Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, Vol. 35, nr 1, s. 104-110Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To create a new tool for life-course studies of health outcomes as well as social outcomes. Methods: Two anonymous data sets, one a local birth cohort and the other a nationwide registry, covering information from early and middle life, respectively, were matched using a "key for probability matching" based on a large number of variables, common to both data sets. The first data set provides social and health information from birth, childhood, and adolescence on boys and girls, born in Stockholm in 1953. The second data set provides information on income, work, and education as well as any inpatient visits and any mortality from mid-life for the entire Swedish population. Results: For 96% of the original cohort it was possible to add data from mid-life. Thus, a new database has been created, referred to as the Stockholm Birth Cohort Study, which provides rich and unique life-course data from birth to age 50 for 14,294 individuals: 7,305 men and 6,989 women. Comparison of matched and unmatched cases in the original cohort suggests that those individuals that could not be matched had slightly more favourable social and intellectual circumstances and had often moved away from Sweden in the 1980s. Conclusion: The new database provides excellent opportunities for life-course studies on health and social outcomes. It allows for studies that have not previously been possible in Sweden or elsewhere. Further, it provides an opportunity for collaborative work with similar databases in Copenhagen and Aberdeen.

  • 29. Stickley, A.
    et al.
    Kislitsyna, O.
    Timofeeva, I.
    Vågerö, Denny
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Attitudes Toward Intimate Partner Violence Against Women in Moscow2008Inngår i: Journal of Family Violence, Vol. 23, s. 447-456Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 30. Svensson, Anna C.
    et al.
    Fredlund, Peeter
    Laflamme, Lucie
    Hallqvist, Johan
    Alfredsson, Lars
    Ekbom, Anders
    Feychting, Maria
    Forsberg, Birger
    Pedersen, Nancy L.
    Vågerö, Denny
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Magnusson, Cecilia
    Cohort profile: the Stockholm public health cohort2013Inngår i: International Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0300-5771, E-ISSN 1464-3685, Vol. 42, nr 5, s. 1263-1272Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Stockholm Public Health Cohort was set up within the Stockholm County Council public health surveys to inform on determinants and consequences of significant contributors to the current burden of disease. Participants are 89 268 randomly selected individuals from the adult population of Stockholm County. Baseline surveys took place in 2002, 2006 and 2010 via self-administered questionnaires. So far, participants recruited in 2002 were re-surveyed twice, in 2007 and 2010, and those enrolled in 2006 were re-surveyed once, in 2010. Self-reported data are regularly supplemented by information from national and regional health data and administrative registers, for study participants and their relatives (including their offspring). Available data are extensive and include a wide array of health, lifestyle, perinatal, demographic, socio-economic and familial factors. The cohort is an international resource for epidemiological research, and the data available to the research community for specific studies obtained approval from the Stockholm Public Health Cohort Steering Committee and the Stockholm Regional Ethical Review Board.

  • 31.
    Tiikkaja, Sanna
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Hemström, Örjan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Vågerö, Denny
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Intergenerational class mobility and cardiovascular mortality among Swedish women: a population-based register study2009Inngår i: Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 68, s. 733-739Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 32.
    Vågerö, Denny
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Alexandr Nemtsov’s pioneering work on alcohol in modern Soviet and Russian and Soviet history.2011Inngår i: A contemporary history of alcohol in Russia / [ed] Nemtsov, Alexandr, Stockholm: Södertörns högskola , 2011, s. 13-32Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 33.
    Vågerö, Denny
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Att skriva historia - Peter Fröberg Idling2015Inngår i: Sociologi genom litteratur / [ed] Christopher Edling & Jens Rydgren, Lund: Arkiv förlag & tidskrift, 2015, s. 147-156Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 34.
    Vågerö, Denny
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Centre for Health Equity Studies2014Inngår i: Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm University: 1964-2014 / [ed] Gudrun Dahl, Mats Danielson, Stockholm: Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm University , 2014, s. 339-360Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 35.
    Vågerö, Denny
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Closing the global health gaps in a generation. How is it possible?2008Inngår i: International Journal of Public Health, Vol. 53, s. 279-280Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 36.
    Vågerö, Denny
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    En folkhälsopolitisk kardinalfråga:  ökade sociala skillnader i dödlighet under fyra decennier2011Inngår i: Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, Vol. 88, nr 4, s. 292-297Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 37.
    Vågerö, Denny
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    ”Från Santiago till Malmö…och sen?”2014Inngår i: Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, Vol. 91, nr 5, s. 459-467Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 38.
    Vågerö, Denny
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Globalisering och hälsa2009Inngår i: Utrikesutskottets betänkande 2008/09:UU13, Stockholm: Riksdagen , 2009Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 39.
    Vågerö, Denny
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    The East- West health divide in Europe: Growing and shifting eastwards2010Inngår i: European Review, ISSN 1062-7987, E-ISSN 1474-0575, Vol. 18, nr 1, s. 23-34Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Over a four-decade long period, a health gap has opened up between European countries, in particular along the East/West dimension. One could speak of a European health divide. The divide is growing larger and, at the same time, shifting eastwards, leaving countries such as Russia, Ukraine, Belarus and Moldova at an increasing health disadvantage. Health inequalities, or differences between social classes, within European countries also seem to have been growing for the last couple of decades. Those countries that were previously led by communist regimes today show larger health inequalities than do countries in Western Europe. The countries that were once part of the Soviet Union demonstrate the most alarming health trends, with large segments of the population actually experiencing falling life expectancies. Reducing global and European health inequalities so that the health chances of a newborn child are not dependent on which country and social class he or she is born in, is a truly formidable task, which implies an entirely new way of seeing human development.

  • 40.
    Vågerö, Denny
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Ökade skillnader i hälsa i världen - ojämlikheten globaliseras2012Inngår i: Den orättvisa hälsan: Om socioekonomiska skillnader i hälsa och livslängd / [ed] Mikael Rostila, Susanna Toivanen, Liber, 2012Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 41.
    Vågerö, Denny
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Разрыв «запад – восток» в состоянии здоровья населения европы: рост проблем в восточном направлении2010Inngår i: Journal of Social Policy Studies/Журнал Исследований Социальной Политики, ISSN 1727-0634, Vol. 8, nr 3, s. 319-330Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 42.
    Vågerö, Denny
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Aronsson, Vanda
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Why is parental lifespan linked to children’s chances of reaching a high age? A transgenerational hypothesis2018Inngår i: SSM - Population Health, ISSN 2352-8273, Vol. 4, s. 45-54Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    Transgenerational determinants of longevity are poorly understood. We used data from four linked generations (G0, G1, G2 and G3) of the Uppsala Birth Cohort Multigeneration Study to address this issue.

    Methods

    Mortality in G1 (N = 9565) was followed from 1961–2015 and analysed in relation to tertiles of their parents’ (G0) age-at-death using Cox regression. Parental social class and marital status were adjusted for in the analyses, as was G1’s birth order and adult social class. For an almost entirely deceased segment of G1 (n = 1149), born 1915–1917, we compared exact age-at-death with G0 parents’ age-at-death. Finally, we explored ‘resilience’ as a potentially important mechanism for intergenerational transmission of longevity, using conscript information from psychological interviews of G2 and G3 men.

    Results

    G0 men’s and women’s ages-at-death were independently associated with G1 midlife and old age mortality. This association was robust and minimally reduced when G0 and G1 social class were adjusted for. We observed an increased lifespan in all social groups. Median difference in age-at-death for sons compared to fathers was + 3.9 years, and + 6.9 years for daughters compared to mothers.

    Parents’ and maternal grandmother’s longevity were associated with resilience in subsequent generations. Resilience scores of G2 men were also associated with those of their G3 sons and with their own mortality in midlife.

    Conclusions

    The chance of reaching a high age is transmitted from parents to children in a modest, but robust way. Longevity inheritance is paralleled by the inheritance of individual resilience. Individual resilience, we propose, develops in the first part of life as a response to adversity and early experience in general. This gives rise to a transgenerational pathway, distinct from social class trajectories. A theory of longevity inheritance should bring together previous thinking around general susceptibility, frailty and resilience with new insights from epigenetics and social epidemiology.

  • 43.
    Vågerö, Denny
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Garcy, Anthony M.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Does unemployment cause long-term mortality? Selection and causation after the 1992–96 deep Swedish recession2016Inngår i: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 26, nr 5, s. 778-783Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Mass unemployment in Europe is endemic, especially among the young. Does it cause mortality? Methods: We analyzed long-term effects of unemployment occurring during the deep Swedish recession 1992–96. Mortality from all and selected causes was examined in the 6-year period after the recession among those employed in 1990 (3.4 million). Direct health selection was analyzed as risk of unemployment by prior medical history based on all hospitalizations 1981–91. Unemployment effects on mortality were estimated with and without adjustment for prior social characteristics and for prior medical history. Results: A prior circulatory disease history did not predict unemployment; a history of alcohol-related disease or suicide attempts did, in men and women. Unemployment predicted excess male, but not female, mortality from circulatory disease, both ischemic heart disease and stroke, and from all causes combined, after full adjustment. Adjustment for prior social characteristics reduced estimates considerably; additional adjustment for prior medical history did not. Mortality from external and alcohol-related causes was raised in men and women experiencing unemployment, after adjustment for social characteristics and medical history. For the youngest birth cohorts fully adjusted alcohol mortality HRs were substantial (male HR = 4.44; female HR = 5.73). The effect of unemployment on mortality was not uniform across the population; men, those with a low education, low income, unmarried or in urban employment were more vulnerable. Conclusions: Direct selection by medical history explains a modest fraction of any increased mortality risk following unemployment. Mass unemployment imposes long-term mortality risk on a sizeable segment of the population.

  • 44.
    Vågerö, Denny
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Kislitsyna, Olga
    Ferlander, Sara
    Migranova, Ludmila
    Carlson, Per
    Rimachevskaya, Natalia
    Moscow Health Survey 2004 – social surveying under difficult circumstances2008Inngår i: International Journal of Public Health, Vol. 53, s. 171-179Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 45.
    Vågerö, Denny
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Södertörn University, Sweden .
    Koupil, Ilona
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Parfenova, Nina
    Sparén, Pär
    Long-Term Health Consequences Following the Siege of Leningrad2013Inngår i: Early Life Nutrition and Adult Health and Development: Lessons from Changing Dietary Patterns, Famines and Experimental Studies / [ed] L. H. Lumey, Alexander Vaiserman, New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2013, s. 207-225Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    We are interested in the long-term health consequences associated with severe starvation and war trauma, and whether certain “age windows” exist when exposure to such events are particularly harmful. The siege of Leningrad (now St. Petersburg) during World War II provided an opportunity to study this. For 872 days, German troops prevented supplies from reaching Leningrad. Simultaneously, there was a food blockade and a steady and merciless bombardment by shells from guns and from the air. The first winter, 1941/42, represents the most severe food shortage, amounting to mass starvation or semi-starvation. Our late colleague, Professor Dimitri Shestov, had suffered the consequences of the Leningrad siege as a boy and believed that it had taken a toll on people beyond its immediate short- and medium-range consequences. He was particularly concerned about its long-term consequences for circulatory disease. A 1973 US-Soviet agreement, the so called Lipid Research Clinics Collaboration, gave him an opportunity to study this. From 1975 to 1982 men and women living in Leningrad (now St. Petersburg) were randomly sampled and invited to examine their health and cardiovascular functioning. Dimitri Shestov added a simple question to this examination: “Were you in Leningrad during the blockade?” A third of the participants were. They had experienced peak starvation (in January 1942) at ages 1-31 (women) or 6-26 (men). The mortality follow-up began immediately after the first clinical examinations in 1975 and continued for three decades, until the end of 2005. Our analyses show that the siege of Leningrad, particularly when experienced in puberty, has had long-term effects on blood pressure both in men and women.We also found a raised IHD and stroke risk among those men. This was partly mediated via blood pressure but not by any other measured biological, behavioral, or social factors. Girls experiencing the siege around puberty suffered an elevated risk of dying from breast cancer later in life. The fact that the effect of siege exposure is modified by the age at exposure is highly interesting from a scientific point of view. It may suggest that a reprogramming of physiological systems can occur at specific age windows in response to starvation and/or war trauma. The team that worked from 1975-2005 to collect clinical information and death certificates for participants in the study included Svetlana Plavinskaya, born in Leningrad during the siege. Dimitri Shestov and Svetlana Plavinskaya died in 2010 and 2011, respectively. We dedicate this chapter to their memory. 

  • 46.
    Vågerö, Denny
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Pinger, Pia R.
    Aronsson, Vanda
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    van den Berg, Gerard J.
    Paternal grandfather's access to food predicts all-cause and cancer mortality in grandsons2018Inngår i: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 9, artikkel-id 5124Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies of animals and plants suggest that nutritional conditions in one generation may affect phenotypic characteristics in subsequent generations. A small number of human studies claim to show that pre-pubertal nutritional experience trigger a sex-specific transgenerational response along the male line. A single historical dataset, the Overkalix cohorts in northern Sweden, is often quoted as evidence. To test this hypothesis on an almost 40 times larger dataset we collect harvest data during the pre-pubertal period of grandparents (G0, n = 9,039) to examine its potential association with mortality in children (G1, n = 7,280) and grandchildren (G2, n = 11,561) in the Uppsala Multigeneration Study. We find support for the main Overkalix finding: paternal grandfather's food access in pre-puberty predicts his male, but not female, grandchildren's all-cause mortality. In our study, cancer mortality contributes strongly to this pattern. We are unable to reproduce previous results for diabetes and cardiovascular mortality.

  • 47.
    Vågerö, Denny
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Rajaleid, Kristiina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Does childhood trauma influence offspring’s birth characteristics?2017Inngår i: International Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0300-5771, E-ISSN 1464-3685, Vol. 46, nr 1, s. 219-229Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A recent epigenetic hypothesis postulates that ‘a sex-specific male-line transgenerational effect exists in humans’, which can be triggered by childhood trauma during ‘the slow growth period’ just before puberty. The evidence is based on a few rather small epidemiological studies. We examine what response childhood trauma predicts, if any, in the birth size and prematurity risk of almost 800 000 offspring. Methods: Children of parity 1, 2 or 3, born 1976-2002 in Sweden, for whom we could trace both parents and all four grandparents, constituted generation 3 (G3, n ¼ 764 569). Around 5% of their parents, G2, suffered parental (G1) death during their own childhood. The association of such trauma in G2 with G3 prematurity and birthweight was analysed, while controlling for confounders in G1 and G2. We examined whether the slow growth period was extra sensitive to parental loss. Results: Parental (G1) death during (G2) childhood predicts premature birth and lower birthweight in the offspring generation (G3). This response is dependent on G2 gender, G2 age at exposure and G3 parity, but not G3 gender. Conclusions: The results are compatible with the Pembrey-Bygren hypothesis that trauma exposure during boys’ slow growth period may trigger a transgenerational response; age at trauma exposure among girls seems less important, suggesting a different set of pathways for any transgenerational response. Finally, parental death during childhood was not important for the reproduction of social inequalities in birthweight and premature birth.

  • 48.
    Vågerö, Denny
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Rajaleid, Kristiina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Transgenerational response and life history theory: a response to Peeter Hõrak2017Inngår i: International Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0300-5771, E-ISSN 1464-3685, Vol. 46, nr 1, s. 233-234Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 49.
    Vågerö, Denny
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Sariaslan, Amir
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Childhood trauma and offspring birth characteristics: an intergenerational study of siblings2010Inngår i: Longitudinal and Life Course Studies, Vol. 1, nr 3 Suppl, s. 77-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
1 - 49 of 49
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